Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic protein of yet unknown function. We have previously shown that RanBPM inhibits expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and promotes apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Here we show that the effects of RanBPM on Bcl-2 expression occur through a regulation of the ERK signaling pathway. Transient and stable down-regulation of RanBPM stimulated ERK phosphorylation, leading to Bcl-2 up-regulation, while re-expression of RanBPM reversed these effects. RanBPM was found to inhibit MEK and ERK activation induced by ectopic expression of active RasV12. Activation of ERK by active c-Raf was also prevented by RanBPM. Expression of RanBPM correlated with a marked decrease in the protein levels of ectopically expressed active c-Raf and also affected the expression of endogenous c-Raf. RanBPM formed a complex with both active c-Raf, consisting of the C-terminal kinase domain, and endogenous c-Raf in mammalian cells. In addition, RanBPM was found to decrease the binding of Hsp90 to c-Raf. Finally, we show that loss of RanBPM expression confers increased cell proliferation and cell migration properties to HEK293 cells. Altogether, these findings establish RanBPM as a novel inhibitor of the ERK pathway through an interaction with the c-Raf complex and a regulation of c-Raf stability, and provide evidence that RanBPM loss of expression results in constitutive activation of the ERK pathway and promotes cellular events leading to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis.
A yeast two-hybrid screen using the last 28 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 identified RanBPM as an L1-interacting protein. RanBPM associates with L1 in vivo and the N-terminal region of RanBPM (N-RanBPM), containing the SPRY domain, is sufficient for the interaction with L1 in a glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay. L1 antibody patching dramatically changes the subcellular localization of N-RanBPM in transfected COS cells. Overexpression of N-RanBPM in COS cells reduces L1-triggered extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation by 50% and overexpression of N-RanBPM in primary neurons inhibits L1-mediated neurite outgrowth and branching. These data suggest that RanBPM is an adaptor protein that links L1 to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK pathway
adhesion molecule adaptor; axon extension; Ig superfamily
In vertebrates, Ran-Binding Protein in the Microtubule Organizing Center (RanBPM) appears to function as a scaffolding protein in a variety of signal transduction pathways. In Drosophila, RanBPM is implicated in the regulation of germ line stem cell (GSC) niche organization in the ovary. Here, we addressed the role of RanBPM in nervous system function in the context of Drosophila larval behavior.
We report that in Drosophila, RanBPM is required for larval feeding, light-induced changes in locomotion, and viability. RanBPM is highly expressed in the Kenyon cells of the larval mushroom body (MB), a structure well studied for its role in associative learning in Drosophila and other insects. RanBPM mutants do not display major disruption in nervous system morphology besides reduced proliferation. Expression of the RanBPM gene in the Kenyon cells is sufficient to rescue all behavioral phenotypes. Through genetic epistasis experiments, we demonstrate that RanBPM participates with the Drosophila orthologue of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
We demonstrate that the RanBPM gene functions in the MB neurons for larval behavior. Our results suggest a role for this gene in an FMRP-dependent process. Taken together our findings point to a novel role for the MB in larval behavior.
A novel human protein with a molecular mass of 55 kD, designated RanBPM, was isolated with the two-hybrid method using Ran as a bait. Mouse and hamster RanBPM possessed a polypeptide identical to the human one. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to have a gene, YGL227w, the COOH-terminal half of which is 30% identical to RanBPM. Anti-RanBPM antibodies revealed that RanBPM was localized within the centrosome throughout the cell cycle. Overexpression of RanBPM produced multiple spots which were colocalized with γ-tubulin and acted as ectopic microtubule nucleation sites, resulting in a reorganization of microtubule network. RanBPM cosedimented with the centrosomal fractions by sucrose- density gradient centrifugation. The formation of microtubule asters was inhibited not only by anti- RanBPM antibodies, but also by nonhydrolyzable GTP-Ran. Indeed, RanBPM specifically interacted with GTP-Ran in two-hybrid assay. The central part of asters stained by anti-RanBPM antibodies or by the mAb to γ-tubulin was faded by the addition of GTPγS-Ran, but not by the addition of anti-RanBPM anti- bodies. These results provide evidence that the Ran-binding protein, RanBPM, is involved in microtubule nucleation, thereby suggesting that Ran regulates the centrosome through RanBPM.
centrosome; γ-tubulin; Ran; RanBPM; YGL227w
Mu opioid receptors (MOP) are transducers of the pharmacological effects of many opioid drugs, including analgesia and tolerance/dependence. Previously, we observed increased MOP signaling during postnatal development that was not associated with increased MOP or G protein expression. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the MOP C-terminus as bait identified RanBPM as a potential MOP-interacting protein. RanBPM has been recognized as a multi-functional scaffold protein that interacts with a variety of signaling receptors/proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies in HEK293 cells indicated that RanBPM constitutively associates with MOP. Functionally, RanBPM had no effect on MOP-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, yet reduced agonist-induced endocytosis of MOP. Mechanistically, RanBPM interfered with βarrestin2-GFP translocation stimulated by MOP but not α1B-adrenergic receptor activation, indicating selectivity of action. Our findings suggest that RanBPM is a novel MOP-interacting protein that negatively regulates receptor internalization without altering MOP signaling through adenylyl cyclase.
Mu opioid receptor; RanBPM; internalization; scaffold protein; Beta-arrestin; yeast two-hybrid screen
BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors.
Experiments in cultured cells with Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) suggest that it links cell surface receptors and cell adhesion proteins. In this study, we undertake a genetic study of RanBPM function in the germline stem cell (GSC) niche of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. We find that two RanBPM isoforms are produced from alternatively spliced transcripts, the longer of which is specifically enriched in the GSC niche, a cluster of somatic cells that physically anchors GSCs and expresses signals that maintain GSC fate. Loss of the long isoform from the niche causes defects in niche organization and cell size and increases the number of GSCs attached to the niche. In genetic mosaics for a null RanBPM allele, we find a strong bias for GSC attachment to mutant cap cells and observe abnormal accumulation of the adherens junction component Armadillo (β-catenin) and the membrane skeletal protein Hu-li tai shao in mutant terminal filament cells. These results implicate RanBPM in the regulation of niche capacity and adhesion.
Psoriasin has been identified as a gene that is highly expressed in pre-invasive breast cancer, but is often downregulated with breast cancer progression. It is currently unknown whether psoriasin influences epithelial cell malignancy directly or by affecting the surrounding environment. However the protein is found in the nucleus, cytoplasm as well as extracellularly. In the present study we have sought to identify potential psoriasin-binding proteins and to describe their expression profile in breast tumors.
The yeast two-hybrid method was used to identify potential binding partners for psoriasin. The interaction of psoriasin with RanBPM was confirmed in-vitro by co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of RanBPM and psoriasin was measured by RT-PCR in a series of breast cell lines, breast tumors and primary lymphocytes.
We have identified RanBPM as an interacting protein by the yeast two-hybrid assay and confirmed this interaction in-vitro by co-immunoprecipitation. RT-PCR analysis of RanBPM mRNA expression in cell lines (n = 13) shows that RanBPM is widely expressed in different cell types and that expression is higher in tumor than in normal breast epithelial cell lines. RanBPM expression can also be induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by treatment with PHA. RanBPM mRNA is also frequently expressed in invasive breast carcinomas (n = 64) and a higher psoriasin/RanBPM ratio is associated with both ER negative (p < 0.0001) and PR negative status (p < 0.001), and inflammatory cell infiltrates (p < 0.0001) within the tumor.
These findings support the hypothesis that psoriasin may interact with RanBPM and this may influence both epithelial and stromal cells and thus contribute to breast tumor progression.
Secreted Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) proteins are known to act as diffusible and repellant axonal guidance cues during nervous system development. A receptor complex consisting of a Neuropilin and a Plexin-A mediates their effects. Plexin-A signal transduction has remained poorly defined despite the documented involvement of collapsin response mediator protein and molecule interacting with CasL proteins (MICALs) as mediators of Plexin-A activation. Here, we defined a domain of Plexin-A1 required for Sema3A signaling in a reconstituted environment and then searched for proteins interacting with this domain. RanBPM is shown to physically interact with Plexin-A1, and the RanBPM/Plexin complex is regulated by MICAL expression. Overexpression of RanBPM cooperates with PlexinA1 to reduce non-neuronal cell spreading and strongly inhibit axonal outgrowth in vitro and in vivo. A truncated RanBPM protein blocks Sema3A responsiveness in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Suppression of RanBPM expression reduces Sema3A responsiveness. Thus, RanBPM is a mediator of Sema3A signaling through Plexin-A. RanBPM has the potential to link Plexin-A receptors to retrograde transport and microtubule function in axonal guidance.
Plexin; Neuropilin; Semaphorin; RanBPM; axonal guidance; growth cone collapse; CRMP
RanBPM (Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing centre) was originally reported as a centrosome-associated protein in human cells. However, RanBPM protein containing highly conserved SPRY, LisH, CTLH and CRA domains is currently considered as a scaffolding protein with multiple cellular functions. A plant homologue of RanBPM has not yet been characterized.
Based on sequence similarity, we identified a homologue of the human RanBPM in Arabidopsis thaliana. AtRanBPM protein has highly conserved SPRY, LisH, CTLH and CRA domains. Cell fractionation showed that endogenous AtRanBPM or expressed GFP-AtRanBPM are mainly cytoplasmic proteins with only a minor portion detectable in microsomal fractions. AtRanBPM was identified predominantly in the form of soluble cytoplasmic complexes ~230 – 500 kDa in size. Immunopurification of AtRanBPM followed by mass spectrometric analysis identified proteins containing LisH and CRA domains; LisH, CRA, RING-U-box domains and a transducin/WD40 repeats in a complex with AtRanBPM. Homologues of identified proteins are known to be components of the C-terminal to the LisH motif (CTLH) complexes in humans and budding yeast. Microscopic analysis of GFP-AtRanBPM in vivo and immunofluorescence localization of endogenous AtRanBPM protein in cultured cells and seedlings of Arabidopsis showed mainly cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. Absence of colocalization with γ-tubulin was consistent with the biochemical data and suggests another than a centrosomal role of the AtRanBPM protein.
We showed that as yet uncharacterized Arabidopsis RanBPM protein physically interacts with LisH-CTLH domain-containing proteins. The newly identified high molecular weight cytoplasmic protein complexes of AtRanBPM showed homology with CTLH types of complexes described in mammals and budding yeast. Although the exact functions of the CTLH complexes in scaffolding of protein degradation, in protein interactions and in signalling from the periphery to the cell centre are not yet fully understood, structural conservation of the complexes across eukaryotes suggests their important biological role.
Arabidopsis homologue of RanBPM; CTLH-complex; LisH-CTLH domain proteins
Many of the mitoses that produce pyramidal neurons in neocortex occur at the dorsolateral surface of the lateral ventricles in the embryo. RanBPM was found in a yeast two-hybrid screen to potentially interact with citron kinase (CITK), a protein shown previously to localize to the surface of the lateral ventricles and to be essential to neurogenic mitoses. Similar to its localization in epithelia, RanBPM protein is concentrated at the adherens junctions in developing neocortex. The biochemical interaction between CITK and RanBPM was confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation and protein overlay experiments. To test for a functional role of RanPBM in vivo, we used in utero RNAi. RanBPM RNAi decreased the polarization of CITK to the ventricular surface, increased the number of cells in mitosis and decreased the number of cells in cytokinesis. Finally, the effect of RanBPM knockdown on mitosis was reversed in embryos mutant for CITK. Together, these results indicate that RanBPM, potentially through interaction with CITK, plays a role in the progression of neocortical precursors through M-phase at the ventricular surface.
citron kinase; RanBPM; midbody; mitosis; adherens junctions; neurogenesis
The evolutionarily conserved kelch-repeat protein muskelin was identified as an intracellular mediator of cell spreading. We discovered that its morphological activity is controlled by association with RanBP9/RanBPM, a protein involved in transmembrane signaling and a conserved intracellular protein complex. By subcellular fractionation, endogenous muskelin is present in both the nucleus and the cytosol. Muskelin subcellular localization is coregulated by its C terminus, which provides a cytoplasmic restraint and also controls the interaction of muskelin with RanBP9, and its atypical lissencephaly-1 homology motif, which has a nuclear localization activity which is regulated by the status of the C terminus. Transient or stable short interfering RNA–based knockdown of muskelin resulted in protrusive cell morphologies with enlarged cell perimeters. Morphology was specifically restored by complementary DNAs encoding forms of muskelin with full activity of the C terminus for cytoplasmic localization and RanBP9 binding. Knockdown of RanBP9 resulted in equivalent morphological alterations. These novel findings identify a role for muskelin–RanBP9 complex in pathways that integrate cell morphology regulation and nucleocytoplasmic communication.
The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 has recently been shown to be expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. In this report, we demonstrate that L1 is expressed by moderately- to poorly-differentiated PDAC cells in situ, and that L1 expression is a predictor of poor patient survival. In vitro, reduced reactivity of an anti-L1 carboxy-terminus-specific antibody was observed in the more poorly differentiated fast-growing (FG) variant of the COLO357 population, versus its well-differentiated slow-growing (SG) counterpart, even though they express equivalent total L1. The carboxy-terminus of L1 mediates binding to the MAP kinase-regulating protein RanBPM and mutation of T1247/S1248 within this region attenuates the expression of malignancy associated proteins and L1-induced tumorigenicity in mice. Therefore, we reasoned that the differential epitope exposure observed might be indicative of modifications responsible for regulating these events. However, epitope mapping demonstrated that the major determinant of binding was actually N1251; mutation of T1247 and S1248, alone or together, had little effect on C20 binding. Moreover, cluster assays using CD25 ectodomain/L1 cytoplasmic domain chimeras demonstrated the N1251-dependent, RanBPM-independent stimulation of erk phosphorylation in these cells. Reactivity of this antibody also reflects the differential exposure of extracellular epitopes in these COLO357 sublines, consistent with the previous demonstration of L1 ectodomain conformation modulation by intracellular modifications. These data further support a central role for L1 in PDAC, and define a specific role for carboxy-terminal residues including N1251 in the regulation of L1 activity in PDAC cells.
L1-CAM; Deamidation; Conformation; Differentiation
Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that regulates signalling and protein turnover in eukaryotic cells. Specificity of ubiquitination is driven by ubiquitin E3 ligases, many of which remain poorly understood. One such is the mammalian muskelin/RanBP9/CTLH complex that includes eight proteins, five of which (RanBP9/RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA, Rmnd5 and muskelin), share striking similarities of domain architecture and have been implicated in regulation of cell organisation. In budding yeast, the homologous GID complex acts to down-regulate gluconeogenesis. In both complexes, Rmnd5/GID2 corresponds to a RING ubiquitin ligase. To better understand this E3 ligase system, we conducted molecular phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the related components. TWA1, Rmnd5, MAEA and WDR26 are conserved throughout all eukaryotic supergroups, albeit WDR26 was not identified in Rhizaria. RanBPM is absent from Excavates and from some sub-lineages. Armc8 and c17orf39 were represented across unikonts but in bikonts were identified only in Viridiplantae and in O. trifallax within alveolates. Muskelin is present only in Opisthokonts. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the shared LisH and CTLH domains of RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA and Rmnd5 revealed closer relationships and profiles of conserved residues between, respectively, Rmnd5 and MAEA, and RanBPM and TWA1. Rmnd5 and MAEA are also related by the presence of conserved, variant RING domains. Examination of how N- or C-terminal domain deletions alter the sub-cellular localisation of each protein in mammalian cells identified distinct contributions of the LisH domains to protein localisation or folding/stability. In conclusion, all components except muskelin are inferred to have been present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Diversification of this ligase complex in different eukaryotic lineages may result from the apparently fast evolution of RanBPM, differing requirements for WDR26, Armc8 or c17orf39, and the origin of muskelin in opisthokonts as a RanBPM-binding protein.
M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8) was initially identified to be a component of the RanBPM-containing large protein complex, and has recently been shown to bind to methylated H3K9 both in vivo and in vitro. MPP8 binding to methylated H3K9 is suggested to recruit the H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, and DNA methyltransferase 3A to the promoter of the E-cadherin gene, mediating the E-cadherin gene silencing and promote tumor cell motility and invasion. MPP8 contains a chromodomain in its N-terminus, which is used to bind the methylated H3K9.
Here, we reported the crystal structures of human MPP8 chromodomain alone and in complex with the trimethylated histone H3K9 peptide (residue 1–15). The complex structure unveils that the human MPP8 chromodomain binds methylated H3K9 through a conserved recognition mechanism, which was also observed in Drosophila HP1, a chromodomain containing protein that binds to methylated H3K9 as well. The structure also reveals that the human MPP8 chromodomain forms homodimer, which is mediated via an unexpected domain swapping interaction through two β strands from the two protomer subunits.
Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism of selective binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to methylated histone H3K9. The observation of human MPP8 chromodomain in both solution and crystal lattice may provide clues to study MPP8-mediated gene regulation furthermore.
We previously identified that Ran protein, a member of the Ras GTPase family, is highly expressed in high grade and high stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers, and that its overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis. Ran is known to contribute to both nucleocytoplasmic transport and cell cycle progression, but its role in ovarian cancer is not well defined.
Using a lentivirus-based tetracycline-inducible shRNA approach, we show that downregulation of Ran expression in aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines affects cellular proliferation by inducing a caspase-3 associated apoptosis. Using a xenograft tumor assay, we demonstrate that depletion of Ran results in decreased tumorigenesis, and eventual tumor formation is associated with tumor cells that express Ran protein.
Our results suggest a role for Ran in ovarian cancer cell survival and tumorigenicity and suggest that this critical GTPase may be suitable as a therapeutic target.
The small Ras-related GTP binding and hydrolyzing protein Ran has been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, RNA processing, and nuclear-cytosolic trafficking of both RNA and proteins. Like other small GTPases, Ran appears to function as a switch: Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP levels are regulated both by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins, and Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP interact differentially with one or more effectors. One such putative effector, Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), interacts selectively with Ran-GTP. Ran proteins contain a diagnostic short, acidic, carboxyl-terminal domain, DEDDDL, which, at least in the case of human Ran, is required for its role in cell cycle regulation. We show here that this domain is required for the interaction between Ran and RanBP1 but not for the interaction between Ran and a Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor or between Ran and a Ran GTPase activating protein. In addition, Ran lacking this carboxyl-terminal domain functions normally in an in vitro nuclear protein import assay. We also show that RanBP1 interacts with the mammalian homolog of yeast protein RNA1, a protein involved in RNA transport and processing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Ran functions directly in at least two pathways, one, dependent on RanBP1, that affects cell cycle progression and RNA export, and another, independent of RanBP1, that affects nuclear protein import.
RanBP9 is known to act as a scaffolding protein bringing together a variety of cell surface receptors and intracellular targets thereby regulating functions as diverse as neurite and axonal outgrowth, cell morphology, cell proliferation, myelination, gonad development, myofibrillogenesis and migration of neuronal precursors. Though RanBP9 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, brain is one of the organs with the highest expression levels of RanBP9. In the neurons, RanBP9 is localized mostly in the cytoplasm but also in the neurites and dendritic processes. We recently demonstrated that RanBP9 plays pathogenic role in Alzheimer’s disease. To understand the role of RanBP9 in the brain, here we generated RanBP9 null mice by gene-trap based strategy. Most of Ran−/− mice die neonatally due to defects in the brain growth and development. The major defects include smaller cortical plate (CP), robustly enlarged lateral ventricles (LV) and reduced volume of hippocampus (HI). The lethal phenotype is due to a suckling defect as evidenced by lack of milk in the stomachs even several hours after parturition. The complex somatosensory system which is required for a behavior such as suckling appears to be compromised in Ran−/− mice due to under developed CP. Most importantly, RanBP9 phenotype is similar to ERK1/2 double knockout and the neural cell adhesion receptor, L1CAM knockout mice. Both ERK1 and L1CAM interact with RanBP9. Thus, RanBP9 appears to control brain growth and development through signaling mechanisms involving ERK1 and L1CAM receptor.
Ran, the small, predominantly nuclear GTPase, has been implicated
in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including cell
cycle progression, nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of RNA and protein,
nuclear structure, and DNA synthesis. It is not known whether Ran
functions directly in each process or whether many of its roles may be
secondary to a direct role in only one, for example, nuclear protein
import. To identify biochemical links between Ran and its functional
target(s), we have generated and examined the properties of a putative
Ran effector mutation, T42A-Ran. T42A-Ran binds guanine nucleotides as
well as wild-type Ran and responds as well as wild-type Ran to GTP or
GDP exchange stimulated by the Ran-specific guanine nucleotide exchange
factor, RCC1. T42A-Ran·GDP also retains the ability to bind p10/NTF2,
a component of the nuclear import pathway. In contrast to wild-type
Ran, T42A-Ran·GTP binds very weakly or not detectably to three
proposed Ran effectors, Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), Ran-binding
protein 2 (RanBP2, a nucleoporin), and karyopherin β (a component of
the nuclear protein import pathway), and is not stimulated to hydrolyze
bound GTP by Ran GTPase-activating protein, RanGAP1. Also in contrast
to wild-type Ran, T42A-Ran does not stimulate nuclear protein import in
a digitonin permeabilized cell assay and also inhibits wild-type Ran
function in this system. However, the T42A mutation does not block the
docking of karyophilic substrates at the nuclear pore. These properties
of T42A-Ran are consistent with its classification as an effector
mutant and define the exposed region of Ran containing the mutation as
a probable effector loop.
Three factors have been identified that reconstitute nuclear protein import in a permeabilized cell assay: the NLS receptor, p97, and Ran/TC4. Ran/TC4, in turn, interacts with a number of proteins that are involved in the regulation of GTP hydrolysis or are components of the nuclear pore. Two Ran-binding proteins, RanBP1 and RanBP2, form discrete complexes with p97 as demonstrated by immunoadsorption from HeLa cell extracts fractionated by gel filtration chromatography. A > 400-kD complex contains p97, Ran, and RanBP2. Another complex of 150- 300 kD was comprised of p97, Ran, and RanBP1. This second trimeric complex could be reconstituted from recombinant proteins. In solution binding assays, Ran-GTP bound p97 with high affinity, but the binding of Ran-GDP to p97 was undetectable. The addition of RanBP1 with Ran-GDP or Ran-GTP increased the affinity of both forms of Ran for p97 to the same level. Binding of Ran-GTP to p97 dissociated p97 from immobilized NLS receptor while the Ran-GDP/RanBP1/p97 complex did not dissociate from the receptor. In a digitonin-permeabilized cell docking assay, RanBP1 stabilizes the receptor complex against temperature-dependent release from the pore. When added to an import assay with recombinant NLS receptor, p97 and Ran-GDP, RanBP1 significantly stimulates transport. These results suggest that RanBP1 promotes both the docking and translocation steps in nuclear protein import by stabilizing the interaction of Ran-GDP with p97.
We report the identification and characterization of a novel 124-kDa Ran binding protein, RanBP5. This protein is related to importin-beta, the key mediator of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent nuclear transport. RanBP5 was identified by two independent methods: it was isolated from HeLa cells by using its interaction with RanGTP in an overlay assay to monitor enrichment, and it was also found by the yeast two-hybrid selection method with RanBP1 as bait. RanBP5 binds to RanBP1 as part of a trimeric RanBP1-Ran-RanBP5 complex. Like importin-beta, RanBP5 strongly binds the GTP-bound form of Ran, stabilizing it against both intrinsic and RanGAP1-induced GTP hydrolysis and also against nucleotide exchange. The GAP resistance of the RanBP5-RanGTP complex can be relieved by RanBP1, which might reflect an in vivo role for RanBP1. RanBP5 is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that can bind to nuclear pore complexes. We propose that RanBP5 is a mediator of a nucleocytoplasmic transport pathway that is distinct from the importin-alpha-dependent import of proteins with a classical NLS.
Mammalian Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) and its fission yeast homologue, sbp1p, are cytosolic proteins that interact with the GTP-charged form of Ran GTPase through a conserved Ran-binding domain (RBD). In vitro, this interaction can accelerate the Ran GTPase-activating protein–mediated hydrolysis of GTP on Ran and the turnover of nuclear import and export complexes. To analyze RanBP1 function in vivo, we expressed exogenous RanBP1, sbp1p, and the RBD of each in mammalian cells, in wild-type fission yeast, and in yeast whose endogenous sbp1 gene was disrupted. Mammalian cells and wild-type yeast expressing moderate levels of each protein were viable and displayed normal nuclear protein import. sbp1− yeast were inviable but could be rescued by all four exogenous proteins. Two RBDs of the mammalian nucleoporin RanBP2 also rescued sbp1− yeast. In mammalian cells, wild-type yeast, and rescued mutant yeast, exogenous full-length RanBP1 and sbp1p localized predominantly to the cytosol, whereas exogenous RBDs localized predominantly to the cell nucleus. These results suggest that only the RBD of sbp1p is required for its function in fission yeast, and that this function may not require confinement of the RBD to the cytosol. The results also indicate that the polar amino-terminal portion of sbp1p mediates cytosolic localization of the protein in both yeast and mammalian cells.
Human vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) 1 is a novel serine-threonine kinase that regulates several transcription factors, nuclear envelope assembly, and chromatin condensation and is also required for cell cycle progression. The regulation of this kinase family is unknown. Mass spectrometry has permitted the identification of Ran as an interacting and regulatory protein of the VRK serine-threonine kinase activities. The stable interaction has been validated by pulldown of endogenous proteins as well as by reciprocal immunoprecipitations. The three members of the VRK family stably interact with Ran, and the interaction was not affected by the bound nucleotide, GDP or GTP. The interaction was stronger with the RanT24N that is locked in its inactive conformation and cannot bind nucleotides. None of the kinases phosphorylated Ran or RCC1. VRK1 does not directly interact with RCC1, but if Ran is present they can be isolated as a complex. The main effect of the interaction of inactive RanGDP with VRK1 is the inhibition of its kinase activity, which was detected by a reduction in VRK1 autophosphorylation and a reduction in phosphorylation of histone H3 in residues Thr-3 and Ser-10. The kinase activity inhibition can be relieved by the interaction with the constitutively active RanGTP or RanL43E, which locks Ran in its GTP-bound active conformation. In this complex, the interaction with VRK proteins does not alter the effect of its guanine exchange factor, RCC1. Ran is a novel negative regulator of nuclear VRK1 and VRK2 kinase activity, which may vary in different subcellular localizations generating an asymmetric intracellular distribution of kinase activity depending on local protein interactions.
β-Catenin is the nuclear effector of the Wnt signaling cascade. The mechanism by which nuclear activity of β-catenin is regulated is not well defined. Therefore, we used the nuclear marker RanGTP to screen for novel nuclear β-catenin binding proteins. We identified a cofactor of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)–mediated nuclear export, Ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3), as a novel β-catenin–interacting protein that binds directly to β-catenin in a RanGTP-stimulated manner. RanBP3 inhibits β-catenin–mediated transcriptional activation in both Wnt1- and β-catenin–stimulated human cells. In Xenopus laevis embryos, RanBP3 interferes with β-catenin–induced dorsoventral axis formation. Furthermore, RanBP3 depletion stimulates the Wnt pathway in both human cells and Drosophila melanogaster embryos. In human cells, this is accompanied by an increase of dephosphorylated β-catenin in the nucleus. Conversely, overexpression of RanBP3 leads to a shift of active β-catenin toward the cytoplasm. Modulation of β-catenin activity and localization by RanBP3 is independent of adenomatous polyposis coli protein and CRM1. We conclude that RanBP3 is a direct export enhancer for β-catenin, independent of its role as a CRM1-associated nuclear export cofactor.
A small GTPase Ran is a key regulator for active nuclear transport. In immunoblotting analysis, a monoclonal antibody against recombinant human Ran, designated ARAN1, was found to recognize an epitope in the COOH-terminal domain of Ran. In a solution binding assay, ARAN1 recognized Ran when complexed with importin β, transportin, and CAS, but not the Ran-GTP or the Ran-GDP alone, indicating that the COOH-terminal domain of Ran is exposed via its interaction with importin β–related proteins. In addition, ARAN1 suppressed the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran–importin β complex. When injected into the nucleus of BHK cells, ARAN1 was rapidly exported to the cytoplasm, indicating that the Ran–importin β–related protein complex is exported as a complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in living cells. Moreover, ARAN1, when injected into the cultured cells induces the accumulation of endogenous Ran in the cytoplasm and prevents the nuclear import of SV-40 T-antigen nuclear localization signal substrates. From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran–importin β complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport.
nuclear protein import; Ran; monoclonal antibody; importin; microinjection