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1.  Fiber-Optic Implantation for Chronic Optogenetic Stimulation of Brain Tissue 
Short Abstract
The development of optogenetics now provides the means to precisely stimulate genetically defined neurons and circuits, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe the assembly and implantation of a fiber optic for chronic photostimulation of brain tissue.
Long Abstract
Elucidating patterns of neuronal connectivity has been a challenge for both clinical and basic neuroscience. Electrophysiology has been the gold standard for analyzing patterns of synaptic connectivity, but paired electrophysiological recordings can be both cumbersome and experimentally limiting. The development of optogenetics has introduced an elegant method to stimulate neurons and circuits, both in vitro1 and in vivo2,3. By exploiting cell-type specific promoter activity to drive opsin expression in discrete neuronal populations, one can precisely stimulate genetically defined neuronal subtypes in distinct circuits4–6. Well described methods to stimulate neurons, including electrical stimulation and/or pharmacological manipulations, are often cell-type indiscriminate, invasive, and can damage surrounding tissues. These limitations could alter normal synaptic function and/or circuit behavior. In addition, due to the nature of the manipulation, the current methods are often acute and terminal. Optogenetics affords the ability to stimulate neurons in a relatively innocuous manner, and in genetically targeted neurons. The majority of studies involving in vivo optogenetics currently use a optical fiber guided through an implanted cannula6,7; however, limitations of this method include damaged brain tissue with repeated insertion of an optical fiber, and potential breakage of the fiber inside the cannula. Given the burgeoning field of optogenetics, a more reliable method of chronic stimulation is necessary to facilitate long-term studies with minimal collateral tissue damage. Here we provide our modified protocol as a video article to complement the method effectively and elegantly described in Sparta et al.8 for the fabrication of a fiber optic implant and its permanent fixation onto the cranium of anesthetized mice, as well as the assembly of the fiber optic coupler connecting the implant to a light source. The implant, connected with optical fibers to a solid-state laser, allows for an efficient method to chronically photostimulate functional neuronal circuitry with less tissue damage9 using small, detachable, tethers. Permanent fixation of the fiber optic implants provides consistent, long-term in vivo optogenetic studies of neuronal circuits in awake, behaving mice10 with minimal tissue damage.
doi:10.3791/50004
PMCID: PMC3490315  PMID: 23128465
Neuroscience; optogenetics; fiber optics; implantation; neuronal circuitry; chronic stimulation
2.  Computational Optogenetics: Empirically-Derived Voltage- and Light-Sensitive Channelrhodopsin-2 Model 
PLoS Computational Biology  2013;9(9):e1003220.
Channelrhodospin-2 (ChR2), a light-sensitive ion channel, and its variants have emerged as new excitatory optogenetic tools not only in neuroscience, but also in other areas, including cardiac electrophysiology. An accurate quantitative model of ChR2 is necessary for in silico prediction of the response to optical stimulation in realistic tissue/organ settings. Such a model can guide the rational design of new ion channel functionality tailored to different cell types/tissues. Focusing on one of the most widely used ChR2 mutants (H134R) with enhanced current, we collected a comprehensive experimental data set of the response of this ion channel to different irradiances and voltages, and used these data to develop a model of ChR2 with empirically-derived voltage- and irradiance- dependence, where parameters were fine-tuned via simulated annealing optimization. This ChR2 model offers: 1) accurate inward rectification in the current-voltage response across irradiances; 2) empirically-derived voltage- and light-dependent kinetics (activation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation); and 3) accurate amplitude and morphology of the response across voltage and irradiance settings. Temperature-scaling factors (Q10) were derived and model kinetics was adjusted to physiological temperatures. Using optical action potential clamp, we experimentally validated model-predicted ChR2 behavior in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. The model was then incorporated in a variety of cardiac myocytes, including human ventricular, atrial and Purkinje cell models. We demonstrate the ability of ChR2 to trigger action potentials in human cardiomyocytes at relatively low light levels, as well as the differential response of these cells to light, with the Purkinje cells being most easily excitable and ventricular cells requiring the highest irradiance at all pulse durations. This new experimentally-validated ChR2 model will facilitate virtual experimentation in neural and cardiac optogenetics at the cell and organ level and provide guidance for the development of in vivo tools.
Author Summary
Optogenetics, the use of light-sensitive ion channels for stimulation of mammalian cells and tissues, offers specificity and superior precision of control compared to traditional chemical or electrical means of stimulation. In particular, Channelrhodospin-2 (ChR2), a light-sensitive ion channel, originally derived from algae, has found wide-spread application in neuroscience for controlled stimulation of different brain regions. More recently, this work was extended to other organs, including the heart, where it opens the possibility for a new generation of optical pacemakers. The development of new optogenetic tools that allow for more efficient optical stimulation can be guided by computational prediction of the response of different cells and tissues to light. In this report, we provide a new computational model of ChR2 that was empirically validated and can be inserted into different cell types – neurons or heart cells – for virtual optical stimulation and prediction of optimal light-delivery arrangements, minimum energy needs etc. Overall, virtual optogenetics can accelerate the development of new optical stimulation tools for better understanding and control of brain and heart function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003220
PMCID: PMC3772068  PMID: 24068903
3.  Silencer-delimited transgenesis: NRSE/RE1 sequences promote neural-specific transgene expression in a NRSF/REST-dependent manner 
BMC Biology  2012;10:93.
Background
We have investigated a simple strategy for enhancing transgene expression specificity by leveraging genetic silencer elements. The approach serves to restrict transgene expression to a tissue of interest - the nervous system in the example provided here - thereby promoting specific/exclusive targeting of discrete cellular subtypes. Recent innovations are bringing us closer to understanding how the brain is organized, how neural circuits function, and how neurons can be regenerated. Fluorescent proteins enable mapping of the 'connectome', optogenetic tools allow excitable cells to be short-circuited or hyperactivated, and targeted ablation of neuronal subtypes facilitates investigations of circuit function and neuronal regeneration. Optimally, such toolsets need to be expressed solely within the cell types of interest as off-site expression makes establishing causal relationships difficult. To address this, we have exploited a gene 'silencing' system that promotes neuronal specificity by repressing expression in non-neural tissues. This methodology solves non-specific background issues that plague large-scale enhancer trap efforts and may provide a means of leveraging promoters/enhancers that otherwise express too broadly to be of value for in vivo manipulations.
Results
We show that a conserved neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) can function to restrict transgene expression to the nervous system. The neuron-restrictive silencing factor/repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST) transcriptional repressor binds NRSE/repressor element 1 (RE1) sites and silences gene expression in non-neuronal cells. Inserting NRSE sites into transgenes strongly biased expression to neural tissues. NRSE sequences were effective in restricting expression of bipartite Gal4-based 'driver' transgenes within the context of an enhancer trap and when associated with a defined promoter and enhancer. However, NRSE sequences did not serve to restrict expression of an upstream activating sequence (UAS)-based reporter/effector transgene when associated solely with the UAS element. Morpholino knockdown assays showed that NRSF/REST expression is required for NRSE-based transgene silencing.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate that the addition of NRSE sequences to transgenes can provide useful new tools for functional studies of the nervous system. However, the general approach may be more broadly applicable; tissue-specific silencer elements are operable in tissues other than the nervous system, suggesting this approach can be similarly applied to other paradigms. Thus, creating synthetic associations between endogenous regulatory elements and tissue-specific silencers may facilitate targeting of cellular subtypes for which defined promoters/enhancers are lacking.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-93
PMCID: PMC3529185  PMID: 23198762
zebrafish; transgenesis; enhancer trap; NRSE/RE1; NRSF/REST; Gal4/UAS; neuron
4.  Using Optogenetics to Study Habits 
Brain research  2013;1511:102-114.
It is now well documented that optogenetics brings to neuroscience a long sought-after foothold to study the causal role of millisecond-scale activity of genetically or anatomically defined populations of neurons. Progress is rapid, and, as evidenced by the work collected in this Special Issue, the possibilities of what can now be done are almost dizzying. Even for those concerned with complex phenomena, such as behavioral habits and flexibility, signs are that we could be on the threshold of a leap in scientific understanding. In this article, we note this special time in neuroscience by the example of our use of optogenetics to study habitual behavior. We present a basic sketch of the neural circuitry of habitual behavior built mainly on findings from experiments in which lesion and drug microinjection techniques were employed in combination with sophisticated behavioral analysis. We then outline the types of questions that now can be approached through the use of optogenetic approaches, and, as an example, we summarize the results of a recent study of ours in which we took this approach to probe the neural basis of habit formation. With optogenetic methods, we were able to demonstrate that a small site in the medial prefrontal cortex can control habits on-line during their execution, and we were able to control new habits when they competed with prior ones. The nearly immediate effect of disabling this site optogenetically suggests the existence of a mechanism for moment-to-moment monitoring of behaviors that long have been thought to be almost automatic and reflexive. This example highlights the kind of new knowledge that can be gained by the carefully timed use of optogenetic tools.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.01.008
PMCID: PMC3654045  PMID: 23313580
Basal ganglia; prefrontal cortex; reward; learning; plasticity; executive; time
5.  Dissecting local circuits in vivo: integrated optogenetic and electrophysiology approaches for exploring inhibitory regulation of cortical activity 
Journal of Physiology, Paris  2011;106(3-4):104-111.
Local cortical circuit activity in vivo comprises a complex and flexible series of interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our understanding of the functional interactions between these different neural populations has been limited by the difficulty of identifying and selectively manipulating the diverse and sparsely represented inhibitory interneuron classes in the intact brain. The integration of recently developed optical tools with traditional electrophysiological techniques provides a powerful window into the role of inhibition in regulating the activity of excitatory neurons. In particular, optogenetic targeting of specific cell classes reveals the distinct impacts of local inhibitory populations on other neurons in the surrounding local network. In addition to providing the ability to activate or suppress spiking in target cells, optogenetic activation identifies extracellularly recorded neurons by class, even when naturally occurring spike rates are extremely low. However, there are several important limitations on the use of these tools and the interpretation of resulting data. The purpose of this article is to outline the uses and limitations of optogenetic tools, along with current methods for achieving cell type-specific expression, and to highlight the advantages of an experimental approach combining optogenetics and electrophysiology to explore the role of inhibition in active networks. To illustrate the efficacy of these combined approaches, I present data comparing targeted manipulations of cortical fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing and low threshold-spiking, somatostatin-expressing interneurons in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.jphysparis.2011.09.005
PMCID: PMC3277809  PMID: 21958624
interneuron; inhibition; fast-spiking; somatostatin; optogenetics; channelrhodopsin; halorhodopsin; archaerhodopsin; electrophysiology; tetrode; cortex
6.  Identification of Optogenetically Activated Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons by Npas4 Expression 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52783.
Optogenetics is a powerful neuromodulatory tool with many unique advantages to explore functions of neuronal circuits in physiology and diseases. Yet, interpretation of cellular and behavioral responses following in vivo optogenetic manipulation of brain activities in experimental animals often necessitates identification of photoactivated neurons with high spatial resolution. Although tracing expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) provides a convenient approach, neuronal activation is not always followed by specific induction of widely used neuronal activity markers like c-fos, Egr1 and Arc. In this study we performed unilateral optogenetic stimulation of the striatum in freely moving transgenic mice that expressed a channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) variant ChR2(C128S) in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that in vivo blue light stimulation significantly altered electrophysiological activity of striatal neurons and animal behaviors. To identify photoactivated neurons we then analyzed IEG expression patterns using in situ hybridization. Upon light illumination an induction of c-fos was not apparent whereas another neuronal IEG Npas4 was robustly induced in MSNs ipsilaterally. Our results demonstrate that tracing Npas4 mRNA expression following in vivo optogenetic modulation can be an effective tool for reliable and sensitive identification of activated MSNs in the mouse striatum.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052783
PMCID: PMC3530472  PMID: 23300775
7.  A history of optogenetics: the development of tools for controlling brain circuits with light 
Understanding how different kinds of neuron in the brain work together to implement sensations, feelings, thoughts, and movements, and how deficits in specific kinds of neuron result in brain diseases, has long been a priority in basic and clinical neuroscience. “Optogenetic” tools are genetically encoded molecules that, when targeted to specific neurons in the brain, enable their activity to be driven or silenced by light. These molecules are microbial opsins, seven-transmembrane proteins adapted from organisms found throughout the world, which react to light by transporting ions across the lipid membranes of cells in which they are genetically expressed. These tools are enabling the causal assessment of the roles that different sets of neurons play within neural circuits, and are accordingly being used to reveal how different sets of neurons contribute to the emergent computational and behavioral functions of the brain. These tools are also being explored as components of prototype neural control prosthetics capable of correcting neural circuit computations that have gone awry in brain disorders. This review gives an account of the birth of optogenetics and discusses the technology and its applications.
doi:10.3410/B3-11
PMCID: PMC3155186  PMID: 21876722
8.  Genetically encoded molecular tools for light-driven silencing of targeted neurons 
Progress in brain research  2012;196:49-61.
The ability to silence, in a temporally precise fashion, the electrical activity of specific neurons embedded within intact brain tissue, is important for understanding the role that those neurons play in behaviors, brain disorders, and neural computations. “Optogenetic” silencers, genetically encoded molecules that, when expressed in targeted cells within neural networks, enable their electrical activity to be quieted in response to pulses of light, are enabling these kinds of causal circuit analyses studies. Two major classes of optogenetic silencer are in broad use in species ranging from worm to monkey: light-driven inward chloride pumps, or halorhodopsins, and light-driven outward proton pumps, such as archaerhodopsins and fungal light-driven proton pumps. Both classes of molecule, when expressed in neurons via viral or other transgenic means, enable the targeted neurons to be hyperpolarized by light. We here review the current status of these sets of molecules, and discuss how they are being discovered and engineered. We also discuss their expression properties, ionic properties, spectral characteristics, and kinetics. Such tools may not only find many uses in the quieting of electrical activity for basic science studies, but may also, in the future, find clinical uses for their ability to safely and transiently shut down cellular electrical activity in a precise fashion.
doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59426-6.00003-3
PMCID: PMC3553588  PMID: 22341320
optogenetics; opsins; neural silencing; halorhodopsin; archaerhodopsin; channelrhodopsin; control; cell types; neural circuits; causality
9.  A High-Light Sensitivity Optical Neural Silencer: Development and Application to Optogenetic Control of Non-Human Primate Cortex 
Technologies for silencing the electrical activity of genetically targeted neurons in the brain are important for assessing the contribution of specific cell types and pathways toward behaviors and pathologies. Recently we found that archaerhodopsin-3 from Halorubrum sodomense (Arch), a light-driven outward proton pump, when genetically expressed in neurons, enables them to be powerfully, transiently, and repeatedly silenced in response to pulses of light. Because of the impressive characteristics of Arch, we explored the optogenetic utility of opsins with high sequence homology to Arch, from archaea of the Halorubrum genus. We found that the archaerhodopsin from Halorubrum strain TP009, which we named ArchT, could mediate photocurrents of similar maximum amplitude to those of Arch (∼900 pA in vitro), but with a >3-fold improvement in light sensitivity over Arch, most notably in the optogenetic range of 1–10 mW/mm2, equating to >2× increase in brain tissue volume addressed by a typical single optical fiber. Upon expression in mouse or rhesus macaque cortical neurons, ArchT expressed well on neuronal membranes, including excellent trafficking for long distances down neuronal axons. The high light sensitivity prompted us to explore ArchT use in the cortex of the rhesus macaque. Optical perturbation of ArchT-expressing neurons in the brain of an awake rhesus macaque resulted in a rapid and complete (∼100%) silencing of most recorded cells, with suppressed cells achieving a median firing rate of 0 spikes/s upon illumination. A small population of neurons showed increased firing rates at long latencies following the onset of light stimulation, suggesting the existence of a mechanism of network-level neural activity balancing. The powerful net suppression of activity suggests that ArchT silencing technology might be of great use not only in the causal analysis of neural circuits, but may have therapeutic applications.
doi:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00018
PMCID: PMC3082132  PMID: 21811444
channelrhodopsin; halorhodopsin; archaerhodopsin; optogenetics; non-human primate; systems neuroscience; neurophysiology; neural silencing
10.  The optogenetic (r)evolution 
Molecular Genetics and Genomics  2011;287(2):95-109.
Optogenetics is a rapidly evolving field of technology that allows optical control of genetically targeted biological systems at high temporal and spatial resolution. By heterologous expression of light-sensitive microbial membrane proteins, opsins, cell type-specific depolarization or silencing can be optically induced on a millisecond time scale. What started in a petri dish is applicable today to more complex systems, ranging from the dissection of brain circuitries in vitro to behavioral analyses in freely moving animals. Persistent technical improvement has focused on the identification of new opsins, suitable for optogenetic purposes and genetic engineering of existing ones. Optical stimulation can be combined with various readouts defined by the desired resolution of the experimental setup. Although recent developments in optogenetics have largely focused on neuroscience it has lately been extended to other targets, including stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Further development of optogenetic approaches will not only highly increase our insight into health and disease states but might also pave the way for a future use in therapeutic applications.
doi:10.1007/s00438-011-0663-7
PMCID: PMC3266495  PMID: 22183142
Optogenetics; Rhodopsin; Channelrhodopsin; Halorhodopsin; Optical tools; Arch; ChR2; NpHR
11.  Timing matters: using optogenetics to chronically manipulate neural circuitry and rhythms 
The ability to probe defined neural circuits with both the spatial and temporal resolution imparted by optogenetics has transformed the field of neuroscience. Although much attention has been paid to the advantages of manipulating neural activity at millisecond timescales in order to elicit time-locked neural responses, little consideration has been given to the manipulation of circuit activity at physiologically relevant times of day, across multiple days. Nearly all biological events are governed by the circadian clock and exhibit 24 h rhythms in activity. Indeed, neural circuit activity itself exhibits a daily rhythm with distinct temporal peaks in activity occurring at specific times of the day. Therefore, experimentally probing circuit function within and across physiologically relevant time windows (minutes to hours) in behaving animals is fundamental to understanding the function of any one particular circuit within the intact brain. Furthermore, understanding how circuit function changes with repeated manipulation is important for modeling the circuit-wide disruptions that occur with chronic disease states. Here, we review recent advances in optogenetic technology that allow for chronic, temporally specific, control of circuit activity and provide examples of chronic optogenetic paradigms that have been utilized in the search for the neural circuit basis of behaviors relevant to human neuropsychiatric disease.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00041
PMCID: PMC3924037  PMID: 24592222
optogenetics; opsins; circadian rhythms; addiction; depression; bipolar disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; mouse models
12.  Optogenetically-induced behavioral and functional network changes in primates 
Current biology : CB  2012;22(18):1722-1726.
Summary
Optogenetics is currently the state-of-the-art method for causal-oriented brain research. Despite an increasingly large number of invertebrate and rodent studies showing profound electrophysiological and behavioral effects induced by optogenetics [1,2], only two primate studies have reported modulation of local single-cell activity, but with no behavioral effects [3,4]. Here, we show that optogenetic stimulation of cortical neurons within rhesus monkey arcuate sulcus, during the execution of a visually-guided saccade task, evoked significant and reproducible changes in saccade latencies as a function of target position. Moreover, using concurrent optogenetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (aka opto-fMRI, [5,6]) we observed optogenetically-induced changes in fMRI activity in specific functional cortical networks throughout the monkey brain. This is critical information for the advancement of optogenetic primate research models and for initiating the development of optogenetically-based cell-specific therapies with which to treat neurological diseases in humans.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.023
PMCID: PMC3461112  PMID: 22840516
13.  Laser-scanning photostimulation of optogenetically targeted forebrain circuits 
The sensory forebrain is composed of intricately connected cell types, of which functional properties have yet to be fully elucidated. Understanding the interactions of these forebrain circuits has been aided recently by the development of optogenetic methods for light-mediated modulation of neuronal activity. Here, we describe a protocol for examining the functional organization of forebrain circuits in vitro using laser-scanning photostimulation of channelrhodopsin, expressed optogenetically via viral-mediated transfection. This approach also exploits the utility of cre-lox recombination in transgenic mice to target expression in specific neuronal cell types. Following transfection, neurons are physiologically recorded in slice preparations using whole-cell patch clamp to measure their evoked responses to laser-scanning photostimulation of channelrhodopsin expressing fibers. This approach enables an assessment of functional topography and synaptic properties. Morphological correlates can be obtained by imaging the neuroanatomical expression of channelrhodopsin expressing fibers using confocal microscopy of the live slice or post-fixed tissue. These methods enable functional investigations of forebrain circuits that expand upon more conventional approaches.
doi:10.3791/50915
PMCID: PMC3966657  PMID: 24430760
optogenetics; cortex; thalamus; channelrhodopsin; photostimulation; auditory; visual; somatosensory
14.  Cell type-specific and time-dependent light exposure contribute to silencing in neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 
eLife  2014;3:e01481.
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has quickly gained popularity as a powerful tool for eliciting genetically targeted neuronal activation. However, little has been reported on the response kinetics of optogenetic stimulation across different neuronal subtypes. With excess stimulation, neurons can be driven into depolarization block, a state where they cease to fire action potentials. Herein, we demonstrate that light-induced depolarization block in neurons expressing ChR2 poses experimental challenges for stable activation of specific cell types and may confound interpretation of experiments when ‘activated’ neurons are in fact being functionally silenced. We show both ex vivo and in vivo that certain neuronal subtypes targeted for ChR2 expression become increasingly susceptible to depolarization block as the duration of light pulses are increased. We find that interneuron populations have a greater susceptibility to this effect than principal excitatory neurons, which are more resistant to light-induced depolarization block. Our results highlight the need to empirically determine the photo-response properties of targeted neurons when using ChR2, particularly in studies designed to elicit complex circuit responses in vivo where neuronal activity will not be recorded simultaneous to light stimulation.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01481.001
eLife digest
The brain is a highly complex structure composed of trillions of interconnecting nerve cells. The pattern of connections between these cells gives rise to the various brain circuits that govern how the brain functions. Understanding how the brain is wired together is important for determining how ‘faulty circuits’ contribute to various neurological disorders.
New optogenetic technique tools allow neuroscientists to turn on specific neurons simply by shining light on them. These techniques involve genetically manipulating the organisms so that their neurons express proteins that are activated when they are exposed to light of a particular wavelength. However, it is important to understand the limitations of this approach—including the possibility that the light might actually turn off some neurons—when using it to study animal behavior.
Now, Herman, Huang et al. show that shining light pulses for long durations onto neurons expressing a light-activated protein called channelrhodopsin-2 causes the neurons to become silenced rather than activated. Moreover, certain types of neurons, called interneurons, are more susceptible to this effect—termed ‘depolarization block’—than the other types of neurons.
Researchers need to be mindful of this effect when channelrhodopsin-2 is used in optogenetic experiments to study the behavior of living animals. However, this silencing property could be useful in experiments that investigate situations in which depolarization block is thought to contribute to brain function and health: such as in the treatments of schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01481.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.01481
PMCID: PMC3904216  PMID: 24473077
optogenetics; action potential; in vivo; channelrhodopsin; silencing; mouse
15.  Virogenetic and Optogenetic Mechanisms to Define Potential Therapeutic Targets in Psychiatric Disorders 
Neuropharmacology  2011;62(1):89-100.
A continuously increasing body of knowledge shows that the brain is an extremely complex neural network and single neurons possess their own complicated interactive signaling pathways. Such complexity of the nervous system makes it increasingly difficult to investigate the functions of specific neural components such as genes, proteins, transcription factors, neurons and nuclei in the brain. Technically, it has been even more of a significant challenge to identify the molecular and cellular adaptations that are both sufficient and necessary to underlie behavioral functions in health and disease states. Defining such neural adaptations is a critical step to identify the potential therapeutic targets within the complex neural network that are beneficial to treat psychiatric disorders. Recently, the newly development and extensive application of in vivo viral-mediated gene transfer (virogenetics) and optical manipulation of specific neurons or selective neural circuits in freely-moving animals (optogenetics) make it feasible, through loss- and gain-of-function approaches, to reliably define sufficient and necessary neuroadaptations in the behavioral models of psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, depression, anxiety and bipolar disorders. In this article, we focus on recent studies that successfully employ these advanced virogenetic and optogenetic techniques as a powerful tool to identify potential targets in the brain, and to provide highly useful information in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for psychiatric disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.09.009
PMCID: PMC3205991  PMID: 21945288
Neural target; Target defining; Viral-mediated gene transfer; Virogenetics; Optogenetics; Depression; Anxiety; Drug addiction; Bipolar disorder; Neurophysiology
16.  Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond 
The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more “extra” genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00111
PMCID: PMC3982106  PMID: 24772073
bacterial artificial chromosome; transgenic mice; BAC recombineering; Drd1a; Drd2; Adora2a; Chat; DAT
17.  Stimulating Cardiac Muscle by Light: Cardiac Optogenetics by Cell Delivery 
Background
After the recent cloning of light-sensitive ion channels and their expression in mammalian cells, a new field, optogenetics, emerged in neuroscience, allowing for precise perturbations of neural circuits by light. However, functionality of optogenetic tools has not been fully explored outside neuroscience; and a non-viral, non-embryogenesis based strategy for optogenetics has not been shown before.
Methods and Results
We demonstrate the utility of optogenetics to cardiac muscle by a tandem cell unit (TCU) strategy, where non-excitable cells carry exogenous light-sensitive ion channels, and when electrically coupled to cardiomyocytes, produce optically-excitable heart tissue. A stable channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) expressing cell line was developed, characterized and used as a cell delivery system. The TCU strategy was validated in vitro in cell pairs with adult canine myocytes (for a wide range of coupling strengths) and in cardiac syncytium with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. For the first time, we combined optical excitation and optical imaging to capture light-triggered muscle contractions and high-resolution propagation maps of light-triggered electrical waves, found to be quantitatively indistinguishable from electrically-triggered waves.
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate feasibility to control excitation and contraction in cardiac muscle by light using the TCU approach. Optical pacing in this case uses less energy, offers superior spatiotemporal control, remote access and can serve not only as an elegant tool in arrhythmia research, but may form the basis for a new generation of light-driven cardiac pacemakers and muscle actuators. The TCU strategy is extendable to (non-viral) stem cell therapy and is directly relevant to in vivo applications.
doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.111.964247
PMCID: PMC3209525  PMID: 21828312
optogenetics; channelrhodopsin2; light-sensitive ion channels; cardiac; optical mapping
18.  A Method for High Fidelity Optogenetic Control of Individual Pyramidal Neurons In vivo 
Optogenetic methods have emerged as a powerful tool for elucidating neural circuit activity underlying a diverse set of behaviors across a broad range of species. Optogenetic tools of microbial origin consist of light-sensitive membrane proteins that are able to activate (e.g., channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2) or silence (e.g., halorhodopsin, NpHR) neural activity ingenetically-defined cell types over behaviorally-relevant timescales. We first demonstrate a simple approach for adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of ChR2 and NpHR transgenes to the dorsal subiculum and prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex in rat. Because ChR2 and NpHR are genetically targetable, we describe the use of this technology to control the electrical activity of specific populations of neurons (i.e., pyramidal neurons) embedded in heterogeneous tissue with high temporal precision. We describe herein the hardware, custom software user interface, and procedures that allow for simultaneous light delivery and electrical recording from transduced pyramidal neurons in an anesthetized in vivo preparation. These light-responsive tools provide the opportunity for identifying the causal contributions of different cell types to information processing and behavior.
doi:10.3791/50291
PMCID: PMC3857391  PMID: 24022017
Neuroscience; Issue 79; Genetic Techniques; Genetics; Behavioral; Biological Science Disciplines; Neurosciences; genetics (animal and plant); Investigative Techniques; Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms; Behavioral Disciplines and Activities; Natural Science Disciplines; Optogenetics; prefrontal cortex; subiculum; virus injection;  in vivo recording; Neurophysiology; prelimbic; optrode; molecular neurogenetics; Gene targeting
19.  Repetitive and Retinotopically Restricted Activation of the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus with Optogenetics 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94633.
Optogenetics allows the control of cellular activity using focused delivery of light pulses. In neuroscience, optogenetic protocols have been shown to efficiently inhibit or stimulate neuronal activity with a high temporal resolution. Among the technical challenges associated with the use of optogenetics, one is the ability to target a spatially specific population of neurons in a given brain structure. To address this issue, we developed a side-illuminating optical fiber capable of delivering light to specific sites in a target nucleus with added flexibility through rotation and translation of the fiber and by varying the output light power. The designed optical fiber was tested in vivo in visual structures of ChR2-expressing transgenic mice. To assess the spatial extent of neuronal activity modulation, we took advantage of the hallmark of the visual system: its retinotopic organization. Indeed, the relative position of ganglion cells in the retina is transposed in the cellular topography of both the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex (V1). The optical fiber was inserted in the LGN and by rotating it with a motor, it was possible to sequentially activate different neuronal populations within this structure. The activation of V1 neurons by LGN projections was recorded using intrinsic optical imaging. Increasing light intensity (from 1.4 to 8.9 mW/mm2) led to increasing activation surfaces in V1. Optogenetic stimulation of the LGN at different translational and rotational positions was associated with different activation maps in V1. The position and/or orientation of the fiber inevitably varied across experiments, thus limiting the capacity to pool data. With the optogenetic design presented here, we demonstrate for the first time a transitory and spatially-concise activation of a deep neuronal structure. The optogenetic design presented here thus opens a promising avenue for studying the function of deep brain structures.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094633
PMCID: PMC3984209  PMID: 24728275
20.  Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping 
To better understand the connectivity of the brain, it is important to map both structural and functional connections between neurons and cortical regions. In recent years, a set of optogenetic tools have been developed that permit selective manipulation and investigation of neural systems. These tools have enabled the mapping of functional connections between stimulated cortical targets and other brain regions. Advantages of the approach include the ability to arbitrarily stimulate brain regions that express opsins, allowing for brain mapping independent of behavior or sensory processing. The ability of opsins to be rapidly and locally activated allows for investigation of connectivity with spatial resolution on the order of single neurons and temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. We review recently developed functional mapping methods that use optogenetic single-point stimulation in the rodent brain and employ cellular electrophysiology, evoked motor movements, voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs), calcium indicators, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess activity. In particular we highlight results using red-shifted organic VSDs that permit high temporal resolution imaging in a manner spectrally separated from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation. VSD maps stimulated by ChR2 were dependent on intracortical synaptic activity and were able to reflect circuits used for sensory processing. Although the methods reviewed are powerful, challenges remain with respect to finding approaches that permit selective high temporal resolution assessment of stimulated activity in animals that can be followed longitudinally.
doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00054
PMCID: PMC3622058  PMID: 23596383
optogenetic stimulation; Channelrhodopsin-2; in vivo imaging; functional mapping; connectivity
21.  Amygdala circuitry mediating reversible and bidirectional control of anxiety 
Nature  2011;471(7338):358-362.
Anxiety, a sustained state of heightened apprehension in the absence of immediate threat, becomes severely debilitating in disease states1. Anxiety disorders represent the most common of psychiatric diseases (28% lifetime prevalence)2, and contribute to the etiology of major depression and substance abuse3,4. Although it has been proposed that the amygdala, a brain region important for emotional processing5–8, has a role in anxiety9–13, neural mechanisms that control anxiety remain unclear. Here we explore neural circuits underlying anxiety-related behaviors by using optogenetics with two-photon microscopy, anxiety assays in freely moving mice, and electrophysiology. With the capability of optogenetics14–16 to control not only cell types but also specific connections between cells, we observed that temporally precise optogenetic stimulation of basolateral amygdala (BLA) terminals in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA-achieved by viral transduction of the BLA with a codon-optimized channelrhodopsin followed by restricted illumination in downstream CeA - exerted an acute, reversible anxiolytic effect. Conversely, selective optogenetic inhibition of the same projection with a third-generation halorhodopsin15 (eNpHR3.0) increased anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, these effects were not observed with direct optogenetic control of BLA somata, possibly owing to recruitment of antagonistic downstream structures. Together, these results implicate specific BLA-CeA projections as critical circuit elements for acute anxiety control in the mammalian brain, and demonstrate the importance of optogenetically targeting defined projections, beyond simply targeting cell types, in the study of circuit function relevant to neuropsychiatric disease.
doi:10.1038/nature09820
PMCID: PMC3154022  PMID: 21389985
22.  Targeted optogenetic stimulation and recording of neurons in vivo using cell-type-specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 
Nature protocols  2010;5(2):247-254.
A major long-term goal of systems neuroscience is to identify the different roles of neural subtypes in brain circuit function. The ability to causally manipulate selective cell types is critical to meeting this goal. This protocol describes techniques for optically stimulating specific populations of excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons in vivo in combination with electrophysiology. Cell type selectivity is obtained using Cre-dependent expression of the light-activated channel Channelrhodopsin-2. We also describe approaches for minimizing optical interference with simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recording. These optogenetic techniques provide a spatially and temporally precise means of studying neural activity in the intact brain and allow a detailed examination of the effect of evoked activity on the surrounding local neural network. Injection of viral vectors requires 30–45 min, and in vivo electrophysiology with optogenetic stimulation requires 1–4 h.
doi:10.1038/nprot.2009.228
PMCID: PMC3655719  PMID: 20134425
23.  Optogenetics in the nonhuman primate 
Progress in brain research  2012;196:215-233.
The nonhuman primate brain, the model system closest to the human brain, plays a critical role in our understanding of neural computation, cognition, and behavior. The continued quest to crack the neural codes in the monkey brain would be greatly enhanced with new tools and technologies that can rapidly and reversibly control the activities of desired cells at precise times during specific behavioral states. Recent advances in adapting optogenetic technologies to monkeys have enabled precise control of specific cells or brain regions at the millisecond timescale, allowing for the investigation of the causal role of these neural circuits in this model system. Validation of optogenetic technologies in monkeys also represents a critical preclinical step on the translational path of new generation cell-type-specific neural modulation therapies. Here, I discuss the current state of the application of optogenetics in the nonhuman primate model system, highlighting the available genetic, optical and electrical technologies, and their limitations and potentials.
doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59426-6.00011-2
PMCID: PMC3586218  PMID: 22341328
monkey; genetic manipulation; optical; channelrhodopsin; archaerhodopsin; halorhodopsin; rat
24.  Optogenetic approaches to characterize the long-range synaptic pathways from the hypothalamus to brain stem autonomic nuclei 
Journal of neuroscience methods  2012;210(2):238-246.
Recent advances in optogenetic methods demonstrate the feasibility of selective photoactivation at the soma of neurons that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), but a comprehensive evaluation of different methods to selectively evoke transmitter release from distant synapses using optogenetic approaches is needed. Here we compared different lentiviral vectors, with sub-population-specific and strong promoters, and transgenic methods to express and photostimulate ChR2 in the long-range projections of paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) neurons to brain stem cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs). Using PVN subpopulation-specific promoters for vasopressin and oxytocin, we were able to depolarize the soma of these neurons upon photostimulation, but these promoters were not strong enough to drive sufficient expression for optogenetic stimulation and synaptic release from the distal axons. However, utilizing the synapsin promoter photostimulation of distal PVN axons successfully evoked glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic currents in CVNs. Employing the Cre/loxP system, using the Sim-1 Cre-driver mouse line, we found that the Rosa-CAG-LSL-ChR2-EYFP Cre-responder mice expressed higher levels of ChR2 than the Rosa-CAG-LSL-ChR2-tdTomato line in the PVN, judged by photo-evoked currents at the soma. However, neither was able to drive sufficient expression to observe and photostimulate the long-range projections to brainstem autonomic regions. We conclude that a viral vector approach with a strong promoter is required for successful optogenetic stimulation of distal axons to evoke transmitter release in pre-autonomic PVN neurons. This approach can be very useful to study important hypothalamus-brainstem connections, and can be easily modified to selectively activate other long-range projections within the brain.
doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.07.022
PMCID: PMC3443283  PMID: 22890236
Optogenetics; Channelrhodopsin-2; cardiac vagal neuron; paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus; cardiovascular; electrophysiology
25.  Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning 
Studies of amygdala functioning have occupied a significant place in the history of understanding how the brain controls behavior and cognition. Early work on the amygdala placed this small structure as a key component in the regulation of emotion and affective behavior. Over time, our understanding of its role in brain processes has expanded, as we have uncovered amygdala influences on memory, reward behavior, and overall functioning in many other brain regions. Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connections with a variety of brain structures, from the prefrontal cortex to regions of the brainstem, that explain its powerful influence on other parts of the brain and behaviors mediated by those regions. Thus, many optogenetic studies have focused on harnessing the powers of this technique to elucidate the functioning of the amygdala in relation to motivation, fear, and memory as well as to determine how the amygdala regulates activity in other structures. For example, studies using optogenetics have examined how specific circuits within amygdala nuclei regulate anxiety. Other work has provided insight into how the basolateral and central amygdala nuclei regulate memory processing underlying aversive learning. Many experiments have taken advantage of optogenetics’ ability to target either genetically distinct subpopulations of neurons or the specific projections from the amygdala to other brain regions. Findings from such studies have provided evidence that particular patterns of activity in basolateral amygdala (BLA) glutamatergic neurons are related to memory consolidation processes, while other work has indicated the critical nature of amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NA) in regulating behavior dependent on those downstream structures. This review will examine the recent discoveries on amygdala functioning made through experiments using optogenetics, placing these findings in the context of the major questions in the field.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00107
PMCID: PMC3972463  PMID: 24723867
basolateral amygdala; central amygdala; memory; consolidation; fear; anxiety; channelrhodopsin

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