Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. Although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of FMD because of either incomplete inactivation of FMDV or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. Thus, it is urgent to develop a novel FMDV vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.
Methodology and Principal Findings
A recombinant silkworm baculovirus Bm-P12A3C which contained the intact P1-2A and 3C protease coding regions of FMDV Asia 1/HNK/CHA/05 was developed. Indirect immunofluorescence test and sandwich-ELISA were used to verify that Bm-P12A3C could express the target cassette. Expression products from silkworm were diluted to 30 folds and used as antigen to immunize cattle. Specific antibody was induced in all vaccinated animals. After challenge with virulent homologous virus, four of the five animals were completely protected, and clinical symptoms were alleviated and delayed in the remaining one. Furthermore, a PD50 (50% bovine protective dose) test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the subunit vaccine. The result showed the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.34 PD50 per dose.
The results suggest that this strategy might be used to develop the new subunit FMDV vaccine.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE) in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processes are technically demanding and expensive. Consequently, there is large variation in the quality of vaccines distributed in FMD-endemic countries compared with those manufactured for emergency use in FMD-free countries. Here, we have used reverse genetics to introduce haemagglutinin (HA) and FLAG tags into the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid. HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were infectious, with a plaque morphology similar to the non-tagged parental infectious copy virus and the field virus. The tagged viruses utilized integrin-mediated cell entry and retained the tag epitopes over serial passages. In addition, infectious HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were readily purified from small-scale cultures using commercial antibodies. Tagged FMDV offers a feasible alternative to the current methods of vaccine concentration and purification, a potential to develop FMD vaccine conjugates and a unique tool for FMDV research.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must.
In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE), and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine.
Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA) showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes) were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P < 0.01) and higher neutralizing antibody titer (P < 0.05). Although the inactivated vaccine produced the highest titer of neutralizing antibodies, a lower IFN-γ expression was observed compared to the two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses.
These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. Current inactivated FMDV vaccines generate short-term, serotype-specific protection, mainly through neutralizing antibody. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity would aid design of more effective vaccines. We have previously reported the presence of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in FMDV-vaccinated and -infected cattle. In the current study, we aimed to identify CD8+ T cell epitopes in FMDV recognized by cattle vaccinated with inactivated FMDV serotype O. Analysis of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD8+ T cells responding to stimulation with FMDV-derived peptides revealed one putative CD8+ T cell epitope present within the structural protein P1D, comprising residues 795 to 803 of FMDV serotype O UKG/2001. The restricting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele was N*02201, expressed by the A31 haplotype. This epitope induced IFN-γ release, proliferation, and target cell killing by αβ CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells. A protein alignment of representative samples from each of the 7 FMDV serotypes showed that the putative epitope is highly conserved. CD8+ T cells from FMDV serotype O-vaccinated A31+ cattle recognized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) loaded with peptides derived from all 7 FMDV serotypes, suggesting that CD8+ T cells recognizing the defined epitope are cross-reactive to equivalent peptides derived from all of the other FMDV serotypes.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals, including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine strategies are all directed toward the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. However, the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has not received a great deal of attention, in part because of the technical difficulties associated with establishing a reliable assay of cell killing for this highly cytopathic virus. Here, we have used recombinant human adenovirus vectors as a means of delivering FMDV antigens in a T cell-directed vaccine in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that impaired processing of the FMDV capsid would enhance cytolytic activity, presumably by targeting all proteins for degradation and effectively increasing the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/FMDV peptide concentration for stimulation of a CTL response. We compared such a T cell-targeting vaccine with the parental vaccine, previously shown to effectively induce a neutralizing antibody response. Our results show induction of FMDV-specific CD8+ CTL killing of MHC-matched target cells in an antigen-specific manner. Further, we confirm these results by MHC tetramer staining. This work presents the first demonstration of FMDV-specific CTL killing and confirmation by MHC tetramer staining in response to vaccination against FMDV.
Foot-and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, febrile, and contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Some animals may become persistent infected carriers when they contact FMD virus (FMDV), and persistent infected animals are a dangerous factor to cause FMD outbreak.
300 OP (oesophageal-pharyngeal) fluid samples were collected from cattle without clinic symptom after one month FMD circulated in 2010 in China. A FMDV strain was isolated when a positive OP sample was passed in BHK21 cell line. The strain, named O/CHN/2010/33-OP, was detected to be O/Myanmar/1998 lineage with VP1 DNA sequence comparison. In order to testify its infectivity, two cattle were challenged with OP fluid and three pigs were put into the same pen for direct contact infection. The result showed that one of the cattle and one of the pigs appeared FMD clinic symptoms respectively. Furthermore, two cattle (three pigs were also put into the same pen for direct contact infection) and three pigs were inoculated with O/CHN/2010/33-OP cell passaged strain. The result showed that one of the challenged pigs appeared FMD clinic symptoms. Two cattle and three pigs in the same pen did not appeared FMD clinic symptoms, but the sera antibody and their OP fluid of two cattle were positive. Meanwhile, the spinal cords of three pigs in the same pen with two cattle were positive detected with multiplex- RT-PCR.
The persistent infection strain O/CHN/2010/33-OP has infectivity and pathogenicity to cattle and pigs, and infected cattle may transmit the virus to pigs although its virulence was lower than the circulated strain O/CHN/Mya98/2010.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV); Persistent infection strain; Oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid; Infectivity; Pathogenicity
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance.
The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes.
Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. Thus, the full-length cDNA clone of FMDV can be a useful tool to develop genetically engineered FMDV vaccine candidates to help control porcinophilic FMD epidemics in China.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed ungulates that can lead to severe losses in the livestock production and export industries. Although vaccines have been extensively used to control FMD, there is no antiviral therapy available to treat ongoing infections with FMD virus (FMDV). Six peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) with sequences complementary to various 21-nucleotide segments of the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the FMDV genome (strain A24 Cruzeiro/Brazil/1955 [A24Cru]) were evaluated in cell cultures. Three of the PPMOs, targeting domain 5 of the internal ribosome entry site (5D PPMO), and the two translation start codon regions (AUG1 and AUG2 PPMOs), showed high levels of anti-FMDV activity. A dose-dependent and sequence-specific reduction in viral titers of greater than 5 log10, with a concomitant reduction of viral protein and RNA expression, was achieved at low micromolar concentrations. Under identical conditions, three other PPMOs targeting the 5′-terminal region of the genome, the cis-acting replication element in the 5′ UTR, and the 3′ “ab” stem-loop showed less dramatic titer reductions of 1.5 log10 to 2 log10. Treatment with 5D PPMO reduced the titers of FMDV strains representing five different serotypes by 2 log10 to 4 log10 compared to those of the controls. A24Cru-infected BHK-21 cells treated repeatedly with 5D or AUG2 PPMO generated resistant viruses for which phenotypic and genotypic properties were defined. Notably, three passages with low concentrations of the AUG1 PPMO extinguished all traces of detectable virus. The results indicate that PPMOs have potential for treating FMDV infections and that they also represent useful tools for studying picornaviral translation and evolution.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, FMD virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle, including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis, is discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of the virus and host factors involved.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination against FMD is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. This study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (ECMS) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated FMDV antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ECMS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines for its immunopotentiation in pigs. The results indicated that ECMS and oil emulsion act synergistically as adjuvants to promote the production of FMDV- and VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses in guinea pigs. A supplement of ECMS in a commercial FMD vaccine significantly enhanced FMDV-specific indirect hemagglutination assay titers as well as VP1-specific IgG and subclasses in pigs. Therefore, ECMS could be an alternative approach to improving swine FMD vaccination when the vaccine is poor to induce an effective immune response.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD control in endemic regions is implemented using chemically inactivated whole-virus vaccines. Currently, efforts are directed to the development of safe and marked vaccines. We have previously reported solid protection against FMDV conferred by branched structures (dendrimeric peptides) harbouring virus-specific B and T-cell epitopes. In order to gain insights into the factors determining a protective immune response against FMDV, in this report we sought to dissect the immunogenicity conferred by different peptide-based immunogens. Thus, we have assessed the immune response and protection elicited in pigs by linear peptides harbouring the same FMDV B-cell or B and T-cell epitopes (B and TB peptides, respectively).
Pigs were twice immunized with either the B-cell epitope (site A) peptide or with TB, a peptide where the B-cell epitope was in tandem with the T-cell epitope [3A (21-35)]. Both, B and TB peptides were able to induce specific humoral (including neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immune responses against FMDV, but did not afford full protection in pigs. The data obtained showed that the T-cell epitope used is capable to induce efficient T-cell priming that contributes to improve the protection against FMDV. However, the IgA titres and IFNγ release elicited by these linear peptides were lower than those detected previously with the dendrimeric peptides.
We conclude that the incorporation of a FMDV specific T-cell epitope in the peptide formulation allows a significant reduction in virus excretion and clinical score after challenge. However, the linear TB peptide did not afford full protection in challenged pigs, as that previously reported using the dendrimeric construction indicating that, besides the inclusion of an adecuate T-cell epitope in the formulation, an efficient presentation of the B-cell epitope is crucial to elicit full protection by peptide vaccines.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus; FMDV; Linear peptides; Vaccine; Pig; Swine
New vaccine designs are needed to control diseases associated with antigenically variable RNA viruses. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that inflicts severe economic losses. Although the current whole-virus chemically inactivated vaccine has proven effective, it has led to new outbreaks of FMD because of incomplete inactivation of the virus or the escape of infectious virus from vaccine production premises. We have previously shown that serial passages of FMD virus (FMDV) C-S8c1 at high multiplicity of infection in cell culture resulted in virus populations consisting of defective genomes that are infectious by complementation (termed C-S8p260).
Here we evaluate the immunogenicity of C-S8p260, first in a mouse model system to establish a proof of principle, and second, in swine, the natural host of FMDV C-S8c1. Mice were completely protected against a lethal challenge with FMDV C-S8c1, after vaccination with a single dose of C-S8p260. Pigs immunized with different C-S8p260 doses and challenged with FMDV C-S8c1 either did not develop any clinical signs or showed delayed and mild disease symptoms. C-S8p260 induced high titers of both FMDV-specific, neutralizing antibodies and activated FMDV-specific T cells in swine, that correlated with solid protection against FMDV.
The defective virus-based vaccine did not produce detectable levels of transmissible FMDV. Therefore, a segmented, replication-competent form of a virus, such as FMDV C-S8p260, can provide the basis of a new generation of attenuated antiviral vaccines with two safety barriers. The design can be extended to any viral pathogen that encodes trans-acting gene products, allowing complementation between replication-competent, defective forms.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and many cloven-hoofed wild animals. FMDV serotypes O and Asia 1 have circulated separately in China during the last fifty years, and eliminating infected animals and vaccination are the main policies to prevent and control FMD. Antibodies to NSPs exist in infected animals, and were utilized to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The reliability of detection of 3AB or 3ABC antibodies is higher than that of other NSPs. The test of 3AB is still credible because 3C protein's immunogenicity is the weakest. The 2C protein, immediately N-terminal of 3AB, was used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The use of the immunochromatographic strip is facile for clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment and for rapid field diagnosis.
In this study, an immunochromatographic strip with non-structural protein (NSP) 2C'3AB was developed and validated to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease infected from vaccinated animals. A part of N-terminal of 2C protein gene and whole 3AB gene were connected and prokaryotically expressed as the antigens labeled with colloidal gold was used as the detector, the 2C'3AB protein and rabbits anti-2C'3AB antibodies were blotted on the nitrocellulose(NC) membrane for the test and control lines, respectively. 387 serum samples were collected to evaluate the characteristics of the strip in comparison with existing commercial 3ABC antibody ELISA kit. The coincidence rate of pigs negative serum, pigs vaccinated serum, pigs infected serum was 100%, 97.2%, 95.0%, respectively. The coincidence rate of cattle negative serum, cattle vaccinated serum, cattle infected serum was 100%, 96.7%, 98.0%, respectively. The coincidence rate of sheep negative serum, sheep infected serum was 97.6%, 96.3%, respectively. The strip was shown to be of high specificity and sensitivity, good repeatability and stability.
These data suggest that the immunochromatographic strip is a useful tool for rapid on-site diagnosing animals infected foot-and-mouth disease virus.
an immunochromatographic strip; foot-and-mouth disease virus; colloidal gold-labeled 2C'3AB antigen; prokaryotic expression; development; validation
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. For several years, vaccination of animals, which had proven to be successful for the eradication of the disease, has been forbidden in the United States and the European Community because of the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, detailed investigations of the bovine humoral immune response against FMD virus (FMDV) were performed with the aim of identifying viral epitopes recognized specifically by sera derived from FMDV-infected animals. The use of overlapping 15-mer synthetic peptides, covering the whole open reading frame of FMDV strain O1K in a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, allowed the identification of 12 FMDV strain O1K-specific linear B-cell epitopes. Six of these linear B-cell epitopes, located in the nonstructural proteins, were used in further assays to compare the reactivities of sera from vaccinated and infected cattle. Antibodies recognizing these peptides could be detected only in sera derived from infected cattle. In further experiments, the reactivity of the six peptides with sera from animals infected with different strains of FMDV was tested, and strain-independent infection-specific epitopes were identified. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate the ability of a simple peptide-based assay to discriminate between infected and conventionally FMD-vaccinated animals.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. In the case of an FMD outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. There are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of FMDV infections.
Using a luciferase-based assay we screened a library of compounds and identified seven novel inhibitors of 3Dpol, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of FMDV. The compounds inhibited specifically 3Dpol (IC50s from 2-17 µM) and not other viral or bacterial polymerases. Enzyme kinetic studies on the inhibition mechanism by compounds 5D9 and 7F8 showed that they are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NTP and nucleic acid substrates. Molecular modeling and docking studies into the 3Dpol structure revealed an inhibitor binding pocket proximal to, but distinct from the 3Dpol catalytic site. Residues surrounding this pocket are conserved among all 60 FMDV subtypes. Site directed mutagenesis of two residues located at either side of the pocket caused distinct resistance to the compounds, demonstrating that they indeed bind at this site. Several compounds inhibited viral replication with 5D9 suppressing virus production in FMDV-infected cells with EC50 = 12 µM and EC90 = 20 µM).
We identified several non-competitive inhibitors of FMDV 3Dpol that target a novel binding pocket, which can be used for future structure-based drug design studies. Such studies can lead to the discovery of even more potent antivirals that could provide alternative or supplementary options to contain future outbreaks of FMD.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.
Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.
A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the “field”. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced into susceptible cells using electroporation. Progeny viruses were amplified in primary bovine thyroid cells and characterized using antigen ELISA and also by RT-PCR plus sequencing. FMD viruses of three different serotypes and multiple lineages have been successfully rescued from the RNA samples. Two of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1) were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability of the rescued viruses enabled serotyping by antigen ELISA and facilitated genome sequencing.
The procedure described here should improve the characterization of FMDVs circulating in countries where the disease is endemic and thus enhance disease control globally.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious acute vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep and pigs. The current vaccine induces a rapid humoral response, but the duration of the protective antibody response is variable, possibly associated with a variable specific CD4+ T cell response. We investigated the use of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as a molecular chaperone to target viral antigen to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II pathway of antigen presenting cells and generate enhanced MHC II-restricted CD4+ T cell responses in cattle. Monocytes and CD4+ T cells from FMDV vaccinated cattle were stimulated in vitro with complexes of Hsp70 and FMDV peptide, or peptide alone. Hsp70 was found to consistently improve the presentation of a 25-mer FMDV peptide to CD4+ T cells, as measured by T cell proliferation. Complex formation was required for the enhanced effects and Hsp70 alone did not stimulate proliferation. This study provides further evidence that Hsp70:peptide complexes can enhance antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in vitro for an important pathogen of livestock.
heat shock protein; MHC II; vaccine; cattle immunology; foot-and-mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4–10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. Virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of FMD. As these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed.
A previously described real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay with high sensitivity and specificity under laboratorial and experimental conditions was used in the current study. To verify the applicability of this assay under field conditions in Brazil, 460 oral swabs from cattle were collected in areas free of FMD (n = 200) and from areas with outbreaks of FMD (n = 260). Three samples from areas with outbreaks of FMD were positive by real-time RT-PCR, and 2 of those samples were positive by virus isolation and ELISA. Four other samples were considered inconclusive by real-time RT-PCR (threshold cycle [Ct] > 40); whereas all 200 samples from an area free of FMD were real-time RT-PCR negative.
real-time RT-PCR is a powerful technique for reliable detection of FMDV in a fraction of the time required for virus isolation and ELISA. However, it is noteworthy that lack of infrastructure in certain areas with high risk of FMD may be a limiting factor for using real-time RT-PCR as a routine diagnostic tool.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer’s recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine.
Inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are currently used worldwide. With the emergence of various FMD virus serotypes and subtypes, vaccines must become more suitable for field-based uses under the current circumstances in terms of the fast and proper selection of vaccine strains, an extended vaccine development period for new viruses, protecting against the risk of virus leakage during vaccine manufacture, counteracting the delayed onset of immune response, counteracting shorter durations of immunity, and the accurate serological differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals and multiple vaccination. The quality of vaccines should then be improved to effectively control FMD outbreaks and minimize the problems that can arise among livestock after vaccinations. Vaccine improvement should be based on using attenuated virus strains with high levels of safety. Moreover, when vaccines are urgently required for newly spread field strains, the seed viruses for new vaccines should be developed for only a short period. Improved vaccines should offer superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. In addition, they should have highly protective effects without persistent infection. In this way, if vaccines are developed using new methods such as reverse genetics or vector vaccine technology, in which live viruses can be easily made by replacing specific protective antigens, even a single vaccination is likely to generate highly protective effects with an extended duration of immunity, and the safety and stability of the vaccines will be assured. We therefore reviewed the current FMD vaccines and their adjuvants, and evaluated if they provide superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine.
Foot-and-mouth disease; Vaccine; Development; Improvement
The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus composed of single stranded positive sense RNA. FMDV has been known to infect cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. FMDV is rapidly spreading outward to neighboring regions, often leading to a high mortality rate. Thus, early diagnosis of FMDV is critical to suppress propagation of FMDV and minimize economic losses. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of polyclonal and six monoclonal antibodies against VP1 through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. These VP1 antibodies will be useful as tools to detect serotypes A and O of FMDVs for diagnostic usage.