Natural Killer (NK) cells and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are critical for the immune response against virus infections or transformed cells. They kill target cells via polarized exocytosis of lytic proteins from secretory lysosomes (SL). Rab27a and munc13-4 interact directly and are required for target cell killing. How they cooperate in the intricate degranulation process is not known. We identified critical residues in munc13-4 for rab27 interaction and tested binding mutants in several complementation assays. In a rat mast cell line we replaced endogenous munc13-4 with ectopically expressed munc13-4 constructs. Unlike wild type munc13-4, binding mutants fail to rescue β-hexosaminidase secretion. In accord, expression of binding mutants in CTL of Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis type 3 patients, does not rescue CD107 appearance on the plasma membrane. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) imaging shows that munc13-4*rab27a restricts motility of SL in the subapical cytoplasm. We propose that rab27*munc13-4 tethers SL to the plasma membrane, a requirement for formation of a cognate SNARE complex for fusion.
cytotoxic T cell; Degranulation; mast cell; munc13-4; rab27; secretory lysosomes; tethering
Munc13-4 is a Ca2+-dependent membrane- and SNARE-binding protein that promotes membrane fusion.
Munc13-4 is a widely expressed member of the CAPS/Munc13 protein family proposed to function in priming secretory granules for exocytosis. Munc13-4 contains N- and C-terminal C2 domains (C2A and C2B) predicted to bind Ca2+, but Ca2+-dependent regulation of Munc13-4 activity has not been described. The C2 domains bracket a predicted SNARE-binding domain, but whether Munc13-4 interacts with SNARE proteins is unknown. We report that Munc13-4 bound Ca2+ and restored Ca2+-dependent granule exocytosis to permeable cells (platelets, mast, and neuroendocrine cells) dependent on putative Ca2+-binding residues in C2A and C2B. Munc13-4 exhibited Ca2+-stimulated SNARE interactions dependent on C2A and Ca2+-dependent membrane binding dependent on C2B. In an apparent coupling of membrane and SNARE binding, Munc13-4 stimulated SNARE-dependent liposome fusion dependent on putative Ca2+-binding residues in both C2A and C2B domains. Munc13-4 is the first priming factor shown to promote Ca2+-dependent SNARE complex formation and SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. These properties of Munc13-4 suggest its function as a Ca2+ sensor at rate-limiting priming steps in granule exocytosis.
Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is a genetic disorder in which patients exhibit life-threatening defects of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) whose lytic granules fail to dock on the plasma membrane and therefore do not release their contents. The disease is caused by the absence of functional rab27a, but how rab27a controls secretion of lytic granule contents remains elusive. Mutations in Munc13-4 cause familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis subtype 3 (FHL3), a disease phenotypically related to GS2. We show that Munc13-4 is a direct partner of rab27a. The two proteins are highly expressed in CTLs and mast cells where they colocalize on secretory lysosomes. The region comprising the Munc13 homology domains is essential for the localization of Munc13-4 to secretory lysosomes. The GS2 mutant rab27aW73G strongly reduced binding to Munc13-4, whereas the FHL3 mutant Munc13-4Δ608-611 failed to bind rab27a. Overexpression of Munc13-4 enhanced degranulation of secretory lysosomes in mast cells, showing that it has a positive regulatory role in secretory lysosome fusion. We suggest that the secretion defects seen in GS2 and FHL3 have a common origin, and we propose that the rab27a/Munc13-4 complex is an essential regulator of secretory granule fusion with the plasma membrane in hematopoietic cells. Mutations in either of the two genes prevent formation of this complex and abolish secretion.
Although Munc18-1 was originally identified as a syntaxin1–interacting protein, the physiological significance of this interaction remains unclear. In fact, recent studies of Munc18-1 mutants have suggested that Munc18-1 plays a critical role for docking of secretory vesicles, independent of syntaxin1 regulation. Here we investigated the role of Munc18-1 in syntaxin1 localization by generating stable neuroendocrine cell lines in which Munc18-1 was strongly down-regulated. In these cells, the secretion capability, as well as the docking of dense-core vesicles, was significantly reduced. More importantly, not only was the expression level of syntaxin1 reduced, but the localization of syntaxin1 at the plasma membrane was also severely perturbed. The mislocalized syntaxin1 resided primarily in the perinuclear region of the cells, in which it was highly colocalized with Secretogranin II, a marker protein for dense-core vesicles. In contrast, the expression level and the plasma membrane localization of SNAP-25 were not affected. Furthermore, the syntaxin1 localization and the secretion capability were restored upon transfection-mediated reintroduction of Munc18-1. Our results indicate that endogenous Munc18-1 plays a critical role for the plasma membrane localization of syntaxin1 in neuroendocrine cells and therefore necessitates the interpretation of Munc18-1 mutant phenotypes to be in terms of mislocalized syntaxin1.
Background information. During development, growth cones of outgrowing neurons express proteins involved in vesicular secretion, such as SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor) proteins, Munc13 and Munc18. Vesicles are known to fuse in growth cones prior to synapse formation, which may contribute to outgrowth.
Results. We tested this possibility in dissociated cell cultures and organotypic slice cultures of two release-deficient mice (Munc18-1 null and Munc13-1/2 double null). Both types of release-deficient neurons have a decreased outgrowth speed and therefore have a smaller total neurite length during early development [DIV1–4 (day in vitro 1–4)]. In addition, more filopodia per growth cone were observed in Munc18-1 null, but not WT (wild-type) or Munc13-1/2 double null neurons. The smaller total neurite length during early development was no longer observed after synaptogenesis (DIV14–23).
Conclusion. These data suggest that the inability of vesicle fusion in the growth cone affects outgrowth during the initial phases when outgrowth speed is high, but not during/after synaptogenesis. Overall, the outgrowth speed is probably not rate-limiting during neuronal network formation, at least in vitro. In addition, Munc18, but not Munc13, regulates growth cone filopodia, potentially via its previously observed effect on filamentous actin.
development; growth cone; Munc18; neurite outgrowth; organotypic cultures; vesicle release; AA, arachidonic acid; Arp2/3 complex, actin-related protein 2/3 complex; CDC42, cell division cycle 42; dGBSS, dissection Gey's balanced salt solution; DIV, day in vitro; E18, embryonic day 18; EGFP, enhanced green fluorescent protein; HBSS, Hanks balanced salt solution; M13, Munc13-1 and Munc13-2; M18, Munc18-1; MAP2, microtubuleassociated protein 2; NA, numerical aperture; PFA, paraformaldehyde; PLA, phospholipase A2; SNARE, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor; WT, wild-type
The role of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)- and SNARE-associated proteins have not yet been assessed in regulation of cardiac glucose uptake, nor in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake in any tissue. Munc18c is a SNARE-associated protein that regulates GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Using cardiomyocytes from Munc18c−/+ mice (with 56% reduction of Munc18c protein expression), we investigated whether this syntaxin4-associated protein is involved in regulation of cardiac substrate uptake. Basal, insulin- and oligomycin (a 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase-activating agent)-stimulated glucose and LCFA uptake were not altered significantly in Munc18c−/+ cardiomyocytes compared to wild-type cells. We conclude, therefore, that Munc18c is not rate-limiting for cardiac substrate uptake, neither under basal conditions nor when maximally stimulated metabolically.
Munc18c; Long-chain fatty acid uptake; Glucose uptake; Cardiomyocytes
The Sec1/Munc18 protein Munc18c has been implicated in Syntaxin 4–mediated exocytosis events, although its purpose in exocytosis has remained elusive. Given that Syntaxin 4 functions in the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), we hypothesized that Munc18c would also be required and sought insight into the possible mechanism(s) using the islet β-cell as a model system.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Perifusion analyses of isolated Munc18c- (−/+) or Munc18c-depleted (RNAi) mouse islets were used to assess biphasic secretion. Protein interaction studies used subcellular fractions and detergent lysates prepared from MIN6 β-cells to determine the mechanistic role of Munc18c in Syntaxin 4 activation and docking/fusion of vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)2-containing insulin granules. Electron microscopy was used to gauge changes in granule localization.
Munc18c (−/+) islets secreted ∼60% less insulin selectively during second-phase GSIS; RNAi-mediated Munc18c depletion functionally recapitulated this in wild-type and Munc18c (−/+) islets in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Munc18c depletion ablated the glucose-stimulated VAMP2–Syntaxin 4 association as well as Syntaxin 4 activation, correlating with the deficit in insulin release. Remarkably, Munc18c depletion resulted in aberrant granule localization to the plasma membrane in response to glucose stimulation, consistent with its selective effect on the second phase of secretion.
Collectively, these studies demonstrate an essential positive role for Munc18c in second-phase GSIS and suggest novel roles for Munc18c in granule localization to the plasma membrane as well as in triggering Syntaxin 4 accessibility to VAMP2 at a step preceding vesicle docking/fusion.
Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.
mast cell; exocytosis; SNARE proteins
Mast cells play a central role in both innate and acquired immunity. When activated by IgE-dependent FcεRI cross-linking, mast cells rapidly initiate a signaling cascade and undergo an extensive release of their granule contents, including inflammatory mediators. Some SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and SM (Sec1/Munc18) family proteins are involved in mast cell degranulation. However, the function of syntaxin binding protein 1 (STXBP1), a member of SM family, in mast cell degranulation is currently unknown. In this study, we examined the role of STXBP1 in IgE-dependent mast cell activation. Liver-derived mast cells (LMCs) from wild-type and STXBP1-deficient mice were cultured in vitro for the study of mast cell maturation, degranulation, cytokine and chemokine production, as well as MAPK, IκB-NFκB, and NFAT signaling pathways. In addition, in vivo models of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and late-phase IgE-dependent inflammation were conducted in mast cell deficient Wsh mice that had been reconstituted with wild-type or STXBP1-deficient mast cells. Our findings indicate that STXBP1 is not required for any of these important functional mechanisms in mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that STXBP1 is dispensable during IgE-mediated mast cell activation and in IgE-dependent allergic inflammatory reactions.
Bronchial asthma, the most prevalent cause of significant respiratory morbidity in the developed world, typically is a chronic disorder associated with long-term changes in the airways. We developed a mouse model of chronic asthma that results in markedly increased numbers of airway mast cells, enhanced airway responses to methacholine or antigen, chronic inflammation including infiltration with eosinophils and lymphocytes, airway epithelial goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced expression of the mucin genes Muc5ac and Muc5b, and increased levels of lung collagen. Using mast cell–deficient (KitW-sh/W-sh and/or KitW/W-v) mice engrafted with FcRγ+/+ or FcRγ–/– mast cells, we found that mast cells were required for the full development of each of these features of the model. However, some features also were expressed, although usually at less than wild-type levels, in mice whose mast cells lacked FcRγ and therefore could not be activated by either antigen- and IgE-dependent aggregation of FcεRI or the binding of antigen-IgG1 immune complexes to FcγRIII. These findings demonstrate that mast cells can contribute to the development of multiple features of chronic asthma in mice and identify both FcRγ-dependent and FcRγ-independent pathways of mast cell activation as important for the expression of key features of this asthma model.
Mucus secretions have played a central role in the evolution of multicellular organisms, enabling adaptation to widely differing environments. In vertebrates, mucus covers and protects the epithelial cells in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, visual, and auditory systems, amphibian's epidermis, and the gills in fishes. Deregulation of mucus production and/or composition has important consequences for human health. For example, mucus obstruction of small airways is observed in chronic airway diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. The major protein component in the mucus is a family of large, disulfide-bonded glycoproteins known as gel-forming mucins. These proteins are accumulated in large, regulated secretory granules (the mucin granules) that occupy most of the apical cytoplasm of specialized cells known as mucous/goblet cells. Since mucin oligomers have contour dimensions larger than the mucin granule average diameter, the question arises how these highly hydrophilic macromolecules are organized within these organelles. I review here the intraluminal organization of the mucin granule in view of our knowledge on the structure, biosynthesis, and biophysical properties of gel-forming mucins, and novel imaging studies in living mucous/goblet cells. The emerging concept is that the mucin granule lumen comprises a partially condensed matrix meshwork embedded in a fluid phase where proteins slowly diffuse.
granule matrix; mucin granules; mucins; secretory granules; secretion
Mammalian-regulated secretion is absolutely dependent on four evolutionarily conserved proteins: three SNARE proteins and munc18. Dissecting the functional outcomes of the spatially organized protein interactions between these factors has been difficult because of the close interrelationship between different binding modes. Here, we investigated the spatial distribution of single munc18 molecules at the plasma membrane of cells and the underlying interactions between syntaxin and munc18. Disruption of munc18 binding to the N-terminal peptide motif of syntaxin did not alter munc18 localization on the plasma membrane but had a pronounced influence on the behavior of secretory vesicles and their likelihood to undergo fusion. We therefore conclude that interaction with the syntaxin N-peptide can confer differential release probabilities to secretory vesicles and may contribute to the delineation of secretory vesicle pools.
Exocytosis; Membrane Biophysics; Membrane Trafficking; Secretion; Vesicles
Munc18-1 binds to syntaxin-1A via two distinct sites referred to as the “closed” conformation and N terminus binding. The latter has been shown to stimulate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-mediated exocytosis, whereas the former is believed to be inhibitory or dispensable. To precisely define the contributions of each binding mode, we have engineered Munc18-1/-2 double knockdown neurosecretory cells and show that not only syntaxin-1A and -1B but also syntaxin-2 and -3 are significantly reduced as a result of Munc18-1 and -2 knockdown. Syntaxin-1 was mislocalized and the regulated secretion was abolished. We next examined the abilities of Munc18-1 mutants to rescue the defective phenotypes. Mutation (K46E/E59K) of Munc18-1 that selectively prevents binding to closed syntaxin-1 was unable to restore syntaxin-1 expression, localization, or secretion. In contrast, mutations (F115E/E132A) of Munc18-1 that selectively impair binding to the syntaxin-1 N terminus could still rescue the defective phenotypes. Our results indicate that Munc18-1 and -2 act in concert to support the expression of a broad range of syntaxins and to deliver syntaxin-1 to the plasma membrane. Our studies also indicate that the binding to the closed conformation of syntaxin is essential for Munc18-1 stimulatory action, whereas the binding to syntaxin N terminus plays a more limited role in neurosecretory cells.
Exocytosis at the apical surface of pancreatic acinar cells occurs in the presence of physiological concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) but is inhibited at high concentrations. Here we show that Munc18c is localized predominantly to the basal membranes of acinar cells. Supramaximal but not submaximal CCK stimulation caused Munc18c to dissociate from the plasma membrane, and this displacement was blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Conversely, whereas the CCK analog CCK-OPE alone failed to displace Munc18c from the membrane, this agent caused Munc18c displacement following minimal PKC activation. To determine the physiological significance of this displacement, we used the fluorescent dye FM1-43 to visualize individual exocytosis events in real-time from rat acinar cells in culture. We showed that supramaximal CCK inhibition of secretion resulted from impaired apical secretion and a redirection of exocytic events to restricted basal membrane sites. In contrast, CCK-OPE evoked apical exocytosis and could only induce basolateral exocytosis following activation of PKC. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations of CCK in rats, a treatment that induced tissue changes reminiscent of mild acute pancreatitis, likewise resulted in rapid displacement of Munc18c from the basal membrane in vivo.
Syntaxin and Munc18 are essential for regulated exocytosis in all eukaryotes. It was shown that Munc18 inhibition of neuronal syntaxin 1 can be overcome by CDK5 phosphorylation, indicating that structural change disrupts the syntaxin-Munc18 interaction. Here we show that this phosphorylation promotes the assembly of Munc18b-Syntaxin 3-SNAP25 tripartite complex and membrane fusion machinery SNARE. Using siRNAs to screen for genes required for regulated epithelial secretion, we identified the requirements of CDK5 and Munc18b in cAMP-dependent gastric acid secretion. Biochemical characterization revealed that Munc18b bears a syntaxin 3-selective binding site located at its most C-terminal 53 amino acids. Significantly, the phosphorylation of Thr572 by CDK5 attenuates Munc18b-Syntaxin 3 interaction and promotes formation of Munc18b-Syntaxin 3-SNAP25 tripartite complex, leading to an assembly of functional Munc18b-Syntaxin 3-SNAP25-VAMP2 membrane fusion machinery. Thus, our studies suggest a novel regulatory mechanism in which phosphorylation of Munc18b operates vesicle docking and fusion in regulated exocytosis.
SNARE; syntaxin 3; Munc18b; CDK5; exocytosis
In polarized epithelial cells syntaxin 3 is at the apical plasma membrane and is involved in delivery of proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the apical surface. The highly related syntaxin 4 is at the basolateral surface. The complementary distribution of these syntaxins suggests that they play a role in the specificity of membrane traffic to the two surfaces. We constructed a chimeric syntaxin where we removed the N-terminal 29 residues of syntaxin 3 and replaced it with the corresponding portion of syntaxin 4. When expressed in polarized epithelial cells, this chimera was exclusively localized to the basolateral surface. This indicates that the N-terminal domain of syntaxin 3 contains information for its polarized localization. In contrast to the apical localization of syntaxin 3, the basolateral localization of syntaxin 4 was not dependent on its N-terminal domain. Syntaxin 3 normally binds to Munc18b, but not to the related Munc18c. Overexpression of the chimera together with overexpression of Munc18b caused membrane and secretory proteins that are normally sent primarily to the apical surface to exhibit increased delivery to the basolateral surface. We suggest that syntaxins may play a role in determining the specificity of membrane targeting by permitting fusion with only certain target membranes.
In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. We show that syntaxin 3 contains a necessary and sufficient apical targeting signal centered around a conserved FMDE motif. Mutation of any of three critical residues within this motif leads to loss of specific apical targeting. Modeling based on the known structure of syntaxin 1 revealed that these residues are exposed on the surface of a three-helix bundle. Syntaxin 3 targeting does not require binding to Munc18b. Instead, syntaxin 3 recruits Munc18b to the plasma membrane. Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization.
Defects in soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated granule exocytosis occur in islet beta cells, adipocytes, and/or skeletal muscle cells correlate with increased susceptibility to insulin resistance and diabetes. The serine/threonine kinase WNK1 (with no K (lysine)) has recently been implicated in exocytosis and is expressed in all three of these cell types. To search for WNK1 substrates related to exocytosis, we conducted a WNK1 two-hybrid screen, which yielded Munc18c. Munc18c is known to be a key regulator of accessibility of the target membrane (t-SNARE) protein syntaxin 4 to participate in SNARE core complex assembly, although a paucity of Munc18c-binding factors has precluded discovery of its precise functions. To validate WNK1 as a new Munc18c-interacting partner, the direct interaction between WNK1 and Munc18c was confirmed using in vitro binding analysis, and endogenous WNK1-Munc18c complexes were detected in the cytosolic and plasma membrane compartments of the islet beta cell line MIN6. This binding interaction is mediated through the N-terminal 172 residues of Munc18c and the kinase domain residues of WNK1 (residues 159–491). Expression of either of these two minimal interaction domains resulted in inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, consistent with a functional importance for the endogenous WNK1-Munc18c complex in exocytosis. Interestingly, Munc18c failed to serve as a WNK1 substrate in kinase activity assays, suggesting that WNK1 functions in SNARE complex assembly outside its role as a kinase. Taken together, these data support a novel role for WNK1 and a new mechanism for the regulation of SNARE complex assembly by WNK1-Munc18c complexes.
Rationale: The factors that control the secretion of epithelial mucins are essential to understanding obstructive airway diseases such as asthma. Although the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor have been shown to promote many features of allergic lung inflammation, the contribution to mucin expression has not been elucidated.
Objectives: To determine if the C3a receptor with its ligand regulates airway epithelial mucin production.
Methods: Mice deficient in the C3a receptor were examined in a model of allergic airway disease for the presence of goblet cells and the gel-forming secreted mucin Muc5ac.
Measurements and Main Results: Lungs from antigen-challenged C3a receptor–deficient mice revealed a dramatic decrease in goblet cells and Muc5ac compared with challenged wild-type control animals. These differences were dependent on C3a binding to its receptor since intranasal challenge with C3a induced the formation of goblet cells only in wild-type but not C3a receptor–deficient mice. Increased numbers of goblet cells were also found in C3a-stimulated RAG-1–deficient mice demonstrating a mechanism independent of T lymphocytes and Th2 cytokines, mediators which have been shown to regulate mucin expression. A direct physiological role for C3a in these models was further demonstrated in cultures of airway epithelial Clara cells, which not only express the C3a receptor but also produce Muc5ac in response to C3a.
Conclusions: These studies identify a novel C3a receptor–dependent mechanism in the development of airway epithelial goblet cells and regulation of Muc5ac production and implicate C3a as a mediator of airway obstruction in asthma.
T cells; allergy; lung; inflammation
AIM: To examine the molecular mechanism of exocytosis in the Brunner’s gland acinar cell.
METHODS: We used a submucosal preparation of guinea pig duodenal Brunner’s gland acini to visualize the dilation of the ductal lumen in response to cholinergic stimulus. We correlated this to electron microscopy to determine the extent of exocytosis of the mucin-filled vesicles. We then examined the behavior of SNARE and interacting Munc18 proteins by confocal microscopy.
RESULTS: One and 6 μmol/L carbachol evoked a dose-dependent dilation of Brunner’s gland acini lumen, which correlated to the massive exocytosis of mucin. Munc18c and its cognate SNARE proteins Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 were localized to the apical plasma membrane, and upon cholinergic stimulation, Munc18c was displaced into the cytosol leaving Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 intact.
CONCLUSION: Physiologic cholinergic stimulation induces Munc18c displacement from the Brunner’s gland acinar apical plasma membrane, which enables apical membrane Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 to form a SNARE complex with mucin-filled vesicle SNARE proteins to affect exocytosis.
Apical exocytosis; Brunner’s gland acini; Munc18c; Syntaxin-4; Carbachol
Overexpression of the mammalian homolog of the unc-18 gene (munc18-1) has been described in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Munc18-1 protein is involved in membrane fusion processes, exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. A transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses the protein isoform munc18-1a in the brain was characterized. This animal displays several schizophrenia-related behaviors, supersensitivity to hallucinogenic drugs and deficits in prepulse inhibition that reverse after antipsychotic treatment. Relevant brain areas (that is, cortex and striatum) exhibit reduced expression of dopamine D1 receptors and dopamine transporters together with enhanced amphetamine-induced in vivo dopamine release. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates decreased gray matter volume in the transgenic animal. In conclusion, the mouse overexpressing brain munc18-1a represents a new valid animal model that resembles functional and structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. The animal could provide valuable insights into phenotypic aspects of this psychiatric disorder.
Munc18-1a; PPI; schizophrenia; SNARE
Granuphilin/Slp-4 is a member of the synaptotagmin-like protein
family expressed in pancreatic β-cells and in the pituitary gland. We
show by confocal microscopy that both granuphilin-a and -b colocalize
with insulin-containing secretory granules positioned at the periphery
of pancreatic β-cells. Overexpression of granuphilins in
insulin-secreting cell lines caused a profound inhibition of
stimulus-induced exocytosis. Granuphilins were found to bind to two
components of the secretory machinery of pancreatic β-cells, the
small GTP-binding protein Rab3 and the soluble
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein
receptor (SNARE)–binding protein Munc-18. The interaction with Rab3
occurred only with the GTP-bound form of the protein and was prevented
by a point mutation in the effector domain of the GTPase.
Structure-function studies using granuphilin-b mutants revealed that
complete loss of Rab3 binding is associated with a reduction in the
capacity to inhibit exocytosis. However, the granuphilin/Rab3 complex
alone is not sufficient to mediate the decrease of exocytosis,
suggesting the existence of additional binding partners. Taken
together, our observations indicate that granuphilins play an important
role in pancreatic β-cell exocytosis. In view of the postulated role
of Munc-18 in secretory vesicle docking, our data suggest that
granuphilins may also be involved in this process.
The Rab27a effector granuphilin is specifically localized on insulin granules and is involved in their exocytosis. Here we show that the number of insulin granules morphologically docked to the plasma membrane is markedly reduced in granuphilin-deficient β cells. Surprisingly, despite the docking defect, the exocytosis of insulin granules in response to a physiological glucose stimulus is significantly augmented, which results in increased glucose tolerance in granuphilin-null mice. The enhanced secretion in mutant β cells is correlated with a decrease in the formation of the fusion-incompetent syntaxin-1a–Munc18-1 complex, with which granuphilin normally interacts. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type granuphilin, its mutant that is defective in binding to syntaxin-1a fails to restore granule docking or the protein level of syntaxin-1a in granuphilin-null β cells. Thus, granuphilin not only is essential for the docking of insulin granules but simultaneously imposes a fusion constraint on them through an interaction with the syntaxin-1a fusion machinery. These findings provide a novel paradigm for the docking machinery in regulated exocytosis.
SNARE complex assembly and mobilization of GLUT4 vesicles is coordinated through direct targeting of Munc18c by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
How the Sec1/Munc18–syntaxin complex might transition to form the SNARE core complex remains unclear. Toward this, Munc18c tyrosine phosphorylation has been correlated with its dissociation from syntaxin 4. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes subjected to small interfering ribonucleic acid reduction of Munc18c as a model of impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis, we found that coordinate expression of Munc18c–wild type or select phosphomimetic Munc18c mutants, but not phosphodefective mutants, restored GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis, suggesting a requirement for Munc18c tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr219 and Tyr521. Surprisingly, the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase was found to target Munc18c at Tyr521 in vitro, rapidly binding and phosphorylating endogenous Munc18c within adipocytes and skeletal muscle. IR, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, activation was required. Altogether, we identify IR as the first known tyrosine kinase for Munc18c as part of a new insulin-signaling step in GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis, exemplifying a new model for the coordination of SNARE assembly and vesicle mobilization events in response to a single extracellular stimulus.
Leukocytes synthesize a variety of inflammatory mediators that are packaged and stored in the cytoplasm within membrane-bound granules. Upon stimulation, the cells secrete the granule contents via an exocytotic process whereby the granules translocate to the cell periphery, the granule membranes fuse with the plasma membrane, and the granule contents are released extracellularly. We have reported previously that another exocytotic process, release of mucin by secretory cells of the airway epithelium, is regulated by the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) (Li Y, Martin LD, Spizz G, Adler KB. MARCKS protein is a key molecule regulating mucin secretion by human airway epithelial cells in vitro. J Biol Chem 2001;276:40982–40990; Singer M, Martin LD, Vargaftig BB, Park J, Gruber AD, Li Y, Adler KB. A MARCKS-related peptide blocks mucus hypersecretion in a mouse model of asthma. Nat Med 2004;10:193–196). In those studies, mucin secretion in vitro and in vivo was attenuated by a synthetic peptide identical to the N-terminus of MARCKS, named the MANS peptide (Li and colleagues, 2001). In this study, we used the MANS peptide to investigate possible involvement of MARCKS in secretion of leukocyte granule proteins. In neutrophils isolated from human blood, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate–induced myeloperoxidase release was attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by MANS but not by equal concentrations of a missense control peptide. In additional studies using human leukocyte cell lines, secretion of eosinophil peroxidase from the eosinophil-like cell line HL-60 clone 15, lysozyme from the monocytic leukemia cell line U937, and granzyme from the lymphocyte natural killer cell line NK-92 were attenuated by preincubation of the cells with MANS but not with the missense control peptide. The results indicate that MARCKS protein may play an important role in the secretion of membrane-bound granules from different leukocytes. MARCKS may be an important component of secretory pathways associated with release of granules by different cell types.
MARCKS protein; leukocytes; degranulation