The aim of this study was to determine the decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in elderly persons and to compare estimates based on creatinine and cystatin C.
In the Cardiovascular Health Study, GFR changes in an elderly cohort were estimated from serum creatinine and cystatin C measured at baseline, year 3 and year 7 in 4,380 participants (age 72 ± 5 years at entry). Outcomes were mean eGFR decline, incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and rapid decline in eGFR (annual loss >3 ml/min/1.73 m2).
Mean annual eGFR loss as estimated from creatinine was 0.4 ± 3.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, with 16% of the participants experiencing a rapid decline. Mean eGFR loss as estimated from cystatin C was 1.8 ± 2.6, with 25% of the participants experiencing a rapid decline (p < 0.001 for both). Among participants without baseline CKD, incident CKD was detected at year 7 in 10% (n = 263) using creatinine and 19% (n = 544) using cystatin C (p < 0.001). Increasing age was the strongest predictor of rapid decline; adjusted odds ratios were 1.38 (1.16–1.65), 1.62 (1.31–1.99) and 2.96 (2.28–3.84) for participants aged 70–74, 75–79 and 80+ at baseline, compared with those aged 65–69.
In elderly persons, cystatin C estimated substantially larger declines in kidney function than creatinine did. Defining the optimal measurement of kidney function in elderly persons should be a high priority for future research.
Glomerular filtration rate; Creatinine; Cystatin C; Chronic kidney disease
To examine long-term effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on kidney function, we evaluated the incidence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among ART-naive, HIV-infected adults and compared changes in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) before and after starting ART.
Multicenter observational cohort study of patients with at least one serum creatinine measurement before and after initiating ART. Cox proportional hazard models, and marginal structure models examined CKD risk factors; mixed-effects linear models examined eGFR slopes.
Three thousand, three hundred and twenty-nine patients met entry criteria, contributing 10 099 person-years of observation on ART. ART was associated with a significantly slower rate of eGFR decline (from −2.18 to −1.37 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; P = 0.02). The incidence of CKD defined by eGFR thresholds of 60, 45 and 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 10.5, 3.4 and 1.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. In adjusted analyses black race, hepatitis C coinfection, lower time-varying CD4 cell count and higher time-varying viral load on ART were associated with higher CKD risk, and the magnitude of these risks increased with more severe CKD. Tenofovir and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (rPI) was also associated with higher CKD risk [hazard odds ratio for an eGFR threshold <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2: 3.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40–8.02)], which developed in 5.7% of patients after 4 years of exposure to this regimen-type.
ART was associated with reduced CKD risk in association with CD4 cell restoration and plasma viral load suppression, despite an increased CKD risk that was associated with initial regimens that included tenofovir and rPI.
antiretroviral therapy; chronic kidney disease; tenofovir
We tested the hypothesis that impaired kidney function in the elderly is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline.
Baseline serum was used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, for 886 elderly without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a prospective, observational cohort study. Kidney function was also dichotomized into impairment or no impairment based on eGFR < or ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Structured cognitive testing was performed at baseline and at annual evaluations, using a battery of 19 cognitive tests summarized into global cognition and 5 cognitive domains.
In mixed-effects models adjusted for age, sex, and education, a lower eGFR at baseline was associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline (estimate 0.0008, SE <0.001, p = 0.017). The increased rate of cognitive decline associated with a 15-mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR at baseline (approximately 1 SD) was similar to the effect of being 3 years older at baseline. Impaired kidney function at baseline was associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline (estimate −0.028, SE <0.009, p = 0.003). The increased rate of cognitive decline associated with impaired kidney function at baseline was approximately 75% the effect of ApoE4 allele on the rate of cognitive decline. Baseline kidney function was associated with declines in semantic memory, episodic memory, and working memory but not visuospatial abilities or perceptual speed.
Impaired kidney function is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline in old age.
= Alzheimer disease;
= body mass index;
= estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Kidney function decline in elderly persons may be the result of microvascular atherosclerosis. As a proxy for the renovascular system, we evaluated the association of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) with kidney function decline.
This study included 4,380 subjects from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal, community-based cohort of persons aged ≥ 65 from 4 U.S. communities. Creatinine and cystatin C were measured at baseline, year 3, and year 7; eligible subjects had at least two measures. Creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreat) was calculated using the MDRD equation. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual eGFR loss >3 mL/min/1.73m2. Predictors of rapid kidney decline included prevalent and subclinical measures of CVD.
Mean decline in eGFRcreat was 0.4 ± 2.6/year; 714 (16%) had rapid progression. In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammation, prevalent stroke (OR, 95% CI; 1.55, 1.16–2.08) and heart failure (OR, 95% CI: 1.80, 1.40–2.31) were independent predictors of rapid kidney decline. Among persons without clinical CV, the subclinical disease measures ankle arm index < 0.9 (OR, 95% CI: 1.67, 1.25–2.24), common carotid intima-media thickness (≥ 1.14mm) (OR, 95% CI: 1.52, 1.12–2.06) and internal carotid intima-media thickness (>1.82mm) (OR, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.12–2.02) had independent associations with rapid kidney function decline. Results were similar using cystatin C.
Clinical atherosclerosis and heart failure and subclinical measures of CVD have independent associations with kidney function decline progression in the elderly, suggesting an underlying role of renal atherosclerosis.
Cystatin C; kidney disease; atherosclerosis
Impaired kidney function is associated with increased mortality risk in older adults. It remains unknown, however, whether longitudinal declines in kidney function are independently associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in older adults.
The Cardiovascular Health Study evaluated a cohort of community-dwelling older adults enrolled from 1989 to 1993 in 4 US communities with follow-up through 2005. Among 4380 participants, the slope of annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using both serum creatinine (eGFRcreat) and cystatin C (eGFRcys) rates, which were measured at baseline, year 3, and year 7 of follow-up. Rapid decline in eGFR was defined as a loss greater than 3 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were assessed over a mean of 9.9 years of follow-up.
Mean (SD) levels of creatinine and cystatin C were 0.93 (0.30) mg/dL and 1.03 (0.25) mg/L, respectively; mean (SD) eGFRcreat and eGFRcys were 79 (23) mL/min/1.73 m2 and 79 (19) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Individuals with rapid decline measured by eGFRcreat (n=714; 16%) had increased risk of cardiovascular (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–2.06) and all-cause (AHR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.54–1.94) mortality. Individuals with rapid decline measured by eGFRcys (n=1083; 25%) also had increased risk of cardiovascular (AHR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.29–1.80) and all-cause (AHR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.38–1.69) mortality. The association of rapid decline in eGFR with elevated mortality risk did not differ across subgroups based on baseline kidney function, age, sex, race, or prevalent coronary heart disease.
Rapid decline in eGFR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in older adults, independent of baseline eGFR and other demographic variables.
The association of subclinical vascular disease and early declines in kidney function has not been well studied.
Prospective cohort study
Setting & Participants
MESA participants with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 with follow-up of 5 years
Pulse pressure (pulse pressure), small and large arterial elasticity (SAE, LAE), and flow mediated dilation.
kidney function decline
SAE and LAE were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. Kidney function was measured by serum creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR.
Among 4,853 adults, higher pulse pressure and lower SAE and LAE had independent and linear associations with faster rates of kidney function decline. Compared to persons with pulse pressure 40–50mmHg, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.29 (p=0.006), 0.56 (p<0.001), and 0.91 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster among persons with pulse pressure 50–60, 60–70, and >70mmHg, respectively. Compared to the highest quartile of SAE (most elastic), eGFRSCysC decline was 0.26 (p=0.009), 0.35 (p=0.001), and 0.70 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for the second, third and fourth quartiles respectively. For LAE, compared to the highest quartile, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.28 (p=0.004), 0.58 (p<0.001), and 0.83 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for each decreasing quartile of LAE. Findings were similar with creatinine-based eGFR. In contrast, among 2,997 adults with flow-mediated dilation and kidney function measures, flow-mediated dilation was not significantly associated with kidney function decline. For every 1-SD greater flow-mediated dilation, eGFRSCysC and eGFRSCr changed by 0.05 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.3) and 0.06 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.04), respectively.
We had no direct measure of GFR, in common with nearly all large population based studies.
Higher pulse pressure and lower arterial elasticity, but not flow-mediated dilation, were linearly and independently associated with faster kidney function decline among persons with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Future studies investigate whether treatments to lower stiffness of large and small arteries may slow the rate of kidney function loss.
kidney function; arterial elasticity; chronic kidney disease; atherosclerosis
Dyslipidemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The role of statin therapy on the progression of kidney disease is unclear.
Prospective randomized clinical trial, post hoc analyses.
Setting and participants
10,060 participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) (lipid-lowering component) stratified by baseline eGFR: <60, 60–89, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean follow-up was 4.8 years.
Randomized, pravastatin 40 mg/day or usual care.
Outcomes and measurements
Total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol; end stage renal disease (ESRD), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Through year six, total cholesterol declined in the pravastatin (−20.7%) and usual care groups (−11.2%). No significant differences were seen between the groups for rates of ESRD (1.36 vs 1.45/100 patient years, P=0.9), composite endpoints of ESRD and 50% or 25% decline in eGFR, or rate of change of eGFR. Findings were consistent across eGFR strata. In patients with eGFR≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2, the pravastatin arm tended to have a higher eGFR.
Proteinuria data unavailable, post hoc analyses, unconfirmed validity of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation in normal eGFR range, statin drop-in rate in usual care group with small cholesterol differential between groups.
In hypertensive patients with moderate dyslipidemia and reduced eGFR, pravastatin was not superior to usual care in preventing clinical renal outcomes. This was consistent across the strata of baseline eGFR. However, benefit from statin therapy may depend on degree of cholesterol reduction achieved.
hyperlipidemia; glomerular filtration rate; pravastatin
Background. Kidney disease is a risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease in older adults, but the separate and combined effects of albuminuria and cystatin C, a novel marker of glomerular filtration, are not known.
Methods. We examined associations of these markers with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes during a median follow-up of 8.3 years in 3291 older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Kidney disease was assessed using urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), cystatin C and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We defined subgroups based on presence of microalbuminuria (MA, ACR > 30 mg/g) and categories of normal kidney function (cystatin C < 1.0 mg/L and eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2); preclinical kidney disease (cystatin C level > 1.0 mg/l but eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2); and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between these six subgroups and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction and heart failure.
Results. One thousand one hundred fifty (34.9%) had normal kidney function (12.2% with MA), 1518 (46.1%) had preclinical kidney disease (17.9% with MA) and 622 (18.9%) had CKD (47% with MA). After adjustment, the presence of either preclinical kidney disease or MA was associated with an over 50% increase in mortality risk; the presence of both was associated with a 2.4-fold mortality risk. Those with CKD and MA were at highest risk, with a nearly 4-fold mortality risk.
Conclusion. Elevated cystatin C and albuminuria are common, identify different subsets of the older population, and are independent, graded risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality.
albuminuria; aging; cardiovascular diseases; kidney function; mortality
Background. Monitoring changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the recommended method for assessing the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this study was to assess the decline of graft function defined by the annualized change in GFR and the factors which affect it.
Methods. Four thousand four hundred and eighty-eight patients, transplanted during the years 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002 in 34 centres in Spain with allograft survival of at least 1 year, were included in the study. GFR was estimated using the four-variable equation of the Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases (MDRD) study. Linear mixed effects model was applied to determine the relation between the covariates and the annualized change in GFR after transplantation.
Results. The average GFR at 12 months was 51.4 ± 18.9 mL/min/1.73 m2; most patients were in stage 3 of chronic kidney disease classification. The average patient slope, calculated in a linear model with varying-intercept and varying-slope without covariates, was −1.12 ± 0.05 mL/min/year (slope ± standard error). Some variables were related to both the 12-month GFR (intercept) and the slope: recipient gender, hepatitis C virus (HCV) status, estimated GFR (eGFR) at 3 months and proteinuria at 12 months. Some variables were only related to the slope of eGFR: time on dialysis, primary renal disease and immunosuppression. Others affected only the 12-month GFR: donor age, delayed graft function, acute rejection and systolic blood pressure at 12 months. Higher graft function at 3 months had a negative impact on the GFR slope. Cyclosporine-based immunosuppression had a less favourable effect on the rates of change in allograft function.
Conclusions. There was a slow decline in GFR. Poor graft function was not associated with an increased rate of decline of allograft function. Immunosuppression with cyclosporine displayed the worst declining GFR rate.
glomerular filtration rate; immunosuppression; kidney transplantation
Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for the evaluation of patients with kidney disease, and for treating patients with drugs that are eliminated from the circulation by the kidneys. Cystatin C has been shown to be superior to creatinine for estimating GFR in several studies. However, studies showing that thyroid function has an impact on cystatin C have not addressed the question of whether the changes in cystatin C levels are due to changes in GFR or in cystatin C synthesis.
We report an account of a hyperthyroid patient with a discrepancy between the GFR estimates from cystatin C and creatinine. The cystatin C concentration (1.36 mg/L) was higher and gave an estimated GFR which was lower (51 mL/min/1.73 m2), while the creatinine concentration was lower (36 μmol/L) and gave a corresponding creatinine-estimated GFR that was higher (145 mL/min/1.73 m2) than the iohexol-estimated GFR (121 mL/min/1.73 m2) during the hyperthyroid period. After thyroidectomy, the creatinine concentration was 36 μmol/L and creatinine-estimated GFR was calculated as 73 mL/min/1.73 m2, while the cystatin C concentration and cystatin C-calculated GFR was 0.78 mg/L and 114 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively.
In contrast to creatinine, cystatin C levels rose in the hyperthyroid state as compared to the euthyroid state. The cystatin C-estimated GFR was reduced compared to the iohexol-estimated GFR. This patient case shows that the hyperthyroid-associated changes in cystatin C levels are not due to changes in GFR. Thyroid function should thus be considered when both cystatin C and creatinine are used as markers of kidney function.
Research on early renal function decline in diabetes is hampered by lack of simple tools for detecting trends (particularly systematic decreases) in renal function over time when GFR is normal or elevated. This study sought to assess how well serum cystatin C meets that need. Thirty participants with type 2 diabetes in the Diabetic Renal Disease Study met these three eligibility criteria: GFR >20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline (based on cold iothalamate clearance), 4 yr of follow-up, and yearly measurements of iothalamate clearance and serum cystatin C. With the use of linear regression, each individual’s trend in renal function over time, expressed as annual percentage change in iothalamate clearance, was determined. Serum cystatin C in mg/L was transformed to its reciprocal (100/cystatin C), and linear regression was used to determine each individual’s trend over time, expressed as annual percentage change. In paired comparisons of 100/cystatin C with iothalamate clearance at each examination, the two measures were numerically similar. More important, the trends in 100/cystatin C and iothalamate clearance were strongly correlated (Spearman r = 0.77). All 20 participants with negative trends in iothalamate clearance (declining renal function) also had negative trends for 100/cystatin C. Results were discordant for only three participants. In contrast, the trends for three commonly used creatinine-based estimates of GFR compared poorly with trends in iothalamate clearance (Spearman r < 0.35). Serial measures of serum cystatin C accurately detect trends in renal function in patients with normal or elevated GFR and provide means for studying early renal function decline in diabetes.
Prior studies using creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have found limited associations between kidney function and markers of inflammation. Using eGFR and cystatin C, a novel marker of kidney function, the authors investigated the association of kidney function with multiple biomarkers in a diverse cohort.
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis consists of 6,814 participants of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese descent, enrolled from 2000–2002 from six U.S. communities. Measurements at the enrollment visit included serum creatinine, cystatin C, and six inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers. Creatinine-based eGFR was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined by an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Adjusted partial correlations between cystatin C and all biomarkers were statistically significant: C-reactive protein (r = 0.08), interleukin-6 (r = 0.16), tumor necrosis factor-α soluble receptor 1 (TNF-αR1; r = 0.75), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (r = 0.21), fibrinogen (r = 0.14), and factor VIII (r = 0.11; two-sided p < 0.01 for all). In participants without chronic kidney disease, higher creatinine-based eGFR was associated only with higher TNF-αR1 levels.
In a cohort characterized by ethnic diversity, cystatin C was directly associated with multiple procoagulant and inflammatory markers. Creatinine-based eGFR had similar associations with these biomarkers among subjects with chronic kidney disease.
Identification of persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are at highest risk to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is necessary to reduce the burden of kidney failure. The relative utility of traditional markers of kidney function, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, and emerging markers of kidney function, including cystatin C and beta-trace protein (BTP), to predict ESRD and mortality has yet to be established.
Randomized clinical trial followed by an observational cohort study.
Setting & Participants
865 African American individuals with hypertensive CKD enrolled in a clinical trial of two levels of blood pressure control and three different antihypertensive drugs as initial therapy and subsequently followed by an observational cohort study.
Quintile of measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance, serum creatinine, serum creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFRSCr), cystatin C, and BTP.
Outcomes and Measurements
Incidence of ESRD and mortality.
A total of 246 participants reached ESRD over a median follow-up of 102 months. The incidence rate of ESRD was higher with higher quintiles of each marker. The association between higher BTP and ESRD was stronger than those for the other markers, including mGFR. All the markers remained significantly associated with ESRD after adjustment for mGFR and relevant covariates (all p<0.05), with BTP retaining the strongest association (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.2-14.9). Associations with the combined endpoint of ESRD or mortality (n=390) were weaker, but remained significant for cystatin C (p=0.05) and BTP (p=0.004).
The ability of these markers to predict ESRD and mortality in other racial and ethnic groups and among individuals with CKD due to other causes is unknown.
Plasma BTP and cystatin C may be useful adjuncts to serum creatinine and mGFR in evaluating risk for progression of kidney disease.
End-stage renal disease; beta trace protein; cystatin C; serum creatinine; iothalamate glomerular filtration rate
Background. Anaemia worsens as kidney function declines. Both conditions are associated with increased mortality. Serum cystatin C is purportedly a more sensitive marker of kidney disease and a better predictor of mortality than serum creatinine. However, studies suggest that extrarenal factors also influence cystatin C levels.
Methods. We determined whether estimates of glomerular filtration rate [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)] based on serum cystatin C alone or in combination with serum creatinine were superior to those based on serum creatinine in recognizing impaired kidney function in the setting of anaemia in a sub-sample of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the USA consisting of 6734 participants, 20 years or older.
Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe kidney disease (eGFR 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2) among anaemic persons was 15–16% when based on serum creatinine alone (eGFRSCR) or combined with cystatin C (eGFRSCR + CYSC); this estimate increased to nearly 25% when kidney function was estimated by cystatin C (eGFRCYSC). The adjusted odds ratios of kidney disease in anaemic versus non-anaemic persons were slightly higher with eGFRCYSC than eGFRSCR and eGFRSCR + CYSC in younger adults [odds ratio (OR) = 5.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.23, 12.17], women (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 2.36, 12.06) and those with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 7.36, 95% CI: 1.98–27.36).
Conclusions. Impaired kidney function was common in individuals with anaemia. Among anaemic individuals, the prevalence estimate for kidney disease was notably higher when kidney function was estimated by cystatin C alone compared with the estimations by serum creatinine alone or in combination with serum cystatin C. eGFRCYSC may be particularly helpful in identifying kidney disease in the setting of anaemia among younger persons, women and those with elevated CRP. Regardless of which renal biomarker is used, our study suggests that an evaluation for underlying kidney disease should be considered in the standard workup of anaemia.
anaemia; chronic kidney failure; creatinine; cystatin C; glomerular filtration rate
Background. The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased with severe kidney disease, but whether less-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of VTE is less certain.
Methods. We studied this in a prospective cohort of 10 700 whites and African Americans, aged 53–75 years, attending Visit 4 (1996–98) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values were estimated from prediction equations based on serum creatinine (eGFRcreat) or cystatin C (eGFRcys). Normal kidney function was defined as eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2, mildly decreased kidney function as eGFR between 60 and 89 ml/min/1.73 m2 and Stage 3 to 4 CKD as eGFR between 15 and 59 ml/min/1.73 m2. VTE occurrence (n = 228) was ascertained over a median of 8.3 years.
Results. For eGFRcys, the age-, race- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios of total VTE were 1.0, 1.40 and 1.94 (P trend = 0.003) for normal kidney function, mildly impaired kidney function and Stage 3 to 4 CKD, respectively. These respective hazard ratios were moderately attenuated to 1.0, 1.26 and 1.60 (P trend = 0.04) with adjustment for hormone replacement therapy, diabetes and body mass index. Associations between CKD based on eGFRcys and VTE were slightly stronger for idiopathic VTE than for secondary VTE. In contrast, CKD based on eGFRcreat was not associated with total VTE occurrence.
Conclusions. Stage 3 to 4 CKD, based on eGFRcys but not eGFRcreat, was associated with an approximately 1.6-fold increased risk of VTE.
chronic kidney disease; prospective study; pulmonary embolism; venous thromboembolism
Albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), two factors linked to kidney and vascular function, may influence longitudinal blood pressure (BP) responses to complex antihypertensive drug regimens.
We reviewed the clinic records of 459 patients with hypertension in an urban, academic practice.
Mean patient age was 57-years, 89% of patients were African American, and 69% were women. Mean patient systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) at baseline was 171/98 mmHg while taking an average of 3.3 antihypertensive medications. At baseline, 27% of patients had estimated (e)GFR <60 ml/min/1.732, 28% had micro-albuminuria (30–300 mg/g) and 16% had macro-albuminuria (>300 mg/g). The average longitudinal BP decline over the observation period (mean 7.2 visits) was 25/12 mmHg. In adjusted regression models, macro-albuminuria predicted a 10.3 mmHg lesser longitudinal SBP reduction (p < 0.001) and a 7.9 mmHg lesser longitudinal DBP reduction (p < 0.001); similarly eGFR <60 ml/min/1.732 predicted an 8.4 mmHg lesser longitudinal SBP reduction (p < 0.001) and a 4.5 lesser longitudinal DBP reduction (p < 0.001). Presence of either micro- or macro-albuminuria, or lower eGFR, also significantly delayed the time to attainment of goal BP.
These data suggest that an attenuated decline in BP in drug-treated hypertensives, resulting in higher average BP levels over the long-term, may mediate a portion of the increased risk of cardiovascular-renal disease linked to elevated urinary albumin excretion and reduced eGFR.
albuminuria; glomerular filtration rate; blood pressure; antihypertensive drug therapy
Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss.
In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR.
The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%) and 30 (12%) had >85–100%, 50–85% and <50% adherence, respectively. 79 (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time.
Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication, was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes.
kidney transplant; adherence; renal function
Proteinuric diabetic patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk of renal and cardiovascular disease progression and treatment-related adverse events. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of aliskiren added to the maximal recommended dose of losartan according to baseline estimated GFR (eGFR) (stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease [CKD]).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In the Aliskiren in the Evaluation of Proteinuria in Diabetes (AVOID) study, 599 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy received 6 months of aliskiren (150 mg daily titrated to 300 mg daily after 3 months) or placebo added to 100 mg losartan and optimal antihypertensive therapy. Exclusion criteria included eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and serum potassium >5.1 mmol/l.
Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups in all CKD stages. The antiproteinuric effects of aliskiren were consistent across CKD stages (19, 22, and 18% reduction). In the stage 3 CKD group, baseline serum creatinine levels were equal, but renal dysfunction, prespecified as a postrandomization serum creatinine elevation >176.8 μmol/l (2.0 mg/dl) occurred more frequently in the placebo group (29.2 vs. 13.6%, P = 0.032). Serum potassium elevations >5.5 mmol/l (based on a single measurement) were more frequent with aliskiren (22.5 vs. 13.6%) in stage 3 CKD. Adverse event rates were similar between treatments, irrespective of CKD stage.
Aliskiren added to losartan reduced albuminuria and renal dysfunction and was well tolerated, except for hyperkalemia (stage 3), independent of baseline CKD stage in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and nephropathy.
It is unknown whether defining chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on one versus two estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) assessments changes the prognostic importance of reduced eGFR in a community-based population.
Participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study were classified into 4 groups based on two eGFR assessments separated by 35.3 ± 2.5 months: sustained eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (1 mL/sec per 1.73 m2); eGFR increase (change from below to above 60); eGFR decline (change from above to below 60); and eGFR persistently ≥60. Outcomes assessed in stratified multivariable Cox models included cardiac events and a composite of cardiac events, stroke, and mortality.
There were 891 (4.9%) participants with sustained eGFR < 60, 278 (1.5%) with eGFR increase, 972 (5.4%) with eGFR decline, and 15,925 (88.2%) with sustained eGFR > 60. Participants with eGFR sustained < 60 were at highest risk of cardiac and composite events [HR = 1.38 (1.15, 1.65) and 1.58 (1.41, 1.77)], respectively, followed by eGFR decline [HR = 1.20 (1.00, 1.45) and 1.32 (1.17, 1.49)]. Individuals with eGFR increase trended toward increased cardiac risk [HR = 1.25 (0.88, 1.77)] and did not significantly differ from eGFR decline for any outcome. Results were similar when estimating GFR with the CKD-EPI equation.
Individuals with persistently reduced eGFR are at highest risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while individuals with an eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at any time are at intermediate risk. Use of even a single measurement of eGFR to classify CKD in a community population appears to have prognostic value.
Background: Whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels are associated with kidney function decline has not been well studied. Methods: We investigated associations of Lp-PLA2 antigen and activity with kidney function decline and rapid decline over 5.7 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 4,359). We estimated kidney function by cystatin C (eGFRcys) in repeated measures, and defined rapid decline as ≥3 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. We stratified by baseline preserved GFR (≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Results: Mean age was 72 ± 5 years. Average eGFRcys decline was −1.79 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD = 2.60) per year. Among persons with preserved GFR, compared to the lowest quartile of Lp-PLA2 antigen, eGFRcys decline was faster among persons in the second, β −0.31 (95% CI −0.52, −0.10), third −0.19 (–0.41, 0.02) and fourth quartiles −0.26 (–0.48, −0.04) after full adjustment. Persons in the highest quartile of Lp-PLA2 antigen had increased odds of rapid decline 1.34 (1.03, 1.75), compared to the lowest. There was no significant association between levels of Lp-PLA2 activity and eGFRcys decline or rapid decline. Associations were not statistically significant among persons with low eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) at baseline. Conclusion: Higher levels of Lp-PLA2 antigen but not activity were significantly associated with faster rates of kidney function decline. These findings may suggest a novel vascular pathway for kidney disease progression.
Chronic kidney disease; Elderly; Estimated GFR; Kidney decline; Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2
In the early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, kidney dysfunction was strongly associated with death among HIV-infected individuals. We re-examined this association in the later HAART period to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a predictor of death after HAART-initiation.
To evaluate the effect of kidney function at the time of HAART initiation on time to all-cause mortality, we evaluated 1415 HIV-infected women initiating HAART in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Multivariable proportional hazards models with survival times calculated from HAART initiation to death were constructed; participants were censored at the time of the last available visit or December 31, 2006.
CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) at HAART initiation was associated with higher mortality risk adjusting for age, race, hepatitis C serostatus, AIDS history and CD4+ cell count (hazard ratio [HR]=2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.43). Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes history attenuated this association (HR=1.89, CI: 0.94–3.80). Lower kidney function at HAART initiation was weakly associated with increased mortality risk in women with prior AIDS (HR=1.09, CI: 1.00–1.19, per 20% decrease in eGFR).
Kidney function at HAART initiation remains an independent predictor of death in HIV-infected individuals, especially in those with a history of AIDS. Our study emphasizes the necessity of monitoring kidney function in this population. Additional studies are needed to determine mechanisms underlying the increased mortality risk associated with CKD in HIV-infected persons.
kidney disease; mortality; HIV; WIHS; antiretroviral therapy
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a lifelong progressive disorder. However, how age, blood pressure, and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) affect the rate of kidney function deterioration is not clearly understood.
In this long-term observational case study up to 13.9 years (median observation period for slope was 3.3 years), serum creatinine was serially measured in 255 mostly adult patients. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using a modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study method. The total kidney volume (TKV) has been measured in 86 patients at one center since 2006.
As age increased, eGFR declined significantly (P < 0.0001), but the annual rate of decline of eGFR did not correlate with age or initially measured eGFR. In patients with CKD stage 1, eGFR declined at a rate which was not significantly different from other advanced CKD stages. Hypertensive patients had lower eGFR and larger TKV than normotensive patients at a young adult age. The slopes of regression lines of eGFR and TKV in relation to age were not different between high and normal blood pressure groups.
The declining rate of eGFR was relatively constant and did not correlate with age or eGFR after adolescence. eGFR was already low in young adult patients with hypertension. As age increased after adolescence, eGFR declined and TKV increased similarly between normal and high blood pressure groups. eGFR starts to decline in patients with normal eGFR, suggesting that the decline starts earlier than previously thought.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10157-012-0611-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Kidney volume; Kidney function; Kidney failure
Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of kidney function among HIV-infected persons in whom serum creatinine is affected by extra-renal factors.
In this cross-sectional study, we compared estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) using serum creatinine versus cystatin C between 150 HIV-uninfected and 783 HIV-infected men. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and examined the influence of extra-renal factors on GFR-estimates among HIV-infected men.
Estimated GFRSCR was similar by HIV serostatus, but eGFRCYSC was lower in HIV-infected men. A higher proportion of HIV-infected men were classified as having CKD when using eGFRCYSC versus eGFRSCR (7% vs. 5%, P<0.01). In HIV-infected individuals without CKD, eGFRSCR was higher than eGFRCYSC while it was lower than eGFRCYSC in persons with CKD. In HIV-infected men, older age, proteinuria, and prior clinical AIDS were inversely associated with both GFR-estimates. Higher serum albumin levels and ACE-inhibitor/ARB use were associated with lower eGFRSCR. HIV viral load, hepatitis C co-infection, and serum alkaline phosphatase were inversely associated with eGFRCYSC.
Among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men of similar social risk behaviors, GFR estimates differed by biomarker and kidney function level. Estimated GFRCYSC classified a larger proportion of HIV-infected men with CKD compared to eGFRSCR. Differences between these GFR-estimating methods may be due to the effects of extra-renal factors on serum creatinine and cystatin C. Until GFR-estimating equations are validated among HIV-infected individuals, current GFR estimates based on these biomarkers should be interpreted with care in this patient population.
HIV; kidney disease; serum creatinine; cystatin C; glomerular filtration rate; Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
Serum cystatin C, a novel marker of kidney function, is reported to be superior to serum creatinine as a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, but associations may vary across vascular beds.
Methods and results
A cross-sectional study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in 3089 adult participants aged 40+ from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was determined from serum creatinine and cystatin C using established equations. Peripheral arterial disease defined by an ankle brachial index <0.90. Glomerular filtration rate estimated using cystatin C was more strongly associated with PAD compared with eGFR using serum creatinine before and after multivariable adjustment. Further, after adjustment for cystatin C, kidney function based on serum creatinine was no longer significantly associated with PAD. However, cystatin C remained significantly associated with PAD even after adjustment for GFR estimated by serum creatinine. Compared with optimal kidney function (eGFRserum creatinine ≥60, eGFRcystatin C >90), the odds ratio for PAD was 3.11 (95% confidence interval 1.26–7.64) for preclinical CKD (eGFRserum creatinine ≥60, eGFRcystatin C <76.7) and 5.07 (3.01–8.52) for ‘confirmed’ CKD (eGFRserum creatinine <60, eGFRcystatin C <60).
Chronic kidney disease was strongly and independently associated with PAD. Cystatin C was a more potent marker of lower extremity PAD when compared with the serum creatinine equation currently used in clinical practice. Our results suggest that cystatin C may have clinical utility when combined with serum creatinine in evaluation of individuals who may have PAD.
Peripheral arterial disease; Chronic kidney disease; glomerular filtration rate; Cystatin C; Epidemiology; NHANES
To characterize the distribution of blood pressure (BP), prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD), we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline BP's in 432 children (mean age 11y; 60% male; mean glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 44 ml/min/1.73m2) enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study. BP's were obtained using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. GFR was measured by iohexol disappearance. Elevated BP was defined as BP≥90th percentile for age, gender and height. Hypertension was defined as BP≥95th percentile or as self-reported hypertension plus current treatment with antihypertensive medications.
For systolic BP, 14% were hypertensive and 11% were pre-hypertensive (BP 90-95th percentile); 68% of subjects with elevated SBP were taking antihypertensive medications. For diastolic BP, 14% were hypertensive, and 9% were pre-hypertensive; 53% of subjects with elevated DBP were taking antihypertensive medications. 54% of subjects had either systolic or diastolic BP≥95th percentile or a history of hypertension plus current antihypertensive use.
Characteristics associated with elevated BP included black race, shorter duration of CKD, absence of antihypertensive medication use, and elevated serum potassium. Among subjects receiving antihypertensive treatment, uncontrolled BP was associated with male sex, shorter CKD duration and absence of ACE inhibitor or ARB use.
37% of children with CKD had either elevated systolic or diastolic BP, and 39% of these were not receiving antihypertensives, indicating that hypertension in pediatric CKD may be frequently under- or even un-treated. Treatment with ACE inhibitors or ARB's may improve BP control in these patients.
kidney disease; children; adolescents; hypertension; blood pressure; ACE inhibitors