The sequencing of the human genome has provided tools to gain a better understanding of the role of genes and their interaction with environmental factors in the development of disease. However, much work remains in translating discoveries into new opportunities for disease prevention and health promotion. Both public health academia and practice have important roles to play in bridging the gap between the growth in knowledge stemming from the Human Genome Project and its application in public health. Recognizing this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, through the Association of Schools of Public Health, established Centers for Genomics and Public Health at three schools of public health in 2001: the University of Michigan, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the experience of the University of Washington Center for Genomics and Public Health in forging partnerships with public health practitioners to translate genomic advances into public health practice.
In recent decades, epidemiology, public health, and medical sciences have been increasingly compartmentalized into narrower disciplines. The authors recognize the value of integration of divergent scientific fields in order to create new methods, concepts, paradigms, and knowledge. Herein they describe the recent emergence of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE), which represents an integration of population and molecular biologic science to gain insights into the etiologies, pathogenesis, evolution, and outcomes of complex multifactorial diseases. Most human diseases, including common cancers (such as breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma) and other chronic diseases (such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, psychiatric diseases, and some infectious diseases), are caused by alterations in the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and interactome of all of the above components. In this era of personalized medicine and personalized prevention, we need integrated science (such as MPE) which can decipher diseases at the molecular, genetic, cellular, and population levels simultaneously. The authors believe that convergence and integration of multiple disciplines should be commonplace in research and education. We need to be open-minded and flexible in designing integrated education curricula and training programs for future students, clinicians, practitioners, and investigators.
education, public health professional; health care reform; individualized medicine; interdisciplinary communication; molecular epidemiology; pathology
Herein, we proposed planning of wide transdisciplinary actions, which bring a solution for economic activity such as transportation, strongly related to pollution output with possible repercussions on climate change and public health. To solve logistics problem by introduction of common intermodal policy, and creation of more friendly transport solution, it is possible to obtain sustainable development, climate change prevention, government policy, and regulation which are all related to human health and creation of health-supportive environment. This approach permits environmental and biological monitoring same as economic results measurement by key performance indicators. This approach implementing emerging scientific knowledge in environmental health science such as genetic epidemiology aimed at understanding how genomic variation impacts phenotypic expression and how genes interact with the environment at the population level with subsequent translation into practical information for clinicians as well as for public health policy creation.
The authors describe the rationale and initial development of a new collaborative initiative, the Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network. The network convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health includes multiple stakeholders from academia, government, health care, public health, industry and consumers. The premise of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network is that there is an unaddressed chasm between gene discoveries and demonstration of their clinical validity and utility. This chasm is due to the lack of readily accessible information about the utility of most genomic applications and the lack of necessary knowledge by consumers and providers to implement what is known. The mission of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network is to accelerate and streamline the effective integration of validated genomic knowledge into the practice of medicine and public health, by empowering and sponsoring research, evaluating research findings, and disseminating high quality information on candidate genomic applications in practice and prevention. Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network will develop a process that links ongoing collection of information on candidate genomic applications to four crucial domains: (1) knowledge synthesis and dissemination for new and existing technologies, and the identification of knowledge gaps, (2) a robust evidence-based recommendation development process, (3) translation research to evaluate validity, utility and impact in the real world and how to disseminate and implement recommended genomic applications, and (4) programs to enhance practice, education, and surveillance.
decision support; genomics; information; medicine; network; public health
The Human Genome Project s completion of the human genome sequence in 2003 was a landmark scientific achievement of historic significance. It also signified a critical transition for the field of genomics, as the new foundation of genomic knowledge started to be used in powerful ways by researchers and clinicians to tackle increasingly complex problems in biomedicine. To exploit the opportunities provided by the human genome sequence and to ensure the productive growth of genomics as one of the most vital biomedical disciplines of the 21st century, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is pursuing a broad vision for genomics research beyond the Human Genome Project. This vision includes facilitating and supporting the highest-priority research areas that interconnect genomics to biology, to health, and to society. Current efforts in genomics research are focused on using genomic data, technologies, and insights to acquire a deeper understanding of biology and to uncover the genetic basis of human disease. Some of the most profound advances are being catalyzed by revolutionary new DNA sequencing technologies; these methods are already producing prodigious amounts of DNA sequence data, including from large numbers of individual patients. Such a capability, coupled with better associations between genetic diseases and specific regions of the human genome, are accelerating our understanding of the genetic basis for complex genetic disorders and for drug response. Together, these developments will usher in the era of genomic medicine.
The epidemic of obesity has become a major public health problem. Common-form obesity is underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. Epidemiological studies have documented that increased intakes of energy and reduced consumption of high-fiber foods, as well as sedentary lifestyle, were among the major driving forces for the epidemic of obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genes convincingly related to obesity risk, including the fat mass and obesity associated gene and the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. Testing gene-environment interaction is a relatively new field. This article reviews recent advances in identifying the genetic and environmental risk factors (lifestyle and diet) for obesity. The evidence for gene-environment interaction, especially from observational studies and randomized intervention trials, is examined specifically. Knowledge about the interplay between genetic and environmental components may facilitate the choice of more effective and specific measures for obesity prevention based on the personalized genetic make-up.
environment; gene; interaction; obesity
In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded three Centers for Genomics and Public Health to develop training tools for increasing genomic awareness. Over the past three years, the centers, working together with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Genomics and Disease Prevention, have developed tools to increase awareness of the impact genomics will have on public health practice, to provide a foundation for understanding basic genomic advances, and to translate the relevance of that information to public health practitioners' own work. These training tools serve to communicate genomic advances and their potential for integration into public heath practice. This paper highlights two of these training tools: 1) Genomics for Public Health Practitioners: The Practical Application of Genomics in Public Health Practice, a Web-based introduction to genomics, and 2) Six Weeks to Genomic Awareness, an in-depth training module on public health genomics. This paper focuses on the processes and collaborative efforts by which these live presentations were developed and delivered as Web-based training sessions.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services is working with selected state and local health
departments, academic centers, and others to develop an environmental
public health tracking initiative to improve geographic and temporal
surveillance of environmental hazards, exposures, and related health
outcomes. The objective is to support policy strategies and interventions
for disease prevention by communities and environmental health
agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. The first 3 years of
the initiative focused on supporting states and cities in developing
capacity, information technology infrastructure, and pilot projects to
demonstrate electronic linkage of environmental hazard or exposure data
and disease data. The next phase requires implementation across states. This
transition could provide opportunities to further integrate
research, surveillance, and practice through attention to four areas. The
first is to develop a shared and transparent knowledge base that
draws on environmental health research and substantiates decisions about
what to track and the interpretation of results. The second is to identify
and address information needs of policy and stakeholder audiences
in environmental health. The third is to adopt mechanisms for coordination, decision
making, and governance that can incorporate and support
the major entities involved. The fourth is to promote disease prevention
by systematically identifying and addressing population-level
environmental determinants of health and disease.
chronic disease; disease surveillance; environmental exposure; environmental health; environmental health indicators; environmental health policy; environmental monitoring; environmental public health tracking; population health; public health surveillance
Population biobanks offer new opportunities for public health, are rudimentary for the development of its new branch called Public Health Genomics, and are important for translational research. This article presents organizational models of population biobanks in selected European countries. Review of bibliography and websites of European population biobanks (UK, Spain, Estonia). Some countries establish national genomic biobanks (DNA banks) in order to conduct research on new methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the genetic and lifestyle diseases and on pharmacogenetic research. Individual countries have developed different organizational models of these institutions and specific legal regulations regarding various ways of obtaining genetic data from the inhabitants, donors’ rights, organizational and legal aspects. Population biobanks in European countries were funded in different manners. In light of these solutions, the authors discuss prospects of establishing a Polish national genomic biobank for research purpose. They propose the creation of such an institution based on the existing network of blood-donation centres and clinical biobanks in Poland.
DNA banking; Genetic epidemiology; Population biobanks; Public health genomics; Life Sciences; Human Genetics; Plant Genetics & Genomics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Microbial Genetics and Genomics; Life Sciences, general
Completion of the human genome project and rapid progress in genetics and bioinformatics have enabled the development of large public databases, which include genetic and genomic data linked to clinical health data. With the massive amount of information available, clinicians and researchers have the unique opportunity to complement and integrate their daily practice with the existing resources to clarify the underlying etiology of complex phenotypes such as allergic diseases. The genome itself is now often utilized as a starting point for many studies and multiple innovative approaches have emerged applying genetic/genomic strategies to key questions in the field of allergy and immunology. There have been several successes, which have uncovered new insights into the biologic underpinnings of allergic disorders. Herein, we will provide an in depth review of genomic approaches to identifying genes and biologic networks involved in allergic diseases. We will discuss genetic and phenotypic variation, statistical approaches for gene discovery, public databases, functional genomics, clinical implications, and the challenges that remain.
gene; allergy; database; browser; genome; common variants; rare variants; HapMap; imputation
Genomic research is transforming our understanding of the role of genes in health and disease. These advances, and their application to common diseases that affect large segments of the general population, suggest that researchers and practitioners in public health genomics will increasingly be called upon to translate genomic information to individuals with varying levels of health literacy and numeracy. This paper discusses the current state of research regarding public understanding of genetics and genomics, the influence of health literacy and numeracy on genetic communication, and behavioral responses to genetic and genomic information. The existing research suggests that members of the general public have some familiarity with genetic and genomic terms, but have gaps in understanding of underlying concepts. Findings from the limited research base to date indicate that health literacy affects understanding of print and oral communications about genetic and genomic information. Numeracy is also likely to be an important predictor of being able to understand and apply this information, although little research has been conducted in this area to date. In addition, although some research has examined behavior change in response to the receipt of information about genetic risk for familial disorders and genomic susceptibility to common, complex diseases, the effects of health literacy and numeracy on these responses have not been examined. Potential areas in which additional research is needed are identified and practical suggestions for presenting numeric risk information are outlined. Public health genomics researchers and practitioners are uniquely positioned to engage in research that explores how different audiences react to and use genomic risk information.
health literacy; numeracy; health behavior change; genetic communication; genomics
Genomic research is transforming our understanding of the role of genes in health and disease. These advances, and their application to common diseases that affect large segments of the general population, suggest that researchers and practitioners in public health genomics will increasingly be called upon to translate genomic information to individuals with varying levels of health literacy and numeracy. This paper discusses the current state of research regarding public understanding of genetics and genomics, the influence of health literacy and numeracy on genetic communication, and behavioral responses to genetic and genomic information. The existing research suggests that members of the general public have some familiarity with genetic and genomic terms but have gaps in understanding of underlying concepts. Findings from the limited research base to date indicate that health literacy affects understanding of print and oral communications about genetic and genomic information. Numeracy is also likely to be an important predictor of being able to understand and apply this information, although little research has been conducted in this area to date. In addition, although some research has examined behavior change in response to the receipt of information about genetic risk for familial disorders and genomic susceptibility to common, complex diseases, the effects of health literacy and numeracy on these responses have not been examined. Potential areas in which additional research is needed are identified and practical suggestions for presenting numeric risk information are outlined. Public health genomics researchers and practitioners are uniquely positioned to engage in research that explores how different audiences react to and use genomic risk information.
Genetic communication; Genomics; Health behavior change; Health literacy; Numeracy
Advances in human genomics are ushering in a new era of predictive, preventative and personalized approaches to medicine. However, as the integration of genomic medicine progresses, the health community has a responsibility to communicate to the public the risks and challenges of genetic information. A possible knowledge transfer framework is outlined as a means to bridge the practical uses of genetics within various ethical, social and economic contexts. Tools and resources are needed to help clinicians understand genetic risks and help them inform the public appropriately and effectively.
Advances in genomics and related fields promise a new era of personalized medicine in the cancer care continuum. Nevertheless, there are fundamental challenges in integrating genomic medicine into cancer practice. We explore how multilevel research can contribute to implementation of genomic medicine. We first review the rapidly developing scientific discoveries in this field and the paucity of current applications that are ready for implementation in clinical and public health programs. We then define a multidisciplinary translational research agenda for successful integration of genomic medicine into policy and practice and consider challenges for successful implementation. We illustrate the agenda using the example of Lynch syndrome testing in newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer and cascade testing in relatives. We synthesize existing information in a framework for future multilevel research for integrating genomic medicine into the cancer care continuum.
The metabolically connected triad of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases is a major public health threat, and is expected to worsen due to the global shift toward energy-rich and sedentary living. Despite decades of intense research, a large part of the molecular pathogenesis behind complex metabolic diseases remains unknown. Recent advances in genetics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics enable us to obtain large-scale snapshots of the etiological processes in multiple disease-related cells, tissues and organs. These datasets provide us with an opportunity to go beyond conventional reductionist approaches and to pinpoint the specific perturbations in critical biological processes. In this review, we summarize systems biology methodologies such as functional genomics, causality inference, data-driven biological network construction, and higher-level integrative analyses that can produce novel mechanistic insights, identify disease biomarkers, and uncover potential therapeutic targets from a combination of omics datasets. Importantly, we also demonstrate the power of these approaches by application examples in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolic disorders; Obesity; Diabetes; Cardiovascular diseases; Systems biology; Integrative genomics; Functional genomics; Causality inference; Network biology
Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) plans address cancer burden at the state level through consolidation of activities and collaboration among stakeholders. Public health genomics strategies are increasingly important in prevention and treatment of cancer. The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which CCC plans have incorporated genomics-related terms since 2005, determine which of the 3 core public health functions were fulfilled by genomics components, and identify facilitators of and barriers to integration of genomics.
We reviewed 50 CCC plans in 2010 to assess use of 22 genomics-related terms. Among plans that used the term genetics or genomics, we examined the plan for inclusion of genomics-related goals, objectives, or strategies and documented the 3 core public health functions (assessment, policy development, and assurance) fulfilled by them. We surveyed plan coordinators about factors affecting incorporation of genomic strategies into plans.
Forty-seven of 50 (94%) plans included at least 1 genomics-related term. Thirty-two of 50 (64%) plans included at least 1 genomics-related goal, objective, or strategy, most encompassing the core function of assurance; 6 state plans encompassed all 3 core functions. Plan coordinators indicated that genomics is a low priority in state public health; barriers to incorporation included lack of sufficient staff and funding.
Incorporation of genomic terms into state CCC plans increased from 60% in 2005 to 94% in 2010, but according to plan coordinators, genomics has not grown as a priority. Identification of partnerships and resources may help increase the priority, encourage incorporation, and guide the eventual success of public health genomics in state plans. Strong partnerships with state public health departments, health care providers, and the research community are useful for integration.
Individual variations in susceptibility to an infection as well as in the clinical course of the infection can be explained by pathogen related factors, environmental factors, and host genetic differences. In this paper we review the state-of-the-art basic host genomic and genetic findings' translational potential of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) into applications in public health, especially in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of complications of these infectious diseases. There is a significant amount of knowledge about genetic variants having a positive or negative influence on the course and outcome of HIV infection. In the field of Chlamydia trachomatis, genomic advances hold the promise of a more accurate subfertility prediction test based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In HPV research, recent developments in early diagnosis of infection-induced cervical cancer are based on methylation tests. Indeed, triage based on methylation markers might be a step forward in a more effective stratification of women at risk for cervical cancer. Our review found an imbalance between the number of host genetic variants with a role in modulating the immune response and the number of practical genomic applications developed thanks to this knowledge.
Public health draws from a range of academic disciplines, social, medical and statistical, and answers questions relevant to improving the health of populations. We have initiated a Europe‐wide study, Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe, to assess the development and use of public health research in both public policy and local decision making. The contemporary challenge for public health research is to integrate the capabilities of different academic disciplines to address policies for health. We have considered the development of public health research in five fields: political epidemiology, community health, health services, economics, and evaluation evidence and synthesis. The organisation and funding of research in Europe should be able to support new research fields and issues, to contribute to policy development and public health practice.
The sequencing of the human genome has revolutionized biology and led to an astounding variety of technologies and bioinformatics tools, enabling researchers to study expression of genes, the function of proteins, metabolism, and genetic differences within populations and between individuals. These scientific advances are making an impact in the medical research community and hold great promise for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. This developing field also holds great promise for improving the scientific basis for understanding the potential impacts of chemicals on health and the environment. A workshop sponsored by the International Council of Chemical Associations was held to review the state of the science in the application of genomics technologies in toxicology and epidemiology. Further, consideration was given to the ethical, legal, and regulatory issues and their influence on the direction and application of genomics technologies to environmental health research. Four overarching themes emerged from the workshop: Genomics technologies should be used within a framework of toxicology and epidemiology principles and applied in a context that can be used in risk assessment; effective application of these technologies to epidemiology will require suitable biologic samples from large and diverse population groups at the relevant period of exposure; ethical, legal, and social perspectives require involvement of all stakeholder communities; and a unified research agenda for genomics technologies as applied to toxicology, epidemiology, and risk assessment is urgently needed for the regulatory and scientific communities to realize the potential power and benefits of these new technologies.
Genomics is the study of the entire human genome and involves not only studying the actions of single genes but also the interactions of multiple genes with each other and with the environment. This article emphasizes the multifactorial nature of common obesity, which is caused by the interaction of genes, environment, and lifestyle. Individual variation in genes that influence behavior, satiety, and taste suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach to reducing or preventing obesity may be ineffective. Data are not yet available to allow for personalized obesity interventions based on genetic predisposition. However, a genomics approach may provide a useful framework for addressing the obesity epidemic. More research is needed before specific targeted public health interventions that include genomic strategies can be effectively integrated into addressing obesity in public health practice.
Molecular medicine uses knowledge about cell structure and function for disease, diagnostics, stage characterisation and treatment. The advent of genomic technologies is considerably leading to developments in the field of molecular medicine. The accumulation of detailed information about gene expression, epigenetic variability, protein transcription and functional modulation is contributing to a new era in medicine. Rapid and early diagnostic procedures, molecular characterisation of degenerative and proliferative diseases and personalized therapies are predicted to lead to advancements in health prevention and treatment of disease. Diagnostic tools and therapies based on local and /or general modulation of cellular processes for traumatic or degenerative musculoskeletal conditions are becoming available. A logical consequence of the information derived from extensive data gathering, systems biology and systemic medicine has lead to significant improvements in understanding biological structure and function in a simultaneous bottom top and integrative, holistic manner. The description of disease mechanism at an intimate, subcellular level has a dual benefit. A thorough understanding of the crosstalk involved in molecular pathways both in the normal and the diseased state are expanding scientific knowledge and simultaneously are enabling design cell-targeted and individualized therapies. This paper presents a brief overview of current molecular based treatments available to the orthopedic surgeon and introduces the concept of systemic medicine from the perspective of musculoskeletal pathology.
Systems biology; systems medicine; molecular biomarkers; gene therapy.
The formation of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) and the National Preventative Task Force in 2008, demonstrate a renewed Australian Government commitment to health reform. The re-focus on prevention, bringing it to the centre of health care has significant implications for health service delivery in the primary health care setting, supportive organisational structures and continuing professional development for the existing clinical and public health workforce. It is an opportune time, therefore, to consider new approaches to workforce development aligned to health policy reform. Regardless of the actual recommendations from the NHHRC in June 2009, there will be an emphasis on performance improvements which are accountable and aligned to new preventive health policy, organisational priorites and anticipated improved health outcomes.
To achieve this objective there will be a need for the existing population health workforce, primary health care and non-government sectors to increase their knowledge and understanding of prevention, promotion and protection theory and practice within new organisational frameworks and linked to the community. This shift needs to be part of a national health services research agenda, infrastructure and funding which is supportive of quality continuing professional development.
This paper discusses policy and practice issues related to workforce development as part of an integrated response to the preventive agenda.
The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis), gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918) assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction.
The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental explanation for shared sibling risk is plausible, even if the classical heritability is high. The results therefore highlight the possibility – previously rejected on the basis of twin study results – that inherited genetic variants are important in determining risk only for the relatively rare familial forms of diseases such as breast cancer. If so, genetic models of familial aggregation may be incorrect and the hunt for additional susceptibility genes could be largely fruitless.
Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1) recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2) the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3) novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4) gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.
Alzheimer’s disease; genomics; epigenomics; non-coding RNAs; neurodevelopment; neuropsychiatry; neuroscience; nutrition; Parkinson’s disease; schizophrenia
Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy.
China; Synthetic biology; Genetic circuits; Minimal genomes; Chemical synthetic biology; Protocells; DNA synthesis