The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 1,089 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from 39 laboratories across Canada between October 1994 and August 1995 were determined. A total of 91 isolates (8.4%) demonstrated intermediate resistance (MIC, 0.1 to 1.0 microgram/ml) and 36 (3.3%) had high-level resistance (MIC, > or = 2.0 micrograms/ml) to penicillin. Penicillin-resistant strains were more likely to have been recovered from normally sterile sites (P = 0.005) and to be cross-resistant to several beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there has been a recent significant increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Canada.
Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context.
Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach.
Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1) funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2) the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership); 3) inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4) a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity.
The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future.
The International Circumpolar Surveillance network is a population-based surveillance system that collects data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Northern Canada. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first introduced in some regions of Northern Canada in 2002, followed by 10-valent (2009) and 13-valent (PCV-13) vaccines (2010). A 23-valent polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine was first introduced in 1988 for special populations and adults aged 65 years and older. To describe the epidemiology in the context of pneumococcal vaccination programs, we analysed surveillance data from Northern Canada from 1999 to 2010.
A standardized case report form capturing demographic and clinical information was completed for all IPD cases in Northern Canada meeting the national case definition. Isolates were sent to a reference laboratory for confirmation, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance testing. Both laboratory and epidemiological data were sent to the Public Health Agency of Canada for analysis. Population denominators were obtained from Statistics Canada.
From 1999 to 2010, 433 IPD cases were reported (average 36 cases per year). Incidence was greatest among infants aged <2 years and among those aged 65 years and older, with an average annual incidence of 133 and 67 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. After a peak in incidence in 2008, rates among infants have declined. Incidence rates varied from 2 to 16 times greater, depending on the year, among Aboriginals compared to non-Aboriginals. Hospitalization was reported in 89% of all cases and the case fatality ratio was 6.0%. Clinical manifestations varied, with some patients reporting >1 manifestation. Pneumonia was the most common (70%), followed by bacteremia/septicaemia (30%) and meningitis (8%). Approximately, 42% of cases aged <2 years in 2009 and 2010 had serotypes covered by the PCV-13. In addition, the majority (89%) of serotypes isolated in cases aged 65 years and older were included in the PPV-23 vaccine.
IPD continues to be a major cause of disease in Northern Canadian populations, with particularly high rates among infants and Aboriginals. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine programs. Additional studies investigating factors that predispose infants and Aboriginal peoples would also be beneficial.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Canadian circumpolar region; surveillance; epidemiology; vaccine preventable disease
The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs.
A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC) sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD) to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada) and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.
To establish national prevalence rates of N-CDAD.
For six weeks in 1997, selected CHEC sites tested all diarrheal stools from inpatients for either C difficile toxin or C difficile bacteria with evidence of toxin production. Questionnaires were completed for patients with positive stool assays who met the case definitions.
Nineteen health care facilities in eight provinces participated in the project. The overall prevalence of N-CDAD was 13.0% (95% CI 9.5% to 16.5%). The mean number of N-CDAD cases were 66.3 cases/100,000 patient days (95% CI 37.5 to 95.1) and 5.9 cases/1000 patient admissions (95% CI 3.4 to 8.4). N-CDAD was found most frequently in older patients and those who had been hospitalized for longer than two weeks in medical or surgical wards.
This national prevalence surveillance project, which established N-CDAD rates, is useful as 'benchmark' data for Canadian health care facilities, and in understanding the patterns and impact of N-CDAD.
Canada; CDAD; Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; Hospital; Nosocomial diarrhea; Prevalence
More and more school-aged children in Canada and elsewhere are becoming overweight or obese. Many countries are now reporting a similar trend among preschool children. However, little information is available on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children in Canada. In addition, available data are based on reported rather than measured heights and weights. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, using measured heights and weights, in the 1997 cohort of children aged 3–5 years born in Newfoundland and Labrador.
We calculated the body mass indices (BMIs) using heights and weights measured by public health nurses during the province-wide Preschool Health Check Program conducted between October 2000 and January 2003. Descriptive data on the children's BMIs and prevalence estimates were generated and analyzed by sex and age with the use of the classification system recommended by the International Obesity Task Force.
Data were available for 4161 of the 5428 children born in 1997; boys and girls were equally represented (50.1% and 49.9% respectively). Overall, 25.6% of the preschool children in the cohort were overweight or obese. The rates did not differ significantly by sex or age group
These results indicate that a high proportion of children aged 3–5 years in Newfoundland and Labrador are overweight or obese. It appears that prevention measures should begin before the age of 3 years.
We evaluated the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae resistance to selected antimicrobials used in Canada. From 1985 to 1987, 2503 H. influenzae isolates obtained in 14 hospitals across Canada were sent to the Centre hospitalier de l'université Laval (CHUL) for identification, serotyping, biotyping and testing for beta-lactamase production. Susceptibility tests were done with the use of 12 antibiotics. Of the strains 424 (16.9%) produced beta-lactamase; the proportion varied from 12.8%, in Newfoundland, to 19.6%, in Ontario. Of the strains 18.3% were type b; 19.4% of those produced beta-lactamase. Almost 82% of the strains were not type b. The proportion of beta-lactamase-producing strains varied according to the isolation site, from 15.3% in the respiratory tract to 25.6% in the blood. The overall level of resistance was 19.3% to ampicillin, 24.2% to erythromycin, 3.8% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 1.7% to amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate, 1.4% to cefaclor, 1.3% to tetracycline, 1.0% to rifampin, 0.7% to cefuroxime and 0.1% to cefamandole. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing revealed 64 strains (2.6%) that did not produce beta-lactamase but were resistant to ampicillin and 9 (0.4%) that produced beta-lactamase but were susceptible to ampicillin. The results of beta-lactamase production tests were identical regardless of whether the tests were done by the CHUL or by the other hospitals, but there was a marked difference in the susceptibility test results between the CHUL and the other centres. Our results suggest that the level of resistance of H. influenzae to antibiotics is increasing in Canada and that the initial choice of drug therapy may have to be modified.
OBJECTIVE. To determine the number of neurosurgeons in clinical practice in Canada on Jan. 1, 1996, and their practice profile and to determine requirements for 2001 and 2011. DESIGN. Telephone survey and national mail survey. SETTING. Canada. PARTICIPANTS. All 174 neurosurgeons in Canada engaged in active clinical practice on Jan. 1, 1996, and all residents enrolled in neurosurgery training programs in Canada during the 1995-96 academic year. OUTCOME MEASURES. Demographic characteristics, full-time equivalents, workload, attrition, reasons for exit, vacancies, supply and shortfall. RESULTS. All 174 neurosurgeons responded to the survey. There is a chronic shortage of 25 neurosurgeons in Canada. Sixty-two established neurosurgeons will have stopped practice by 2001 and 181 by 2011. They will need to be replaced, for a total requirement of 87 and 206 neurosurgeons by 2001 and 2011 respectively. Canadian neurosurgery training programs can currently generate only up to 69 and 177 graduates by 2001 and 2011 respectively. During the period 1985-95, 50% of neurosurgery graduates emigrated from Canada within 2 years of obtaining certification, creating potential deficits of up to 52 and 117 neurosurgeons by 2001 and 2011 respectively. CONCLUSIONS. Strategies need to be developed quickly to address not only the chronic shortfall but also the attrition of established neurosurgeons. Strategies to increase and retain the number of Canadian neurosurgery graduates are also needed.
Over the past 15 years, repeated national meetings have developed recommendations for a Canadian antimicrobial resistance strategy. Despite this, in 2011 there is no comprehensive, integrated national program with appropriate governance and funding to address antimicrobial resistance.
The Public Health Agency of Canada supports a reference laboratory for diagnosis and characterization of selected resistant strains, targeted surveillance programs which monitor resistance trends for selected animal and human organisms, development of national infection control guidelines including for antimicrobial resistant organisms, and a few local pilot projects to address community acquired MRSA. Sporadic programs of variable intensity and quality are supported by some provinces, health regions and individual facilities but these are not comprehensive, standardized or integrated. Individual researchers and research groups, however, have published substantial information describing the prevalence and impact of resistance in Canada.
Current review of activities by the Public Health Agency of Canada and initiatives by the National Coordinating Centre for Infectious Diseases may move the country forward in developing an effective national approach to address antimicrobial resistance.
antimicrobial resistance; Canada; antimicrobial stewardship
To describe rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Salmonella and Shigella isolates reported in five Canadian provinces, focusing on clinically important antimicrobials.
The authors retrospectively investigated AMR rates among 6219 Salmonella and 1673 Shigella isolates submitted to provincial public health laboratories in Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan from 1997 to 2000; these isolates were estimated to represent 41% of Salmonella cases and 72% of Shigella cases reported by the study provinces.
Among Salmonella isolates, 27% (1704 of 6215) were resistant to ampicillin, 2.2% (135 of 6122) to trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, 1.5% (14 of 938) to nalidixic acid, 1.2% (one of 84) to lomafloxacin and 0.08% (five of 6163) to ciprofloxacin. Among Shigella isolates, 70% (1144 of 1643) were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 65% (1079 of 1672) to ampicillin, 3.1% (eight of 262) to nalidixic acid, 0.49% (eight of 1636) to ciprofloxacin, 0.14% (one of 700) to ceftriaxone and 0.08% (one of 1292) to ceftazidime.
Higher rates of resistance to clinically important antimicrobials (including ciprofloxacin) were observed among both Salmonella and Shigella isolates than has previously been reported. Current Canadian data on rates of AMR for these pathogens are required.
Canada; Drug resistance; Microbial; Salmonella; Shigella
The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and tag was observed on 43% of the hides. Both brands and tag had increased from 1995. Seventy percent of the cattle were polled and 5% had full horns; thus, the number of horned cattle had decreased from 1995. Bruises were found on 54% of the carcasses, which was a decrease from 78% in 1995. Sixty-eight percent of the bruises were minor, 28% major, and 4% critical in severity. The distribution of bruises on the carcass was 17% on the chuck, 36% on the rib, 30% on the loin, and 16% on the round. Grubs were observed on 0.008% of the carcasses, and surface injection site lesions were observed on 0.2% of the whole carcasses, a decrease from the 1.3% seen in 1995. Seventy-two percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 14% were condemned. Approximately 64% of the liver losses were due to abscesses. Five percent of the heads and tongues and 0.3% of the whole carcasses were condemned. The hot carcass weight was highly variable in all cattle, averaging 353 kg (s = 43). The average ribeye area was 90 cm2 (s = 13). Both hot carcass weight and ribeye area had increased from 1995. The average grade fat was 9 mm (s = 5), ranging from 0 mm to 48 mm. Lean meat yield averaged 58.8% (s = 4.6). One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 17% were Canada A, 49% were Canada AA, 32% were Canada AAA, and 1% were Canada Prime, which was an increase in marbling from 1995. Dark cutters were found in 1% of all carcasses; 1% of steers, 0.5% of heifers, 3% of cows, and 14% of bulls. Three percent of the carcasses were underfinished and 13% were overfinished. The number of overfinished carcasses had increased from 1995. Stages, steers with bullish traits, were infrequently observed in 0.5% of the steers, and 0.2% of the steers and 0.3% of the heifers had poor conformation. Yellow fat was not observed in any steers or heifers, but it was found on 65% of the cow carcasses. Only 0.6% of the heifers had an aged carcass, based on skeletal maturity. Based on August 1998 to July 1999 prices, it was estimated that the Canadian beef industry lost $82.62 per head processed, or $274 million annually, from quality nonconformities, which was an increase from 1995. Additional improvements in management, feeding, handling, genetics, marketing, and grading are needed in the beef industry to reduce quality defects.
In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.
cultural competency; diversity; education; medical; undergraduate
The present report is an update on the contribution of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program’s (CHEP) Outcomes Research Task Force to the surveillance and monitoring efforts surrounding hypertension and hypertension-related conditions in Canada. Components of the program include advocating national physical measures surveys of blood pressure; analysis of national cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based health surveys that assess hypertension diagnosis and treatment; assessment of national and regional pharmacotherapy patterns using existing commercial databases; assessment of national and regional trends in hypertensive complications (stroke, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); development of a national system based on provincial administrative data to assess the incidence, prevalence and management of diagnosed hypertension; and assessing some aspects of CHEP implementation. Preliminary data support a large increase in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension corresponding to the initiation of CHEP.
: Blood pressure control; Cerebrovascular disease; Congestive heart failure; Drug therapy; Epidemiology; Guidelines; Health services research; High blood pressure; Hypertension; Stroke; Surveillance
Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT) and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT.
We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date.
We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.
A Canadian adult with bacteremic pneumonia caused by a relatively penicillin-resistant (minimal inhibitory concentration 0.25 μg/mL) Streptococcus pneumoniae is reported, and the published literature regarding penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Canada reviewed. Although penicillin resistance has been reported infrequently to date, this case emphasizes the need for routine antimicrobial sensitivity testing of all pneumococci isolated from normally sterile sites, and for ongoing systematic surveillance for penicillin and other antibiotic resistance in Canada.
Penicillin-resistant pneumococci; Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae; Pneumococci; Streptococcus pneumoniae
To explore and describe philosophies and characteristics of intensive eating disorder (ED) treatment programs based in tertiary care institutions across Canada.
A ninety-item survey examining ED services for adolescents was developed, piloted, and completed by 11 programs across Canada. Information pertaining to program characteristics and components, governance, staffing, referrals, assessments, therapeutic modalities in place, nutritional practices, and treatment protocols were collected.
The results highlight the diversity of programming available but also the lack of a unified approach to intensive eating disorder treatment in youth.
This report provides important baseline data that offers a framework that programs can use to come together to establish assessment and treatment protocols as well as a process for outcome evaluation. Continued collaboration will be essential moving forward to ensure Canadian youth, regardless of geographic location, receive the necessary treatment required to attain and sustain recovery.
eating disorder; survey; intensive treatment; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; trouble alimentaire; sondage; traitement intensif; anorexie mentale; boulimie
Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance.
National health surveys are sometimes used to provide estimates on risk factors for policy and program development at the regional/local level. However, as regional/local needs may differ from national ones, an important question is how to also enhance capacity for risk factor surveillance regionally/locally.
A Think Tank Forum was convened in Canada to discuss the needs, characteristics, coordination, tools and next steps to build capacity for regional/local risk factor surveillance. A series of follow up activities to review the relevant issues pertaining to needs, characteristics and capacity of risk factor surveillance were conducted.
Results confirmed the need for a regional/local risk factor surveillance system that is flexible, timely, of good quality, having a communication plan, and responsive to local needs. It is important to conduct an environmental scan and a gap analysis, to develop a common vision, to build central and local coordination and leadership, to build on existing tools and resources, and to use innovation.
Findings of the Think Tank Forum are important for building surveillance capacity at the local/county level, both in Canada and globally. This paper provides a follow-up review of the findings based on progress over the last 4 years.
Public health surveillance; Capacity building; Behavioural risk factors
This 2008 Symposium of the Canadian Association of University Surgeons (CAUS) brought together surgeons from a number of jurisdictions to discuss generalism in general surgery and its future. Dr. John Birkmeyer, the 2008 Charles Tator lecturer, started the symposium by framing the problem: the need to improve surgical outcomes, selective referral, centres of excellence, process compliance and performance feedback. Dr. John Bohnen, chair of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s (RCPSC) General Surgical Specialty Committee, underscored the mismatch between the provision of care and regional Canadian patient needs. By measuring structure and process and maintaining a national dialogue, solutions to potential care inequities will be found. Dr. Bill Fitzgerald, president of the RCPSC and past president of the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS), defined the enormous breadth in the scope of practice that is available to general surgeons across Canada. He highlighted the importance of the community surgeon not only in his or her specialty but also as a vital trainer of students, residents and international medical graduates. He identified the importance of general surgery in the country’s military mission. He called for a thorough re-examination of the compensation model to ensure equity and recognition of diversity. Dr. Bill Pollett, president of CAUS, identified the alternative types of practice encountered in communities of 50 000 or less. Surveys of members and trainees of the CAGS showed how much postfellowship training is done, and that whereas the perception is one of diminished quality of life and less remuneration, the nature of community general surgery makes it a highly desirable career choice. He called for focused community general surgical training to recognize the unique demands compared with urban and large city practices.
These recommendations are the result of a national, multidisciplinary, year-long process to discuss whether and how to proceed with organ donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) in Canada. A national forum was held in February 2005 to discuss and develop recommendations on the principles, procedures and practice related to DCD, including ethical and legal considerations. At the forum's conclusion, a strong majority of participants supported proceeding with DCD programs in Canada. The forum also recognized the need to formulate and emphasize core values to guide the development of programs and protocols based on the medical, ethical and legal framework established at this meeting.
Although end-of-life care should routinely include the opportunity to donate organs and tissues, the duty of care toward dying patients and their families remains the dominant priority of health care teams. The complexity and profound implications of death are recognized and should be respected, along with differing personal, ethnocultural and religious perspectives on death and donation. Decisions around withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies, management of the dying process and the determination of death by cardiocirculatory criteria should be separate from and independent of donation and transplant processes.
The recommendations in this report are intended to guide individual programs, regional health authorities and jurisdictions in the development of DCD protocols. Programs will develop based on local leadership and advance planning that includes education and engagement of stakeholders, mechanisms to assure safety and quality and public information. We recommend that programs begin with controlled DCD within the intensive care unit where (after a consensual decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapy) death is anticipated, but has not yet occurred, and unhurried consent discussions can be held. Uncontrolled donation (where death has occurred after unanticipated cardiac arrest) should only be considered after a controlled DCD program is well established. Although we recommend that programs commence with kidney donation, regional transplant expertise may guide the inclusion of other organs. The impact of DCD, including pre-and post-mortem interventions, on donor family experiences, organ availability, graft function and recipient survival should be carefully documented and studied.
In October 2006, federal funding was announced for the development of a national strategy to fight cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada. The comprehensive, independent, stakeholder-driven Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan (CHHS-AP) was delivered to the Minister of Health on February 24, 2009.
The mandate of CHHS-AP Theme Working Group (TWG) 6 was to identify the optimal chronic disease management model that incorporated timely access to rehabilitation services and end-of-life planning and care. The purpose of the present paper was to provide an overview of worldwide approaches to CVD and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) strategies and recommendations for CR care in Canada, within the context of the well-known Chronic Care Model (CCM). A separate paper will address end-of-life issues in CVD.
TWG 6 was composed of content representatives, primary care representatives and patients. Input in the area of Aboriginal and indigenous cardiovascular health was obtained through individual expert consultation. Information germane to the present paper was gathered from international literature and best practice guidelines. The CCM principles were discussed and agreed on by all. Prioritization of recommendations and overall messaging was discussed and decided on within the entire TWG. The full TWG report was presented to the CHHS-AP Steering Committee and was used to inform the recommendations of the CHHS-AP.
Specific actionable recommendations for CR are made in accordance with the key principles of the CCM.
The present CR blueprint, as part of the CHHS-AP, will be a first step toward reducing the health care burden of CVD in Canada.
Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan; Cardiac rehabilitation; Chronic care model
Antimicrobial stewardship is an emerging field currently defined by a series of strategies and interventions aimed toward improving appropriate prescription of antibiotics in humans in all healthcare settings. The ultimate goal is the preservation of current and future antibiotics against the threat of antimicrobial resistance, although improving patient safety and reducing healthcare costs are important concurrent aims. Prospective audit and feedback interventions are probably the most widely practiced of all antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Although labor-intensive, they are more easily accepted by physicians compared with formulary restriction and preauthorization strategies and have a higher potential for educational opportunities. Objective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship is critical for determining the success of such programs. Nonetheless, there is controversy over which outcomes to measure and there is a pressing need for novel study designs that can objectively assess antimicrobial stewardship interventions despite the limitations inherent in the structure of most such programs.
antimicrobial stewardship; prospective audit and feedback; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; cost effectiveness; quasi-experimental study design
Canada is facing a childhood obesity epidemic. Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major complication of obesity. Reports on the impact of excess adiposity on BP in children and adolescents have varied significantly across studies. We evaluated the independent effects of obesity, physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic status on BP in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents.
We analysed cross-sectional data for 1850 children aged 6 to 17 years who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Cycle 1, 2007–2009. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were age-, sex-, and height-adjusted to z-scores (SBPZ and DBPZ). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated based on World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the independent effects of relevant variables on SBPZ and DBPZ.
For most age/sex groups, obesity was positively associated with SBP. Being obese was associated with higher DBP in adolescent boys only. The BP effect of obesity showed earlier in young girls than boys. Obese adolescents were estimated to have an average 7.6 mmHg higher SBP than normal weight adolescents. BMI had the strongest effect on BP among obese children and adolescents. Moderately active adolescent boys had higher SBP (3.9 mmHg) and DBP (4.9 mmHg) than physically active boys. Family history of hypertension showed effects on SBP and DBP in younger girls and adolescent boys. Both family income and parent education demonstrated independent associations with BP in young children.
Our findings demonstrate the early impact of excess adiposity, insufficient physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic inequalities on BP. Early interventions to reduce childhood obesity can, among other things, reduce exposure to prolonged BP elevation and the future risk of cardiovascular disease.
Family physicians are not adequately following the 2002 Osteoporosis Canada guidelines for providing optimal care to patients with osteoporosis.
OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM
The Canadian Quality Circle (CQC) pilot project was developed to assess the feasibility of the CQC project design and to gather informationfor implementing a national study of quality circles (QCs). The national study would assess whether use ofQCs could improve family physicians’ adherence to the osteoporosis guidelines.
The pilot project enrolled 52 family physicians and involved 7 QCs. The project had 3 phases: training and baseline data collection, educational intervention and follow-up data collection, and sessions on implementing strategies for care.
Findings from the pilot study showed that the CQC project was well designed and well received. Use of QCs appeared to be feasible for transferring knowledge and giving physicians an opportunity to analyze work-related problems and develop solutions to them.
Suboptimum blood pressure is estimated to be the leading risk factor for death worldwide and is associated with 13.5% of deaths globally. The clinical diagnosis of hypertension affects one in four adults globally and is expected to increase by 60% between 2000 and 2025. Clearly, global efforts to prevent and control hypertension are important health issues. While Canada had a prevalence of hypertension similar to that of the United States in the early 1990s, the treatment and control rate was only 13% compared with 25% in the United States. A national strategic plan was developed, and a coalition of organizations and health care professional and scientist volunteers actively implemented parts of the strategy. Specific initiatives that have evolved include the development of hypertension knowledge translation programs for health professionals, the public and people with hypertension, an outcomes research program to assess the impact of hypertension and guide national-, regional- and community-based knowledge translation interventions, and a program to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by decreasing sodium additives in food. These initiatives have relied on the active involvement of health care professional volunteers, health care professional and scientific organizations and various government departments. There have been large increases in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with corresponding reductions in cardiovascular disease and total mortality associated with the start of the hypertension initiatives. As a result, Canada is becoming recognized as a world leader in the prevention, treatment and control of hypertension.
Education; Epidemiology; High blood pressure; Hypertension; Knowledge translation