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1.  Lyapunov exponents and phase diagrams reveal multi-factorial control over TRAIL-induced apoptosis 
Kinetic modeling, phase diagrams analysis, and quantitative single-cell experiments are combined to investigate how multiple factors, including the XIAP:caspase-3 ratio and ligand concentration, regulate receptor-mediated apoptosis.
Based on protein expression levels, Lyapunov-based phase diagrams predict which pathways are required for a cell to undergo receptor-mediated cell death.Multiple inter-dependent factors, including the XIAP:caspase-3 ratio and ligand concentration, regulate the requirement for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization during receptor-mediated apoptosis.The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of XIAP is essential for maintaining the ‘snap-action' regulation of effector caspase activity.Cell-to-cell variability in protein expression gives rise to mixed phenotypes in cell lines that map close to boundaries (separatrices) identified by Lyapunov exponent analysis.
In mammalian cells, extrinsic (receptor-mediated) apoptosis is triggered by binding of extracellular death ligands such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) to cognate receptors. When death receptors are activated, death inducing signaling complexes (DISCs) assemble causing activation and cleavage of initiator pro-caspases-8 and -10, which then cleave effector pro-caspases-3 and -7 in a multi-enzyme cascade (Riedl and Shi, 2004). Active effector caspases digest essential cellular proteins and activate the CAD nucleases that cleave genomic DNA, thereby killing cells. This cascade of DISC assembly followed by initiator and then effector caspase activation is sufficient to kill so-called type I cells (e.g. B lymphocytes), but most cell types exhibit a type II behavior in which mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is an essential step in the march to death (Scaffidi et al, 1998; Barnhart et al, 2003; Letai, 2008). Identifying factors that determine whether cells are type I or II is of practical and theoretical interest. From a practical perspective, whether a cell requires MOMP for apoptosis determines the potency of Bcl2 and similar oncogenes, the efficacy of anti-Bcl2 drugs such as navitoclax (ABT-263), and the sensitivity of cells to TRAIL and anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies, which are also investigational anti-cancer drugs (Newsom-Davis et al, 2009). From a theoretical perspective, the type I versus II choice exemplifies a common situation in mammalian cells in which overlapping signaling pathways play a greater or lesser role in controlling cell fate depending on cell type: it is remarkable that a simple three-step (receptor→initiator caspase→effector caspase) process is sufficient to trigger apoptosis in some cell types but that a much more complex route involving MOMP is required in others.
Attempts to understand why some cells require MOMP for cell death and others do not have identified differences in the oligomeric state of death ligand receptors and the efficiency of DISC formation as important variables. In cells in which DISCs form efficiently, initiator caspases are cleaved rapidly and sufficient effector pro-caspases are processed into their active forms to kill cells (type I cells; Scaffidi et al, 1999b). In type II cells, DISC formation seems to be less efficient, and it has been proposed that MOMP is required to amplify weak initiator caspase signals and thereby generate lethal effector caspase levels (Barnhart et al, 2003). However, it has recently become apparent that XIAP also plays a role in type I versus II choice: in XIAP knockout mice, liver cells switch from a type II to a type I phenotype (Jost et al, 2009) and XIAP is observed to be involved in the survival of type I cells treated with death ligands in culture (Maas et al, 2010).
In this paper, we attempt to place these observations in a quantitative context by analyzing a computational model of extrinsic cell death using a method drawn from dynamical system analysis, direct finite-time Lyapunov exponent (DLE) analysis. Our implementation of DLE analysis relates changes in the concentrations of protein in a model to an outcome several hours later. We computed DLEs for six regulators of apoptosis over a range of concentrations determined experimentally to represent a natural range of variation in parental or genetically modified tumor cell lines. This generated a phase space onto which individual cell lines could be mapped using quantitative immunoblotting data. Cell-to-cell variation was estimated by flow cytometry and also mapped onto the phase space. The most interesting regions of the space were those in which a small change in one or more initial protein concentration resulted in a dramatic change in phenotype. Such a boundary or separatrix was observed in slices of phase space corresponding XIAP versus pro-caspase-3 concentration (the [XIAP]:[caspase-3] ratio). In cells in which the ratio is low, a type I phenotype is predicted to occur; when the ratio is high, a type II phenotype is favored; and in cell lines that lie close to the separatrix, cell-to-cell variability is expected, with some cells exhibiting a type I phenotype and others a type II behavior. DLE analysis shows that the [XIAP]:[caspase-3] ratio is not the only controlling factor in type I versus II control: as receptor activity or ligand concentration increase, the position of the separatrix changes so as to expand the region in which the type I phenotype is favored.
We tested these predictions by manipulating XIAP and ligand levels in multiple cell lines and then followed cell death by imaging, flow cytometry, or clonogenic assays. We observed that when XIAP was knocked out (by homologous recombination) in the HCT116 colorectal cancer line, cells shifted from a pure type II to a type I phenotype, as predicted from the DLE phase diagram. SKW6.4 B-cell lymphoma cells were predicted to lie at a position in phase space that is insensitive to XIAP levels (within the range achievable by over-expression) and we confirmed this experimentally. Finally, T47D breast cancer cells were predicted—and observed—to straddle the separatrix and to exhibit cell-to-cell variability in fate, with some cells showing a type I and others a type II phenotype. As the concentration of TRAIL was increased, the ratio of type I to type II T47D cells increased, confirming the prediction that this ratio is controlled in a multi-factorial manner.
To extend our approach to mutations that change protein activity rather than protein level, we simulated the effects of changing rate constants that control ubiquitylation of caspase-3 following its binding to XIAP. We generated cells carrying a truncated form of XIAP that lacks the RING domain (XIAPΔRING) and cannot mediate the ubiquitylation of caspase-3 (this truncation leaves the affinity of XIAP for caspase-3 unchanged). We predicted and demonstrated experimentally that expression of XIAPΔRING disrupts normal snap-action control over caspase-3 activation. Our findings not only advance understanding of extrinsic apoptosis but also constitute a proof of principle for an approach to quantitative modeling of dynamic regulatory processes in diverse cell types.
Receptor-mediated apoptosis proceeds via two pathways: one requiring only a cascade of initiator and effector caspases (type I behavior) and the second requiring an initiator–effector caspase cascade and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (type II behavior). Here, we investigate factors controlling type I versus II phenotypes by performing Lyapunov exponent analysis of an ODE-based model of cell death. The resulting phase diagrams predict that the ratio of XIAP to pro-caspase-3 concentrations plays a key regulatory role: type I behavior predominates when the ratio is low and type II behavior when the ratio is high. Cell-to-cell variability in phenotype is observed when the ratio is close to the type I versus II boundary. By positioning multiple tumor cell lines on the phase diagram we confirm these predictions. We also extend phase space analysis to mutations affecting the rate of caspase-3 ubiquitylation by XIAP, predicting and showing that such mutations abolish all-or-none control over activation of effector caspases. Thus, phase diagrams derived from Lyapunov exponent analysis represent a means to study multi-factorial control over a complex biochemical pathway.
doi:10.1038/msb.2011.85
PMCID: PMC3261706  PMID: 22108795
apoptosis; caspases; dynamical systems analysis; kinetic modeling; XIAP
2.  Utility of the low-accelerating-dose regimen in 182 liver recipients with recurrent hepatitis C virus 
AIM: To describe our experience using a low-accelerating-dose regimen (LADR) with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence.
METHODS: From 2003, a protocolized LADR strategy was employed to treat liver transplant (LT) recipients with recurrent HCV at our institution. Medical records of 182 adult patients with recurrent HCV treated with LADR between 1/2003 and 1/2011 were reviewed. Histopathology from all post-LT liver biopsies were reviewed in a blinded fashion. Paired recipient and donor IL28B status were assessed. A novel technique was employed to ascertain recipient and donor IL28B (rs12979860) Gt data using DNA extracted from archival FFPE tissue from explanted native livers and donor gallbladders respectively. The primary endpoint was SVR; secondary endpoints examined include (1) patient and graft survival; (2) effect of anti-viral therapy on liver histology (fibrosis and inflammation); (3) incidence of on-treatment development of ACR, CDR, or PCH; (4) association of recipient and donor IL28B genotype with SVR; and (5) incidence of anti-viral therapy-associated adverse events (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, depression) and hepatic decompensation.
RESULTS: The overall SVR rate was 38% (29% Gt1, 67% Gt2, 86% Gt3 and 58% Gt4). HCV Gt (P < 0.0001), donor age (P = 0.003), cytomegalovirus mismatch (P = 0.001), baseline serum bilirubin (P = 0.002), and baseline viral load (P = 0.04) were independent predictors for SVR. SVR rates were significantly higher in the recipient-CC/donor-non CC pairs (P = 0.007). Neither baseline fibrosis nor change in fibrosis stage after anti-viral therapy were associated with SVR. Fibrosis progressed in 72% of patients despite SVR. Median graft survival was 91 mo. Five-year patient survival was superior in patients who achieved SVR (97% vs 82%, P = 0.001). Pre-treatment ALP ≥ 150 U/L (P = 0.01), total bilirubin ≥ 1.5 mg/dL (P = 0.001) and creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dL (P = 0.001) were independently associated with patient survival. Only 13% of patients achieving SVR died during the follow-up period. Treatment discontinuation and treatment-related mortality occurred in 35% and 2.2% of patients, respectively. EPO, G-CSF and blood transfusion were needed in 89%, 40% and 23% of patients, respectively. Overall hospitalization rate for treatment-related serious adverse events was 21%. Forty-six (25%) of the patients were deceased; among those who died, 25 (54%) were due to liver-related complications, and 4 deaths (9%) occurred while receiving therapy (2 patients experienced hepatic decompensation and 2 sepsis).
CONCLUSION: LADR strategy remains relevant in managing post-LT recurrent HCV where access to DAAs is limited. SVR is associated with improved survival, but fibrosis progression still occurs.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i20.6236
PMCID: PMC4445100  PMID: 26034358
Hepatitis C recurrence; Liver transplant; Low accelerating dose regimen; Peginterferon α-2a; IL28B
3.  Regulation of TRAIL-Receptor Expression by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System 
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients.
doi:10.3390/ijms151018557
PMCID: PMC4227232  PMID: 25318057
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL); apoptosis; cancer; ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS); natural killer (NK) cells; T cells
4.  Human monomeric antibody fragments to TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 that display potent in vitro agonism 
mAbs  2009;1(6):552-562.
Apoptosis through the TRAIL receptor pathway can be induced via agonistic IgG to either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Here we describe the use of phage display to isolate a substantive panel of fully human anti-TRAIL receptor single chain Fv fragments (scFvs); 234 and 269 different scFvs specific for TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 respectively. In addition, 134 different scFvs that were cross-reactive for both receptors were isolated. To facilitate screening of all 637 scFvs for potential agonistic activity in vitro, a novel high-throughput surrogate apoptosis assay was developed. Ten TRAIL-R1 specific scFv and 6 TRAIL-R2 specific scFv were shown to inhibit growth of tumor cells in vitro in the absence of any cross-linking agents. These scFv were all highly specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation, and were antagonists of TRAIL binding. Moreover, further characterization of TRAIL-R1 agonistic scFv demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity when expressed and purified as a monomeric Fab fragment. Thus, scFv and Fab fragments, in addition to whole IgG, can be agonistic and induce tumor cell death through specific binding to either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. These potent agonistic scFv were all isolated directly from the starting phage antibody library and demonstrated significant tumor cell killing properties without any requirement for affinity maturation. Some of these selected scFv have been converted to IgG format and are being studied extensively in clinical trials to investigate their potential utility as human monoclonal antibody therapeutics for the treatment of human cancer.
PMCID: PMC2791312  PMID: 20068388
TRAIL-R1; TRAIL-R2; human antibody; scFv; phage display
5.  Epigenetic regulation of the TRAIL/Apo2L apoptotic pathway by histone deacetylase inhibitors: an attractive approach to bypass melanoma immunotherapy resistance 
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) is a major cytotoxic mechanism employed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells to eradicate malignant cells. TRAIL/Apo2L interacts with its cognate receptors located on tumor cell surface namely, TRAIL-R1 (DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The exact function of DcR1 and DcR2 remains elusive. TRAIL/Apo2L or agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed against TRAIL/Apo2L death-inducing receptors (DR4, DR5) have become an attractive immunological therapeutic tools in clinical oncology due to their selective killing of tumors and lack of affinity towards healthy cells. Though a potent anti-cancer modality, some cancer cells exhibit inherent or acquired resistance to TRAIL/Apo2L. Postulated resistance mechanisms include up-regulation of c-FLIP, down-regulation of caspase-8, down-regulation/shedding of death receptors and an imbalanced ratio of pro- to anti-apoptotic genes due to aberrant activity of cellular survival signal transduction pathways. The development of resistance has spurred the use of combination therapy, in particular using small molecule sensitizing agents, to restore apoptosis sensitivity. A novel category of such compounds is histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), which block HDACs from removing acetyl groups from histone tails thereby preventing silencing of pro-apoptotic genes and regulating the expression of non-histone proteins (i.e., apoptosis-associated genes), are effective agents in some malignancies. Some HDACi, such as Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), have received FDA approval for cancer treatment. In various melanoma preclinical models, HDACi in conjunction with TRAIL/Apo2L, via modulation of apoptotic machinery, have proven to overcome acquired/inherent resistance to either agent. Here, we discuss recent findings on the role of TRAIL/Apo2L and its agonistic mAbs in melanoma immunotherapy with discussions on potential cellular and molecular events by which HDACi can sensitize metastatic melanoma to TRAIL/Apo2L-mediated immune-therapy, thereby, overcoming resistance.
PMCID: PMC3714203  PMID: 23885325
TRAIL/Apop2L; apoptosis; signal transduction; resistance; melanoma; immunotherapy; SAHA; histone deacetylase inhibitor; sensitization; adoptive cell transfer; agonistic TRAIL/Apo2L mAbs; monoclonal antibody; drozitumab; gene regulation
6.  Targeted delivery of a designed sTRAIL mutant results in superior apoptotic activity towards EGFR-positive tumor cells 
Previously, we have shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-selective delivery of soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), by genetic fusion to antibody fragment scFv425, enhances the tumor-selective pro-apoptotic activity of sTRAIL. Insight into the respective contribution of the agonistic receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis may provide a rational approach to further optimize TRAIL-based therapy. Recently, this issue has been investigated using sTRAIL mutants designed to selectively bind to either receptor. However, the relative contribution of the respective TRAIL receptors, in particular TRAIL-R1, in TRAIL signaling is still unresolved. Here, we fused scFv425 to designed sTRAIL mutant sTRAILmR1–5, reported to selectively activate TRAIL-R1, and investigated the therapeutic apoptotic activity of this novel fusion protein. EGFR-specific binding of scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 potently induced apoptosis, which was superior to the apoptotic activity of scFv425:sTRAIL-wt and a nontargeted MOCK-scFv:sTRAILmR1–5. During cotreatment with cisplatin or the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 retained its superior pro-apoptotic activity compared to scFv425:sTRAIL-wt. However, in catching-type Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays with TRAIL-R1:Fc and TRAIL-R2:Fc, scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 was found to not only bind to TRAIL-R1 but also to TRAIL-R2. Binding to TRAIL-R2 also had functional consequences because the apoptotic activity of scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 was strongly inhibited by a TRAIL-R2 blocking monoclonal antibody. Moreover, scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 retained apoptotic activity upon selective knockdown of TRAIL-R1 using small inhibitory RNA. Collectively, these data indicate that both agonistic TRAIL receptors are functionally involved in TRAIL signaling by scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, the superior target cell-restricted apoptotic activity of scFv425:sTRAILmR1–5 indicates its therapeutic potential for EGFR-positive solid tumors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-008-0348-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00109-008-0348-9
PMCID: PMC2491411  PMID: 18504532
TRAIL; Targeting; EGFR; TRAIL receptor; Mutant; Selective
7.  Cytosolic and nuclear caspase-8 have opposite impact on survival after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:532.
Background
An imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis is one of the main features of carcinogenesis. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces apoptosis upon binding to the TRAIL death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-R2, whereas binding to TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 might promote cell survival and proliferation. The anti-tumor activity of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 agonists is currently investigated in clinical trials. To gain further insight into the regulation of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the TRAIL pathway and the regulators of apoptosis caspase-8, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 in patients with HCC regarding patient survival.
Methods
We analyzed 157 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent partial liver resection or orthotopic liver transplantation and healthy control liver tissue using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays for the expression of TRAIL-R1 to TRAIL-R4, caspase-8, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Immunohistochemical data were evaluated for potential associations with clinico-pathological parameters and survival.
Results
Whereas TRAIL-R1 was downregulated in HCC in comparison to normal liver tissue, TRAIL-R2 and –R4 were upregulated in HCC, especially in G2 and G3 tumors. TRAIL-R1 downregulation and upregulation of TRAIL-R2 and TRAIL-R4 correlated with tumor dedifferentiation (G2/G3). TRAIL-R3, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 showed no differential expression in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. The expression levels of TRAIL receptors did not correlate with patient survival after partial hepatectomy. Interestingly, in tumor tissue, but not in normal hepatocytes, caspase-8 showed a strong nuclear staining. Low cytosolic and high nuclear staining intensity of caspase-8 significantly correlated with impaired survival after partial hepatectomy, which, for cytosolic caspase-8, was independent from tumor grade.
Conclusions
Assessment of TRAIL-receptor expression patterns may have therapeutic implications for the use of TRAIL receptor agonists in HCC therapy. Tumor-specific nuclear localisation of caspase-8 in HCC suggests an apoptosis-independent function of caspase-8 and correlates with patient survival.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-532
PMCID: PMC3834100  PMID: 24209510
HCC; Apoptosis; TRAIL receptors; Nuclear caspase-8
8.  The adaptor protein FADD and the initiator caspase-8 mediate activation of NF-κB by TRAIL 
Cell Death & Disease  2012;3(10):e414-.
Besides inducing apoptosis, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) activates NF-κB. The apoptosis signaling pathway of TRAIL is well characterized involving TRAIL receptors, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and caspase-8. In contrast, the molecular mechanism of TRAIL signaling to NF-κB remains controversial. Here, we characterized the receptor–proximal mediators of NF-κB activation by TRAIL. Deletion of the DD of TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 revealed that it is essential in NF-κB signaling. Because FADD interacts with the TRAIL receptor DD, FADD was tested. RNAi-mediated knockdown of FADD or FADD deficiency in JURKAT T-cell leukemia cells decreased or disabled NF-κB signaling by TRAIL. In contrast, TRAIL-induced activation of NF-κB was maintained upon loss of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) or knockdown of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP). Exogenous expression of FADD rescued TRAIL-induced NF-κB signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of FADD within the RHDLL motif of the death effector domain, which is required for TRAIL-induced apoptosis, abrogated FADD's ability to recruit caspase-8 and mediate NF-κB activation. Accordingly, deficiency of caspase-8 inhibited TRAIL-induced activation of NF-κB, which was rescued by wild-type caspase-8, but not by a catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant. These data establish the mechanism of TRAIL-induced NF-κB activation involving the TRAIL receptor DD, FADD and caspase-8, but not RIP1 or FLIP. Our results show that signaling of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and NF-κB bifurcates downstream of caspase-8.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.154
PMCID: PMC3481141  PMID: 23096115
NF-κB; death receptor; signaling; DISC; p65
9.  Targeted ovarian cancer treatment: the TRAILs of resistance 
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Although most patients respond to the initial therapy when presenting with advanced disease, only 10-15% maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. Recurrence defines incurable disease in most cases. Despite improvements with conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate remained mostly stable over the years. Increased long-term survival in OC patients will only be achieved through a comprehensive understanding of the basic mechanisms of tumor cell resistance. Such knowledge will translate into the development of new targeted strategies. In addition, because OC is considered to be a heterogeneous group of diseases with distinct gene expression profiles, it is likely that different approaches to treatment for distinct sub-types will be required to optimize response. One of the new promising anti-cancer therapies is the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL has the ability to selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells with little toxicity to normal cells. Death receptor ligands such as TRAIL rely on the activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway to destroy tumor cells. TRAIL induces the formation of a pro-apoptotic death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) via its death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL R1) and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL R2). The formation of the DISC activates caspase-8 which requires further signal amplification through the mitochondrial pathway for an efficient activation of effector caspases in OC cells. The initial enthusiasm for TRAIL has been hampered by accumulating data demonstrating TRAIL resistance in various tumor types including OC cells. There is, therefore, a need to identify markers of TRAIL resistance, which could represent new hits for targeted therapy that will enhance TRAIL efficacy. In addition, the identification of patients that are more likely to respond to TRAIL therapy would be highly desirable. In this review, we discuss the different molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to TRAIL resistance in OC. In particular, we address the mechanisms involved in intrinsic, acquired and environment-mediated TRAIL resistance, and their potential implication in the clinical outcome.
PMCID: PMC3236573  PMID: 22206047
Ovarian cancer; death receptors; resistance; TRAIL
10.  PARP-1 regulates resistance of pancreatic cancer to TRAIL therapy 
Purpose
Activating extrinsic apoptotic pathways targeting death receptors (DR) using agonistic antibodies or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is promising for cancer therapy. However, most pancreatic cancers are resistant to TRAIL therapy. The present studies aimed to identify combination therapies that enhance the efficacy of TRAIL therapy; and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Experimental Design
A xenograft model in nude mice was used to determine pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis and therapeutic efficacy of TRA-8, a monoclonal agonistic antibody for DR5. Pancreatic cancer cells were used to characterize mechanisms underlying poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in regulating TRA-8-induced apoptosis in vitro.
Results
PARP-1 was found highly expressed in the TRA-8-resistant PANC-1 and Suit-2 cells, compared with TRA-8-sensitive BxPc-3 and MiaPaca-2. Inhibition of PARP-1 with a pharmacologic inhibitor sensitized PANC-1 and Suit2 cells to TRA-8 induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, small interfering RNAs specifically knocking down PARP-1 markedly enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis in vitro, and augmented the efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. PARP-1 knockdown increased TRA-8-induced activation of caspase-8 in the death-induced signaling complex (DISC). Immuoprecipitation with DR5 antibody identified the recruitment of PARP-1 and PARP-1-mediated protein poly-ADP-ribosylation(pADPr) modification in the DR5-associated DISC. Further characterization revealed that PARP-1-mediated pADPr modification of caspase-8 inhibited caspase-8 activation, which may contribute to its function in regulating TRA-8 resistance.
Conclusions
Our studies not only provide novel molecular insights into the function of PARP-1 in regulating the extrinsic apoptosis machinery, but also support interventions combining PARP-1 inhibitors with death receptor agonists for pancreatic cancer therapy.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0516
PMCID: PMC4050702  PMID: 23833311
Pancreatic Cancer; resistance; death receptor; apoptosis; PARP-1
11.  Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells: Different contributions of DR4 and DR5 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:39.
Background
rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether agonistic DR4 or DR5 antibodies could be used to circumvent rhTRAIL resistance, alone or in combination with various chemotherapies.
Methods
Our study was performed in an isogenic model comprised of the SW948 human colon carcinoma cell line and its rhTRAIL resistant sub-line SW948-TR. Effects of rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4/DR5 antibodies on cell viability were measured using MTT assays and identification of morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, after acridine orange staining. Sensitivity to the different death receptor ligands was stimulated using pretreatment with the cytokine IFN-gamma and the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the changes in rhTRAIL sensitivity, alterations in expression levels of targets of interest were measured by Western blot analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to determine the composition of the death-inducing signalling complex at the cell membrane.
Results
SW948 cells were sensitive to all three of the DR-targeting agents tested, although the agonistic DR5 antibody induced only weak caspase 8 cleavage and limited apoptosis. Surprisingly, agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies induced equivalent DISC formation and caspase 8 cleavage at the level of their individual receptors, suggesting impairment of further caspase 8 processing upon DR5 stimulation. SW948-TR cells were cross-resistant to all DR-targeting agents as a result of decreased caspase 8 expression levels. Caspase 8 protein expression was restored by MG-132 and IFN-gamma pretreatment, which also re-established sensitivity to rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4 antibody in SW948-TR. Surprisingly, MG-132 but not IFN-gamma could also increase DR5-mediated apoptosis in SW948-TR.
Conclusions
These results highlight a critical difference between DR4- and DR5-mediated apoptotic signaling modulation, with possible implications for future combinatorial regimens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-39
PMCID: PMC3045356  PMID: 21272366
12.  Selective targeting of death receptor 5 circumvents resistance of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2007;6(12 Pt 1):3219-3228.
Tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, targets death receptors and selectively kills malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. However, unlike most cancers, many osteosarcomas are resistant to TRAIL. To investigate this resistance, we characterized the response of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells to TRAIL and agonist antibodies to death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). We found that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells show no or very little response to TRAIL or a DR4 agonist, but MG-63 cells undergo apoptosis in response to a DR5 agonist. Analysis of TRAIL receptor expression showed that normal osteoblastic and osteosarcoma cells express a variety of TRAIL receptors but this does not correlate to TRAIL responsiveness. Production of the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin also could not explain TRAIL resistance. We show that TRAIL activates the canonical caspase-dependent pathway, whereas treatment with cycloheximide increases the sensitivity of MG-63 cells to TRAIL and anti-DR5 and can also sensitize hPOB-tert cells to both agents. Proapoptotic and antiapoptotic protein expression does not significantly differ between MG-63 and hPOB-tert cells or change following treatment with TRAIL or anti-DR5. However, sequencing the death domain of DR4 in several osteoblast-like cells showed that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells are heterozygous for a dominant-negative mutation, which can confer TRAIL resistance. These results suggest that although the dominant-negative form of the receptor may block TRAIL-induced death, an agonist antibody to the active death receptor can override cellular defenses and thus provide a tailored approach to treat resistant osteosarcomas.
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0275
PMCID: PMC2816033  PMID: 18065493
13.  Novel HTS Strategy Identifies TRAIL-Sensitizing Compounds Acting Specifically Through the Caspase-8 Apoptotic Axis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13375.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is potentially a very important therapeutic as it shows selectivity for inducing apoptosis in cancer cells whilst normal cells are refractory. TRAIL binding to its cognate receptors, Death Receptors-4 and -5, leads to recruitment of caspase-8 and classical activation of downstream effector caspases, leading to apoptosis. As with many drugs however, TRAIL's usefulness is limited by resistance, either innate or acquired. We describe here the development of a novel 384-well high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. By utilizing a TRAIL resistant cell line lacking caspase-8 (NB7) compared to the same cells reconstituted with the wild-type protein, or with a catalytically inactive point mutant of caspase-8, we are able to identify compounds that act specifically through the caspase-8 axis, rather than through general toxicity. In addition, false positive hits can easily be “weeded out” in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspase-8-inducible activity. Screening of the library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC) was performed as both proof-of-concept and to discover potential unknown TRAIL sensitizers whose mechanism is caspase-8 mediated. We identified known TRAIL sensitizers from the library and identified new compounds that appear to sensitize specifically through caspase-8. In sum, we demonstrate proof-of-concept and discovery of novel compounds with a screening strategy optimized for the detection of caspase-8 pathway-specific TRAIL sensitizers. This screen was performed in the 384-well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013375
PMCID: PMC2953515  PMID: 20967281
14.  Berberine enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(3):840-844.
Berberine (BBR) has been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and also for cancer-associated symptoms such as diarrhea. Furthermore, it has been reported that BBR may have direct antitumor effects. Although evidence supports the theory that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for treating cancer, its usage may be limited due to the resistance to the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of BBR on TRAIL-induced antitumor effects was investigated in vitro using recombinant TRAIL and in vivo using a 4T1 murine breast cancer model in combination with anti-DR5 (death-inducing TRAIL receptor) monoclonal antibody therapy. BBR sensitized human breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in vitro. The combination of BBR and recombinant TRAIL significantly activated caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in TRAIL-resistant MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, BBR in combination with TRAIL more effectively induced apoptosis compared with coptisine (COP), which is structurally related to BBR. In a murine 4T1 breast cancer model, BBR treatment enhanced the efficacy of anti-DR5 antibody therapy against primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Thus, BBR may become a new adjuvant for overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL/DR5-mediated therapy.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1434
PMCID: PMC3789109  PMID: 24137422
breast cancer; berberine; coptisine; TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; apoptosis
15.  Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the DISC level 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2010;18(4):700-711.
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Apo2L (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer drug owing to its ability to trigger apoptosis by binding to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, two membrane-bound receptors that are often expressed by tumor cells. TRAIL can also bind non-functional receptors such as TRAIL-R4, but controversies still exist regarding their potential to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We show here that TRAIL-R4, expressed either endogenously or ectopically, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with TRAIL restores tumor cell sensitivity to apoptosis in TRAIL-R4-expressing cells. This sensitization, which mainly occurs at the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) level, through enhanced caspase-8 recruitment and activation, is compromised by c-FLIP expression and is independent of the mitochondria. Importantly, TRAIL-R4 expression prevents TRAIL-induced tumor regression in nude mice, but tumor regression induced by TRAIL can be restored with chemotherapy. Our results clearly support a negative regulatory function for TRAIL-R4 in controlling TRAIL signaling, and unveil the ability of TRAIL-R4 to cooperate with c-FLIP to inhibit TRAIL-induced cell death.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2010.144
PMCID: PMC3117243  PMID: 21072058
TRAIL; TRAIL-R4; c-FLIP; chemotherapy; apoptosis
16.  Sorafenib Sensitizes Solid Tumors to Apo2L/TRAIL and Apo2L/TRAIL Receptor Agonist Antibodies by the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 Axis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75414.
Background
Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusions/Significance
The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075414
PMCID: PMC3784419  PMID: 24086526
17.  TRAIL induces apoptosis in oral squamous carcinoma cells: a crosstalk with oncogenic Ras regulated cell surface expression of death receptor 5 
Oncotarget  2013;4(2):206-217.
TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. The selectivity of TRAIL towards cancer cells has promoted clinical evaluation of recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and its agonistic antibodies in treating several major human cancers including colon and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, little is known about their ability in killing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we tested the apoptotic responses of a panel of seven human OSCC cell lines (HN31, HN30, HN12, HN6, HN4, Cal27, and OSCC3) to rhTRAIL and monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5. We found that rhTRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most of the oral cancer cell lines tested both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that DR5 was expressed on the surface of the tested cell lines which correlated with the cellular susceptibility to apoptosis induced by rhTRAIL and anti-DR5 antibody. By contrast, little or no DR4 was detected on the surface of OSCC3 and HN6 cells rendering cellular resistance to DR4 antibody and a reduced sensitivity to rhTRAIL. Notably, the overall TRAIL sensitivity correlated well with the levels of endogenous active Ras in the cell lines tested. Expression of a constitutively active Ras mutant (RasV12) in OSCC3 cells selectively upregulated surface expression of DR5, but not DR4, and restored TRAIL sensitivity. Our findings could have implications for the use of TRAIL receptor targeted therapies in the treatment of human OSCC tumors particularly the ones harboring constitutively active Ras mutant.
PMCID: PMC3712567  PMID: 23470485
oral cancer; TRAIL; death receptors; apoptosis; Ras; oncotarget
18.  Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:54.
Background
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL).
Methods
TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells.
Results
MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4) expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3) on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells displayed very low levels of surface TRAIL-R4 expression. Furthermore, a DcR2 siRNA approach lowered TRAIL-R4 expression on surface and this sensitized MCF7 cells to TRAIL.
Conclusion
The expression of TRAIL-R4 decoy receptor appeared to be well correlated with TRAIL resistance encountered in breast cancer cells. Both adenovirus mediated IKKβKA expression and a DcR2 siRNA approach sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-54
PMCID: PMC1156874  PMID: 15916713
19.  Combination of TRAIL with Bortezomib Shifted Apoptotic Signaling from DR4 to DR5 Death Receptor by Selective Internalization and Degradation of DR4 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109756.
TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) mediates apoptosis in cancer cells through death receptors DR4 and DR5 preferring often one receptor over another in the cells expressing both receptors. Receptor selective mutant variants of TRAIL and agonistic antibodies against DR4 and DR5 are highly promising anticancer agents. Here using DR5 specific mutant variant of TRAIL - DR5-B we have demonstrated for the first time that the sensitivity of cancer cells can be shifted from one TRAIL death receptor to another during co-treatment with anticancer drugs. First we have studied the contribution of DR4 and DR5 in HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53−/− cells and demonstrated that in HCT116 p53+/+ cells the both death receptors are involved in TRAIL-induced cell death while in HCT116 p53−/− cells prevailed DR4 signaling. The expression of death (DR4 and DR5) as well as decoy (DcR1 and DcR2) receptors was upregulated in the both cell lines either by TRAIL or by bortezomib. However, combined treatment of cells with two drugs induced strong time-dependent and p53-independent internalization and further lysosomal degradation of DR4 receptor. Interestingly DR5-B variant of TRAIL which do not bind with DR4 receptor also induced elimination of DR4 from cell surface in combination with bortezomib indicating the ligand-independent mechanism of the receptor internalization. Eliminatory internalization of DR4 resulted in activation of DR5 receptor thus DR4-dependent HCT116 p53−/− cells became highly sensitive to DR5-B in time-dependent manner. Internalization and degradation of DR4 receptor depended on activation of caspases as well as of lysosomal activity as it was completely inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK, E-64 and Baf-A1. In light of our findings, it is important to explore carefully which of the death receptors is active, when sensitizing drugs are combined with agonistic antibodies to the death receptors or receptor selective variants of TRAIL to enhance cancer treatment efficiency.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109756
PMCID: PMC4195680  PMID: 25310712
20.  Treating Metastatic Solid Tumors With Bortezomib and a Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor Agonist Antibody 
Background
Resistance of tumors to cell death signals poses a complex clinical problem. We explored the therapeutic potential and in vivo toxicity of a combination of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and MD5-1, a tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor (DR5) agonist monoclonal antibody, in mouse carcinomas.
Methods
Mice bearing Renca-FLAG (renal) or 4T1 (mammary) tumors were treated with bortezomib and/or MD5-1 and examined for lung metastases (Renca-FLAG: n = 93; 4T1: n = 40) or monitored for survival (Renca-FLAG: n = 143). Toxicity was assessed by histopathology and hematology. Viability and apoptotic signaling in Renca-FLAG and 4T1 cells treated with bortezomib alone or in combination with TRAIL were analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethyiazol-2-yl-5]-[3-carboxymethyloxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H tetrazolium assay and by measuring mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
Bortezomib (20 nM) sensitized Renca-FLAG and 4T1 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (mean percent decrease in numbers of viable cells, bortezomib + TRAIL vs TRAIL: Renca-FLAG, 95% vs 34%, difference = 61%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 52% to 69%, P < .001; 4T1, 85% vs 20%, difference = 65%, 95% CI = 62% to 69%, P < .001). Sensitization involved activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 but not mitochondrial membrane depolarization, suggesting an amplified signaling of the extrinsic cell death pathway. Treatment with bortezomib and MD5-1 reduced lung metastases in mice carrying Renca and 4T1 tumors (mean number of metastases, bortezomib + MD5-1 vs MD5-1: Renca-FLAG, 1 vs 8, difference = 7, 95% CI = 5 to 9, P < .001; 4T1, 1 vs 12, difference = 11, 95% CI = 9 to 12, P < .001) and increased median survival of mice bearing Renca-FLAG tumors (bortezomib + MD5-1 vs bortezomib + control isotype antibody: 22 of 30 [73%] were still alive at day 180 vs median survival of 42 days [95% CI = 41 to 44 days, P < .001]) in the absence of obvious toxicity.
Conclusion
Bortezomib combined with DR5 agonist monoclonal antibody may be a useful treatment for metastatic solid tumors.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djn113
PMCID: PMC2753966  PMID: 18445820
21.  CD40-directed scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins induce CD40-restricted tumor cell death and activate dendritic cells 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(11):e916-.
Targeted cancer therapy concepts often aim at the induction of adjuvant antitumor immunity or stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis. There is further evidence that combined application of immune stimulating and tumor apoptosis-inducing compounds elicits a synergistic antitumor effect. Here, we describe the development and characterization of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) domain derived from the CD40-specific monoclonal antibody G28-5 that is fused to the N-terminus of stabilized trimeric soluble variants of the death ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). As shown before by us and others for other cell surface antigen-targeted scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins, scFv:G28-TRAIL displayed an enhanced capacity to induce apoptosis upon CD40 binding. Studies with scFv:G28 fusion proteins of TRAIL mutants that discriminate between the two TRAIL death receptors, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2, further revealed that the CD40 binding-dependent mode of apoptosis induction of scFv:G28-TRAIL is operable with each of the two TRAIL death receptors. Binding of scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins to CD40 not only result in enhanced TRAIL death receptor signaling but also in activation of the targeted CD40 molecule. In accordance with the latter, the scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins triggered strong CD40-mediated maturation of dendritic cells. The CD40-targeted TRAIL fusion proteins described in this study therefore represent a novel type of bifunctional fusion proteins that couple stimulation of antigen presenting cells and apoptosis induction.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.402
PMCID: PMC3847307  PMID: 24232092
apoptosis; CD40; dendritic cells; TRAIL
22.  TRAIL-R4 Promotes Tumor Growth and Resistance to Apoptosis in Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells through AKT 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e19679.
Background
TRAIL/Apo2L is a pro-apoptotic ligand of the TNF family that engages the apoptotic machinery through two pro-apoptotic receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. This cell death program is tightly controlled by two antagonistic receptors, TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, both devoid of a functional death domain, an intracellular region of the receptor, required for the recruitment and the activation of initiator caspases. Upon TRAIL-binding, TRAIL-R4 forms a heteromeric complex with the agonistic receptor TRAIL-R2 leading to reduced caspase-8 activation and apoptosis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We provide evidence that TRAIL-R4 can also exhibit, in a ligand independent manner, signaling properties in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa, through Akt. Ectopic expression of TRAIL-R4 in HeLa cells induced morphological changes, with cell rounding, loss of adherence and markedly enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway using the pharmacological inhibitor LY294002, siRNA targeting the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, or by PTEN over-expression, partially restored TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in these cells. Moreover, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, restituted normal cell proliferation index in HeLa cells expressing TRAIL-R4.
Conclusions/Significance
Altogether, these results indicate that, besides its ability to directly inhibit TRAIL-induced cell death at the membrane, TRAIL-R4 can also trigger the activation of signaling pathways leading to cell survival and proliferation in HeLa cells. Our findings raise the possibility that TRAIL-R4 may contribute to cervical carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019679
PMCID: PMC3098831  PMID: 21625476
23.  Selective inhibition of FLICE-like inhibitory protein expression with small interfering RNA oligonucleotides is sufficient to sensitize tumor cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(11):725-732.
BACKGROUND: Most tumors express death receptors and their activation represents a potential selective approach in cancer treatment. The most promising candidate for tumor selective death receptor-activation is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/Apo2L, which activates the death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, and induces apoptosis preferentially in tumor cells but not in normal tissues. However, many cancer cells are not or only moderately sensitive towards TRAIL and require cotreatment with irradiation or chemotherapy to yield a therapeutically reasonable apoptotic response. Because chemotherapy can have a broad range of unwanted side effects, more specific means for sensitizing tumor cells for TRAIL are desirable. The expression of the cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) is regarded as a major cause of TRAIL resistance. We therefore analyzed the usefulness of targeting FLIP to sensitize tumor cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To selectively interfere with expression of cFLIP short double-stranded RNA oligonucleotides (small interfering RNAs [siRNAs]) were introduced in the human cell lines SV80 and KB by electroporation. Effects of siRNA on FLIP expression were analyzed by Western blotting and RNase protection assay and correlated with TRAIL sensitivity upon stimulation with recombinant soluble TRAIL and TRAIL-R1- and TRAIL-R2-specific agonistic antibodies. RESULTS: FLIP expression can be inhibited by RNA interference using siRNAs, evident from reduced levels of FLIP-mRNA and FLIP protein. Inhibition of cFLIP expression sensitizes cells for apoptosis induction by TRAIL and other death ligands. In accordance with the presumed function of FLIP as an inhibitor of death receptor-induced caspase-8 activation, down-regulation of FLIP by siRNAs enhanced TRAIL-induced caspase-8 activation. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of FLIP expression was sufficient to sensitize tumor cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination of TRAIL and FLIP-targeting siRNA could therefore be a useful strategy to attack cancer cells, which are resistant to TRAIL alone.
PMCID: PMC2039953  PMID: 12520089
24.  Identification of novel molecular regulators of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by RNAi screening 
Introduction
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds to its receptors, TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), leading to apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and the downstream executioner caspases, caspase-3 and caspase-7 (caspase-3/7). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines with a mesenchymal phenotype are sensitive to TRAIL, whereas other breast cancer cell lines are resistant. The underlying mechanisms that control TRAIL sensitivity in breast cancer cells are not well understood. Here, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to identify molecular regulators of the TRAIL pathway in breast cancer cells.
Methods
We conducted siRNA screens of the human kinome (691 genes), phosphatome (320 genes), and about 300 additional genes in the mesenchymal TNBC cell line MB231. Forty-eight hours after transfection of siRNA, parallel screens measuring caspase-8 activity, caspase-3/7 activity, or cell viability were conducted in the absence or presence of TRAIL for each siRNA, relative to a negative control siRNA (siNeg). A subset of genes was screened in cell lines representing epithelial TNBC (MB468), HER2-amplified breast cancer (SKBR3), and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (T47D). Selected putative negative regulators of the TRAIL pathway were studied by using small-molecule inhibitors.
Results
The primary screens in MB231 identified 150 genes, including 83 kinases, 4 phosphatases, and 63 nonkinases, as potential negative regulators of TRAIL. The identified genes are involved in many critical cell processes, including apoptosis, growth factor-receptor signaling, cell-cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. Gene-network analysis identified four genes (PDPK1, IKBKB, SRC, and BCL2L1) that formed key nodes within the interaction network of negative regulators. A secondary screen of a subset of the genes identified in additional cell lines representing different breast cancer subtypes and sensitivities to TRAIL validated and extended these findings. Further, we confirmed that small-molecule inhibition of SRC or BCL2L1, in combination with TRAIL, sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, including cell lines resistant to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity.
Conclusions
These data identify novel molecular regulators of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and suggest strategies for the enhanced application of TRAIL as a therapy for breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/bcr3645
PMCID: PMC4053258  PMID: 24745479
25.  A novel caspase 8 selective small molecule potentiates TRAIL-induced cell death 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:9893.
Recombinant soluble TRAIL and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5) are currently being created for clinical cancer therapy, due to their selective killing of cancer cells and high safety characteristics. However, resistance to TRAIL and other targeted therapies is an important issue facing current cancer research field. An attractive strategy to sensitize resistant malignancies to TRAIL-induced cell death is the design of small molecules that target and promote caspase 8 activation. For the first time, we describe the discovery and characterization of a small molecule that directly binds caspase 8 and enhances its activation when combined with TRAIL, but not alone. The molecule was identified through an in silico chemical screen for compounds with affinity for the caspase 8 homodimer’s interface. The compound was experimentally validated to directly bind caspase 8, and to promote caspase 8 activation and cell death in single living cells or population of cells, upon TRAIL stimulation. Our approach is a proof-of-concept strategy leading to the discovery of a novel small molecule that not only stimulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, but may also provide insights into the structure-function relationship of caspase 8 homodimers as putative targets in cancer.
doi:10.1038/srep09893
PMCID: PMC4426715  PMID: 25962125

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