RanBPM/RanBP9 is a ubiquitous, nucleocytoplasmic protein that is part of an evolutionary conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase complex whose function and targets in mammals are still unknown. RanBPM itself has been implicated in various cellular processes that involve both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. However, to date, little is known about how RanBPM subcellular localization is regulated. We have conducted a systematic analysis of RanBPM regions that control its subcellular localization using RanBPM shRNA cells to examine ectopic RanBPM mutant subcellular localization without interference from the endogenously expressed protein. We show that several domains and motifs regulate RanBPM nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, RanBPM comprises two motifs that can confer nuclear localization, one proline/glutamine-rich motif in the extreme N-terminus which has a dominant effect on RanBPM localization, and a second motif in the C-terminus which minimally contributes to RanBPM nuclear targeting. We also identified a nuclear export signal (NES) which mutation prevented RanBPM accumulation in the cytoplasm. Likewise, deletion of the central RanBPM conserved domains (SPRY and LisH/CTLH) resulted in the relocalization of RanBPM to the nucleus, suggesting that RanBPM cytoplasmic localization is also conferred by protein-protein interactions that promote its cytoplasmic retention. Indeed we found that in the cytoplasm, RanBPM partially colocalizes with microtubules and associates with α-tubulin. Finally, in the nucleus, a significant fraction of RanBPM is associated with chromatin. Altogether, these analyses reveal that RanBPM subcellular localization results from the combined effects of several elements that either confer direct transport through the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery or regulate it indirectly, likely through interactions with other proteins and by intramolecular folding.
Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic protein of yet unknown function. We have previously shown that RanBPM inhibits expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and promotes apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Here we show that the effects of RanBPM on Bcl-2 expression occur through a regulation of the ERK signaling pathway. Transient and stable down-regulation of RanBPM stimulated ERK phosphorylation, leading to Bcl-2 up-regulation, while re-expression of RanBPM reversed these effects. RanBPM was found to inhibit MEK and ERK activation induced by ectopic expression of active RasV12. Activation of ERK by active c-Raf was also prevented by RanBPM. Expression of RanBPM correlated with a marked decrease in the protein levels of ectopically expressed active c-Raf and also affected the expression of endogenous c-Raf. RanBPM formed a complex with both active c-Raf, consisting of the C-terminal kinase domain, and endogenous c-Raf in mammalian cells. In addition, RanBPM was found to decrease the binding of Hsp90 to c-Raf. Finally, we show that loss of RanBPM expression confers increased cell proliferation and cell migration properties to HEK293 cells. Altogether, these findings establish RanBPM as a novel inhibitor of the ERK pathway through an interaction with the c-Raf complex and a regulation of c-Raf stability, and provide evidence that RanBPM loss of expression results in constitutive activation of the ERK pathway and promotes cellular events leading to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis.
In vertebrates, Ran-Binding Protein in the Microtubule Organizing Center (RanBPM) appears to function as a scaffolding protein in a variety of signal transduction pathways. In Drosophila, RanBPM is implicated in the regulation of germ line stem cell (GSC) niche organization in the ovary. Here, we addressed the role of RanBPM in nervous system function in the context of Drosophila larval behavior.
We report that in Drosophila, RanBPM is required for larval feeding, light-induced changes in locomotion, and viability. RanBPM is highly expressed in the Kenyon cells of the larval mushroom body (MB), a structure well studied for its role in associative learning in Drosophila and other insects. RanBPM mutants do not display major disruption in nervous system morphology besides reduced proliferation. Expression of the RanBPM gene in the Kenyon cells is sufficient to rescue all behavioral phenotypes. Through genetic epistasis experiments, we demonstrate that RanBPM participates with the Drosophila orthologue of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
We demonstrate that the RanBPM gene functions in the MB neurons for larval behavior. Our results suggest a role for this gene in an FMRP-dependent process. Taken together our findings point to a novel role for the MB in larval behavior.
In conditions of proteasomal impairment, the build-up of damaged or misfolded proteins activates a cellular response leading to the recruitment of damaged proteins into perinuclear aggregates called aggresomes. Aggresome formation involves the retrograde transport of cargo proteins along the microtubule network and is dependent on the histone deacetylase HDAC6. Here we show that ionizing radiation (IR) promotes Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM) relocalization into discrete perinuclear foci where it co-localizes with aggresome components ubiquitin, dynein and HDAC6, suggesting that the RanBPM perinuclear clusters correspond to aggresomes. RanBPM was also recruited to aggresomes following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the DNA-damaging agent etoposide. Strikingly, aggresome formation by HDAC6 was markedly impaired in RanBPM shRNA cells, but was restored by re-expression of RanBPM. RanBPM was found to interact with HDAC6 and to inhibit its deacetylase activity. This interaction was abrogated by a RanBPM deletion of its LisH/CTLH domain, which also prevented aggresome formation, suggesting that RanBPM promotes aggresome formation through an association with HDAC6. Our results suggest that RanBPM regulates HDAC6 activity and is a central regulator of aggresome formation.
Aggresome; RanBPM; HDAC6; Proteasome inhibition; DNA damage
BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors.
Psoriasin has been identified as a gene that is highly expressed in pre-invasive breast cancer, but is often downregulated with breast cancer progression. It is currently unknown whether psoriasin influences epithelial cell malignancy directly or by affecting the surrounding environment. However the protein is found in the nucleus, cytoplasm as well as extracellularly. In the present study we have sought to identify potential psoriasin-binding proteins and to describe their expression profile in breast tumors.
The yeast two-hybrid method was used to identify potential binding partners for psoriasin. The interaction of psoriasin with RanBPM was confirmed in-vitro by co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of RanBPM and psoriasin was measured by RT-PCR in a series of breast cell lines, breast tumors and primary lymphocytes.
We have identified RanBPM as an interacting protein by the yeast two-hybrid assay and confirmed this interaction in-vitro by co-immunoprecipitation. RT-PCR analysis of RanBPM mRNA expression in cell lines (n = 13) shows that RanBPM is widely expressed in different cell types and that expression is higher in tumor than in normal breast epithelial cell lines. RanBPM expression can also be induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by treatment with PHA. RanBPM mRNA is also frequently expressed in invasive breast carcinomas (n = 64) and a higher psoriasin/RanBPM ratio is associated with both ER negative (p < 0.0001) and PR negative status (p < 0.001), and inflammatory cell infiltrates (p < 0.0001) within the tumor.
These findings support the hypothesis that psoriasin may interact with RanBPM and this may influence both epithelial and stromal cells and thus contribute to breast tumor progression.
RanBPM (Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing centre) was originally reported as a centrosome-associated protein in human cells. However, RanBPM protein containing highly conserved SPRY, LisH, CTLH and CRA domains is currently considered as a scaffolding protein with multiple cellular functions. A plant homologue of RanBPM has not yet been characterized.
Based on sequence similarity, we identified a homologue of the human RanBPM in Arabidopsis thaliana. AtRanBPM protein has highly conserved SPRY, LisH, CTLH and CRA domains. Cell fractionation showed that endogenous AtRanBPM or expressed GFP-AtRanBPM are mainly cytoplasmic proteins with only a minor portion detectable in microsomal fractions. AtRanBPM was identified predominantly in the form of soluble cytoplasmic complexes ~230 – 500 kDa in size. Immunopurification of AtRanBPM followed by mass spectrometric analysis identified proteins containing LisH and CRA domains; LisH, CRA, RING-U-box domains and a transducin/WD40 repeats in a complex with AtRanBPM. Homologues of identified proteins are known to be components of the C-terminal to the LisH motif (CTLH) complexes in humans and budding yeast. Microscopic analysis of GFP-AtRanBPM in vivo and immunofluorescence localization of endogenous AtRanBPM protein in cultured cells and seedlings of Arabidopsis showed mainly cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. Absence of colocalization with γ-tubulin was consistent with the biochemical data and suggests another than a centrosomal role of the AtRanBPM protein.
We showed that as yet uncharacterized Arabidopsis RanBPM protein physically interacts with LisH-CTLH domain-containing proteins. The newly identified high molecular weight cytoplasmic protein complexes of AtRanBPM showed homology with CTLH types of complexes described in mammals and budding yeast. Although the exact functions of the CTLH complexes in scaffolding of protein degradation, in protein interactions and in signalling from the periphery to the cell centre are not yet fully understood, structural conservation of the complexes across eukaryotes suggests their important biological role.
Arabidopsis homologue of RanBPM; CTLH-complex; LisH-CTLH domain proteins
A novel human protein with a molecular mass of 55 kD, designated RanBPM, was isolated with the two-hybrid method using Ran as a bait. Mouse and hamster RanBPM possessed a polypeptide identical to the human one. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to have a gene, YGL227w, the COOH-terminal half of which is 30% identical to RanBPM. Anti-RanBPM antibodies revealed that RanBPM was localized within the centrosome throughout the cell cycle. Overexpression of RanBPM produced multiple spots which were colocalized with γ-tubulin and acted as ectopic microtubule nucleation sites, resulting in a reorganization of microtubule network. RanBPM cosedimented with the centrosomal fractions by sucrose- density gradient centrifugation. The formation of microtubule asters was inhibited not only by anti- RanBPM antibodies, but also by nonhydrolyzable GTP-Ran. Indeed, RanBPM specifically interacted with GTP-Ran in two-hybrid assay. The central part of asters stained by anti-RanBPM antibodies or by the mAb to γ-tubulin was faded by the addition of GTPγS-Ran, but not by the addition of anti-RanBPM anti- bodies. These results provide evidence that the Ran-binding protein, RanBPM, is involved in microtubule nucleation, thereby suggesting that Ran regulates the centrosome through RanBPM.
centrosome; γ-tubulin; Ran; RanBPM; YGL227w
Secreted Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) proteins are known to act as diffusible and repellant axonal guidance cues during nervous system development. A receptor complex consisting of a Neuropilin and a Plexin-A mediates their effects. Plexin-A signal transduction has remained poorly defined despite the documented involvement of collapsin response mediator protein and molecule interacting with CasL proteins (MICALs) as mediators of Plexin-A activation. Here, we defined a domain of Plexin-A1 required for Sema3A signaling in a reconstituted environment and then searched for proteins interacting with this domain. RanBPM is shown to physically interact with Plexin-A1, and the RanBPM/Plexin complex is regulated by MICAL expression. Overexpression of RanBPM cooperates with PlexinA1 to reduce non-neuronal cell spreading and strongly inhibit axonal outgrowth in vitro and in vivo. A truncated RanBPM protein blocks Sema3A responsiveness in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Suppression of RanBPM expression reduces Sema3A responsiveness. Thus, RanBPM is a mediator of Sema3A signaling through Plexin-A. RanBPM has the potential to link Plexin-A receptors to retrograde transport and microtubule function in axonal guidance.
Plexin; Neuropilin; Semaphorin; RanBPM; axonal guidance; growth cone collapse; CRMP
Mu opioid receptors (MOP) are transducers of the pharmacological effects of many opioid drugs, including analgesia and tolerance/dependence. Previously, we observed increased MOP signaling during postnatal development that was not associated with increased MOP or G protein expression. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the MOP C-terminus as bait identified RanBPM as a potential MOP-interacting protein. RanBPM has been recognized as a multi-functional scaffold protein that interacts with a variety of signaling receptors/proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies in HEK293 cells indicated that RanBPM constitutively associates with MOP. Functionally, RanBPM had no effect on MOP-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, yet reduced agonist-induced endocytosis of MOP. Mechanistically, RanBPM interfered with βarrestin2-GFP translocation stimulated by MOP but not α1B-adrenergic receptor activation, indicating selectivity of action. Our findings suggest that RanBPM is a novel MOP-interacting protein that negatively regulates receptor internalization without altering MOP signaling through adenylyl cyclase.
Mu opioid receptor; RanBPM; internalization; scaffold protein; Beta-arrestin; yeast two-hybrid screen
Experiments in cultured cells with Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) suggest that it links cell surface receptors and cell adhesion proteins. In this study, we undertake a genetic study of RanBPM function in the germline stem cell (GSC) niche of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. We find that two RanBPM isoforms are produced from alternatively spliced transcripts, the longer of which is specifically enriched in the GSC niche, a cluster of somatic cells that physically anchors GSCs and expresses signals that maintain GSC fate. Loss of the long isoform from the niche causes defects in niche organization and cell size and increases the number of GSCs attached to the niche. In genetic mosaics for a null RanBPM allele, we find a strong bias for GSC attachment to mutant cap cells and observe abnormal accumulation of the adherens junction component Armadillo (β-catenin) and the membrane skeletal protein Hu-li tai shao in mutant terminal filament cells. These results implicate RanBPM in the regulation of niche capacity and adhesion.
Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that regulates signalling and protein turnover in eukaryotic cells. Specificity of ubiquitination is driven by ubiquitin E3 ligases, many of which remain poorly understood. One such is the mammalian muskelin/RanBP9/CTLH complex that includes eight proteins, five of which (RanBP9/RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA, Rmnd5 and muskelin), share striking similarities of domain architecture and have been implicated in regulation of cell organisation. In budding yeast, the homologous GID complex acts to down-regulate gluconeogenesis. In both complexes, Rmnd5/GID2 corresponds to a RING ubiquitin ligase. To better understand this E3 ligase system, we conducted molecular phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the related components. TWA1, Rmnd5, MAEA and WDR26 are conserved throughout all eukaryotic supergroups, albeit WDR26 was not identified in Rhizaria. RanBPM is absent from Excavates and from some sub-lineages. Armc8 and c17orf39 were represented across unikonts but in bikonts were identified only in Viridiplantae and in O. trifallax within alveolates. Muskelin is present only in Opisthokonts. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the shared LisH and CTLH domains of RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA and Rmnd5 revealed closer relationships and profiles of conserved residues between, respectively, Rmnd5 and MAEA, and RanBPM and TWA1. Rmnd5 and MAEA are also related by the presence of conserved, variant RING domains. Examination of how N- or C-terminal domain deletions alter the sub-cellular localisation of each protein in mammalian cells identified distinct contributions of the LisH domains to protein localisation or folding/stability. In conclusion, all components except muskelin are inferred to have been present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Diversification of this ligase complex in different eukaryotic lineages may result from the apparently fast evolution of RanBPM, differing requirements for WDR26, Armc8 or c17orf39, and the origin of muskelin in opisthokonts as a RanBPM-binding protein.
A yeast two-hybrid screen using the last 28 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 identified RanBPM as an L1-interacting protein. RanBPM associates with L1 in vivo and the N-terminal region of RanBPM (N-RanBPM), containing the SPRY domain, is sufficient for the interaction with L1 in a glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay. L1 antibody patching dramatically changes the subcellular localization of N-RanBPM in transfected COS cells. Overexpression of N-RanBPM in COS cells reduces L1-triggered extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation by 50% and overexpression of N-RanBPM in primary neurons inhibits L1-mediated neurite outgrowth and branching. These data suggest that RanBPM is an adaptor protein that links L1 to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK pathway
adhesion molecule adaptor; axon extension; Ig superfamily
Many of the mitoses that produce pyramidal neurons in neocortex occur at the dorsolateral surface of the lateral ventricles in the embryo. RanBPM was found in a yeast two-hybrid screen to potentially interact with citron kinase (CITK), a protein shown previously to localize to the surface of the lateral ventricles and to be essential to neurogenic mitoses. Similar to its localization in epithelia, RanBPM protein is concentrated at the adherens junctions in developing neocortex. The biochemical interaction between CITK and RanBPM was confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation and protein overlay experiments. To test for a functional role of RanPBM in vivo, we used in utero RNAi. RanBPM RNAi decreased the polarization of CITK to the ventricular surface, increased the number of cells in mitosis and decreased the number of cells in cytokinesis. Finally, the effect of RanBPM knockdown on mitosis was reversed in embryos mutant for CITK. Together, these results indicate that RanBPM, potentially through interaction with CITK, plays a role in the progression of neocortical precursors through M-phase at the ventricular surface.
citron kinase; RanBPM; midbody; mitosis; adherens junctions; neurogenesis
Stanniocalcin (STC), a glycoprotein hormone originally discovered in fish, has been implicated in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. While fishes and mammals possess two STC homologs (STC1 and STC2), the physiological roles of STC2 are largely unknown compared with those of STC1. In this study, we identified Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a novel binding partner of STC2 using yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between STC2 and RanBPM was confirmed in mammalian cells by immunoprecipitation. STC2 enhanced the RanBPM-mediated transactivation of liganded androgen receptor (AR), but not thyroid receptor β, glucocorticoid receptor, or estrogen receptor β. We also found that AR interacted with RanBPM in both the absence and presence of testosterone (T). Furthermore, we discovered that STC2 recruits RanBPM/AR complex in T-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that STC2 is a novel RanBPM-interacting protein that promotes AR transactivation. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 643-648]
Androgen receptor; RanBPM; STC2; Testosterone; Yeast two-hybrid
AIM: To investigate the biological function of HBcAg in pathogenesis of HBV replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
METHODS: HBcAg region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HBV HBcAg bait plasmid pGBKT7-HBcAg was constructed by routine molecular biological methods. Then the recombinant plasmid DNA was transformed into yeast AH109. After the HBV core protein was expressed in AH109 yeast strains (Western blot analysis), yeast-two hybrid screening was performed by mating AH109 with Y187 containing leukocyte cDNA library plasmid. Diploid yeast cells were plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade) (QDO) and synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade) (TDO). The second screening was performed with the LacZ report gene ( yeast cells were grown in QDO medium containing X-α-gal). The interaction between HBV core protein and the protein obtained from positive colonies was further confirmed by repeating yeast-two hybrid. After plasmid DNA was extracted from blue colonies and sequenced, the results were analyzed by bioinformatic methods.
RESULTS: Eighteen colonies were obtained and sequenced, including hypermethylated in cancer 2 (3 colones), eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (2 colones), acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (1 colone), DNA polymerase gamma (1 colone), putative translation initiation factor (1 colone), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (1 colone), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L41 (1 colone), kyot binding protein genes (1 colone), RanBPM (1 colone), HBeAg-binding protein 3 (1 colone), programmed cell death 2 (1 colone). Four new genes with unknown function were identified.
CONCLUSION: Successful cloning of genes of HBV core protein interacting proteins in leukocytes may provide some new clues for studying the biological functions of HBV core protein.
Hepatitis B virus; Core protein; Yeast two-hybrid system
The evolutionarily conserved kelch-repeat protein muskelin was identified as an intracellular mediator of cell spreading. We discovered that its morphological activity is controlled by association with RanBP9/RanBPM, a protein involved in transmembrane signaling and a conserved intracellular protein complex. By subcellular fractionation, endogenous muskelin is present in both the nucleus and the cytosol. Muskelin subcellular localization is coregulated by its C terminus, which provides a cytoplasmic restraint and also controls the interaction of muskelin with RanBP9, and its atypical lissencephaly-1 homology motif, which has a nuclear localization activity which is regulated by the status of the C terminus. Transient or stable short interfering RNA–based knockdown of muskelin resulted in protrusive cell morphologies with enlarged cell perimeters. Morphology was specifically restored by complementary DNAs encoding forms of muskelin with full activity of the C terminus for cytoplasmic localization and RanBP9 binding. Knockdown of RanBP9 resulted in equivalent morphological alterations. These novel findings identify a role for muskelin–RanBP9 complex in pathways that integrate cell morphology regulation and nucleocytoplasmic communication.
The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 has recently been shown to be expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. In this report, we demonstrate that L1 is expressed by moderately- to poorly-differentiated PDAC cells in situ, and that L1 expression is a predictor of poor patient survival. In vitro, reduced reactivity of an anti-L1 carboxy-terminus-specific antibody was observed in the more poorly differentiated fast-growing (FG) variant of the COLO357 population, versus its well-differentiated slow-growing (SG) counterpart, even though they express equivalent total L1. The carboxy-terminus of L1 mediates binding to the MAP kinase-regulating protein RanBPM and mutation of T1247/S1248 within this region attenuates the expression of malignancy associated proteins and L1-induced tumorigenicity in mice. Therefore, we reasoned that the differential epitope exposure observed might be indicative of modifications responsible for regulating these events. However, epitope mapping demonstrated that the major determinant of binding was actually N1251; mutation of T1247 and S1248, alone or together, had little effect on C20 binding. Moreover, cluster assays using CD25 ectodomain/L1 cytoplasmic domain chimeras demonstrated the N1251-dependent, RanBPM-independent stimulation of erk phosphorylation in these cells. Reactivity of this antibody also reflects the differential exposure of extracellular epitopes in these COLO357 sublines, consistent with the previous demonstration of L1 ectodomain conformation modulation by intracellular modifications. These data further support a central role for L1 in PDAC, and define a specific role for carboxy-terminal residues including N1251 in the regulation of L1 activity in PDAC cells.
L1-CAM; Deamidation; Conformation; Differentiation
OsRAN1 can improve cold tolerance in rice. It maintains cell division under cold conditions. Overexpression of OsRAN1 increases tiller number and alters root development.
Of the diverse abiotic stresses, low temperature is one of the major limiting factors that lead to a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes in plants. Ran, an evolutionarily conserved small G-protein family, has been shown to be essential for the nuclear translocation of proteins. It also mediates the regulation of cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, little is known about Ran function in rice (Oryza sativa). We report here that Ran gene OsRAN1 is essential for the molecular improvement of rice for cold tolerance. Ran also affects plant morphogenesis in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. OsRAN1 is ubiquitously expressed in rice tissues with the highest expression in the spike. The levels of mRNA encoding OsRAN1 were greatly increased by cold and indoleacetic acid treatment rather than by addition of salt and polyethylene glycol. Further, OsRAN1 overexpression in Arabidopsis increased tiller number, and altered root development. OsRAN1 overexpression in rice improves cold tolerance. The levels of cellular free Pro and sugar levels were highly increased in transgenic plants under cold stress. Under cold stress, OsRAN1 maintained cell division and cell cycle progression, and also promoted the formation of an intact nuclear envelope. The results suggest that OsRAN1 protein plays an important role in the regulation of cellular mitosis and the auxin signalling pathway.
Cold tolerance; cell division; OsRAN1; reduced apical dominance; intact nuclear envelope.
Ran, the small, predominantly nuclear GTPase, has been implicated
in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including cell
cycle progression, nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of RNA and protein,
nuclear structure, and DNA synthesis. It is not known whether Ran
functions directly in each process or whether many of its roles may be
secondary to a direct role in only one, for example, nuclear protein
import. To identify biochemical links between Ran and its functional
target(s), we have generated and examined the properties of a putative
Ran effector mutation, T42A-Ran. T42A-Ran binds guanine nucleotides as
well as wild-type Ran and responds as well as wild-type Ran to GTP or
GDP exchange stimulated by the Ran-specific guanine nucleotide exchange
factor, RCC1. T42A-Ran·GDP also retains the ability to bind p10/NTF2,
a component of the nuclear import pathway. In contrast to wild-type
Ran, T42A-Ran·GTP binds very weakly or not detectably to three
proposed Ran effectors, Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), Ran-binding
protein 2 (RanBP2, a nucleoporin), and karyopherin β (a component of
the nuclear protein import pathway), and is not stimulated to hydrolyze
bound GTP by Ran GTPase-activating protein, RanGAP1. Also in contrast
to wild-type Ran, T42A-Ran does not stimulate nuclear protein import in
a digitonin permeabilized cell assay and also inhibits wild-type Ran
function in this system. However, the T42A mutation does not block the
docking of karyophilic substrates at the nuclear pore. These properties
of T42A-Ran are consistent with its classification as an effector
mutant and define the exposed region of Ran containing the mutation as
a probable effector loop.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has the worst prognosis among cancers, mainly due to the high incidence of early metastases. RAN small GTPase (RAN) is a protein that plays physiological roles in the regulation of nuclear transport and microtubule spindle assembly. RAN was recently shown to mediate the invasive functions of the prometastatic protein osteopontin (OPN) in breast cancer cells. We and others have shown previously that high levels of OPN are present in PDA. In this study, we analyzed the expression and correlation of RAN with OPN in human pancreatic lesions, and explored their regulation in PDA cell lines.
Real time PCR was used to analyze RAN and OPN mRNA levels in PDA, adjacent non-malignant, and benign pancreatic tissues. Expression levels were correlated with survival and different clinicopathological parameters using different statistical methods. Transient transfection studies using OPN and RAN plasmids, and knockdown experiments using siRNA were used to examine their mutual regulation.
OPN and RAN levels highly correlated with each other (p<0.0001). OPN or RAN levels did not correlate with venous lymphatic invasion, diabetes, obesity, T stage, BMI, or survival. However, we found a significant association between RAN levels and perineural invasion (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 1.07; p=0.0378.). OPN and RAN colocalized in PDA tissues and cell lines. Increasing RAN expression in PDA cells induced OPN transcription and RAN silencing reduced total OPN levels. OPN did not have any significant effect on RAN transcription.
The high levels of RAN in PDA and its correlation with OPN and with perineural invasion suggest that RAN may contribute to PDA metastasis and progression through the induction of OPN. RAN’s role in the regulation of OPN in PDA is unique and could provide potential novel therapeutic strategies to combat PDA aggressiveness.
Pancreatic cancer; RAN; OPN
M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8) was initially identified to be a component of the RanBPM-containing large protein complex, and has recently been shown to bind to methylated H3K9 both in vivo and in vitro. MPP8 binding to methylated H3K9 is suggested to recruit the H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, and DNA methyltransferase 3A to the promoter of the E-cadherin gene, mediating the E-cadherin gene silencing and promote tumor cell motility and invasion. MPP8 contains a chromodomain in its N-terminus, which is used to bind the methylated H3K9.
Here, we reported the crystal structures of human MPP8 chromodomain alone and in complex with the trimethylated histone H3K9 peptide (residue 1–15). The complex structure unveils that the human MPP8 chromodomain binds methylated H3K9 through a conserved recognition mechanism, which was also observed in Drosophila HP1, a chromodomain containing protein that binds to methylated H3K9 as well. The structure also reveals that the human MPP8 chromodomain forms homodimer, which is mediated via an unexpected domain swapping interaction through two β strands from the two protomer subunits.
Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism of selective binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to methylated histone H3K9. The observation of human MPP8 chromodomain in both solution and crystal lattice may provide clues to study MPP8-mediated gene regulation furthermore.
The small Ras-related GTP binding and hydrolyzing protein Ran has been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, RNA processing, and nuclear-cytosolic trafficking of both RNA and proteins. Like other small GTPases, Ran appears to function as a switch: Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP levels are regulated both by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins, and Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP interact differentially with one or more effectors. One such putative effector, Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), interacts selectively with Ran-GTP. Ran proteins contain a diagnostic short, acidic, carboxyl-terminal domain, DEDDDL, which, at least in the case of human Ran, is required for its role in cell cycle regulation. We show here that this domain is required for the interaction between Ran and RanBP1 but not for the interaction between Ran and a Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor or between Ran and a Ran GTPase activating protein. In addition, Ran lacking this carboxyl-terminal domain functions normally in an in vitro nuclear protein import assay. We also show that RanBP1 interacts with the mammalian homolog of yeast protein RNA1, a protein involved in RNA transport and processing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Ran functions directly in at least two pathways, one, dependent on RanBP1, that affects cell cycle progression and RNA export, and another, independent of RanBP1, that affects nuclear protein import.
The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s) of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI) via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2−/− are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2+/− mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies.
The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large protein with several domains. Although several protein partners were found to interact with selective domains of RanBP2, none to this date were found toward its large leucine-rich domain (LD). Cell-based experiments support several roles of RanBP2 in cell function, such as the production of functional proteins, control of protein trafficking between the nuclear and cytosol compartments, and control of multiple facets underlying cell division. Still, the genetic and physiological implications of the interactions between RanBP2 and its partners and of the function of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. The authors report the identification of two novel mitochondrial partners of the LD of RanBP2, Cox11 and hexokinase type I (HKI); and with multidisciplinary approaches probe the role of RanBP2 and its LD on Cox11, HKI, and functions allied to these. The authors found that RanBP2 exhibits chaperone activity toward HKI and Cox11. RanBP2 and Cox11 profoundly modulate HKI activity. Moreover, partial loss-of-function of RanBP2 in a mouse model induces deficits in growth rates and breakdown of glucose, promotes the down-regulation of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system, and impairs visual function. These findings support a critical role of RanBP2 and its partners in metabolic processes and allied disease states.
The small GTPase Ran orchestrates pleiotropic cellular responses of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, mitosis and subcellular trafficking, but whether deregulation of these pathways contributes to disease pathogenesis has remained elusive. Here, we generated transgenic mice expressing wild type (WT) Ran, loss-of-function Ran T24N mutant or constitutively active Ran G19V mutant in pancreatic islet β cells under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Embryonic pancreas and islet development, including emergence of insulin+ β cells, was indistinguishable in control or transgenic mice. However, by one month after birth, transgenic mice expressing any of the three Ran variants exhibited overt diabetes, with hyperglycemia, reduced insulin production, and nearly complete loss of islet number and islet mass, in vivo. Deregulated Ran signaling in transgenic mice, adenoviral over-expression of WT or mutant Ran in isolated islets, or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing of endogenous Ran in model insulinoma INS-1 cells, all resulted in decreased expression of the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox transcription factor, PDX-1, and reduced β cell proliferation, in vivo. These data demonstrate that a finely-tuned balance of Ran GTPase signaling is essential for postnatal pancreatic islet development and glucose homeostasis, in vivo.