Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R
2) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R
2>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice.
Rice; Recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; Seed vigor; Quantitative trait locus (QTL); Germination
Mapping chromosome regions responsible for quantitative phenotypic variation in recombinant populations provides an effective means to characterize the genetic basis of complex traits. We conducted a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two cultivars, Oryza sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11 and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare. The RILs were genotyped through next-generation sequencing, which accurately determined the recombination breakpoints and provided a new type of genetic markers, recombination bins, for QTL analysis. We detected 49 QTL with phenotypic effect ranging from 3.2 to 46.0% for 14 agronomics traits. Five QTL of relatively large effect (14.6–46.0%) were located on small genomic regions, where strong candidate genes were found. The analysis using sequencing-based genotyping thus offers a powerful solution to map QTL with high resolution. Moreover, the RILs developed in this study serve as an excellent system for mapping and studying genetic basis of agricultural and biological traits of rice.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1449-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Rice is not only a major food staple for the world's population but it also is a model species for a major group of flowering plants, the monocotyledonous plants. Draft genomic sequence of two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa spp. japonica and indica ssp. are publicly available. To provide the community with a resource to data-mine the rice genome, we have constructed an annotation resource for rice (http://www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/osa1/). In this resource, we have annotated the rice genome for gene content, identified motifs/domains within the predicted genes, constructed a rice repeat database, identified related sequences in other plant species, and identified syntenic sequences between rice and maize. All of the data is available through web-based interfaces, FTP downloads, and a Distributed Annotation System.
Rice is a very important food staple that feeds more than half the world's population. Two major Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, japonica and indica, show significant phenotypic variation in their stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic variation are still largely unknown. A common link among different stresses is that they produce an oxidative burst and result in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, methyl viologen (MV) as a ROS agent was applied to investigate the rice oxidative stress response. We observed that 93-11 (indica) seedlings exhibited leaf senescence with severe lesions under MV treatment compared to Nipponbare (japonica). Whole-genome microarray experiments were conducted, and 1,062 probe sets were identified with gene expression level polymorphisms between the two rice cultivars in addition to differential expression under MV treatment, which were assigned as Core Intersectional Probesets (CIPs). These CIPs were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and highlighted with enrichment GO terms related to toxin and oxidative stress responses as well as other responses. These GO term-enriched genes of the CIPs include glutathine S-transferases (GSTs), P450, plant defense genes, and secondary metabolism related genes such as chalcone synthase (CHS). Further insertion/deletion (InDel) and regulatory element analyses for these identified CIPs suggested that there may be some eQTL hotspots related to oxidative stress in the rice genome, such as GST genes encoded on chromosome 10. In addition, we identified a group of marker genes individuating the japonica and indica subspecies. In summary, we developed a new strategy combining biological experiments and data mining to study the possible molecular mechanism of phenotypic variation during oxidative stress between Nipponbare and 93-11. This study will aid in the analysis of the molecular basis of quantitative traits.
The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively.
More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica) have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria.
Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.
Rice has been found in archaeological sites dating to 8000 bc, although the date of rice domestication is a matter of continuing debate. Two species of domesticated rice, Oryza sativa (Asian) and Oryza glaberrima (African) are grown globally. Numerous traits separate wild and domesticated rices including changes in: pericarp colour, dormancy, shattering, panicle architecture, tiller number, mating type and number and size of seeds.
Genetic studies using diverse methodologies have uncovered a deep population structure within domesticated rice. Two main groups, the indica and japonica subspecies, have been identified with several subpopulations existing within each group. The antiquity of the divide has been estimated at more than 100 000 years ago. This date far precedes domestication, supporting independent domestications of indica and japonica from pre-differentiated pools of the wild ancestor. Crosses between subspecies display sterility and segregate for domestication traits, indicating that different populations are fixed for different networks of alleles conditioning these traits. Numerous domestication QTLs have been identified in crosses between the subspecies and in crosses between wild and domesticated accessions of rice. Many of the QTLs cluster in the same genomic regions, suggesting that a single gene with pleiotropic effects or that closely linked clusters of genes underlie these QTL. Recently, several domestication loci have been cloned from rice, including the gene controlling pericarp colour and two loci for shattering. The distribution and evolutionary history of these genes gives insight into the domestication process and the relationship between the subspecies.
The evolutionary history of rice is complex, but recent work has shed light on the genetics of the transition from wild (O. rufipogon and O. nivara) to domesticated (O. sativa) rice. The types of genes involved and the geographic and genetic distribution of alleles will allow scientists to better understand our ancestors and breed better rice for our descendents.
Oryza sativa; domestication; shattering; pericarp colour; QTL; subpopulation structure; subspecies
The three-dimensional shape of grain, measured as grain length, width, and thickness (GL, GW, and GT), is one of the most important components of grain appearance in rice. Determining the genetic basis of variations in grain shape could facilitate efficient improvements in grain appearance. In this study, an F7:8 recombinant inbred line population (RIL) derived from a cross between indica and japonica cultivars (Nanyangzhan and Chuan7) contrasting in grain size was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The major aim of this study was to detect a QTL for grain shape and to fine map a minor QTL, qGL7.
Four QTLs for GL were detected on chromosomes 3 and 7, and 10 QTLs for GW and 9 QTLs for GT were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10, respectively. A total of 28 QTLs were identified, of which several are reported for the first time; four major QTLs and six minor QTLs for grain shape were also commonly detected in both years. The minor QTL, qGL7, exhibited pleiotropic effects on GL, GW, GT, 1000-grain weight (TGW), and spikelets per panicle (SPP) and was further validated in a near isogenic F2 population (NIL-F2). Finally, qGL7 was narrowed down to an interval between InDel marker RID711 and SSR marker RM6389, covering a 258-kb region in the Nipponbare genome, and cosegregated with InDel markers RID710 and RID76.
Materials with very different phenotypes were used to develop mapping populations to detect QTLs because of their complex genetic background. Progeny tests proved that the minor QTL, qGL7, could display a single mendelian characteristic. Therefore, we suggested that minor QTLs for traits with high heritability could be isolated using a map-based cloning strategy in a large NIL-F2 population. In addition, combinations of different QTLs produced diverse grain shapes, which provide the ability to breed more varieties of rice to satisfy consumer preferences.
The key to plant survival under NaCl salt stress is maintaining a low Na+ level or Na+/K+ ratio in the cells. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F2∶9) derived from a cross between the salt-tolerant japonica rice variety Jiucaiqing and the salt-sensitive indica variety IR26, was used to determine Na+ and K+ concentrations in the roots and shoots under three different NaCl stress conditions (0, 100 and 120 mM NaCl). A total of nine additive QTLs were identified by QTL Cartographer program using single-environment phenotypic values, whereas eight additive QTLs were identified by QTL IciMapping program. Among these additive QTLs, five were identified by both programs. Epistatic QTLs and QTL-by-environment interactions were detected by QTLNetwork program in the joint analyses of multi-environment phenotypic values, and one additive QTL and nine epistatic QTLs were identified. There were three epistatic QTLs identified for Na+ in roots (RNC), three additive QTLs and two epistatic QTLs identified for Na+ in shoots (SNC), four additive QTLs identified for K+ in roots (RKC), four additive QTLs and three epistatic QTLs identified for K+ in shoots (SKC) and one additive QTL and one epistatic QTL for salt tolerance rating (STR). The phenotypic variation explained by each additive, epistatic QTL and QTL×environment interaction ranged from 8.5 to 18.9%, 0.5 to 5.3% and 0.7 to 7.5%, respectively. By comparing the chromosomal positions of these additive QTLs with those previously identified, five additive QTLs, qSNC9, qSKC1, qSKC9, qRKC4 and qSTR7, might represent novel salt tolerance loci. The identification of salt tolerance in selected RILs showed that a major QTL qSNC11 played a significant role in rice salt tolerance, and could be used to improve salt tolerance of commercial rice varieties with marker-assisted selection (MAS) approach.
In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93–11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93–11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity.
China has been successful in breeding hybrid rice strains, but is now facing challenges to develop new hybrids with high-yielding potential, better grain quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper reviews the most significant advances in hybrid rice breeding in China, and presents a recent study on fine-mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield traits.
By exploiting new types of male sterility, hybrid rice production in China has become more diversified. The use of inter-subspecies crosses has made an additional contribution to broadening the genetic diversity of hybrid rice and played an important role in the breeding of super rice hybrids in China. With the development and application of indica-inclined and japonica-inclined parental lines, new rice hybrids with super high-yielding potential have been developed and are being grown on a large scale. DNA markers for subspecies differentiation have been identified and applied, and marker-assisted selection performed for the development of restorer lines carrying disease resistance genes. The genetic basis of heterosis in highly heterotic hybrids has been studied, but data from these studies are insufficient to draw sound conclusions. In a QTL study using stepwise residual heterozygous lines, two linked intervals harbouring QTLs for yield traits were resolved, one of which was delimited to a 125-kb region.
Advances in rice genomic research have shed new light on the genetic study and germplasm utilization in rice. Molecular marker-assisted selection is a powerful tool to increase breeding efficiency, but much work remains to be done before this technique can be extended from major genes to QTLs.
Hybrid rice; cytoplasmic male sterility; inter-subspecies; DNA marker; molecular marker-assisted selection; quantitative trait loci
Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases—sequence data from ∼1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions–deletions.
Rice is a major food staple for the world’s population and serves as a model species in cereal genome research. The Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) has long been devoting itself to sequencing, information analysis and biological research of the rice and other crop genomes. In order to facilitate the application of the rice genomic information and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies of other important cereal crops, we implemented our Rice Information System (BGI-RIS), the most up-to-date integrated information resource as well as a workbench for comparative genomic analysis. In addition to comprehensive data from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica sequenced by BGI, BGI-RIS also hosts carefully curated genome information from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and EST sequences available from other cereal crops. In this resource, sequence contigs of indica (93-11) have been further assembled into Mbp-sized scaffolds and anchored onto the rice chromosomes referenced to physical/genetic markers, cDNAs and BAC-end sequences. We have annotated the rice genomes for gene content, repetitive elements, gene duplications (tandem and segmental) and single nucleotide polymorphisms between rice subspecies. Designed as a basic platform, BGI-RIS presents the sequenced genomes and related information in systematic and graphical ways for the convenience of in-depth comparative studies (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/).
Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa—indica and tropical japonica—as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.
Cadmium (Cd) translocation and accumulation in the grain and aerial plant parts of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important aspect of food safety and phytoextraction in areas with contaminated soil. Because control of Cd translocation and accumulation is likely to be determined by the plants genetics, the Cd contents of grain and the aerial parts of rice may be manipulated to improve food safety and for phytoextraction ability. This study studied Cd translocation and accumulation and their genetic control in aerial parts of rice to provide a starting point for improving food safety and phytoextraction in Cd-contaminated soils.
In the japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare", Cd accumulated in leaves and culms until heading, and in culms and ears after heading. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from indica cv. "Kasalath", qcd4-1 and qcd4-2, affect Cd concentrations in upper plant parts just before heading. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with qcd4-1 and qcd4-2 were selected from the "Nipponbare" background, and were analyzed for the effects of each QTL, and for interactions between the two QTLs. From the results compared between "Nipponbare" and each NIL, neither QTL influenced total Cd accumulation in aerial parts at 5 days after heading, but the interaction between two QTLs increased Cd accumulation. At 35 days after heading, qcd4-2 had increased Cd accumulation in the aerial plant parts and decreased translocation from leaves other than flag leaf, but interaction between the two QTLs increased translocation from leaves. NILqcd4-1,2 accumulated higher concentrations of Cd in brown rice than "Nipponbare".
Three types of Cd translocation and accumulation patterns demonstrated by NILs suggested that the accumulation of Cd in leaves and culms before heading, and translocation from them after heading are responsible for Cd accumulation in grain. Cd translocation from roots to culms and ears after heading may direct Cd to the aerial organs without influencing brown rice accumulation.
Here we report that the change from the red seeds of wild rice to the white seeds of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) resulted from the strong selective sweep of a single mutation, a frame-shift deletion within the Rc gene that is found in 97.9% of white rice varieties today. A second mutation, also within Rc, is present in less than 3% of white accessions surveyed. Haplotype analysis revealed that the predominant mutation originated in the japonica subspecies and crossed both geographic and sterility barriers to move into the indica subspecies. A little less than one Mb of japonica DNA hitchhiked with the rc allele into most indica varieties, suggesting that other linked domestication alleles may have been transferred from japonica to indica along with white pericarp color. Our finding provides evidence of active cultural exchange among ancient farmers over the course of rice domestication coupled with very strong, positive selection for a single white allele in both subspecies of O. sativa.
Understanding the history and origin of genetic mutations that have changed wild plants into crops can help us understand the history of the people who cultivated these plants. Rice is one of the oldest crops grown in Asia and it contains two different subspecies that are believed to have been domesticated in different locations by different people. Surprisingly, some of the genetic mutations responsible for domestication are common in all rice. We here show that a mutation in the Rc gene that changed the red seed of wild rice into the white seeds of modern rice is shared by a large majority of all rice varieties, regardless of subspecies. This transfer of genes requires contact among rice types and implies contact among the people who cultivated the different subspecies. We have traced the origin of the mutation in Rc to the japonica subspecies. As additional domestication genes are cloned and their evolutionary history described, we will see how many times and in how many directions such gene transfers have occurred.
The MIPS Rice (Oryza sativa) database (MOsDB; http://mips.gsf.de/proj/rice) provides a comprehensive data collection dedicated to the genome information of rice. Rice (O. sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops for over half the world's population and serves as a major model system in cereal genome research. MOsDB integrates data from two publicly available rice genomic sequences, O. sativa L. ssp. indica and O. sativa L. ssp. japonica. Besides regularly updated rice genome sequence information, MOsDB provides an integrated resource for associated analysis data, e.g. internal and external annotation information as well as a complex characterization of all annotated rice genes. The MOsDB web interface supports various search options and allows browsing the database content. MOsDB is continuously expanding to include an increasing range of data type and the growing amount of information on the rice genome.
Rice straw is always regarded as a by-product of rice production, but it could be a significant energy source for ruminant animals. Knowledge of the genetic variation and genetic architecture of cell wall traits will facilitate rice breeders by improving relevant traits through selective breeding and genetic engineering. The common wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff., which is considered to be the progenitor of Oryza sativa, has been widely utilized for the identification of genes of agronomic importance for rice genetic improvement. In the present study, the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and ADL/NDF ratio was carried out in two environments using a backcrossed inbred line (BIL) population derived from a cross between the recurrent parent Xieqingzao B (XB) and an accession of Dongxiang wild rice (DWR). The results indicated that all four traits tested were continuously distributed among the BILs, but many BILs showed transgressive segregation. A total of 16 QTLs were identified for the four traits, but no QTLs were in common in two environments, suggesting that environment has dramatic effects on fiber and lignin syntheses. Compared to the QTL positions for grain yield-related traits, there were no unfavorable correlations between grain yield components and cell wall traits in this population. The QTLs identified in this study are useful for the development of dual-purpose rice varieties that are high in grain yield and are also high in straw quality.
Rice straw; Acid detergent fiber; Lignin; Quantitative trait loci
Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is endowed with a rich genetic variability. In spite of such a great diversity, the modern rice cultivars have narrow genetic base for most of the agronomically important traits. To sustain the demand of an ever increasing population, new avenues have to be explored to increase the yield of rice. Wild progenitor species present potential donor sources for complex traits such as yield and would help to realize the dream of sustained food security.
Advanced backcross method was used to introgress and map new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) relating to yield and its components from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon. An interspecific BC2 testcross progeny (IR58025A/O. rufipogon//IR580325B///IR58025B////KMR3) was evaluated for 13 agronomic traits pertaining to yield and its components. Transgressive segregants were obtained for all the traits. Thirty nine QTLs were identified using interval mapping and composite interval mapping. In spite of it's inferiority for most of the traits studied, O. rufipogon alleles contributed positively to 74% of the QTLs. Thirty QTLs had corresponding occurrences with the QTLs reported earlier, indicating that these QTLs are stable across genetic backgrounds. Nine QTLs are novel and reported for the first time.
The study confirms that the progenitor species constitute a prominent source of still unfolded variability for traits of complex inheritance like yield. With the availability of the complete genome sequence of rice and the developments in the field of genomics, it is now possible to identify the genes underlying the QTLs. The identification of the genes constituting QTLs would help us to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the action of QTLs.
Deepwater rice possesses internode elongation ability to avoid drowning under deepwater conditions. Previous studies identified three QTLs regulating internode elongation ability on chromosomes 1, 3 and 12 using different populations. However, these QTLs only induce internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions from the 7-leaf stage and not during the early leaf stage. In this study, we detected two novel QTLs, qTIL2 and qTIL4 regulating deepwater response at the early leaf stage using an F2 population derived from the cross between NIL1-3-12 carrying the three QTLs regulating deepwater response in T65 (O. sativa ssp. japonica) genetic background and C9285 (O. sativa ssp. indica, deepwater rice). Plants of the BC2F2 population derived from NIL1-3-12/C9285 and the RILs of T65/Bhadua (O. sativa ssp. indica, deepwater rice) possessing these QTLs as well as the three QTLs previously identified also showed internode elongation during the early leaf stage. These results indicate that qTIL2 and qTIL4 regulate early internode elongation and function in coordination with the three major QTLs under deepwater conditions. The results presented here would not only help define the mechanism of deepwater response in rice but also contribute in the breeding of deepwater tolerant rice that is adapted to various water depths.
deepwater rice; QTL; internode elongation
Large phenotypic variations in the cadmium (Cd) concentration of rice grains and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic control of Cd accumulation remains poorly understood. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining the grain Cd concentration of rice grown in a Cd-polluted paddy field were identified. Using a mapping population consisting of 85 backcross inbred lines derived from a cross between the low-Cd-accumulating cultivar Sasanishiki (japonica) and high-Cd-accumulating cultivar Habataki (indica), two QTLs for increasing grain Cd concentration were found on chromosomes 2 and 7. A major-effect QTL, qGCd7 (QTL for grain Cd on chromosome 7), was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7. It accounted for 35.5% of all phenotypic variance in backcross inbred lines. qGCd7 was not genetically related to any QTLs for concentrations of essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) or those for agronomic traits such as heading date, suggesting that this QTL is specific to Cd. Furthermore, the existence of qGCd7 was confirmed using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and an F2 population from a cross between the target CSSL and Sasanishiki grown in a Cd-polluted paddy soil. To our knowledge, qGCd7 is a novel QTL with major effects for increasing grain Cd concentrations.
Advanced mapping population; cadmium; essential trace metals; Oryza sativa L.; quantitative trait loci
The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica) suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers.
In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV) consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations.
Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.
Genetic control of root development in rice is complex and the underlying mechanisms (constitutive and adaptive)
are poorly understood. Lowland and upland varieties of indica and japonica rice with
contrasting root development characteristics have been crossed, mapping populations developed and a number of QTLs in different
chromosomes were identified. As these studies have used different sets of markers and many of the QTLs identified are long, it
is difficult to exploit the varietal difference for improved root traits by marker assisted selection and for identification of
concerned alleles. Intensive data mining of literature resulted in the identification 861 root development QTLs and associated
microsatellite markers located on different chromosomes. The QTL and marker data generated and the genome sequence of rice were
used for construction of a relational database, Rootbrowse, using MySQL relational database management system and Bio::DB::GFF
schema. The data is viewed using GBrowse visualization tool. It graphically displays a section of the genome and all features
annotated on it including the QTLs. The QTLs can be displayed along with SSR markers, protein coding genes and/or known root
development genes for prediction of probable candidate genes.
Rootbrowse is freely available at
root development; rice; QTLs; candidate genes; auxin metabolism; gbrowse
Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs.
We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11.
Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor underlying resistance to this virus. This population is a powerful breeding tool. It also helps in overcoming hybrid sterility barriers between species of rice.
The study on the genetic basis of heterosis has received significant attention in recent years. In this study, using a set of introgression lines (ILs) and corresponding testcross F1 populations, we investigated heterotic loci (HL) associated with six yield-related traits in both Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica and japonica. A total of 41 HL were detected on the basis of mid-parent heterosis values with single-point analysis. The F1 test-cross population showed superiority in most yield-related traits and was characterized by a high frequency of overdominant HL. Thirty-eight of the 41 HL were overdominant, and in the absence of epistasis, three HL were dominant, suggesting that heterotic effects at the single-locus level mainly appeared to be overdominant in rice. Twenty-four HL had a real positive effect, suggesting that they are viable candidates for the improvement of rice yield potential. Compared with the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected in the ILs, only six out of the 41 (14.6%) HL were detected in QTL analysis under the same statistical threshold, indicating that heterosis and trait performance may be conditioned by different sets of loci.
introgression lines; QTLs; heterotic loci; overdominant
Huge efforts have been invested in the last two decades to dissect the genetic bases of complex traits including yields of many crop plants, through quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, almost all the studies were based on linkage maps constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, e.g. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), thus are mostly of low density and not able to provide precise and complete information about the numbers and locations of the genes or QTLs controlling the traits. In this study, we constructed an ultra-high density genetic map based on high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from low-coverage sequences of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice, generated using new sequencing technology. The quality of the map was assessed by validating the positions of several cloned genes including GS3 and GW5/qSW5, two major QTLs for grain length and grain width respectively, and OsC1, a qualitative trait locus for pigmentation. In all the cases the loci could be precisely resolved to the bins where the genes are located, indicating high quality and accuracy of the map. The SNP map was used to perform QTL analysis for yield and three yield-component traits, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and grain weight, using data from field trials conducted over years, in comparison to QTL mapping based on RFLPs/SSRs. The SNP map detected more QTLs especially for grain weight, with precise map locations, demonstrating advantages in detecting power and resolution relative to the RFLP/SSR map. Thus this study provided an example for ultra-high density map construction using sequencing technology. Moreover, the results obtained are helpful for understanding the genetic bases of the yield traits and for fine mapping and cloning of QTLs.