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1.  Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria Species Isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India 
Background
Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.
Methods:
Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.
Results:
Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04%) and Bl. germanica (35.96%). However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three.
Conclusion:
Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases.
PMCID: PMC4289503  PMID: 25629061
Periplaneta americana; Blattela germanica; Garm-Negative; Bacteria; Antimicrobial resistance
2.  Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Background:
In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments.
Objective:
The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals.
Methods:
A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004.
Results:
Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals.
Conclusion:
One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected patients in a resource limited areas. Home based care with community involvement and greater use made of existing community resources might be a response to the limitations of curative hospital-based care and treatment needs of many HIV/AIDS patients.
PMCID: PMC3615262  PMID: 23675193
HIV/AIDS; hospitals; bed occupancy; Addis Ababa
3.  Staphylococcus Aureus- The Predominant Pathogen in the Neonatal ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Amritsar, India 
Background: An early treatment and the appropriate and the rational use of antibiotics would minimize the risk of severe morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis, and reduce the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms in intensive care units. For the success of an early empiric treatment, a periodic review of the cases to assess any changing trends in the infecting organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility is important.
AIM: To study the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens which caused neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity patterns, so that guidelines could be prepared for a rational antibiotic therapy.
Setting and Design: This was a retrospective study which was conducted in the Department of Microbiology and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar, during June 2011 to June 2012.
Methods and Materials: Blood specimens for culture were drawn from 311 newborns who were admitted in an NICU with sepsis. The specimens were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10. The isolates were identified by doing standard biochemical tests. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were studied by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.
Results: A total of 131 organisms were isolated from the 311 blood cultures. These included Staphylococcus aureus (n=68), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (n=30), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=10), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=05), Enterobacter cloacae (n=04), Citrobacter diversus (n=02), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=02) and Candida (n=01). Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen in both early and late-onset sepsis. On antibiotic sensitivity testing, 57.35% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant. More than 90% gram negative rods were resistant to amikacin. The resistance to the third generation cephalosporins varied between 50-55%. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was quite high; however, most of the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to piperacillin- tazobactum and imipenem.
Conclusion: The present study emphasized the importance of periodic surveys on the microbial flora which was encountered in particular neonatal settings to recognize the trend.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2012/4913.2672
PMCID: PMC3576753  PMID: 23450439
Septicaemia; Drug resistance; Antimicrobial sensitivity tests; S.aureus neonate; India
4.  The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, South-western Iran 
Background
The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.
Methods:
Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated organisms by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.
Results:
From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.
Conclusion:
The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this insect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.
PMCID: PMC4289511  PMID: 25629065
Supella longipalpa; Drug Resistant Bacteria; Iran
5.  Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1991;107(1):181-187.
A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi.
PMCID: PMC2272041  PMID: 1879483
6.  Treatment of Adult Femoral Shaft Fractures Using the Perkins Traction at Addis Ababa Tikur Anbessa University Hospital: The Ethiopian Experience 
International Surgery  2012;97(1):78-85.
This is a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of the Perkins traction in the treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures from October 1, 2007, to the present at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa University Hospital in Ethiopia. All femur fractures admitted to the hospital were reviewed and evaluated for treatment. Black Lion Hospital (Tikur Anbessa) is the university hospital in Addis Ababa and the highest tertiary teaching hospital in a country of 85 million inhabitants. A 67-bed orthopedic department offers the main ground for teaching to the undergraduate medical students. The hospital is also the pivotal center for the formation of the orthopedic residents. Patients from different parts of the country are referred to this institution for orthopedic care. A total of 68 adult (older than 16 years) patients with 69 femoral shaft fractures were considered for treatment during the study period. Consent was obtained and prospective treatment initiated. A standard Perkins traction was applied by an orthopedic team composed of consultants, orthopedic residents, physical therapists, and nurses. A protocol was developed for patients undergoing such traction. The physiotherapists will supervise all individual or group therapy sessions. Progressive knee range of motion to facilitate quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengthening exercises were implemented four times a day and recorded. Demographic information, fracture patterns, duration of traction, thigh circumference leg length discrepancy, and pin sites were routinely monitored and charted. Data were computerized and analyzed weekly, and appropriate adjustments were made accordingly. Clinical evidence of a competent callus and confirmation by radiographic studies will influence the cessation of traction to allow gait training with toe-touch crutch ambulation. Progress will be monitored during the following outpatient visits in the fracture clinic. A total of 68 consecutive patients with 69 femoral shaft fractures were treated with the Perkins traction. There were 60 men (88.2%) and only 8 women (11.8%), for a ratio of 8 men to 1 woman. The age of the cohort patient varied between 18 and 28 years. The mechanisms of injury for most of the fractures were motor vehicle accidents, resulting in an isolated femoral shaft fracture in 49.2% of the patients. Half of the fractures were by means of closed injury (n  =  44; 64.7%). One patient with a bilateral femoral shaft fracture was also added to the study. The right side was more often involved, with 41 fractures (60%), than the left, with 28 fractures (40%). Most of the fractures involved the proximal third of the femur (n  =  34; 50%), but the most common fracture pattern was transverse (n  =  29; 42.6%), followed by a comminuted pattern (n  =  18; 26.5%). Three segmental fractures were also encountered. The mean hospital stay was 45 days (33 patients; 48.5%), with the length of time in traction varying from 30 to 40 days. Only 2 patients remained in traction for a period of 60 days. At the end of the traction period, 8 patients (11.8%) showed a decrease in the quadriceps mass, and 7 patients (10.3%) showed stiffness of the knee with a range of motion limited to 0° to 90°. Most patients were discharged after about 8 months of treatment. One patient suffered a nonunion, and one was malunited. Superficial pin care infections were noted in 8 patients (11.8%) and treated appropriately. The conservative treatment of 69 femoral shaft fractures using the Perkins traction at Black Lion University Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has been proven to be a safe and effective method. It should be encouraged in countries like ours where it is a luxury to have a C-Arm in the operating room and where the hardware often is not available to perform a stable stabilization of the long bone fractures.
doi:10.9738/CC48.1
PMCID: PMC3723198  PMID: 23343307
Perkins traction; Femoral shaft fracture; Conservative treatment; Quadriceps and hamstring exercises
7.  Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and associated factors among HIV infected children in Ethiopia: unannounced home-based pill count versus caregivers’ report 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:132.
Background
The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers’ report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers’ report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers’ report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview.
Results
Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers’ forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses.
Conclusion
The level of adherence based on unannounced home-based pill count was unacceptably low. Interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence to ART among children at TAH. Besides, a longitudinal study measuring adherence combined with clinical parameters (viral load and CD4 count) is needed to identify a simple and reliable measure of adherence in the study area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-132
PMCID: PMC3766076  PMID: 24229394
Children; HAART; Adherence; Home-based unannounced pill count; Ethiopia
8.  Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana 
Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.
doi:10.4137/EHI.S12820
PMCID: PMC3795528  PMID: 24137051
cockroach; Klebsiella pneumoniae; hookworm; rotavirus; antibiotic resistance; nosocomial
9.  The prevalence of Group B Streptococus recto-vaginal colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pregnant mothers at two hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Reproductive Health  2014;11(1):80.
Background
Group B streptococcus (GBS) has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. GBS recto-vaginal colonization rates significantly vary among different communities and geographic locations. Limited data is available on the prevalence and effects of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among pregnant mothers in developing countries like Ethiopia.
Objective
To assess the prevalence of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among near term pregnant mothers and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates.
Methods
A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on pregnant mothers at gestational age of 35–37 weeks attending Ante Natal Clinics at Ghandi Memorial (GMH) and Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa. Samples from lower genital tract and rectum were collected and cultured for GBS on CHROM agar Strep B.
Results
Twenty two of the 300 pregnant mothers (7.2%) studied were found to have positive GBS recto-vaginal culture. Twelve isolates (55%) were sensitive to penicillin while 20 (91%) were sensitive to ampicilline. All isolates except one were sensitive to Erythromycin.
Conclusion
The study showed recto-vaginal GBS colonization among near term pregnant mothers is reasonably high in our community calling for the need to screen mothers near term and provide appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent potential adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-80
PMCID: PMC4265524  PMID: 25476269
Group B streptococcus (GBS); Recto-vaginal colonization; Prevalence
10.  Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended.
doi:10.1155/2014/439818
PMCID: PMC4140128  PMID: 25165583
11.  Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae 
Background
The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime.
Methods
One hundred and twenty-nine tubes were collected from two neonatal intensive care units (NICU). A questionnaire on feeding regime was completed with each sample. Enterobacteriaceae present in the tubes were identified using conventional and molecular methods, and their antibiograms determined.
Results
The neonates were fed breast milk (16%), fortified breast milk (28%), ready to feed formula (20%), reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, 6%), or a mixture of these (21%). Eight percent of tubes were received from neonates who were 'nil by mouth'. Organisms were isolated from 76% of enteral feeding tubes as a biofilm (up to 107 cfu/tube from neonates fed fortified breast milk and reconstituted PIF) and in the residual lumen liquid (up to 107 Enterobacteriaceae cfu/ml, average volume 250 μl). The most common isolates were Enterobacter cancerogenus (41%), Serratia marcescens (36%), E. hormaechei (33%), Escherichia coli (29%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (25%), Raoultella terrigena (10%), and S. liquefaciens (12%). Other organisms isolated included C. sakazakii (2%),Yersinia enterocolitica (1%),Citrobacter freundii (1%), E. vulneris (1%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1%), and P. luteola (1%). The enteral feeding tubes were in place between < 6 h (22%) to > 48 h (13%). All the S. marcescens isolates from the enteral feeding tubes were resistant to amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav. Of additional importance was that a quarter of E. hormaechei isolates were resistant to the 3rd generation cephalosporins ceftazidime and cefotaxime. During the period of the study, K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens caused infections in the two NICUs.
Conclusion
This study shows that neonatal enteral feeding tubes, irrespective of feeding regime, act as loci for the bacterial attachment and multiplication of numerous opportunistic pathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae family. Subsequently, these organisms will enter the stomach as a bolus with each feed. Therefore, enteral feeding tubes are an important risk factor to consider with respect to neonatal infections.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-146
PMCID: PMC2749046  PMID: 19723318
12.  Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):822.
Background
Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Methods
Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0).
Results
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.
Conclusion
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-822
PMCID: PMC4247656  PMID: 25409756
Bacterial vaginosis; Pregnancy; Prevalence
13.  Antimicrobial Resistance among Gram-Negative Bacilli Causing Infections in Intensive Care Unit Patients in the United States between 1993 and 2004▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(10):3352-3359.
During the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 74,394 gram-negative bacillus isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients in United States hospitals were determined by participating hospitals and collected in a central location. MICs for 12 different agents were determined using a standardized broth microdilution method. The 11 organisms most frequently isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%), Escherichia coli (18.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%), Acinetobacter spp. (6.2%), Serratia marcescens (5.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4.4%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.3%), Proteus mirabilis (4.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (2.7%), and Citrobacter freundii (2.0%). Specimen sources included the lower respiratory tract (52.1%), urine (17.3%), and blood (14.2%). Rates of resistance to many of the antibiotics tested remained stable during the 12-year study period. Carbapenems were the most active drugs tested against most of the bacterial species. E. coli and P. mirabilis remained susceptible to most of the drugs tested. Mean rates of resistance to 9 of the 12 drugs tested increased with Acinetobacter spp. Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin increased over the study period for most species. Ceftazidime was the only agent to which a number of species (Acinetobacter spp., C. freundii, E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and S. marcescens) became more susceptible. The prevalence of multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to at least one extended-spectrum cephalosporin, one aminoglycoside, and ciprofloxacin, increased substantially among ICU isolates of Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01284-07
PMCID: PMC2045364  PMID: 17715376
14.  Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Pediatric Patients: Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68144.
Background
Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are the most frequent type of nosocomial infection in pediatric patients.
Methods
We identified the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nosocomial bloodstream isolates in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age) in the Brazilian Prospective Surveillance for nBSIs at 16 hospitals from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010 (Br SCOPE project).
Results
In our study a total of 2,563 cases of nBSI were reported by hospitals participating in the Br SCOPE project. Among these, 342 clinically significant episodes of BSI were identified in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age). Ninety-six percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 49.0% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 42.6%, and fungi caused 8.4%. The most common pathogens were Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (9.2%). The crude mortality was 21.6% (74 of 342). Forty-five percent of nBSIs occurred in a pediatric or neonatal intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 95 patients (27.8%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (66.4%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 37 S. aureus isolates (27.1%). Of the Klebsiella spp. isolates, 43.2% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42.9% and 21.4%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem.
Conclusions
In our multicenter study, we found a high mortality and a large proportion of gram-negative bacilli with elevated levels of resistance in pediatric patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068144
PMCID: PMC3701648  PMID: 23861860
15.  Early- and Late-Onset Pneumonia: Is This Still a Useful Classification?▿  
The choice of empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive-care unit (ICU) used to rely on the interval after the start of mechanical ventilation. Nowadays, however, the question of whether in fact there is a difference in the distribution of causative pathogens is under debate. Data from 308 ICUs from the German National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System, including information on relevant pathogens isolated in 11,285 cases of nosocomial pneumonia from 1997 to 2004, were used for our evaluation. Each individual pneumonia case was allocated either to early- or to late-onset pneumonia, with three differentiation criteria: onset on the 4th day, the 5th day, or the 7th day in the ICU. The frequency of pathogens was evaluated according to these categories. A total of 5,066 additional cases of pneumonia were reported from 2005 to 2006, after the CDC criteria had been modified. From 1997 to 2004, the most frequent microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (2,718 cases, including 720 with methicillin [meticillin]-resistant S. aureus), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1,837 cases), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,305 cases), Escherichia coli (1,137 cases), Enterobacter spp. (937 cases), streptococci (671 cases), Haemophilus influenzae (509 cases), Acinetobacter spp. (493 cases), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (308 cases). The order of the four most frequent pathogens (accounting for 53.7% of all pathogens) was the same in both groups and was independent of the cutoff categories applied: S. aureus was first, followed by P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. Thus, the predictabilities of the occurrence of pathogens were similar for the earlier (1997-to-2004) and later (2005-to-2006) time frames. This classification is no longer helpful for empirical antibiotic therapy, since the pathogens are the same for both groups.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01070-08
PMCID: PMC2704703  PMID: 19364852
16.  The rising problem of antimicrobial resistance in the intensive care unit 
Mainly due to its extremely vulnerable population of critically ill patients, and the high use of (invasive) procedures, the intensive care unit (ICU) is the epicenter of infections. These infections are associated with an important rise in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The additional problem of multidrug-resistant pathogens boosts the adverse impact of infections in ICUs. Several factors influence the rapid spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens in the ICU, e.g., new mutations, selection of resistant strains, and suboptimal infection control. Among gram-positive organisms, the most important resistant microorganisms in the ICU are currently methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In gram-negative bacteria, the resistance is mainly due to the rapid increase of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Proteus species and high level third-generation cephalosporin Beta-lactamase resistance among Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp., and multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. To conclude, additional efforts are needed in the future to slow down the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Constant evaluation of current practice on basis of trends in MDR and antibiotic consumption patterns is essential to make progress in this problematic matter.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-47
PMCID: PMC3231873  PMID: 22112929
17.  Direct dilution sampling, quantitation, and microbial assessment of open-system ventilation circuits in intensive care units. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1983;17(5):870-877.
In a systematic approach, 37 duplicate samples of open system circuits (Bennett MA-1 ventilators) of patients in medical and surgical intensive care units were processed by direct and serial (APHA guidelines) dilutions. The paired difference test on 15 of the in-use circuitry solution samples indicated no difference between the direct and serial dilution methods (P less than 0.001). Seventy-seven additional respiratory therapy circuitry samples from similar intensive care patients were analyzed via a direct dilution method alone and processed microbiologically. The direct dilution procedure was a rapid and accurate means of evaluation of microbial contamination in the range of greater than or equal to 10 to less than or equal to 10(6) CFU/ml. High densities of organisms frequently were found. Sites of contamination included the proximal or patient end of the circuitry (heaviest), the nebulizer trap, and the distal or humidifier portions of the circuitry. The contaminants found were predominantly gram-negative nonfermenters: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. antitratus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas maltophilia, and Flavobacterium meningosepticum. Fermenters were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, and Enterobacter agglomerans. Infrequently, gram-positive Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were noted.
PMCID: PMC272758  PMID: 6575015
18.  Low prevalence of gastrointestinal colonization with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in high risk units in a Canadian tertiary care centre 
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among patients receiving care in high risk units in a Canadian tertiary care centre.
DESIGN:
Prevalence study over a four-month period in 1995 with rectal swab or freshly passed stool specimen collected from each patient included in study. Standardized record data extraction for selected patient variables was used.
SETTING:
Units at high risk for antimicrobial-resistant organisms at the Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, including neonatal (NICU), pediatric (PICU), surgical (SICU) and medical intensive care units (MICU), central dialysis unit (CDU), and the in-patient oncology ward (ONC).
PATIENTS:
One hundred and fifty-seven patients admitted to the high risk care units for at least 72 h were screened. Ward distribution was NICU 13 (8.3%), PICU nine (5.7%), SICU 24 (15.3%), MICU 19 (12.1%), CDU 62 (39.5%) and ONC 30 (19.1%). Fifty-one of 157 (32.5%) patients had urinary drainage devices, 108 (68.8%) had invasive vascular devices, and 57 (36.3%) had had a surgical procedure within the month before specimen collection. In the month before sampling, 114 (72.6%) had received antimicrobial therapy, including 21 (13.3%) who had received vancomycin, and 81 (51.5%) were receiving antimicrobials, seven (10.8%) vancomycin, on the day of sampling.
RESULTS:
Antimicrobial susceptibilities were performed on 371 bacterial isolates. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven (10.8%) enterococci were resistant to ampicillin, none of which were β-lactamase producers, 19 (18.6%) and five (4.9%) demonstrated high level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively. One (0.7%) Escherichia coli was resistant to ciprofloxacin and another to gentamicin. Six (20.7%) Enterobacter cloacae samples were resistant to cefotaxime. One (2.4%) Klebsiella species was resistant to ciprofloxacin and another to cefotaxime. Two (16.6%) Citrobacter species were resistant to cefotaxime. One of 11 (9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was resistant to ceftazidime; none were resistant to piperacillin, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or imipenem.
CONCLUSIONS:
The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing the gastrointestinal tract in patients in these high risk units is low. The reasons for this low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance require further exploration.
PMCID: PMC3327421  PMID: 22514455
Antimicrobial resistance; Dialysis unit; Enterococcus species; Intensive care unit; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
19.  Isolation of MRSA, ESBL and AmpC – β -lactamases from Neonatal Sepsis at a Tertiary Care Hospital 
Background and Objectives: The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs) in neonatal intensive care unit patients is increasing.
This study aims to find out the bacteriological profile in neonatal sepsis and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern including detection of MRSA and ESBLs.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for a period of one and a half years from January 2010 to June 2011 in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai. A total of 182 blood samples were collected using sterile precautions. They were processed following standard laboratory protocol. Antibiogram was done using appropriate antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Isolated Staphylococcus aureus were tested for methicillin resistance using Cefoxitin disc (30μg), ESBL was detected using combined disc method, MIC reduction and Polymerase chain reaction, metallobetalactamases using EDTA and Amp-C beta lactamases using AmpC disc test. C-reactive protein (CRP) was estimated for all the cases.
Results: Out of the 182 cases, 110 (60.4%) were culture positive. Fifty five (63.9 %) of early onset sepsis cases had Gram negative bacteria (GNB) and 19 (79.1%) of late onset sepsis cases had Gram positive bacteria. Out of the total pathogens, 31 (28.1%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae and 30 (27%) were Staphylococcus aureus.
17 (56.6 %) of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be MRSA and they were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin. 33 (67.3%) of Enterobacteriaceae were ESBL producers. ESBL isolates were 100% sensitive to Imipenem. Three (6.1%) of Enterobacteriaceae were AmpC producers and 3 (27.2%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were MBL producers. CRP was positive in 99 (54.3%) cases, out of which 94 (94.9%) were culture positive.
Conclusion: Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were the commonest bacteria causing neonatal sepsis in this centre. Multidrug resistance among the isolates was common. Early diagnosis and institution of specific antibiotics after studying the sensitivity pattern will help in reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality and prevent emergence of drug resistant strains.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8597.4512
PMCID: PMC4129330  PMID: 25120982
C-reactive protein; Extended spectrum beta lactamases; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Methicillin resistant; Neonatal sepsis; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus aureus
20.  Impact of enhanced infection control at two neonatal intensive care units in the Philippines 
Background
The growing burden of neonatal mortality due to hospital acquired neonatal sepsis in the developing world creates an urgent need for low cost effective infection control measures in low resource settings.
Methods
Using a pre/post comparison design, we measured how rates of staff hand hygiene compliance, colonization with resistant pathogens (defined as ceftazidime- and/or gentamicin-resistant gram-negative rods (GNRs) and resistant gram-positive cocci), bacteremia, and overall mortality changed following the introduction of a simplified package of infection control measures at two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Manila, the Philippines.
Results
Of 1828 NICU neonates admitted, 45.6% became newly colonized with resistant bacteria, 19.6% became bacteremic (78.2% from GNRs), and 33.6% died. 2903 resistant colonizing bacteria were identified of which 85% were resistant GNRs (predominantly Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp.) and 14% were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Contrasting control vs. intervention periods at each NICU, staff hand hygiene compliance improved (At NICU 1 RR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.5; At NICU 2 RR=1.6, 95% CI 1.4–2.0) and overall mortality declined (NICU 1 RR=0.5, 95%CI 0.4–0.6; NICU 2 RR=0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9). However, colonization with resistant pathogens and sepsis rates did not change significantly at either NICU.
Discussion
Nosocomial transmission of resistant pathogens was intense at these two Philippines NICUs and dominated by resistant GNRs. Infection control interventions are feasible and possibly effective in resource limited hospital settings.
doi:10.1086/594120
PMCID: PMC3866590  PMID: 19025496
Infection Control; Philippines; NICU; Drug Resistance; Hand Hygiene
21.  Current evidence on basic emergency obstetric and newborn care services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; a cross sectional study 
Background
Emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) is a high impact priority intervention highly recommended for improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes. In 2008, Ethiopia conducted a national EmONC survey that revealed implementation gaps, mainly due to resource constraints and poor competence among providers. As part of an ongoing project, this paper examined progress in the implementation of the basic EmONC (BEmONC) in Addis Ababa and compared with the 2008 survey.
Methods
A facility based intervention project was conducted in 10 randomly selected public health centers (HCs) in Addis Ababa and baseline data collected on BEmONC status from January to March 2013. Retrospective routine record reviews and facility observations were done in 29 HCs in 2008 and in10 HCs in 2013. Twenty-five providers in 2008 and 24 in 2013 participated in BEmONC knowledge and skills assessment. All the data were collected using standard tools. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used.
Results
In 2013, all the surveyed HCs had continuous water supply, reliable access to telephone, logbooks & phartograph. Fifty precent of the HCs in 2013 and 34% in 2008 had access to 24 hours ambulance services. The ratio of midwives to 100 expected births were 0.26 in 2008 and 10.3 in 2013. In 2008, 67% of the HCs had a formal fee waiver system while all the surveyed HCs had it in 2013. HCs reporting a consistent supply of uterotonic drugs were 85% in 2008 and 100% in 2013. The majority of the providers who participated in both surveys reported to have insufficient knowledge in diagnosing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and birth asphyxia as well as poor skills in neonatal resuscitation. Comparing with the 2008 survey, no significant improvements were observed in providers’ knowledge and competence in 2013 on PPH management and essential newborn care (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
There are advances in infrastructure, medical supplies and personnel for EmONC provision, yet poor providers’ competences have persisted contributing to the quality gaps on BEmONC in Addis Ababa. Considering short-term in-service trainings using novel approaches for ensuring desired competences for large number of providers in short time period is imperative.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-354
PMCID: PMC4287546  PMID: 25300789
Assessment; Basic; Care; Emergency; Knowledge; Neonatal; Obstetric; Skills
22.  Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Patients with Bloodstream Infection: Frequencies of Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (United States and Canada, 1997) 
The SENTRY Program was established in January 1997 to measure the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial and community-acquired infections over a broad network of sentinel hospitals in the United States (30 sites), Canada (8 sites), South America (10 sites), and Europe (24 sites). During the first 6-month study period (January to June 1997), a total of 5,058 bloodstream infections (BSI) were reported by North American SENTRY participants (4,119 from the United States and 939 from Canada). In both the United States and Canada, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common BSI isolates, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci. Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and β-hemolytic streptococci were also among the 10 most frequently reported species in both the United States and Canada. Although the rank orders of pathogens in the United States and Canada were similar, distinct differences were noted in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of several pathogens. Overall, U.S. isolates were considerably more resistant than those from Canada. The differences in the proportions of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (26.2 versus 2.7% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively), vancomycin-resistant enterococcal isolates (17.7 versus 0% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively), and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter sp. isolates (30.6 versus 6.2% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively) dramatically emphasize the relative lack of specific antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in the Canadian microbial population. Among U.S. isolates, resistance to oxacillin among staphylococci, to vancomycin among enterococci, to penicillin among pneumococci, and to ceftazidime among Enterobacter spp. was observed in both nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens, although in almost every instance the proportion of resistant strains was higher among nosocomial isolates. Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, and ongoing surveillance of microbial pathogens and resistance profiles is essential on national and international scales.
PMCID: PMC105680  PMID: 9661018
23.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of LJC 10,627. 
The in vitro activity of LJC 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. LJC 10,627 inhibited 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Haemophilus influenzae was inhibited by 0.5 microgram/ml, and moraxellae were inhibited by 0.12 microgram/ml. LJC 10,627 was twofold more active than imipenem against aerobic gram-negative organisms and inhibited ceftazidime-, cefotaxime-, and gentamicin-resistant members of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Xanthomonas maltophilia strains were resistant to the drug. Imipenem was two- to fourfold more active than LJC 10,627 against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. LJC 10,627 did not inhibit most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. LJC 10,627 inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis and other Bacteroides spp. were inhibited by 0.5 microgram of LJC 10,627 per ml. Serum (50%) did not affect the MICs. LJC 10,627 was not hydrolyzed by plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases of Bush types 2b, 2b', TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-5, TEM-7, TEM-9, and SHV-1; the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Bush type 1; P-99; a Morganella enzyme; or a Citrobacter freundii enzyme. The Bush type 2c and 2d enzymes OXA-1, OXA-2, PSE-1, PSE-2, and PSE-4 did not hydrolyze LJC 10,627, nor did the beta-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella spp., Bacteroides fragilis, and Proteus vulgaris. The beta-lactamase of Xanthomonas hydrolyzed LJC 10,627, albeit at approximately one-third the rate that imipenem was hydrolyzed.
PMCID: PMC191596  PMID: 1510436
24.  Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases among Gram-negative bacteria of nosocomial origin from an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary health facility in Tanzania 
Background
Resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to acquisition and expression of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among Gram-negative bacteria is on the increase. Presence of ESBL producing organisms has been reported to significantly affect the course and outcome of an infection. Therefore infections due to ESBL isolates continue to pose a challenge to infection management worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and to describe phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBLs in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting in Tanzania.
Methods
Between October 2002 and April 2003, clinical information and samples were collected from patients suspected to have nosocomial infections in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. The isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and analysed for presence of ESBL genes.
Results
Thirty-nine Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical samples of 39 patients. These isolates included 13 Escherichia coli, 12 Enterobacter spp, 5 Pseudomonas spp, 4 Proteus spp, 2 Klebsiella. pneumoniae, 2 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Chryseomonas luteola. Eleven (28.2%) of these isolates were ESBL producing. The ESBL genes characterised were SHV-12, SHV-28 and CTX-M-15. The ESBL producing isolates were more resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin than non-ESBL producing isolates.
Conclusion
This study shows the presence of ESBL genes among Gram-negative bacteria in the ICU setting in Tanzania. There is a need to institute strict hospital infection control policy and a regular surveillance of resistance to antimicrobial agents.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-86
PMCID: PMC1274314  PMID: 16225701
25.  Fluoroquinolones Protective against Cephalosporin Resistance in Gram-negative Nosocomial Pathogens 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(1):94-99.
In a matched case-control study, we studied the effect of prior receipt of fluoroquinolones on isolation of three third-generation cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. Two hundred eighty-two cases with a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogen (203 with Enterobacter spp., 50 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 29 with Klebsiella pneumoniae) were matched on length of stay to controls in a 1:2 ratio. Case-patients and controls were similar in age (mean 62 years) and sex (54% male). Variables predicting third-generation cephalosporin resistance were surgery (p = 0.005); intensive care unit stay (p < 0.001); and receipt of a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (p < 0.001), a ureidopenicillin (p = 0.002), or a third-generation cephalosporin (p < 0.001). Receipt of a fluoroquinolone was protective against isolation of a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogen (p = 0.005). Interventional studies are required to determine whether replacing third-generation cephalosporins with fluoroquinolones will be effective in reducing cephalosporin resistance and the effect of such interventions on fluoroquinolone resistance.
doi:10.3201/eid1001.020663
PMCID: PMC3322754  PMID: 15078603
Fluoroquinolones; cephalosporins; antimicrobial drug resistance; gram-negative bacterial infections; nosocomial infections; Enterobacter; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella pneumoniae

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