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1.  Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria Species Isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India 
Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.
Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.
Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04%) and Bl. germanica (35.96%). However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three.
Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases.
PMCID: PMC4289503  PMID: 25629061
Periplaneta americana; Blattela germanica; Garm-Negative; Bacteria; Antimicrobial resistance
2.  Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments.
The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals.
A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004.
Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals.
One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected patients in a resource limited areas. Home based care with community involvement and greater use made of existing community resources might be a response to the limitations of curative hospital-based care and treatment needs of many HIV/AIDS patients.
PMCID: PMC3615262  PMID: 23675193
HIV/AIDS; hospitals; bed occupancy; Addis Ababa
3.  Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:2825056.
Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.
PMCID: PMC4909895  PMID: 27340653
4.  Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and co-infection with parasites among patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal complaints in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:497.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important public health problem worldwide. Consumption of animal-derived food products and direct and/or indirect contact with animals are the major routes of acquiring infection with NTS. Published information, particularly on the serotype distribution of NTS among human patients with gastroenteritis and associated risk factors, is scarce in Ethiopia. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species among diarrheic out-patients attending health centers in Addis Ababa and patients with various gastrointestinal complaints at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH).
Stool samples were cultured for Salmonella species according to the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network laboratory protocol. Salmonella serotyping was conducted using slide agglutination and microplate agglutination techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
A total of 59 (6.2 %) stool samples, out of 957 were culture positive for Salmonella species. Fifty-five (7.2 %) of 765 diarrheic patients from health centers and 4 (2.1 %) of 192 patients from TASH were culture positive for Salmonella species. Multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for all other variables revealed statistically significant association of Salmonella infection with consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.29–2.83, χ2 = 4.74, p = 0.025) and symptom of watery diarrhea (OR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.23–8.88, χ2 = 10.54, p = 0.005). Eleven serotypes were detected, and the most prominent were S. Typhimurium (37.3 %), S. Virchow (34 %), and S. Kottbus (10.2 %). Other serotypes were S. Miami, S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Enteritidis, S. Braenderup, S. Saintpaul, S. Concord and S. V:ROUGH-O. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 27 (40.3 %) of the isolates. Resistance to five or more antimicrobials was detected in 17 (25.4 %). Resistance to individual antimicrobials was found at varying proportions: streptomycin (50; 74.6 %), nitrofurantoin (27; 40.3 %), sulfisoxazole (26; 38.8 %), kanamycin (23; 34.3 %), cephalothin (12; 17.9 %), and ampicillin (11; 16.4 %) respectively. Two S. Kentucky, one S. Typhimurium and one S. Concord isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 10 antimicrobials.
The study demonstrated significant association of Salmonella infection with consumption of raw vegetables. There was no significant association of Salmonella infection with co-occurring parasites. The study also showed the dominance of S. Typhimurium and S. Virchow in primary health care units. Overall, prevalence of MDR was low compared to previous studies. Although their proportion was low, S. Kentucky and S. Concord demonstrated wider spectrum of MDR. Continuous monitoring of circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance profile and characterization on molecular resistance determinants is essential for proper treatment of patients and for identifying potential environmental origins of antimicrobial resistance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1235-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4634906  PMID: 26537951
Non-typhoidal Salmonella; Antimicrobial resistance; Prevalence; Serotype
5.  Bacterial load of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) found in hospital environment 
Pathogens and Global Health  2014;108(3):141-147.
Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms.
This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols.
A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P < 0.001).
The findings of this study suggest that German cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens.
PMCID: PMC4083176  PMID: 24766338
German cockroach; Blattella germanica; Domiciliary fauna; Synanthropic organism; Hospital environment; Bacterial diversity; Pathogen bacteria
6.  Staphylococcus Aureus- The Predominant Pathogen in the Neonatal ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Amritsar, India 
Background: An early treatment and the appropriate and the rational use of antibiotics would minimize the risk of severe morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis, and reduce the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms in intensive care units. For the success of an early empiric treatment, a periodic review of the cases to assess any changing trends in the infecting organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility is important.
AIM: To study the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens which caused neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity patterns, so that guidelines could be prepared for a rational antibiotic therapy.
Setting and Design: This was a retrospective study which was conducted in the Department of Microbiology and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar, during June 2011 to June 2012.
Methods and Materials: Blood specimens for culture were drawn from 311 newborns who were admitted in an NICU with sepsis. The specimens were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10. The isolates were identified by doing standard biochemical tests. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were studied by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.
Results: A total of 131 organisms were isolated from the 311 blood cultures. These included Staphylococcus aureus (n=68), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (n=30), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=10), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=05), Enterobacter cloacae (n=04), Citrobacter diversus (n=02), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=02) and Candida (n=01). Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen in both early and late-onset sepsis. On antibiotic sensitivity testing, 57.35% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant. More than 90% gram negative rods were resistant to amikacin. The resistance to the third generation cephalosporins varied between 50-55%. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was quite high; however, most of the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to piperacillin- tazobactum and imipenem.
Conclusion: The present study emphasized the importance of periodic surveys on the microbial flora which was encountered in particular neonatal settings to recognize the trend.
PMCID: PMC3576753  PMID: 23450439
Septicaemia; Drug resistance; Antimicrobial sensitivity tests; S.aureus neonate; India
7.  Treatment of Adult Femoral Shaft Fractures Using the Perkins Traction at Addis Ababa Tikur Anbessa University Hospital: The Ethiopian Experience 
International Surgery  2012;97(1):78-85.
This is a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of the Perkins traction in the treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures from October 1, 2007, to the present at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa University Hospital in Ethiopia. All femur fractures admitted to the hospital were reviewed and evaluated for treatment. Black Lion Hospital (Tikur Anbessa) is the university hospital in Addis Ababa and the highest tertiary teaching hospital in a country of 85 million inhabitants. A 67-bed orthopedic department offers the main ground for teaching to the undergraduate medical students. The hospital is also the pivotal center for the formation of the orthopedic residents. Patients from different parts of the country are referred to this institution for orthopedic care. A total of 68 adult (older than 16 years) patients with 69 femoral shaft fractures were considered for treatment during the study period. Consent was obtained and prospective treatment initiated. A standard Perkins traction was applied by an orthopedic team composed of consultants, orthopedic residents, physical therapists, and nurses. A protocol was developed for patients undergoing such traction. The physiotherapists will supervise all individual or group therapy sessions. Progressive knee range of motion to facilitate quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengthening exercises were implemented four times a day and recorded. Demographic information, fracture patterns, duration of traction, thigh circumference leg length discrepancy, and pin sites were routinely monitored and charted. Data were computerized and analyzed weekly, and appropriate adjustments were made accordingly. Clinical evidence of a competent callus and confirmation by radiographic studies will influence the cessation of traction to allow gait training with toe-touch crutch ambulation. Progress will be monitored during the following outpatient visits in the fracture clinic. A total of 68 consecutive patients with 69 femoral shaft fractures were treated with the Perkins traction. There were 60 men (88.2%) and only 8 women (11.8%), for a ratio of 8 men to 1 woman. The age of the cohort patient varied between 18 and 28 years. The mechanisms of injury for most of the fractures were motor vehicle accidents, resulting in an isolated femoral shaft fracture in 49.2% of the patients. Half of the fractures were by means of closed injury (n  =  44; 64.7%). One patient with a bilateral femoral shaft fracture was also added to the study. The right side was more often involved, with 41 fractures (60%), than the left, with 28 fractures (40%). Most of the fractures involved the proximal third of the femur (n  =  34; 50%), but the most common fracture pattern was transverse (n  =  29; 42.6%), followed by a comminuted pattern (n  =  18; 26.5%). Three segmental fractures were also encountered. The mean hospital stay was 45 days (33 patients; 48.5%), with the length of time in traction varying from 30 to 40 days. Only 2 patients remained in traction for a period of 60 days. At the end of the traction period, 8 patients (11.8%) showed a decrease in the quadriceps mass, and 7 patients (10.3%) showed stiffness of the knee with a range of motion limited to 0° to 90°. Most patients were discharged after about 8 months of treatment. One patient suffered a nonunion, and one was malunited. Superficial pin care infections were noted in 8 patients (11.8%) and treated appropriately. The conservative treatment of 69 femoral shaft fractures using the Perkins traction at Black Lion University Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has been proven to be a safe and effective method. It should be encouraged in countries like ours where it is a luxury to have a C-Arm in the operating room and where the hardware often is not available to perform a stable stabilization of the long bone fractures.
PMCID: PMC3723198  PMID: 23343307
Perkins traction; Femoral shaft fracture; Conservative treatment; Quadriceps and hamstring exercises
8.  The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, South-western Iran 
The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.
Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated organisms by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.
From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.
The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this insect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.
PMCID: PMC4289511  PMID: 25629065
Supella longipalpa; Drug Resistant Bacteria; Iran
9.  Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates among Septicemia Suspected Children in Selected Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Blood stream infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The emerging of causative agents and resistance to various antimicrobial agents are increased from time to time. The main aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among children suspected of having septicemia.
A cross sectional study involved about 201 pediatric patients (≤ 12 years) was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 at pediatric units of TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12 Hospital. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection, isolate identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
Among 201 study subjects 110 (54.7%) were males. Majority 147 (73.1%) of them were neonates (≤ 28 days). The mean length of hospital stay before sampling was 4.29 days. Out of the 201 tested blood samples, blood cultures were positive in 56 (27.9%).Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria constituted 29(51.8%) and 26(46.4%), respectively. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2%), followed by Serratia marcescens 12(21.4%), CoNS 11(19.6%), klebsiella spp 9(16%) and Salmonella spp 3(5.4%). Majority of bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Tetracycline which commonly used in the study area.
Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages of multi-drug resistant emerged isolates urge us to take infection prevention measures and to conduct other large studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice.
PMCID: PMC4793966  PMID: 26997847
Addis Ababa; Antimicrobial susceptibility; Blood culture; Children; Septicemia
10.  Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study 
Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world’s roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa.
A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims.
A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7 %) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims’ ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3 %)) and students (28 (12.2 %)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4 %) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0 %) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0 %) and open wounds (56.5 %) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure on admission (ß = −0.35, p < 0.001) and Glasgow coma scale (ß = −0.44, p < 0.001) were statistically significant predictors of fatalities among the victims.
This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings reflect that road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12873-015-0035-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4493961  PMID: 25990560
Road traffic accident; Injury characteristics; Outcome; Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital; Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
11.  Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1991;107(1):181-187.
A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi.
PMCID: PMC2272041  PMID: 1879483
12.  Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:3490906.
Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.
PMCID: PMC4879219  PMID: 27294115
13.  Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae 
The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime.
One hundred and twenty-nine tubes were collected from two neonatal intensive care units (NICU). A questionnaire on feeding regime was completed with each sample. Enterobacteriaceae present in the tubes were identified using conventional and molecular methods, and their antibiograms determined.
The neonates were fed breast milk (16%), fortified breast milk (28%), ready to feed formula (20%), reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, 6%), or a mixture of these (21%). Eight percent of tubes were received from neonates who were 'nil by mouth'. Organisms were isolated from 76% of enteral feeding tubes as a biofilm (up to 107 cfu/tube from neonates fed fortified breast milk and reconstituted PIF) and in the residual lumen liquid (up to 107 Enterobacteriaceae cfu/ml, average volume 250 μl). The most common isolates were Enterobacter cancerogenus (41%), Serratia marcescens (36%), E. hormaechei (33%), Escherichia coli (29%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (25%), Raoultella terrigena (10%), and S. liquefaciens (12%). Other organisms isolated included C. sakazakii (2%),Yersinia enterocolitica (1%),Citrobacter freundii (1%), E. vulneris (1%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1%), and P. luteola (1%). The enteral feeding tubes were in place between < 6 h (22%) to > 48 h (13%). All the S. marcescens isolates from the enteral feeding tubes were resistant to amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav. Of additional importance was that a quarter of E. hormaechei isolates were resistant to the 3rd generation cephalosporins ceftazidime and cefotaxime. During the period of the study, K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens caused infections in the two NICUs.
This study shows that neonatal enteral feeding tubes, irrespective of feeding regime, act as loci for the bacterial attachment and multiplication of numerous opportunistic pathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae family. Subsequently, these organisms will enter the stomach as a bolus with each feed. Therefore, enteral feeding tubes are an important risk factor to consider with respect to neonatal infections.
PMCID: PMC2749046  PMID: 19723318
14.  The prevalence of Group B Streptococus recto-vaginal colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pregnant mothers at two hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Reproductive Health  2014;11:80.
Group B streptococcus (GBS) has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. GBS recto-vaginal colonization rates significantly vary among different communities and geographic locations. Limited data is available on the prevalence and effects of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among pregnant mothers in developing countries like Ethiopia.
To assess the prevalence of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among near term pregnant mothers and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates.
A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on pregnant mothers at gestational age of 35–37 weeks attending Ante Natal Clinics at Ghandi Memorial (GMH) and Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa. Samples from lower genital tract and rectum were collected and cultured for GBS on CHROM agar Strep B.
Twenty two of the 300 pregnant mothers (7.2%) studied were found to have positive GBS recto-vaginal culture. Twelve isolates (55%) were sensitive to penicillin while 20 (91%) were sensitive to ampicilline. All isolates except one were sensitive to Erythromycin.
The study showed recto-vaginal GBS colonization among near term pregnant mothers is reasonably high in our community calling for the need to screen mothers near term and provide appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent potential adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.
PMCID: PMC4265524  PMID: 25476269
Group B streptococcus (GBS); Recto-vaginal colonization; Prevalence
15.  Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana 
Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.
PMCID: PMC3795528  PMID: 24137051
cockroach; Klebsiella pneumoniae; hookworm; rotavirus; antibiotic resistance; nosocomial
16.  Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended.
PMCID: PMC4140128  PMID: 25165583
17.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new penem, CGP 31608. 
The in vitro activity of CGP 31608, a new penem, against aerobic and anaerobic organisms was evaluated and compared with those of other beta-lactams. CGP 31608 inhibited Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, and Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Yersinia spp. with MICs for 50% of the strains (MIC50s) of 2 to 4 micrograms/ml and MIC90s of 4 micrograms/ml, compared with cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and imipenem MICs of less than 0.25 microgram/ml. MIC90s were 8 micrograms/ml for Enterobacter species and C. freundii, for which other agents had MICs of 32 micrograms/ml, except imipenem, which had equal activity. The MIC90 for Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii, and Providencia rettgeri was 8 micrograms/ml, compared with less than 2 micrograms/ml shown by the other agents. Acinetobacter species resistant to other agents except imipenem were inhibited by 4 micrograms/ml, as were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including piperacillin-, ceftazidime-, and gentamicin-resistant isolates. The MIC for P. cepacia, P. fluorescens, and P. acidovorans was less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml, but that for P. maltophilia was greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. Hemolytic streptococci A, B, C, G, and F were inhibited by less than 1 micrograms/ml, but the MIC for Streptococcus faecalis was greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml. MICs for Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, as were those for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. epidermidis. Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium species and Fusobacterium spp. were inhibited by less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml. CGP 31608 was not hydrolyzed by plasmid beta-lactamases TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1, PSE-1, OXA-2, PSE-4, or by S. aureus. Chromosomal beta-lactamases of type Ia in Enterobacter cloacae P99 and Morganella morganii, Ic in P. vulgaris, K-1 in K. oxytoca, and Id in P. aeruginosa also did not hydrolyze CGP 31608. It inhibited TEM-1, but the 50% inhibitory concentration was 14.2 micrograms/ml compared with 0.15 micrograms/ml for the P99 enzyme. CGP 31608 induced beta-lactamases in P. aeruginosa, E. cloacae, C. freundii and Providencia rettgeri, but there was no increase in MICs for the isolates and it did not select strains derepressed for beta-lactamase production. Synergy of CGP 31608 and gentamicin was found against 90% P. aeruginosa, 60% Enterobacter cloacae, and 50% Serratia marcescens strains. No synergy was found with rifampin. A postantibiotic effect was found against E. coli.
PMCID: PMC174777  PMID: 3496845
18.  Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and associated factors among HIV infected children in Ethiopia: unannounced home-based pill count versus caregivers’ report 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:132.
The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers’ report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers’ report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers’ report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview.
Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers’ forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses.
The level of adherence based on unannounced home-based pill count was unacceptably low. Interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence to ART among children at TAH. Besides, a longitudinal study measuring adherence combined with clinical parameters (viral load and CD4 count) is needed to identify a simple and reliable measure of adherence in the study area.
PMCID: PMC3766076  PMID: 24229394
Children; HAART; Adherence; Home-based unannounced pill count; Ethiopia
19.  Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:822.
Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0).
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.
PMCID: PMC4247656  PMID: 25409756
Bacterial vaginosis; Pregnancy; Prevalence
20.  The revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory services as determined using activity-based costing (ABC) model 
The rapid and continuous growth of health care cost aggravates the frequently low priority and less attention given in financing laboratory services. The poorest countries have the highest out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of income. Higher charges might provide a greater potential for revenue. If fees raise quality sufficiently, it can enhance usage. Therefore, estimating the revenue generated from laboratory services could help in capacity building and improved quality service provision.
Panel study design was used to determine revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology services at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model was used to determine the true cost of tests performed from October 2011 to December 2011 in the hospital. The principle of Activity-based Costing is that activities consume resources and activities consumed by services which incur the costs and hence service takes the cost of resources. All resources with costs are aggregated with the established casual relationships. The process maps designed was restructured in consultation with the senior staffs working and/or supervising the laboratory and pretested checklists were used for observation. Moreover, office documents, receipts and service bills were used while collecting data. The amount of revenue collected from services was compared with the cost of each subsequent test and the profitability or return on investment (ROI) of services was calculated. Data were collected, entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software program and Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences version 19 (SPSS). Paired sample t test was used to compare the price and cost of each test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
A total of 25,654 specimens were analyzed during 3 months of regular working hours. The total numbers of clinical chemistry and hematology tests performed during the study period were 45,959 (66.1 %) and 23,570 (33.9 %), respectively. Only 274, 386 (25.3 %) Ethiopian Birr (ETB) was recovered from the total cost of 1,086,008.09 ETB incurred on clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory tests. The result showed that, about 133,821 (12.32 %) ETB was revenue not collected from out-of-pocket payments that was paid for the services as a result of under pricing. The result showed that 18 out of 20 laboratory tests were under priced. The cost burden related to free Anti Retro-viral Therapy (ART) services was 285,979.82 (26.3 %) ETB.
The cost per test estimated was significantly different to the existing price. About 90 % of the tests were under priced. This information could warn the hospital to reconsider resetting prices of these tests profitability ration less than 1. The revenue collected could help to build capacity, upscale quality, and sustainable service delivery.
PMCID: PMC4672476  PMID: 26648790
Revenue; Cost; Activity-based costing; Laboratory service; TASTH
21.  Medication prescribing errors in the medical intensive care unit of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:448.
Medication errors (MEs) are important problems in all hospitalized populations, especially in intensive care unit (ICU). Little is known about the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of hospitals in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital using retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient cards and medication charts.
About 220 patient charts were reviewed with a total of 1311 patient-days, and 882 prescription episodes. 359 MEs were detected; with prevalence of 40 per 100 orders. Common prescribing errors were omission errors 154 (42.89 %), 101 (28.13 %) wrong combination, 48 (13.37 %) wrong abbreviation, 30 (8.36 %) wrong dose, wrong frequency 18 (5.01 %) and wrong indications 8 (2.23 %).
The present study shows that medication errors are common in medical ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. These results suggest future targets of prevention strategies to reduce the rate of medication error.
PMCID: PMC4573494  PMID: 26376623
Medication error; Prescribing error; Intensive care unit
22.  Evaluation of Quality of Life of Adult Cancer Patients Attending Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia 
Little is known about the quality of life of cancer patients in the Ethiopian context. This study evaluated quality of life of cancer patients in Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa University Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (TASRH) from March to May 2013. A total of 388 cancer patients were included. Translated in to Amharic, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QOL C-30) was used to measure Quality of life (QoL). The data was analyzed with SPSS Version 17.0.
Among the participants, 251(64.7%) were men and 138(35.6%) were below the age of 40 years. Large proportion of patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, 114(29.4%), and cervical cancer, 102(26.3%), and the clinical stages during the beginning of therapy were at stage II a 133(34.3%). The mean of global health status/QoL was 57.28 (SD= 25.28). Quality of life was found to be associated with some functional scales as role functioning, P≤0.001, social function, P=0.00, and symptom scales as pain, P=0.00, loss of appetite, P=0.004, and financial impact, P=0.02, but no associations were noted in relation to socio demographic characteristics.
Quality of life assessments should be included in patient treatment protocols to improve their quality of life since being a cancer patient may be associated with a high level of impairment in different aspects of life.
PMCID: PMC4337080  PMID: 25733785
Cancer; Quality of life; Ethiopia
23.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of LJC 10,627. 
The in vitro activity of LJC 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. LJC 10,627 inhibited 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Haemophilus influenzae was inhibited by 0.5 microgram/ml, and moraxellae were inhibited by 0.12 microgram/ml. LJC 10,627 was twofold more active than imipenem against aerobic gram-negative organisms and inhibited ceftazidime-, cefotaxime-, and gentamicin-resistant members of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Xanthomonas maltophilia strains were resistant to the drug. Imipenem was two- to fourfold more active than LJC 10,627 against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. LJC 10,627 did not inhibit most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. LJC 10,627 inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis and other Bacteroides spp. were inhibited by 0.5 microgram of LJC 10,627 per ml. Serum (50%) did not affect the MICs. LJC 10,627 was not hydrolyzed by plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases of Bush types 2b, 2b', TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-5, TEM-7, TEM-9, and SHV-1; the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Bush type 1; P-99; a Morganella enzyme; or a Citrobacter freundii enzyme. The Bush type 2c and 2d enzymes OXA-1, OXA-2, PSE-1, PSE-2, and PSE-4 did not hydrolyze LJC 10,627, nor did the beta-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella spp., Bacteroides fragilis, and Proteus vulgaris. The beta-lactamase of Xanthomonas hydrolyzed LJC 10,627, albeit at approximately one-third the rate that imipenem was hydrolyzed.
PMCID: PMC191596  PMID: 1510436
24.  Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Pediatric Patients: Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68144.
Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are the most frequent type of nosocomial infection in pediatric patients.
We identified the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nosocomial bloodstream isolates in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age) in the Brazilian Prospective Surveillance for nBSIs at 16 hospitals from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010 (Br SCOPE project).
In our study a total of 2,563 cases of nBSI were reported by hospitals participating in the Br SCOPE project. Among these, 342 clinically significant episodes of BSI were identified in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age). Ninety-six percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 49.0% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 42.6%, and fungi caused 8.4%. The most common pathogens were Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (9.2%). The crude mortality was 21.6% (74 of 342). Forty-five percent of nBSIs occurred in a pediatric or neonatal intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 95 patients (27.8%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (66.4%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 37 S. aureus isolates (27.1%). Of the Klebsiella spp. isolates, 43.2% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42.9% and 21.4%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem.
In our multicenter study, we found a high mortality and a large proportion of gram-negative bacilli with elevated levels of resistance in pediatric patients.
PMCID: PMC3701648  PMID: 23861860
25.  Comparative in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of FR 17027, a new orally active cephalosporin. 
FR 17027, a new orally absorbed cephalosporin ester, inhibited group A and B streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae at less than or equal to 0.1 micrograms/ml, which is similar to the inhibition concentration of amoxicillin and cefaclor, and was more active than cephalexin. It was less active (MIC, 25 micrograms/ml) against staphylococci than was cephalexin, and it did not inhibit Streptococcus faecalis or Listeria monocytogenes. FR 17027 inhibited beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Branhamella catarrhalis at less than 0.1 micrograms/ml and was more active than cefaclor or cephalexin against these bacteria. FR 17027 inhibited Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, and Citrobacter diversus at less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, including isolated resistant to amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor, but it was less active than ceftizoxime. Some strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter aerogenes were resistant (MIC, greater than 25 micrograms/ml). FR 17027 did not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other Pseudomonas species, Acinetobacter species, or Bacteroides species. Activity was minimally affected by growth conditions. FR 17027 was not hydrolyzed by the common beta-lactamases present in many of the pathogens causing respiratory and urinary tract infections in outpatients.
PMCID: PMC284114  PMID: 6333207

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