The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities.
Airway: Sealing. Cuff Pressure. Insertion. Leak. Pharynx; Equipment: Laryngeal mask airway. Perilaryngeal airway; Ventilation: Controlled. Spontaneous; Anesthesia
To compare two different supraglottic airway devices, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the I-gel, regarding easiness of insertion of the device, leak pressure, gastric insufflation, end tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, hemodynamic and postoperative complications in anesthetized, spontaneously ventilated adult patients performing different non-emergency surgical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out as a prospective, randomized, clinical trial among 80 patients who underwent different surgical procedures under general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation in supine position. They were equally randomized into two groups: I-gel and LMA groups. Both the devices were compared with regard to heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2, end-tidal CO2, number and duration of insertion attempts, incidence of gastric insufflation, leak pressure and airway assessment after removal of the device.
No statistically significant difference was reported between both the groups, regarding heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2 and end-tidal CO2. The mean duration of insertion attempts was 15.6±4.9 seconds in the I-gel group, while it was 26.2±17.7 seconds in the LMA group. The difference between both the groups regarding duration of insertion attempts was statistically significant (P=0.0023*), while the number of insertion attempts was statistically insignificant between both the study groups (P>0.05). Leak pressure was (25.6±4.9 vs. 21.2±7.7 cm H2O) significantly higher among studied patients of the I-gel group (P=0.016*) and the incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly more with LMA group 9 (22.5%) vs. I-gel group (5%) (P=0.016).
Both LMA and I-gel do not cause any significant alteration in the hemodynamic status of the patients, end tidal CO2, and SPO2. The postoperative complications were not significantly different except nusea and vomiting was statistically significant higher in LMA group (P=0.032). among both LMA and I-gel patients. Insertion of I-gel was significantly easier and more rapid than insertion of LMA. Leak pressure was significantly higher with I-gel than LMA and thus incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly lower with I-gel.
Classical laryngeal mask airway; I-gel; supraglottic airway devices
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic airway management device. The LMA is preferred for airway management in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. The recently introduced ProSeal (PLMA), a modification of Classic LMA, has a gastric drainage tube placed lateral to main airway tube which allows the regurgitated gastric contents to bypass the glottis and prevents the pulmonary aspiration. This study was done to compare the efficacy of ProSeal LMA with an endotracheal tube in paediatric patients with respect to number of attempts for placement of devices, haemodynamic responses and perioperative respiratory complications. Sixty children, ASA I and II, weighing 10-20 kg between 2 and 8 years of age group of either sex undergoing elective ophthalmological and lower abdominal surgeries of 30-60 min duration, randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each were studied. The number of attempts for endotracheal intubation was less than the placement of PLMA. Haemodynamic responses were significantly higher (P<0.05) after endotracheal intubation as compared to the placement of PLMA. There were no significant differences in mean SpO2 (%) and EtCO2 levels recorded at different time intervals between the two groups. The incidence of post-operative respiratory complications cough and bronchospasm was higher after extubation than after removal of PLMA. The incidence of soft tissue trauma was noted to be higher for PLMA after its removal. There were no incidences of aspiration and hoarseness/sore throat in either group. It is concluded that ProSeal LMA can be safely considered as a suitable and effective alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures.
ET tube; haemodynamic response; PLMA
Supraglottic airway devices play an important role in ophthalmic surgery. The flexible laryngeal mask airway (LMA™) is generally the preferred airway device. However, there are no studies comparing it with the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA™) in pediatric ophthalmic procedures.
To analyze the intraoperative device stability and ability to maintain normocarbia of CobraPLA™ and compare it to that with flexible LMA™.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety children of American Society for Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2, aged 3–15 years scheduled for elective ophthalmic surgeries were randomly assigned to either the CobraPLA™ or the flexible LMA™ group. After placement of each airway device, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) was noted. Adequate seal of the devices was confirmed at an inspired pressure of 15 cm H2O and pressure-controlled ventilation was initiated. Device displacement was diagnosed if there was a change in capnograph waveform, audible or palpable gas leak, change in expired tidal volume to <8 ml/kg, end-tidal carbon-dioxide persistently >6 kPa, or need to increase inspired pressure to >18 cm H2O to maintain normocarbia.
Demographic data, duration, and type of surgery in both the groups were similar. A higher incidence of intraoperative device displacement was noted with the CobraPLA™ in comparison to flexible LMA™ (P < 0.001). Incidence of displacement was higher in strabismus surgery (7/12). Insertion characteristics and ventilation parameters were comparable. The OLP was significantly higher in CobraPLA™ group (28 ± 6.8 cm H2O) compared to the flexible LMA™ group (19.9 ± 4.5 cm H2O) (P < 0.001). Higher surgeon dissatisfaction (65.9%) was seen in the CobraPLA™ group.
The high incidence of device displacement and surgeon dissatisfaction make CobraPLA™ a less favorable option than flexible LMA™ in ophthalmic surgery.
Airway complication; CobraPLA™; flexible laryngeal mask airway; pediatric ophthalmic surgery
The relatively recently developed I-gel (Intersurgical Ltd., Workingham, England) is a supraglottic airway device designed for single-use that, unlike conventional LMAs, does not require an inflatable cuff. In addition, the I-gel, much like the Proseal LMA (PLMA), has a gastric drainage tube associated with an upper tube for decompression of the stomach, thereby avoiding acid reflux and decreasing the risk of pulmonary absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare PLMA and I-gel devices in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy based on sealing pressure before and during pneumoperitoneum, insertion time, and gas exchange.
Following Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, 30 adult patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups (the PLMA or I-gel group). In each case, insertion time and number of attempts were recorded. After successful insertion, airway leak pressure was measured.
Successful insertion and mechanical ventilation with both supraglottic airway devices was achieved on the first attempt in all 30 patients, and there were no significant differences with respect to insertion time. Likewise, leak pressure did not vary significantly either between or within groups after CO2 insufflation. In addition, differences between leak volume and leak fraction between groups were not significant.
The results of our study indicate that the I-gel is a reasonable alternative to the PLMA for controlled ventilation during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.
The newest variation of i-gel is its pediatric version. This novel supraglottic airway device has the added advantage of a drain tube. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of size 2.5 i-gel with size 2.5 ProSeal LMA.
This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2.5 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty ASA grade I – II patients undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective study and were randomly assigned to the i-gel and PLMA groups (30 patients in each group). A size 2.5 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed the ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, and postoperative complications.
There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data, success rates for the first attempt of insertion, or postoperative airway morbidity among the two groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.12 ± 1.69 cm H2O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.75 ± 1.46 cm H2O).
Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable between the i-gel and PLMA, but the nairway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.
I-gel; Pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
To compare insertion characteristics of 2 different supraglottic devices [I-gel and Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA)] and to observe any associated complications.
This prospective, randomized study was conducted in 80 patients [Group I - I-gel insertion (n = 40) and Group P - LMA Proseal insertion (n =40)] of ASA grades I/II, of either sex in the age group 18-65 years. Both groups were compared with respect to ease of insertion, insertion attempts, fiberoptic assessment, airway sealing pressure, ease of gastric tube placement, and other complications.
Materials and Methods:
All patients were asked to fast overnight. Patients were given alprazolam 0.25 mg orally at 10 p.m. the night before surgery and again 2 hours prior to surgery with 1-2 sips of water. Glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, and ranitidine 50 mg were administered intravenously to the patients 45 minutes prior to the surgery. Once adequate depth of anesthesia was achieved either of the 2 devices, selected using a random computerized table, was inserted by an experienced anesthesiologist. In group I, I-gel was inserted and in patients of group P, PLMA was inserted.
Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test were employed to compare the means; for categorical variables, Chi-square test was used.
Mean insertion time for the I-gel (11.12 ± 1.814 sec) was significantly lower than that of the PLMA (15.13 ± 2.91 sec) (P = 0.001). I-gel was easier to insert with a better anatomic fit. Mean airway sealing pressure in the PLMA group (29.55 ± 3.53 cm H2O) was significantly higher than in the I-gel group (26.73 ± 2.52 cm H2O; P = 0.001). Ease of gastric tube insertion was significantly higher in the I-gel group (P = 0.001). Incidence of blood staining of the device, sore throat and dysphagia were observed more in PLMA group. No other complications were observed in either of the groups.
Airway sealing; cuff pressure; fiberoptic; I-gel; insertion; leak; proseal laryngeal mask airway
Though fiberoptic intubation (FOI) is considered the gold standard for securing a difficult airway in a child, it may be technically difficult in an anesthetized child. The hypothesis for this study was that it would be easier to perform FOI via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) than a modified oropharyngeal airway with the advantage of maintaining anesthesia and oxygenation during the process.
Materials and Methods:
30 children aged 6 months to 5 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to two groups to have fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation either via a modified Guedel airway (FOB-ORAL) or a classic LMA (FOB-LMA). In the FOB-LMA group, the LMA was removed when a second smaller endotracheal tube was anchored to the proximal end of the tracheal tube in place.
Oral fiberoptic intubation was successful in all children. The first attempt success rate was 11/15 (73.33%) in the FOB-LMA group and 3/15 (20%) in the FOB-ORAL group (P = 0.012). Subsequent attempts at intubation were successful after 90° anticlockwise rotation of the endotracheal tube over the FOB. The time taken for fiberoptic bronchoscopy was significantly less in FOB-LMA group (59.20 ± 42.85 sec vs 108.66 ± 52.43 sec). The incidence of desaturation was higher in the FOB-ORAL group (6/15 vs 0/15).
In children, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and intubation via an LMA has the advantage of being easier, with shorter intubation time and continuous oxygenation and ventilation throughout the procedure. Removal of the LMA following intubation requires particular care.
Difficult; equipment; fiberoptic bronchoscope; intubation; laryngeal mask airway; modified oropharyngeal Guedel airway; tracheal
The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version.
This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children.
Settings and design:
A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Ninety ASA grade I–II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications.
There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH2O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH2O) and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups.
Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.
Classic laryngeal mask airway; i-gel; pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
The objective of the study was to compare the performance of i-gel supraglottic airway with cLMA in difficult airway management in post burn neck contracture patients and assess the feasibility of i-gel use for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening.
Prospective, crossover, randomized controlled trial was performed amongst forty eight post burn neck contracture patients with limited mouth opening and neck movement. i-gel and cLMA were placed in random order in each patient. Primary outcome was overall success rate. Other measurements were time to successful ventilation, airway leak pressure, fiberoptic glottic view, visualization of square wave pattern.
Success rate for the i-gel was 91.7% versus 79.2% for the cLMA. i-gel required shorter insertion time (19.3 seconds vs. 23.5 seconds, P=0.000). Airway leak pressure difference was statistically significant (i-gel 21.2 cm H20; cLMA 16.9 cm H20; P=0.00). Fiberoptic view through the i-gel showed there were less epiglottic downfolding and better fiberoptic view of the glottis than cLMA. Overall agreement in insertion outcome for i-gel was 22/24 (91.7%) successes and 2/24(8.3%) failure and for cLMA, 19/24 (79.16%) successes and 5/24 (16.7%) failure in the first attempt.
The i-gel is cheap, effective airway device which is easier to insert and has better clinical performance in the difficult airway management of the airway in the post burn contracture of the neck. Our study shows that i-gel is feasible for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening in post burn neck.
cLMA; difficult airway management; i-gel; post burn neck contracture
Bystander resuscitation plays an important role in lifesaving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A significant reduction in the "no-flow-time", quantitatively better chest compressions and an improved quality of ventilation can be demonstrated during CPR using supraglottic airway devices (SADs). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of inexperienced persons to operate SADs after brief instruction. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether an instruction manual consisting of four diagrams enables laypersons to operate a Laryngeal Mask Supreme® (LMAS) in the manikin.
An instruction manual of four illustrations with speech bubbles displaying the correct use of the LMAS was designed. Laypersons were handed a bag containing a LMAS, a bag mask valve device (BMV), a syringe prefilled with air and the instruction sheet, and were asked to perform and ventilate the manikin as displayed. Time to ventilation was recorded and degree of success evaluated.
A total of 150 laypersons took part. Overall 145 participants (96.7%) inserted the LMAS in the manikin in the right direction. The device was inserted inverted or twisted in 13 (8.7%) attempts. Eight (5.3%) individuals recognized this and corrected the position. Within the first 2 minutes 119 (79.3%) applicants were able to insert the LMAS and provide tidal volumes greater than 150 ml (estimated dead space). Time to insertion and first ventilation was 83.2 ± 29 s. No significant difference related to previous BLS training (P = 0.85), technical education (P = 0.07) or gender could be demonstrated (P = 0.25).
In manikin laypersons could insert LMAS in the correct direction after onsite instruction by a simple manual with a high success rate. This indicates some basic procedural understanding and intellectual transfer in principle. Operating errors (n = 91) were frequently not recognized and corrected (n = 77). Improvements in labeling and the quality of instructional photographs may reduce individual error and may optimize understanding.
Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is increasingly being used in children as it is less invasive compared to endotracheal intubation and causes less discomfort in the postoperative period. However, some concerns remained about its safety during positive pressure ventilation in children.
In a prospective randomized trial, 100 ASA I and II children weighing between 10-20 kg in the range of 2-10 years of age, scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to one of the two groups of 50 patients each. The efficacy of LMA in children during positive pressure ventilation, its haemodynamic changes and postoperative complications were compared to endotracheal intubation. Insertion of LMA was easier in 94% patients while endotracheal intubation was done easily in 53% of patients only (p<0.05). The changes in haemodynamic parameters were significantly higher after endotracheal intubation as compared to LMA placement. Furthermore these changes persisted for longer duration after endotracheal intubation in comparison to LMA insertion (5 min vs 3 min). Incidence of postoperative complications i.e. bronchospasm, laryngospasm and soft tissue trauma was significantly higher (p<0.05) after endotracheal intubation as compared to LMA insertion.
To conclude, the laryngeal mask airway is a suitable alternative to endotracheal intubation for positive pressure ventilation in children.
Laryngeal mask airway; Endotracheal intubation; Children
The cuff of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is preferred to be partially inflated before insertion in pediatric cases. However, it is not known how much inflation is appropriate. In addition, intra-cuff pressure is not routinely monitored in many institutions despite the fact that a neglected high cuff pressure could cause several complications. This study was conducted to determine whether the cuff inflated with its resting volume before insertion could have a clinically tolerable intra-cuff pressure after insertion.
One hundred fifty unpremedicated children aged 0 to 9 yrs were enrolled. The pilot balloon valve was connected to a piston-free syringe to keep the valve open to the atmosphere and allowing the pressure within the cuff of to LMA to equalize to atmospheric pressure. Anesthesia was induced with 6 vol% of sevoflurane in oxygen. After insertion and final positioning of the LMA, the intra-cuff pressure was measured using a cuff pressure manometer.
The mean intra-cuff pressure was 50 ± 12.9 cmH2O; intra-cuff pressures were 39.1 ± 9.3, 51.6 ± 11.2, and 64.6 ± 12.5 cmH2O for LMAs of sizes 1.5, 2, and 2.5, respectively. Intra-cuff pressure of more than 60 cmH2O was measured in 26 patients, and the median value was 70 cmH2O. There was weak statistical correlation among age, height, and weight with intra-cuff pressure.
The cuff inflated by the resting volume before insertion may be a simple method for guaranteeing tolerable cuff pressure after insertion.
Children; Intra-cuff pressure; Laryngeal mask airway; Resting volume
Helicopters and light (unpressurised) aircraft are used increasingly for the transport of ventilated patients. Most of these patients are ventilated through endotracheal tubes (ETTs), others through laryngeal mask airways (LMAs). The cuffs of both ETTs and LMAs inflate with increases in altitude as barometric pressure decreases (30 mbar/1000 feet).
Tracheal mucosa perfusion becomes compromised at a pressure of approximately 30 cm H2O; critical perfusion pressure is 50 cm H2O.
The change in dimensions of the inflated cuffs of a size 8 ETT and a size 5 LMA were measured with digital callipers at 1000 feet intervals in the unpressurised cabin of an Agusta 109 helicopter used by the Warwickshire and Northamptonshire Air Ambulance.
A linear expansion in cuff dimensions as a function of altitude increase was identified. For ETTs, a formula for removal of air from the cuff with increasing altitude was calculated and is recommended for use in aeromedical transfers. This is 1/17×1.1 = 0.06 ml/1000 foot ascent/ml initial cuff inflation.
The data for LMA cuff expansion failed to show significant correlation with altitude change. Further work is required to determine a similar rule of thumb for LMA cuff deflation.
Laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) are often used as airway rescue devices where laryngoscopy is difficult. The LMA does not protect the airway and is preferably replaced with a cuffed endotracheal tube. There are reports of cases where an Eschmann tracheal tube introducer (ETTI) was successfully used to bridge between a standard LMA and an endotracheal tube. This project was designed to determine whether an Eschmann stylet can reliably be passed through an LMA into the trachea as a means of rescue intubation.
Nineteen emergency medicine residents and attending physicians, who were participants in a cadaveric airway course, placed and inflated a size 4 LMA (The Laryngeal Mask Company Ltd., San Diego, CA) on each of six unembalmed human cadavers in the usual fashion. They then attempted to pass a lubricated, 15 Fr, reusable, coude-tipped ETTI (Portex, Smiths Medical, Keene, NH)) through the airspace/handle of the inflated LMA. The LMA was then deflated and removed while the ETTI was held in place. Investigators then determined the location of the ETTI by laryngoscopy.
Of 114 attempts at the rescue procedure, 59 resulted in placement of the bougie into the trachea, yielding an overall success rate of 52% (95% CI 48%–56%). There were no significant differences in performance based on level of training of residents or years of experience of attending physicians.
While not a primary difficult airway option, the use of a ETTI as a bridge device between LMA and endotracheal tube was successful about 50% of the time.
Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children.
Difficult airway; laryngeal mask airway; paediatric airway; proseal laryngeal mask airway; supraglottic airways
Low flow anesthesia can lead to reduction of anesthetic gas and vapor consumption. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has proved to be an effective and safe airway device. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation using low fresh gas flow (1.0 L/min) as compared to endotracheal tube (ETT).
Patients and Methods
Fifty nine non-smoking adult patients; ASA I or II, being scheduled for elective surgical procedures, with an expected duration of anesthesia 60 minutes or more, were randomly allocated into two groups - Group I (29 patients) had been ventilated using LMA size 4 for females and 5 for males respectively; and Group II (30 patients) were intubated using ETT. After 10 minutes of high fresh gas flow, the flow was reduced to 1 L/min. Patients were monitored for airway leakage, end-tidal CO2(ETCO2), inspiratory and expiratory isoflurane and nitrous oxide fraction concentrations, and postoperative airway-related complications.
Two patients in the LMA-group developed initial airway leakage (6.9%) versus no patient in ETT-group. Cough and sore throat were significantly higher in ETT patients. There were no evidences of differences between both groups regarding ETCO2, uptake of gases, nor difficulty in swallowing.
The laryngeal mask airway proved to be effective and safe in establishing an airtight seal during controlled ventilation under low fresh gas flow of 1 L/min, inducing less coughing and sore throat during the immediate postoperative period than did the ETT, with continuous measurement and readjustment of the tube cuff pressure.
Endotracheal intubation; laryngeal mask airway; low flow anesthesia
Supraglottic airway devices have frequently been shown to facilitate airway management and are implemented in the ILCOR resuscitation algorithm. Limited data exists concerning laypersons without any medical or paramedical background. We hypothesized that even laymen would be able to operate supraglottic airway devices after a brief training session.
Four different supraglottic airway devices: Laryngeal Mask Classic (LMA), Laryngeal Tube (LT), Intubating Laryngeal Mask (FT) and CobraPLA (Cobra) were tested in 141 volunteers recruited in a technical university cafeteria and in a shopping mall. All volunteers received a brief standardized training session. Primary endpoint was the time required to definitive insertion. In a short questionnaire applicants were asked to assess the devices and to answer some general questions about BLS.
The longest time to insertion was observed for Cobra (31.9 ± 27.9 s, range: 9-120, p < 0.0001; all means ± standard deviation). There was no significant difference between the insertion times of the other three devices. Fewest insertion attempts were needed for the FT (1.07 ± 0.26), followed by the LMA (1.23 ± 0.52, p > 0.05), the LT (1.36 ± 0.61, p < 0.05) and the Cobra (1.45 ± 0.7, p < 0.0001). Ventilation was achieved on the first attempt significantly more often with the FT (p < 0.001) compared to the other devices. Nearly 90% of the participants were in favor of implementing supraglottic airway devices in first aid algorithms and classes.
Laypersons are able to operate supraglottic airway devices in manikin with minimal instruction. Ventilation was achieved with all devices tested after a reasonable time and with a high success rate of > 95%. The use of supraglottic airway devices in first aid and BLS algorithms should be considered.
Background and objectives
This study aims to compare the frequency of ideal anatomic placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) using the traditional blind insertion approach with one where placement was facilitated by the use of a laryngoscope. Laryngeal Mask Airway is a supraglottic device in providing general anaesthesia.
A prospective comparison of 60 patients divided into 2 groups (30 with the blind technique and 30 with the direct technique) were evaluated with 2 airway assessment methods, Wilson and Mallampati. We also considered whether there was a relationship between these criteria and the successful placement into an ideal position. Other variables were considered, including hemodynamics. Five placement visual ordinals were used to grade the LMA position.
There was no statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P=0.279) in terms of Campbell category. There was no statistically significant relation between Wilson airway score or Mallampati class and Campbell category (p=0.633 and 0.239 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP at 1, 2 and 5 min post insertion between the two groups, but there was a statistically significant difference in 1 and 2 minute post insertion pulse rate (P=0.004).
Blind insertion technique is easier and simpler method for insertion of LMA and has a reasonable success during insertion, so it is recommended to be used.
Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA); Blind insertion; Laryngoscopy; Fiberoptic bronchoscopy; Hemodynamics
To study the feasibility of using the pro-seal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance during bronchoscopic-guided percutaneous tracheostomy.
Materials and Methods:
Observational study of 60 patients in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patient’s tracheal tube was exchanged for a pro-seal LMA before undertaking percutaneous tracheostomy.
Inspiratory pressure and tidal volumes achieved during the procedure were recorded. The median peak inspiratory pressure was 25 (standard deviation 4.4) cm H2O. There was no loss of tidal volume in 30 patients, a loss of less than 100 mL/breath in 27, and loss of more than 100 mL in 3 patients. A pro-seal LMA successfully maintained the airway and allowed adequate ventilation during per-cutaneous tracheostomy in all 60 patients. In all patients, fiber optic bronchoscopy through the pro-seal LMA provided a clear view of the cords and trachea and there was no laryngeal or tracheal soiling at any stage of the procedure.
The pro-seal LMA provides a reliable airway and allows effective ventilation during percutaneous tracheostomy. The passage of a fiberscope through the pro-seal LMA and glottis is easy and provides a clear view of the upper trachea.
Laryngeal mask airway; percutaneous tracheostomy; pro-seal laryngeal mask airway
Supraglottic airway devices (SADs), such as ProSealTM laryngeal mask airway (PLMA), which produce high oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP) and have the facility for gastric decompression have been used in laparoscopic procedures. i-gel is a new SAD which shares these features with the PLMA. This study was designed to compare the respiratory mechanics of these two devices during positive pressure ventilation in anaesthetised adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Patients & Methods:
The study included 60 ASA I-II adult patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomized to two groups of 30 each, with either PLMA or i-gel as their airway device. Anaesthesia and premedication were standardized for both the groups. In addition to routine monitoring, neuromuscular monitoring with TOF ratio, OSP and respiratory mechanics monitoring (dynamic compliance, resistance, work of breathing, measured minute ventilation and peak airway pressures) were employed. Fibreoptic evaluation of positioning of the devices and adverse events related to them were also compared.
The OSP (cm H2O) were higher for PLMA (38.9 vs. 35.6, P=0.007). The respiratory mechanics parameters using the two devices were comparable apart from the dynamic compliance, which was significantly higher with i-gel (P < 0.05). Malrotation was higher with i-gel than with PLMA (15 vs. 5, P = 0.006).
The PLMA formed a better seal while the dynamic compliance was higher with the i-gel. Both devices provided optimal ventilation and oxygenation and the adverse events were also comparable.
ProSealTM LMA; I-gel; Equipment; Masks anaesthesia; Respiratory mechanics; Laparoscopy; Ventilation
Submental endotracheal intubation is a simple and secure alternative to either nasoendotracheal intubation or a tracheostomy in the airway management of maxillofacial trauma. However, a submental endotracheal intubation is quite difficult to manage if adverse events such as a tube obstruction, accidental extubation, or a leaking cuff with the endotracheal tube in the submental route occur, which could endanger the patient. This paper describes the use of a LMA-Fastrach™ETT in the submental endotracheal intubation of patients suffering from maxillofacial trauma. One of the patients was a 16-year-old male, and the other was a 19-year-old male. They were scheduled for an open reduction and internal fixation of the maxillofacial fracture including naso-orbital-ethmoidal (NOE) complex, and a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A submental intubation with a LMA-Fastrach™ETT was performed in both cases, and the operation proceeded without any difficulties. These cases show that the use of the LMA-Fastrach™ETT can improve the safety and efficacy of submental endotracheal intubation. This is because the LMA-Fastrach™ETT has a freely detachable connector, and is flexible enough to keep the patency despite the acute angle of airway.
LMA-Fastrach™ETT; maxillofacial trauma; submental intubation
The standard recommended insertion technique for LMA Classic™ requires the insertion of index finger into the oral cavity. Several anesthesiologists are reluctant to do this. We conducted this study to evaluate the modified technique of insertion of LMA Classic™ (not requiring insertion of fingers into the patient's mouth) against the standard index finger insertion technique.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective, randomized, comparative study was conducted on 200 consenting patients. Patients suitable for anesthetic with LMA Classic™ were randomized to standard technique group (standard insertion technique) and modified technique group (technique not requiring digital intraoral manipulation). Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted by five designated anesthesiologists. Anesthetic protocol was standardized. Time taken to achieve an effective airway, ease of insertion, glottic view obtained through LMA, and incidence of sore throat were assessed.
Patient characteristics and duration of surgery were comparable between the groups. Time to achieve an effective airway was comparable [18.5 (8) s with standard technique and 19.7 (10) s with modified technique; data are mean (standard deviation)]. Ease of insertion (92 easy with standard technique and 91 easy with modified technique), success rate (99% in both the groups), glottic view with fiberoptic bronchoscope, and sore throat incidence (six patients with standard technique and eight patients with modified technique) were comparable. The first attempt success rate was significantly higher with the standard technique (98 patients in the standard technique group and 91 patients in the modified technique group).
LMA Classic™ can be inserted successfully without the need to insert index finger into patient's mouth, though the first attempt success rate is higher with the standard technique.
Insertion technique; LMA Classic™ Supraglottic device
We performed a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial comparing the air-Q® against the LMA-ProSeal™ in adults undergoing general anaesthesia. One hundred subjects (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1–3) presenting for elective, outpatient surgery were randomly assigned to 52 air-Q® and 48 ProSeal devices. The primary study endpoint was airway seal pressure. Oropharyngolaryngeal morbidity was assessed secondarily. Mean (SD) airway seal pressures for the air-Q® and ProSeal were 30 (7) cmH2O and 30 (6) cmH2O, respectively (p = 0.47). Postoperative sore throat was more common with the air-Q® (46% vs 38%, p = 0.03) as was pain on swallowing (30% vs 5%, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the air-Q® performs well as a primary airway during the maintenance of general anaesthesia with an airway seal pressure similar to that of the ProSeal, but with a higher incidence of postoperative oropharyngolaryngeal complaints.
Several publications have reported the successful, safe use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic devices in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. However, there have been no studies that have examined the application of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) or pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a LMA during gynecological laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to compare how the VCV and PCV modes and using a LMA affect the pulmonary mechanics, the gas exchange and the cardiovascular responses in patients who are undergoing gynecological laparoscopy.
Sixty female patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups, (the VCV or PCV groups). In the VCV group, baseline ventilation of the lung was performed with volume-controlled ventilation and a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg ideal body weight (IBW). In the PCV group, baseline ventilation of the lung using pressure-controlled ventilation was initiated with a peak airway pressure that provided a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg IBW and an upper limit of 35 cmH2O. The end-tidal CO2, the peak airway pressures (Ppeak), the compliance, the airway resistance and the arterial oxygen saturation were recorded at T1: 5 minutes after insertion of the laryngeal airway, and at T2 and T3: 5 and 15 minutes, respectively, after CO2 insufflation.
The Ppeak at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after CO2 insufflation were significantly increased compared to the baseline values in both groups. Also, at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after CO2 insufflation, there were significant differences of the Ppeak between the two groups. The compliance decreased in both groups after creating the pneumopertoneim (P < 0.05).
Our results demonstrate that PCV may be an effective method of ventilation during gynecological laparoscopy, and it ensures oxygenation while minimizing the increases of the peak airway pressure after CO2 insufflation.
Lapraroscopic surgery; LMA; Pressure-controlled ventilation; Volume-controlled ventilation