AIM: To investigate large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1) expression, promoter hypermethylation, and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: RNA was isolated from tumor tissue of 142 CRC patients and 40 colon mucosal biopsies of healthy controls. After reverse transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, and LATS1 expression was normalized to expression of the ACTB and RPL32 housekeeping genes. To analyze hypermethylation, genomic DNA was isolated from 44 tumor CRC biopsies, and methylation-specific PCR was performed. Microsatellite instability (MSI) status was checked with PCR using BAT26, BAT25, and BAT40 markers in the genomic DNA of 84 CRC patients, followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis.
RESULTS: Decreased LATS1 expression was found in 127/142 (89.4%) CRC cases with the average ratio of the LATS1 level 10.33 ± 32.64 in CRC patients vs 32.85 ± 33.56 in healthy controls. The lowest expression was found in Dukes’ B stage tumors and G1 (well-differentiated) cells. Hypermethylation of the LATS1 promoter was present in 25/44 (57%) CRC cases analyzed. LATS1 promoter hypermethylation was strongly associated with decreased gene expression; methylated cases showed 162× lower expression of LATS1 than unmethylated cases. Although high-grade MSI (mutation in all three markers) was found in 14/84 (17%) cases and low-grade MSI (mutation in 1-2 markers) was found in 30/84 (36%) cases, we found no association with LATS1 expression.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of LATS1 in CRC was associated with promoter hypermethylation, but not MSI status. Such reduced expression may promote progression of CRC.
Large tumor suppressor 1; Colorectal cancer; Quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Reduced expression; Promoter hypermethylation; Microsatellite instability; Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway
LATS2, which encodes a novel serine/threonine kinase, is known to be important in centrosome duplication and in the maintenance of genomic stability. Recently, a potential role for LATS2 in cancer has been reported. In breast cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), LATS2 mRNA is downregulated and has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor. However, the role of LATS2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern of LATS2 and its clinicopathological involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma to understand its effect on cell survival.
Using quantitative real time PCR and immunoblotting, the expression of LATS2 was detected in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and in the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed LATS2 protein expression in 220 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. The association of LATS2 protein expression with the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were subsequently assessed. Using methylation specific PCR, we detected the methylation status of the LATS2 promoter. RNA interference was performed by transfecting siRNA to specifically knock down LATS2 expression in 5-8F and CNE2.
LATS2 protein was detected in 178 of 220 (80.91%) cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. LATS2 overexpression was a significant, independent prognosis predictor (P = 0.037) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Methylation specific PCR revealed that 36.7% (11/30) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and all of the chronic nasopharyngeal inflammation samples were methylated. Functional studies showed that the suppression of LATS2 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (5-8F and CNE2) cell lines by using specific small interfering (siRNA) resulted in the inhibition of growth, induction of apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle increase. Overexpression of LATS2 in NP69 stimulated cell proliferation.
Our results indicate that LATS2 might play a role in the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by promoting the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Transfection with specific siRNA might be feasible for the inhibition of growth, induction of apoptosis and S phase increase in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
LATS1 is a tumor suppressor genes implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of tumors, but its role is not known in human glioma.
Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we detected the mRNA and protein expression of LATS1 in glioma. The effect of LATS1 on cell growth and invasion were investigated.
We found that mRNA and protein of LATS1 expression is significantly downregulated in glioma compared with normal control brain tissues. Furthermore, reduced LATS1 expression was markedly negatively correlated with WHO grade and KPS (p<0.001 and p<0.001) in glioma patients. Patients with lower LATS1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with higher LATS1 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that the level of LATS1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator (p<0.001) for the survival of patients with glioma. Forced expression of LATS1 in glioma U251 cells not only significantly suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion, but retarded cell cycle progression from G2/M to G1 in vitro. Finally, we found that overexpressed LATS1 markedly inhibited the expression level of cell cycle factor CCNA1.
These results indicate that LATS1 is an important candidate tumor suppressor and its downregulated expression may contribute to glioma progression.
LATS1; Tumor suppressor; Prognosis; CCNA1
While qualitative analysis of methylation has been reviewed, the quantitative analysis of methylation has rarely been studied. We evaluated the methylation status of CDKN2A, RARβ, and RASSF1A promoter regions in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) by using pyrosequencing. Then, we evaluated the association between methylation at the promoter regions of these tumor suppressor genes and the clinicopathological parameters of the NSCLCs.
We collected tumor tissues from a total of 53 patients with NSCLCs and analyzed the methylation level of the CDKN2A, RARβ, and RASSF1A promoter regions by using pyrosequencing. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the hypermethylation of CDKN2A and the loss of p16INK4A immunoexpression.
Hypermethylation of CDKN2A, RARβ, and RASSF1A promoter regions were 16 (30.2%), 22 (41.5%), and 21 tumors (39.6%), respectively. The incidence of hypermethylation at the CDKN2A promoter in the tumors was higher in undifferentiated large cell carcinomas than in other subtypes (p=0.002). Hyperrmethylation of CDKN2A was significantly associated with p16INK4A immunoexpression loss (p=0.045). With regard to the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC, certain histopathological subtypes were found to be strongly associated with the loss of p16INK4A immunoexpression (p=0.016). Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma showed p16INK4A immunoexpression loss more frequently. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves analysis showed that methylation level and patient survival were barely related to one another.
We quantitatively analyzed the promoter methylation status by using pyrosequencing. We showed a significant correlation between CDKN2A hypermethylation and p16INK4A immunoexpression loss.
DNA Methylation; Genes, p16; RASSF1 Protein, Human; Receptors, Retinoic Acid; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Carcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung
Hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes is frequently observed in the tumor development and progression. However, the correlation between the hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes, CDH1 and the axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis is not fully elucidated. To verify the role of the CDH1 promoter hypermethylation in the ALN metastasis and prognosis, we compared the methylation status of the CDH1 genes in the primary lesion and the paired metastatic ALNs.
We selected a total of 122 paraffin-embedded specimens of the primary and paired metastatic lymph node from 61 breast cancer patients and analyzed the frequency of hypermethylation in the primary and metastatic lymph node using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the methylation status of CDH1 was analyzed with the clinicopathologic characteristics, the disease-free survival and disease-specific survival.
The hypermethylation of CDH1 gene was identified in 54 (88.5%) of the 61 patients who had axillary metastasis. The hypermethylation status of the CDH1 gene was significantly increased in the metastatic ALNs compared with that in the primary tumors (60.7% vs. 45.9%, p<0.001). The hypermethylation status of the CDH1 genes in the metastatic ALNs was associated with a poor histologic grade (p=0.041) and the patients who had methylated tumor in the primary lesion showed worse disease-free survival than the patients who did not have methylated tumor (p=0.046).
This study suggests that hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene may play a pivotal role in the metastasis of the axillary lymph node and the breast cancer recurrence.
Breast neoplasms; Lymph nodes; Methylation; Recurrence; Tumor suppressor genes
To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the observed effects of deletions in the promoter region of the latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene in impairing herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation, we generated mice transgenic for a 5.5-kb HSV type 2 (HSV-2) genomic fragment spanning the major LAT, along with the LAT promoter and flanking regions, in the C57BL/6 background. The mice expressed abundant 2.2-kb major LATs in trigeminal ganglia (TG) and other tissues. The effects of the transgene on HSV-2 infection, latency, and reactivation were assessed. When infected with wild-type (WT) HSV-2 or its LAT promoter deletion (LAT−) mutant, primary lung fibroblast lines established from normal C57BL/6 and transgenic mice supported virus growth equally well. The replication of these viruses in the mouse eye and their spread to TG and brains were similar. The quantities of latent viral DNA in TG of transgenic and normal mice, as determined by real-time PCR, were comparable. UV light-induced reactivation of the LAT− mutant from transgenic mice (0 to 7%) was no more frequent than that from normal mice (0 to 14%), while WT virus was reactivated from 13 to 54% of normal mice and 22 to 54% of transgenic mice. The cumulative data indicate that, when expressed transgenically, the HSV-2 major LAT cannot influence HSV-2 infection or latency and cannot complement the defect in reactivation of the LAT− mutant. These results imply that the phenotype of reduced reactivation associated with the LAT− mutant is related to a function encoded in the LAT promoter but not to the major LAT itself.
The role of putative promoter or activator sequences downstream of the herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcript (LAT) promoter and upstream of the LAT intron was investigated in vivo by constructing and evaluating mutant viruses with deletions in this region. The deletion of LAT promoter sequences upstream of the primary LAT transcript reduced levels of LAT expression during productive infections, compared with the LAT expression level of wild-type virus, and abolished LAT expression during latency. The deletion of the putative downstream regulatory elements reduced but did not eliminate LAT expression during productive and latent infections. The deletion of both regions almost completely eliminated acute LAT transcription, although additional acute LAT-region transcription directed by sequences upstream of either region was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR. The deletion of the downstream elements did not influence the ability of the virus to reactivate from latently infected guinea pigs relative to the ability of the wild-type virus to reactivate; thus, decreased LAT expression did not affect the frequency of recurrence. The deletion of both regions did not affect the ability of the virus to establish latency. We conclude that downstream regulatory elements are necessary for maximal acute LAT expression but do not constitute an independent promoter during latency and do not play an obvious role in the establishment of our reactivation from latency.
Aberrant promoter region hypermethylation of upstream transcription factors may be responsible for silencing entire anti-neoplastic gene networks. In this study, we explored whether transcription factor coding gene, caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2), is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, and examined its potential tumor-suppressive functions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that four of six lung cancer cell lines exhibited no or weak CDX2 expression. Expression of CDX2 was correlated to CDX2 promoter region methylation status, as determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing. Restoration of CDX2 expression was induced by treatment with demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) in lung cancer cell lines. Methylation of CDX2 was common in human primary lung cancer (61 of 110 tumors, 55.45%), but no methylation was found in normal lung tissues. Re-expression of CDX2 suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation and blocked cells in G1 phase. β-catenin/TCF activity and downstream genes expression were inhibited by re-expression of CDX2, and increased by depletion of CDX2. In conclusion, CDX2 is frequently methylated in lung cancer, and expression of CDX2 is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. CDX2 may serve as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and inhibits lung cancer cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine; CDX2; DNA methylation; Wnt signaling pathway; epigenetics; lung cancer
During herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) neuronal latency, the only viral RNA detected is from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene. We have made a LAT deletion mutant of McKrae, an HSV-1 strain with a very high in vivo spontaneous reactivation rate. This mutant (dLAT2903) lacks the LAT promoter and the first 1.6 kb of the 5' end of LAT. dLAT2903 was compared with its parental virus and with a rescued virus containing a restored LAT gene (dLAT2903R). Replication of the LAT mutant in tissue culture, rabbit eyes, and rabbit trigeminal ganglia was similar to that of the rescued and parental viruses. On the basis of semiquantitative PCR analysis of the amount of HSV-1 DNA in trigeminal ganglia, the LAT mutant was unimpaired in its ability to establish latency. In contrast, spontaneous reactivation of dLAT2903 in the rabbit ocular model of HSV-1 latency and reactivation was decreased to approximately 33% of normal. This decrease was highly significant (P < 0.0001) and demonstrates that in an HSV-1 strain with a high spontaneous reactivation rate, deletion of LAT can dramatically decrease in vivo spontaneous reactivation. We also report here that deletion of LAT appeared to eliminate rather than just reduce in vivo induced reactivation.
DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic mechanisms and hypermethylation of CpG islands at tumor suppressor genes switches off these genes. To find novel DNA methylation markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we performed pharmacological unmasking (treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or trichostatin A) followed by microarray analysis in HCC cell lines. Of the 239 promoter CpG island loci hypermethylated in HCC cell lines (as revealed by methylation-specific PCR), 221 loci were found to be hypermethylated in HCC or nonneoplastic liver tissues. Thirty-three loci showed a 20% higher methylation frequency in tumors than in adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. Correlation of individual cancer-related methylation markers with clinicopathological features of HCC patients (n = 95) revealed that the number of hypermethylated genes in HCC tumors was higher in older than in younger patients. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that the HIST1H2AE methylation status is closely correlated with the patient's overall survival (P = 0.022 and P = 0.010, respectively). In conclusion, we identified 221 novel DNA methylation markers for HCC. One promising prognostic marker, HIST1H2AE, should be further validated in the prognostication of HCC patients.
CpG Islands; DNA Methylation; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Microarray; Prognosis
T-lymphocyte maturation associated protein, MAL, has been described as a tumour-suppressor gene with diagnostic value in colorectal and oesophageal cancers, and can be inactivated by promoter hypermethylation. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of MAL promoter hypermethylation and the association with mRNA expression in gastric cancers and to correlate methylation status to clinicopathological data. Bisulphite-treated DNA isolated from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of 202 gastric adenocarcinomas and 22 normal gastric mucosae was subjected to real-time methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP). Two regions within the MAL promoter (M1 and M2) were analysed. In addition, 17 frozen gastric carcinomas and two gastric cancer cell lines were analysed both by Q-MSP and real-time RT–PCR. Methylation of M1 and M2 occurred in 71 and 80% of the gastric cancers, respectively, but not in normal gastric mucosa tissue. Hypermethylation of M2, but not M1, correlated with significantly better disease-free survival in a univariate (P=0.03) and multivariate analysis (P=0.03) and with downregulation of expression (P=0.01). These results indicate that MAL has a putative tumour-suppressor gene function in gastric cancer, and detection of promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a prognostic marker.
gastric cancer; promoter hypermethylation; prognostic marker; MAL
PTEN is an important tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in Cowden syndrome as well as various sporadic cancers. CpG island hypermethylation is another route to tumour suppressor gene inactivation, however, the literature regarding PTEN hypermethylation in cancer is controversial. Furthermore, investigation of the methylation status of the PTEN CpG island is challenging due to sequence homology with the PTEN pseudogene, PTENP1. PTEN shares a CpG island promoter with another gene known as KLLN. Here we present a thorough reinvestigation of the methylation status of the PTEN CpG island in DNA from colorectal, breast, ovarian, glioma, lung and haematological cancer cell lines.
Using a range of bisulphite-based PCR assays we investigated 6 regions across the PTEN CpG island. We found that regions 1-4 were not methylated in cancer cell lines (0/36). By allelic bisulphite sequencing and pyrosequencing methylation was detected in regions 5 and 6 in colorectal, breast and haematological cancer cell lines. However, methylation detected in this region was associated with the PTENP1 promoter and not the PTEN CpG island.
We show that methylation of the PTEN CpG island is a rare event in cancer cell lines and that apparent methylation most likely originates from homologous regions of the PTENP1 pseudogene promoter. Future studies should utilize assays that reliably discriminate between PTEN and PTENP1 to avoid data misinterpretation.
DNA methylation; Epigenetic; PTEN; KILLIN; PTENP1; Pseudogene; Cowden syndrome
The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is essential for the wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) high-reactivation phenotype since LAT− mutants have a low-reactivation phenotype. We previously reported that LAT can decrease apoptosis and proposed that this activity is involved in LAT's ability to enhance the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype. The first 20% of the primary 8.3-kb LAT transcript is sufficient for enhancing the reactivation phenotype and for decreasing apoptosis, supporting this proposal. For this study, we constructed an HSV-1 LAT− mutant that expresses the baculovirus antiapoptosis gene product cpIAP under control of the LAT promoter and in place of the LAT region mentioned above. Mice were ocularly infected with this mutant, designated dLAT-cpIAP, and the reactivation phenotype was determined using the trigeminal ganglion explant model. dLAT-cpIAP had a reactivation phenotype similar to that of wild-type virus and significantly higher than that of (i) the LAT− mutant dLAT2903; (ii) dLAT1.5, a control virus containing the same LAT deletion as dLAT-cpIAP, but with no insertion of foreign DNA, thereby controlling for potential readthrough transcription past the cpIAP insert; and (iii) dLAT-EGFP, a control virus identical to dLAT-cpIAP except that it contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the cpIAP ORF, thereby controlling for expression of a random foreign gene instead of the cpIAP gene. These results show that an antiapoptosis gene with no sequence similarity to LAT can efficiently substitute for the LAT function involved in enhancing the in vitro-induced HSV-1 reactivation phenotype in the mouse.
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. It is caused by a number of genetic and epigenetic factors. Aberrant hypermethylation of the promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of breast cancers as well as the DBC2 gene, as a tumor suppressor gene. Different studies show that the DBC2 gene is inactivated through epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation in its promoter region. In this study, authors have tried to analyze methylation status in the promoter region of DBC2 gene in affected women and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, we evaluated the methylation status of DBC2 gene with nested methylation-specific PCR (MSPCR) using specific methylated and unmethylated primer sets, in three separate PCR reactions. We used 50 tissue and blood samples of patients with breast cancer, 5 normal tissues and also 30 normal blood samples. Results were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney test, SPSS 16.0 statistical software.
Nested MSPCR results demonstrated that the frequency of the DBC2 promoter region methylation status in tumor and blood samples of the affected patients was significantly higher than that of the corresponding normal controls.
DBC2 gene inactivation by methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region probably is a crucial step in the process of cell proliferation and susceptibility to different cancers, including breast cancer. Our study provides new evidence that aberrant methylation of the DBC2 gene is involved in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer. DNA methylation in this gene is proven to be a potential marker for tumor diagnosis and prognosis, as well as a novel therapeutic target.
Breast Neoplasm; DNA Methylation; DBC2; Iran
AIM: To explore germline hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes MLH1, CDH1 and P16INK4a in suspected cases of hereditary gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: A group of 140 Chinese GC patients in whom the primary cancer had developed before the age of 60 or who had a familial history of cancer were screened for germline hypermethylation of the MLH1, CDH1 and P16INK4a tumor suppressor genes. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and modified by sodium bisulfite. The treated DNA was then subjected to bisulfite DNA sequencing for a specific region of the MLH1 promoter. The methylation status of CDH1 or P16INK4a was assayed using methylation-specific PCR. Clonal bisulfite allelic sequencing in positive samples was performed to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the CpG island methylation status of these promoter regions.
RESULTS: Methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter was detected in the peripheral blood DNA of only 1/140 (0.7%) of the GC patient group. However, this methylation pattern was mosaic rather than the allelic pattern which has previously been reported for MLH1 in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients. We found that 10% of the MLH1 alleles in the peripheral blood DNA of this patient were methylated, consistent with 20% of cells having one methylated allele. No germline promoter methylation of the CDH1 or P16INK4a genes was detected.
CONCLUSION: Mosaic germline epimutation of the MLH1 gene is present in suspected hereditary GC patients in China but at a very low level. Germline epimutation of the CDH1 or P16INK4a gene is not a frequent event.
Gastric cancer; Germline promoter methylation; MLH1; CDH1; P16INK4a
Epidemiological studies indicate that some characteristics of lung cancer among never-smokers significantly differ from those of smokers. Aberrant promoter methylation and mutations in some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are frequent in lung tumors from smokers but rare in those from never-smokers. In this study, we analyzed promoter methylation in the ras-association domain isoform A (RASSF1A) and the death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) genes in lung tumors from patients with primarily non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Western Pennsylvania region. We compare the results with the smoking status of the patients and the mutation status of the K-ras, p53, and EGFR genes determined previously on these same lung tumors.
Promoter methylation of the RASSF1A and DAPK genes was analyzed by using a modified two-stage methylation-specific PCR. Data on mutations of K-ras, p53, and EGFR were obtained from our previous studies.
The RASSF1A gene promoter methylation was found in tumors from 46.7% (57/122) of the patients and was not significantly different between smokers and never-smokers, but was associated significantly in multiple variable analysis with tumor histology (p = 0.031) and marginally with tumor stage (p = 0.063). The DAPK gene promoter methylation frequency in these tumors was 32.8% (40/122) and did not differ according to the patients' smoking status, tumor histology, or tumor stage. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, tumor histology and stage showed that the frequency of promoter methylation of the RASSF1A or DAPK genes did not correlate with the frequency of mutations of the K-ras, p53, and EGFR gene.
Our results showed that RASSF1A and DAPK genes' promoter methylation occurred frequently in lung tumors, although the prevalence of this alteration in these genes was not associated with the smoking status of the patients or the occurrence of mutations in the K-ras, p53 and EGFR genes, suggesting each of these events may represent independent event in non-small lung tumorigenesis.
The incidence of chromosome 3p gene alterations is one of the most frequent and earliest documented events in lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate promoter methylation in the deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 (DLEC1) gene, as well as the p16 and CDH1 genes in Japanese lung cancer cases. The methylation status of the promoter regions of DLEC1, p16 and CDH1 was investigated using methylation-specific PCR. The findings were compared to the clinicopathological features of lung cancer. Methylation-specific PCR showed that the DLEC1 promoter region was methylated in 65 out of 116 (56%) lung cancers. Patients with DLEC1-methylated cancer were associated with a significantly worse prognosis than those with unmethylated cancer (p=0.0368; hazard ratio=1.83). The p16 methylation status correlated with squamous histology (p=0.03) and smoking status (never smoker vs. smoker; p=0.0122). Patients with p16 ummethylated cancer harbored more EGFR mutations (p=0.0071). The CDH1 promoter region was hypermethylated in 65 out of 118 (55.1%) lung cancer cases. However, the CDH1 methylation status was not associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the lung cancer types. p16 and CDH1 methylation status did not correlate with survival in the lung cancer patients. Thus, in our Japanese cohort, the methylation status of the DLEC1 gene was a marker of poor prognosis independent of stage.
methylation; DLEC1 gene; lung cancer
AIM: To examine the methylation status of the promoter region of the checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger (CHFR) and microsatellite mutator status in 59 primary gastric cancers.
METHODS: We investigated the promoter methylation of CHFR in 59 cases of gastric cancer using methylation-specific PCR. Five microsatellite loci were analyzed using high-intensity microsatellite analysis reported previously, and p53 gene mutations were investigated by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: Twenty cases (33.9%) showed promoter methylation and no relation was observed with the clinicopathological factors. We found that the promoter methylation of CHFR was frequently accompanied with microsatellite instability (MIN). Seven of 20 (35.0%) cases showed MIN in hypermethylation of the CHFR tumor, while three of 39 (7.7%) cases showed MIN in the non-methylated CHFR tumor (P < 0.01). However, we failed to find any relationship between CHFR methylation and p53 mutation status.
CONCLUSION: The coordinated loss of both the mitotic check point function and mismatch repair system suggests the potential to overcome the cell cycle check point, which may lead to an accumulation of mutations. However, the p53 mutation was not related to hypermethylation of the CHFR promoter and MIN, which indicates that an abnormality in p53 occurs as an independent process from the mismatch repair deficiency in carcinogenesis.
Checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger; Methylation; Microsatellite instability; Gastric cancer; p53
Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter has been shown to correlate with decreased expression of this gene in human tumor cell lines. In this study, we optimized a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) method and investigated the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human lung and prostate cancer specimens.
Methylation-specific primers were designed based on the methylation profiles of the TGFBI promoter in human tumor cell lines, and MSP conditions were optimized for accurate and efficient amplification. Genomic DNA was isolated from lung tumors and prostatectomy tissues of prostate cancer patients, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed by MSP.
Among 50 lung cancer samples, 44.0% (22/50) harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter. An analysis correlating gene methylation status with clinicopathological cancer features revealed that dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter was associated with a metastatic phenotype, with 42.9% (6/14) of metastatic lung cancer samples demonstrating dense methylation vs. only 5.6% (2/36) of primary lung cancer samples (p < 0.05). Similar to these lung cancer results, 82.0% (41/50) of prostate cancer samples harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter, and dense methylation of the promoter was present in 38.9% (7/18) of prostate cancer samples with the feature of locoregional invasiveness vs. only 19.4% (6/31) of prostate cancer samples without locoregional invasiveness (p < 0.05). Furthermore, promoter hypermethylation correlated with highly reduced expression of the TGFBI gene in human lung and prostate tumor cell lines.
We successfully optimized a MSP method for the precise and efficient screening of TGFBI promoter methylation status. Dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter correlated with the extent of TGFBI gene silencing in tumor cell lines and was related to invasiveness of prostate tumors and metastatic status of lung cancer tumors. Thus, TGFBI promoter methylation can be used as a potential prognostic marker for invasiveness and metastasis in prostate and lung cancer patients, respectively.
Aberrant CpG island promoter DNA hypermethylation is frequently observed in cancer and is believed to contribute to tumor progression by silencing the expression of tumor suppressor genes. Previously, we observed that promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer reflects cell lineage rather than tumor progression and occurs at genes that are already repressed in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate the generality of our observation we analyzed the methylation profiles of 1,154 cancers from 7 different tissue types.
We find that 1,009 genes are prone to hypermethylation in these 7 types of cancer. Nearly half of these genes varied in their susceptibility to hypermethylation between different cancer types. We show that the expression status of hypermethylation prone genes in the originator tissue determines their propensity to become hypermethylated in cancer; specifically, genes that are normally repressed in a tissue are prone to hypermethylation in cancers derived from that tissue. We also show that the promoter regions of hypermethylation-prone genes are depleted of repetitive elements and that DNA sequence around the same promoters is evolutionarily conserved. We propose that these two characteristics reflect tissue-specific gene promoter architecture regulating the expression of these hypermethylation prone genes in normal tissues.
As aberrantly hypermethylated genes are already repressed in pre-cancerous tissue, we suggest that their hypermethylation does not directly contribute to cancer development via silencing. Instead aberrant hypermethylation reflects developmental history and the perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms maintaining these repressed promoters in a hypomethylated state in normal cells.
The epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in the critical region 19q13.3 for several solid tumors, including tumors of the nervous systems.
The aim of this study was to investigate the EMP3 promoter hypermethylation status in a series of 229 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and in 16 GBM cell lines. The analysis was performed by methylation-specific PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, the EMP3 expression at protein level was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis. Associations of EMP3 hypermethylation with total 1p/19q codeletion, MGMT promoter hypermethylation, IDH1/IDH2 and TP53 mutations, and EGFR amplification were studied, as well as its prognostic significance. The EMP3 promoter hypermethylation has been found in 39.5% of gliomas. It prevailed in low-grade tumors, especially in gliomas with an oligodendroglial component, and in sGBMs upon pGBMs. In oligodendroglial tumors, it was strongly associated with both IDH1/IDH2 mutations and total 1p/19q codeletion and inversely with EGFR gene amplification. No association was found with MGMT hypermethylation and TP53 mutations. In the whole series, the EMP3 hypermethylation status correlated with 19q13.3 loss and lack of EMP3 expression at protein level. A favorable prognostic significance on overall survival of the EMP3 promoter hypermethylation was found in patients with oligodendroglial tumors.
This review focuses on the epigenetic alterations of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of genes, histone modifications or RNA interference in cancer cells. The current knowledge of hypermethylation of allele(s) in classical tumor suppressor genes in inherited and sporadic cancer, candidate tumor suppressor and other cancer genes is summarized gene by gene. Global and array-based studies of tumor cell hypermethylation are discussed. The importance of standardization of scoring of the methylation status of a gene is highlighted. The histone marks associated with hypermethylated genes, and the microRNAs with dysregulated expression, in kidney or bladder tumor cells are also discussed. Kidney cancer has the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers. There are management issues with the high recurrence rate of superficial bladder cancer while muscle invasive bladder cancer has a poor prognosis. These clinical problems are the basis for translational application of gene hypermethylation to the diagnosis and prognosis of kidney and bladder cancer.
RCC; bladder cancer; promoter hypermethylation; tumor suppressor gene; methylome; translational application
Salivary rinses have been recently proposed as a valuable resource for the development of epigenetic biomarkers for detection and monitoring of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Both salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC are used in detection of promoter hypermethylation, yet their correlation of promoter hypermethylation has not been evaluated. This study was to evaluate the concordance of promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC.
57 paired salivary rinses collected with or without an exfoliating brush from identical HNSCC patients were evaluated for promoter hypermethylation status using Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR. Target tumor suppressor gene promoter regions were selected based on our previous studies describing a panel for HNSCC screening and surveillance, including P16, CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3, MGMT, DAPK and MINT31.
In salivary rinses collected with and without brush, frequent methylation was detected in P16 (8.8% vs. 5.2%), CCNA1 (26.3% vs. 22.8%), DCC (33.3% vs. 29.8%), TIMP3 (31.6% vs. 36.8%), MGMT (29.8% vs. 38.6%), DAPK (14.0% vs. 19.2%), and MINT31 (10.5% vs. 8.8%). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between salivary rinses collected with and without brush for P16 (ρ = 0.79), CCNA1 (ρ = 0.61), DCC (ρ = 0.58), TIMP3 (ρ = 0.10), MGMT (ρ = 0.70), DAPK (ρ = 0.51) and MINT31 (ρ = 0.72) (P<0.01). The percent agreement of promoter methylation between salivary rinses with brush and without brush were 96.5% for P16, 82.5% for CCNA1, 78.9% for DCC, 59.7% for TIMP3, 84.2% for MGMT, 84.2% for DAPK, and 94.7% for MINT31.
Our study demonstrated strong correlations of gene promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush. Salivary rinse collection without using an exfoliating brush may offer a cost effective, rapid, non-invasive, and reliable means for development of epigenetic salivary rinse biomarkers.
Hypermethylation of CpG island is a common mechanism for the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Hypermethylation of the E-cadherin promoter region has been rarely studied in endometrial carcinoma of Korean women. The purpose of this study is to investigate methylation status of E-cadherin promoter region in endometrial carcinomas and endometrial hyperplasias, and analyze the correlation with clinicopathologic variables in endometrial carcinomas.
We examined the methylation status of the E-cadherin promoter region using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical expression (IHC) of E-cadherin in 30 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas and 20 endometrial hyperplasias, and correlated these results with various clinicopathological factors of endometrial carcinomas.
Decreased expression of E-cadherin was detected in 13 of 30 (43.3%) endometrial carcinomas and in 1 of 20 (5%) endometrial hyperplasias (p=0.009). Promoter hypermethylation was detected in 12 of 30 (40%) endometrial carcinomas and 2 of 20 (10%) endometrial hyperplasias (p=0.015). Methylation status did not have a significant influence on the tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. However, the hypermethylation rate was significantly higher in stage above Ic (p=0.025). Decreased expression of E-cadherin was associated with tumor grade, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis in endometrial carcinomas (p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.03). There was no correlation between DNA hypermethylation and decreased expression of E-cadherin in endometrial carcinomas (p>0.05).
These results indicate that hypermethylation of E-cadherin promoter region is a frequent event in endometrial carcinoma, which may play an important role in the progression of carcinogenesis. Also, the promoter methylation of E-cadherin in endometrial carcinoma was found to be significantly associated with higher stage above Ic.
E-cadherin; Hypermethylation; IHC; Endometrial carcinoma
The Lats2 tumor suppressor protein has previously been implicated in promoting p53 activation in response to mitotic apparatus stress, by preventing Mdm2-driven p53 degradation. We now report that Lats2 also plays a role in an ATR-Chk1-mediated stress checkpoint in response to oncogenic H-Ras. Activated mutant H-Ras triggers the translocation of Lats2 from centrosomes into the nucleus, coupled with an increase in Lats2 protein levels. This leads to induction of p53 activity, upregulation of proapoptotic genes, downregulation of antiapoptotic genes and eventually apoptotic cell death. Many of the cells that survive apoptosis undergo senescence. However, a fraction of the cells escape this checkpoint mechanism, despite maintaining high mutant H-Ras expression. These escapers display increased genome instability, as evidenced by a substantial fraction of cells with micronuclei and cells with polyploid genomes. Interestingly, such cells exhibit markedly reduced levels of Lats2, in conjunction with enhanced hypermethylation of the Lats2 gene promoter. Our findings suggest that Lats2 might play an important role in quenching H-Ras-induced transformation, while silencing of Lats2 expression might serve as a mechanism to enable tumor progression.
Ras; p53; Lats2; apoptosis; polyploidy