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1.  Nursing home research in Jinan, China: a focus group approach 
This qualitative research using the focus group approach has gathered pertinent perceptions from the stakeholders in Chinese elderly care environment, including community-based and institutionalised elderly, medical providers, administrators and governmental officials. The study found that the elderly are willing to live in nursing homes when they are not in good physical condition and are dependent on others for their activities of daily living. The utilisation of nursing home care has gained acceptance in the community as more elders recognise its advantages. The elderly study subjects expressed interest in the service environment, as well as the cultural and recreational activities in nursing homes. Most participants were satisfied with the quality of nursing care. Administrators and providers in the nursing homes agreed that skilled nursing facilities appear to be more competitive because they require more licensed providers and other professional staff members. A majority of nursing homes face serious financial difficulties.
PMCID: PMC3516409  PMID: 23227082
focus group; demand; supply; nursing home care; public policy; community-based needs; China
2.  Voices That Care: Licensed Practical Nurses and the Emotional Labour Underpinning Their Collaborative Interactions with Registered Nurses 
Nursing Research and Practice  2011;2011:501790.
Recognizing the emotional labour underlying interprofessional collaborations (IPCs) could be considered a crucial step towards building a cohesive nursing team. Although IPCs between registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) have been linked to quality nursing care, little is known about the emotions experienced by LPNs during their interactions with RNs or those factors that influence IPCs. A questionnaire administered to 309 LPNs found that (1) the professional identity of LPNs has evolved into a that of a unique social group; (2) LPNs define IPC as an interpersonal process of exploring similar or dissimilar assessments of a patient's status with RNs and, together, establishing a course of nursing actions; (3) the primary organizational factor facilitating IPCs is inclusive nursing leadership; (4) the interpersonal factor promoting IPCs is the level of trust RNs extend to LPNs; and (5) an LPN's emotional labour (i.e., internal emotional regulation) is most tangible during uncollaborative interactions with RNs.
PMCID: PMC3205919  PMID: 22135732
3.  Health IT-enabled Care for Underserved Rural Populations: The Role of Nursing 
This white paper explains the strong roles that nursing can play in using information technology (IT) to improve healthcare delivery in rural areas. The authors describe current challenges to providing care in rural areas, and how technology innovations can help rural communities to improve their health and health care. To maximize benefits, rural stakeholders (as individuals and groups) must collaborate to effect change. Because nonphysician providers deliver much of the health care in rural communities, this paper focuses on the critical roles of nurses on IT-enabled caremanagement teams. The authors propose changes in nursing practice, policy, and education to better prepare, encourage, and enable nurses to assume leadership roles in IT-enabled health care management in rural communities.
PMCID: PMC2705245  PMID: 19261937
4.  Validity and reliability of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration 
Many measurement scales for interprofessional collaboration are developed for one health professional group, typically nurses. Evaluating interprofessional collaborative relationships can benefit from employing a measurement scale suitable for multiple health provider groups, including physicians and other health professionals. To this end, the paper begins development of a new interprofessional collaboration measurement scale designed for use with nurses, physicians, and other professionals practicing in contemporary acute care settings. The paper investigates validity and reliability of data from nurses evaluating interprofessional collaboration of physicians and shows initial results for other rater/target combinations.
Items from a published scale originally designed for nurses were adapted to a round robin proxy report format appropriate for multiple health provider groups. Registered nurses, physicians, and allied health professionals practicing in inpatient wards/services of 15 community and academic hospitals in Toronto, Canada completed the adapted scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the adapted scale examined dimensionality, construct and concurrent validity, and reliability of nurses' response data. Correlations between the adapted scale, the nurse-physician relations subscale of the Nursing Work Index, and the Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale were calculated. Differences of mean scores on the Nursing Work Index and the interprofessional collaboration scale were compared between hospitals.
Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors in the adapted interprofessional collaboration scale - labeled Communication, Accommodation, and Isolation - which were subsequently corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. Nurses' scale responses about physician collaboration had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity, and acceptable reliability.
The new scale is suitable for use with nurses assessing physicians. The scale may yield valid and reliable data from physicians and others, but measurement equivalence and other properties of the scale should be investigated before it is used with multiple health professional groups.
PMCID: PMC2867963  PMID: 20353577
5.  Registered Nurses´ View of Performing Pain Assessment among Persons with Dementia as Consultant Advisors 
The Open Nursing Journal  2012;6:62-70.
Pain assessment in persons with dementia is well known as a challenging issue to professional caregivers, because of these patients´ difficulties in verbalising pain problems. Within municipal dementia care in Sweden, pain assessment has become problematic for registered nurses, as they have entered a new role in their nursing profession, from being clinical practitioners to becoming consultant advisers to other health care staff.
To present municipal registered nurses´ view of pain assessment in persons with dementia in relation to their nursing profession as consultant advisers.
Purposive sampling was undertaken with 11 nurses invited to participate. Data were collected by focus groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.
Four categories were identified to describe registered nurses´ view of pain assessment: estrangement from practical nursing care, time consuming and unsafe pain documentation, unfulfilled needs of reflection possibilities, and collaboration and coordination.
The performance of pain assessment through a consultant advising function is experienced as frustrating and as an uncomfortable nursing situation. The nurses feel resistance to providing nursing in this way. They view nursing as a clinical task demanding daily presence among patients to enable them to make accurate and safe assessments. However, due to the consultative model, setting aside enough time for the presence seems difficult to accomplish. It is necessary to promote the quality of systematic routines in pain assessment and reflection, as well as developing professional knowledge of how pain can be expressed by dementia patients, especially those with communication difficulties.
PMCID: PMC3362856  PMID: 22655002
Municipal dementia care; pain assessment; registered nurses.
6.  Fidelity and moderating factors in complex interventions: a case study of a continuum of care program for frail elderly people in health and social care 
Prior studies measuring fidelity of complex interventions have mainly evaluated adherence, and not taken factors affecting adherence into consideration. A need for studies that clarify the concept of fidelity and the function of factors moderating fidelity has been emphasized. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate implementation fidelity and possible factors influencing fidelity of a complex care continuum intervention for frail elderly people.
The intervention was a systematization of the collaboration between a nurse with geriatric expertise situated at the emergency department, the hospital ward staff, and a multi-professional team with a case manager in the municipal care services for older people. Implementation was evaluated between September 2008 and May 2010 with observations of work practices, stakeholder interviews, and document analysis according to a modified version of The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity.
A total of 16 of the 18 intervention components were to a great extent delivered as planned, while some new components were added to the model. No changes in the frequency or duration of the 18 components were observed, but the dose of the added components varied over time. Changes in fidelity were caused in a complex, interrelated fashion by all the moderating factors in the framework, i.e., context, staff and participant responsiveness, facilitation, recruitment, and complexity.
The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was empirically useful and included comprehensive measures of factors affecting fidelity. Future studies should focus on developing the framework with regard to how to investigate relationships between the moderating factors and fidelity over time.
Trial registration, NCT01260493.
PMCID: PMC3342887  PMID: 22436121
Adherence; Adaptation; Process evaluation; Complex intervention; Implementation; Care chain; Elderly
7.  Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia 
Malaria Journal  2010;9:309.
Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya.
This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership.
Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery.
Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.
PMCID: PMC2988042  PMID: 21040552
8.  Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway 
To explore the experiences and clinical challenges that nurses and nursing assistants face when providing high-quality diabetes-specific management and care for elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings.
Focus-group interviews.
Subjects and setting
Sixteen health care professionals: 12 registered nurses and four nursing assistants from nursing homes (10), district nursing service (5), and a service unit (1) were recruited by municipal managers who had local knowledge and knew the workforce. All the participants were women aged 32–59 years with clinical experience ranging from 1.5 to 38 years.
Content analysis revealed a discrepancy between the level of expertise which the participants described as important to delivering high-quality care and their capacity to deliver such care. The discrepancy was due to lack of availability and access to current information, limited ongoing support, lack of cohesion among health care professionals, and limited confidence and autonomy. Challenges to delivering high-quality care included complex, difficult patient situations and lack of confidence to make decisions founded on evidence-based guidelines.
Participants lacked confidence and autonomy to manage elderly people with diabetes in municipal care settings. Lack of information, support, and professional cohesion made the role challenging.
PMCID: PMC3860301  PMID: 24205973
Chronic illness; diabetes; elderly people; focus groups; general practice; home-based services; Norway; nursing homes; qualitative research
9.  Using a Private-Public Partnership to Supplement Healthcare Information Technology in Nursing Education 
Various reports by the World Bank and U.S. business technology executives, academics, economists, researchers, and government policymakers have recommended crafting a new educational model for educating America’s future workforce including nurses in their professional research pursuits. According to the National League for Nursing, nursing research is an integral part of the scientific enterprise of improving the nation’s health. A major aim of this new educational focus is the partnering of private business enterprises and public educational institutions to achieve this outcome, i.e., public-private partnerships. Merck & Co., Inc. will partner/collaborate on a student learning pilot project with New York City College of Technology of the City University of New York Department of Nursing Bachelor of Nursing Program students - all practicing New York State Registered Professional Nurses - who are taking either Nursing Informatics or Leadership in the Management of Client Care courses.
PMCID: PMC3799165  PMID: 24199056
10.  Flexible knowledge repertoires: communication by leaders in trauma teams 
In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is “closed-loop communication”, which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team.
Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED). The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss’ concept of “negotiated order”. The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9.
The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level.
This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members.
PMCID: PMC3494569  PMID: 22747848
Leadership; Communication; Teamwork; Simulation; Discourse psychology
11.  Increasing patient satisfaction and nursing productivity through implementation of an automated nursing discharge summary. 
At New England Deaconess Hospital (NEDH), identifying nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems treated during the patient's hospitalization and saving this information as part of the computerized core clinical data base is essential to a professional practice model for the delivery of nursing care. Providing the patient with concise, easy-to-read discharge instructions and referral agencies with consistent information about the patient's functional status and directions for patient care are important components of delivering high quality patient care. ODISY (the On-line Deaconess Information System) facilitates an automated nursing discharge summary function in addition to an automated medical discharge summary, interdepartmental communication via order entry and results reporting, and other user designed functions that support patient care. Utilization of this function strengthens the multidisciplinary discharge care planning process, increases patient satisfaction, facilitates the identification of nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems treated by nurses and physicians, saves a significant amount of nursing time in the preparation of discharge information, and enables the hospital to meet Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO) standards and state regulations for discharge planning.
PMCID: PMC2247510  PMID: 1807573
12.  One-year outcome of frailty indicators and activities of daily living following the randomised controlled trial; “Continuum of care for frail older people” 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:76.
The intervention; “Continuum of Care for Frail Older People”, was designed to create an integrated continuum of care from the hospital emergency department through the hospital and back to the older person’s own home. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the intervention on functional ability in terms of activities of daily living (ADL).
The study is a non-blinded controlled trial with participants randomised to either the intervention group or a control group with follow-ups at three-, six- and 12 months. The intervention involved collaboration between a nurse with geriatric competence at the emergency department, the hospital wards and a multi-professional team for care and rehabilitation of the older people in the municipality with a case manager as the hub. Older people who sought care at the emergency department at Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Mölndal and who were discharged to their own homes in the municipality of Mölndal, Sweden were asked to participate. Inclusion criteria were age 80 and older or 65 to 79 with at least one chronic disease and dependent in at least one ADL. Analyses were made on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. Outcome measures were ADL independence and eight frailty indicators. These were analysed, using Chi-square and odds ratio (OR).
A total of 161 participated in the study, 76 persons allocated to the control group and 85 to the intervention group were analysed throughout the study. There were no significant differences between the groups with regards to change in frailty compared to baseline at any follow-up. At both the three- and twelve-month follow-ups the intervention group had doubled their odds for improved ADL independence compared to the control (OR 2.37, 95% CI; 1.20 – 4.68) and (2.04, 95% CI; 1.03 – 4.06) respectively. At six months the intervention group had halved their odds for decreased ADL independence (OR 0.52, 95% CI; 0.27 – 0.98) compared to the control group.
The intervention has the potential to reduce dependency in ADLs, a valuable benefit both for the individual and for society.
Trial registration NCT01260493
PMCID: PMC3750658  PMID: 23875866
Integrated care; Health care chain; Rehabilitation; Independence; Aging in place; Frail older people
13.  Caring for Dying and Meeting Death: Experiences of Iranian and Swedish Nurses 
Our world is rapidly becoming a global community, which creates a need to further understand the universal phenomena of death and professional caring for dying persons. This study thus was conducted to describe the meaning of nurses’ experiences of caring for dying people in the cultural contexts of Iran and Sweden.
Materials and Methods:
Using a phenomenological approach, phenomenon of caring for dying people was studied. Eight registered nurses who were working in oncology units in Tehran, Iran and eight registered nurses working in hospital and home care in North part of Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed using the principles of phenomenological hermeneutics.
The findings were formulated based on two themes included: (1) “Sharing space and time to be lost”, and (2) “Caring is a learning process.
The results showed that being with dying people raise an ethical demand that calls for personal and professional response, regardless of sex, culture or context. The physical and organizational context must be supportive and enable nurses to stand up to the demands of close relationships. Specific units and teamwork across various personnel seem to be a solution that is missing in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3144438  PMID: 21811355
Caring for dying; Iranian nurses; Oncology; Palliative care; Swedish nurses
14.  Collaborative practices in unscheduled emergency care: role and impact of the emergency care practitioner—qualitative and summative findings 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(9):625-629.
To identify collaborative instances and hindrances and to produce a model of collaborative practice.
A 12‐month (2005–2006) mixed methods clinical case study was carried out in a large UK ambulance trust. Collaboration was measured through direct observational ratings of communication skills, teamwork and leadership with 24 multi‐professional emergency care practitioners (ECPs), interviews with 45 ECPs and stakeholders, and an audit of 611 patients
Using a generic qualitative approach, observational records and interviews showed that ECPs' numerous links with other professions were influenced by three major themes as follows. (i) The ECP role: for example, “restricted transport codes” of communication, focus on reducing admissions, frustrations about patient tasking and conflicting views about leadership and team work. (ii) Education and training: drivers for multi‐professional clinically focussed graduate level education, requirements for skill development in minor injury units (MIUs) and general practice, and the need for clinical supervision/mentorship. (iii) Cultural perspectives: a “crew room” blue collar view of inter‐professional working versus emerging professional white collar views, power and communication conflicts, and a lack of understanding of the ECPs' role. The quantitative findings are reported elsewhere.
The final model of collaborative practice suggests that ECPs are having an impact on patient care, but that improvements can be made. We recommend the appointment of ECP clinical leads, degree level clinically focussed multi‐professional education, communication skills training, clinical supervision and multi‐professional ECP appointments.
PMCID: PMC2464628  PMID: 17711937
emergency; ambulance; collaboration; leadership; team; communication
15.  Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences 
Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equipped to best address the priority health needs of the Ugandan population, as outlined in the government’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP). The assessment identifies critical gaps in the core competencies of the MakCHS medicine and nursing and ways to overcome them in order to achieve HSSP goals.
Documents from the Uganda Ministry of Health were reviewed, and medicine and nursing curricula were analyzed. Nineteen key informant interviews (KII) and seven focus group discussions (FGD) with stakeholders were conducted. The data were manually analyzed for emerging themes and sub-themes. The study team subsequently used the checklists to create matrices summarizing the findings from the KIIs, FGDs, and curricula analysis. Validation of findings was done by triangulating information from the different data collection methods.
The core competencies that medicine and nursing students are expected to achieve by the end of their education were outlined for both programs. The curricula are in the process of reform towards competency-based education, and on the surface, are well aligned with the strategic needs of the country. But implementation is inadequate, and can be changed:
• Learning objectives need to be more applicable to achieving competencies.
• Learning experiences need to be more relevant for competencies and setting in which students will work after graduation (i.e. not just clinical care in a tertiary care facility).
• Student evaluation needs to be better designed for assessing these competencies.
MakCHS has made a significant attempt to produce relevant, competent nursing and medicine graduates to meet the community needs. Ways to make them more effective though deliberate efforts to apply a competency-based education are possible.
PMCID: PMC3059475  PMID: 21411003
16.  Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda 
Conflict and Health  2010;4:18.
Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District.
A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings.
The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism.
Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail the likely escalation of the HIV epidemic. A comprehensive behaviour change communication strategy is urgently needed to address the negative cultural practices. Real progress in the region lies in advocacy and negotiation to realise lasting peace.
PMCID: PMC2995777  PMID: 21092165
17.  Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: a multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group 
Ongoing changes in cancer care cause an increase in the complexity of cases which is characterized by modern treatment techniques and a higher demand for patient information about the underlying disease and therapeutic options. At the same time, the restructuring of health services and reduced funding have led to the downsizing of hospital care services. These trends strongly influence the workplace environment and are a potential source of stress and burnout among professionals working in radiotherapy.
Methods and patients
A postal survey was sent to members of the workgroup "Quality of Life" which is part of DEGRO (German Society for Radiooncology). Thus far, 11 departments have answered the survey. 406 (76.1%) out of 534 cancer care workers (23% physicians, 35% radiographers, 31% nurses, 11% physicists) from 8 university hospitals and 3 general hospitals completed the FBAS form (Stress Questionnaire of Physicians and Nurses; 42 items, 7 scales), and a self-designed questionnaire regarding work situation and one question on global job satisfaction. Furthermore, the participants could make voluntary suggestions about how to improve their situation.
Nurses and physicians showed the highest level of job stress (total score 2.2 and 2.1). The greatest source of job stress (physicians, nurses and radiographers) stemmed from structural conditions (e.g. underpayment, ringing of the telephone) a "stress by compassion" (e.g. "long suffering of patients", "patients will be kept alive using all available resources against the conviction of staff"). In multivariate analyses professional group (p < 0.001), working night shifts (p = 0.001), age group (p = 0.012) and free time compensation (p = 0.024) gained significance for total FBAS score. Global job satisfaction was 4.1 on a 9-point scale (from 1 – very satisfied to 9 – not satisfied). Comparing the total stress scores of the hospitals and job groups we found significant differences in nurses (p = 0.005) and physicists (p = 0.042) and a borderline significance in physicians (p = 0.052).
In multivariate analyses "professional group" (p = 0.006) and "vocational experience" (p = 0.036) were associated with job satisfaction (cancer care workers with < 2 years of vocational experience having a higher global job satisfaction). The total FBAS score correlated with job satisfaction (Spearman-Rho = 0.40; p < 0.001).
Current workplace environments have a negative impact on stress levels and the satisfaction of radiotherapy staff. Identification and removal of the above-mentioned critical points requires various changes which should lead to the reduction of stress.
PMCID: PMC2661891  PMID: 19200364
18.  MED19/390: Developing a Digital Textbook on Biomedical Technology for Health-Care Professionals 
The main objective of the developed Digital Textbook is to present the Technology associated to the most important Diagnostic and Treatment Procedures, applied in contemporary Biomedical Practice. The target-group of this on-line volume comprise of both, students and those who are already engaged in professional work, such as physicians, nurses, engineers, physicists and other people trained in health-care related activities.
The educational method used includes the presentation of the physical principles, upon which the procedures and equipment under investigation are based, as well as, the most common technical implementation of them. Furthermore, care has be taken to relate the described devices to the corresponding Hospital Departments or Health-Care Facilities, and some simple demonstrations and quizzes are included, that give the user the opportunity to become a little bit more familiar with the clinical hardware. For the development of the digital textbook, HTML was used, so that it can be used on any platform. The content of the presentation is a combination of theoretical knowledge and practice oriented information. Because of the enormous extend of the subject matter, the structure of the text, is rather that of an overview. The languages used are Greek and English.
The developed system consists of educational modules, which presently include topics on the following subjects:
In vivo Diagnostics Technology.
In vitro Diagnostics Technology.
Medical Imaging Technology.
Operating Room and Intensive Care Technology.
Radiation Treatment Technology.
Environmental Protection in the Modern Hospital.
Hospital Organization and Biomedical Technology Management.
The textbook covers educational needs concerning the physical principles, the most common implementations of the medical equipment and the management of the infra-structure of the basic units of the modern Hospital. The new electronic media may offer a cost-effective "digital alternative", for individuals and Institutions. An appropriate combination of traditional and on-line educational activities, could contribute to the promotion of interdisciplinary research and to the improving of the interaction between senior and junior colleagues, in the training procedure.
PMCID: PMC1761756
Digital Textbook; Teaching Materials; Biomedical Technology
As part of a capacity-building research project, this study examined the extent to which caring for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) affects both professional and personal relationships of nurse caregivers. The data were collected using focus group interviews with 17 female nurses at two Limpopo hospitals. The PEN-3 cultural model was used as a theoretical framework for exploring how nurses balance job demands with family responsibilities. The results generated three themes: the multiple identities nurses experience within their family and professional lives; nurse attitudes related to patient gender; and stigma experienced by nurses who care for PLWHA. Caring for PLWHA influences nurses’ personal and professional lives by interfering with their perceptions and emotions as they relate to spousal, parental, and gendered relationships. The findings offer insight into factors requiring consideration when designing interventions to help nurses cope with the stress associated with caring for PLWHA while simultaneously managing family responsibilities.
PMCID: PMC3322409  PMID: 21840813
20.  The Microcomputer in the Clinical Nursing Research Unit 
This paper discusses the microcomputer in clinical nursing research. There are six general areas in which computers have been useful to nurses: nursing notes and charting; patient care plans; automated monitoring of high-tech nursing units; HIS and MIS systems; personnel distribution systems; and education.
Three alternative models for the conduct of clinical nursing research in a hospital are described. The first is a centralized model relying on the bureaucratic structure of the hospital. Second is a decentralized network of professional nurses and research support personnel woven together by a Clinical Nurse Researcher, and third is a dedicated clinical nursing research unit.
Microcomputers have five characteristics which make them vital tools for nurse researchers: user-friendliness; environment friendliness; low cost; ease of interface with other information systems; and range and quality of software.
PMCID: PMC2580114
21.  Communication in interdisciplinary teams: exploring closed-loop communication during in situ trauma team training 
BMJ Open  2013;3(10):e003525.
Investigate the use of call-out (CO) and closed-loop communication (CLC) during a simulated emergency situation, and its relation to profession, age, gender, ethnicity, years in profession, educational experience, work experience and leadership style.
Exploratory study.
In situ simulator-based interdisciplinary team training using trauma cases at an emergency department.
The result was based on 16 trauma teams with a total of 96 participants. Each team consisted of two physicians, two registered nurses and two enrolled nurses, identical to a standard trauma team.
The results in this study showed that the use of CO and CLC in trauma teams was limited, with an average of 20 CO and 2.8 CLC/team. Previous participation in trauma team training did not increase the frequency of use of CLC while ≥2 structured trauma courses correlated with increased use of CLC (risk ratio (RR) 3.17, CI 1.22 to 8.24). All professions in the trauma team were observed to initiate and terminate CLC (except for the enrolled nurse from the operation theatre). The frequency of team members’ use of CLC increased significantly with an egalitarian leadership style (RR 1.14, CI 1.04 to 1.26).
This study showed that despite focus on the importance of communication in terms of CO and CLC, the difficulty in achieving safe and reliable verbal communication within the interdisciplinary team remained. This finding indicates the need for validated training models combined with further implementation studies.
PMCID: PMC3808778  PMID: 24148213
22.  A collaborative chain out of phase 
The aim of this study is to explore the obstacles to collaborations between nurses in hospital and municipal care in the discharge of hospital patients who need continuing care.
First, we conducted in-depth interviews of nurses in hospitals and nurses in municipal care. Second, we developed questionnaires and distributed them to a representative sample of Norwegian municipalities to study the representativeness of the most important findings from the interviews.
Municipal care nurses reported that the information they receive from hospital departments usually is insufficient for a complete understanding of a patient’s needs. Formal discharge reports from hospital serve as a post factum formalization and authorization of information collected by municipal nurses in an ad hoc fashion and via oral communication. Typically, formal information routines are out of phase with the information needed by municipal care professionals.
Hospital information provided at discharge is neither sufficient nor timely with respect to the information needs of nurses in municipal care. Organizational efforts and the use of information technology might ease some obstacles, but several problems will remain because of differences in professional orientation and the contexts of care delivery.
PMCID: PMC3653281  PMID: 23687480
collaboration; integrated care; patient discharge; organizational culture; cross organizational communication
23.  Interdisciplinary Communication in the ICU 
Interdisciplinary communication in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is complicated by the dynamic workflow of clinicians, instability of patients, and highly technological therapies, equipment and information systems. Many countries have examined methods to improve clinician communication and to understand common patient care goals. Using focus group and interview transcripts of ICU nurse practitioners, medical residents, medical fellows and attending physicians about antibiotic prescribing, we performed a secondary analysis of themes related to interdisciplinary communication with registered nurses (RNs). This qualitative descriptive user analysis utilized Baggs and Schmitt’s Interdisciplinary Collaboration Model as a coding framework. We found that the clinicians studied value the availability of time sensitive information when it impacts their decisions and workflow and trust RNs’ judgment of clinical information and situations. Future work should include analyses of RN perceptions of interdisciplinary communication in the ICU.
PMCID: PMC3137377  PMID: 19592866
interdisciplinary communication; critical care; collaboration
24.  Key Elements of Clinical Physician Leadership at an Academic Medical Center 
A considerable body of literature in the management sciences has defined leadership and how leadership skills can be attained. There is considerably less literature about leadership within medical settings. Physicians-in-training are frequently placed in leadership positions ranging from running a clinical team or overseeing a resuscitation effort. However, physicians-in-training rarely receive such training. The objective of this study was to discover characteristics associated with effective physician leadership at an academic medical center for future development of such training.
We conducted focus groups with medical professionals (attending physicians, residents, and nurses) at an academic medical center. The focus group discussion script was designed to elicit participants' perceptions of qualities necessary for physician leadership. The lead question asked participants to imagine a scenario in which they either acted as or observed a physician leader. Two independent reviewers reviewed transcripts to identify key domains of physician leadership.
Although the context was not specified, the focus group participants discussed leadership in the context of a clinical team. They identified 4 important themes: management of the team, establishing a vision, communication, and personal attributes.
Physician leadership exists in clinical settings. This study highlights the elements essential to that leadership. Understanding the physician attributes and behaviors that result in effective leadership and teamwork can lay the groundwork for more formal leadership education for physicians-in-training.
PMCID: PMC3186276  PMID: 22379520
25.  Predictors of job satisfaction among doctors, nurses and auxiliaries in Norwegian hospitals: relevance for micro unit culture 
To explore what domains of work are important for job satisfaction among doctors, nurses and auxiliaries and to discuss differences between professional groups in the perspective of micro team culture.
Cross-sectional survey data from hospital staff working clinically at inpatient hospital wards in Norway in 2000.
Linear regression models predicting job satisfaction for the three professions were compared. First, five domains of hospital work were examined for general job satisfaction. Based on the result of the first regression, five items concerning local leadership were explored in a second regression.
A total of 1814 doctors, nurses and auxiliaries working at 11 Norwegian hospitals responded (overall response rate: 65%). The only domain of work that significantly predicted high job satisfaction important for all groups was positive evaluation of local leadership. Both steps of analyses suggested that professional development is most important for doctors. For registered nurses, experiencing support and feedback from the nearest superior was the main explanatory variable for job satisfaction. Job satisfaction of auxiliaries was equally predicted by professional development and local leadership. The results are discussed and interpreted as reflections of cultural values, loyalties and motivation.
The professional values of medicine, the organizational and holistic skills of nurses and the practical experience of auxiliaries should all be valued in the building of interdependent micro teams.
PMCID: PMC1397856  PMID: 16483384

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