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1.  Adult thoracic empyema: A comparative analysis of tuberculous and nontuberculous etiology in 75 patients 
Background:
Thoracic empyema is a disease of significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world where tuberculosis remains a common cause. Clinical outcomes in tuberculous empyema are complicated by the presence of concomitant fibrocavitary parenchymal disease and frequent bronchopleural fistulae. We performed a prospective study over a one-and-a-half-year period with the objective of comparing the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with tuberculous and nontuberculous empyema.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study of adult cases of nonsurgical thoracic empyema admitted in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India was performed over a period of 18 months. A comparative analysis of clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of patients with tuberculous and nontuberculous empyema was carried out.
Results:
Seventy-five cases of empyema were seen during the study period, of which 46 (61.3%) were of nontuberculous etiology while tuberculosis constituted 29 (38.7%) cases. Among the nontuberculous empyema patients, Staphylococcus aureus (11, 23.93%) was the most frequent pathogen isolated, followed by Gram-negative bacilli. Tuberculous empyema was more frequent in younger population compared to nontuberculous empyema (mean age of 32.7 years vs. 46.5 years). Duration of illness and mean duration of chest tube drainage were longer (48.7 vs. 23.2 days) in patients with tuberculous empyema. Also the presence of parenchymal lesions and bronchopleural fistula often requiring surgical drainage procedures was more in tuberculous empyema patients.
Conclusion:
Tuberculous empyema remains a common cause of empyema thoracis in a country like India. Tuberculous empyema differs from nontuberculous empyema in the age profile, clinical presentation, management issues, and has a significantly poorer outcome.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.71939
PMCID: PMC2988167  PMID: 21139713
Bronchopleural fistula; empyema; parapneumonic effusion; tuberculous empyema
2.  Intrapleural therapy in management of complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema 
Empyema thoracis causes high mortality, and its incidence is increasing in both children and adults. Parapneumonic effusions (PPEs) develop in about one-half of patients hospitalized with pneumonia, and their presence increases mortality by about four-fold. PPEs can be divided into simple PPEs, complicated PPEs, and frank empyema. Two guideline statements on the management of PPEs in adults have been published by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and the American College of Chest Physicians; a third guideline statement published by the BTS focused on management of PPEs in children. The two adult guideline statements recommend drainage of the pleural space in complicated PPEs and frank empyema. They also recommend the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis in those who do not show improvement. The pediatric guideline statement recommends adding intrapleural fibrinolysis to those treated by tube thoracostomy if they have loculated pleural space or thick pus. Published guideline statements on the management of complicated PPEs and empyema in adults and children recommend the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis in those who do not show improvement after pleural space drainage. However, published clinical trial reports on the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis for the treatment of pleural space sepsis suffer from major design and methodologic limitations. Nevertheless, published reports have shown that the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis does not reduce mortality in adults with parapneumonic effusions and empyema. However, intrapleural fibrinolysis enhances drainage of infected pleural fluid and may be used in patients with large collections of infected pleural fluid causing breathlessness or respiratory failure, but a proportion of these patients will ultimately need surgery for definite cure. Intrapleural streptokinase and urokinase seem to be equally efficacious in enhancing infected pleural fluid drainage in adults. In most of the published studies in adults, the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis was not associated with serious side effects. There is emerging evidence that the combination of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) is significantly superior to tPA or DNase alone or placebo in improving pleural fluid drainage in patients with pleural space infection. In children, intrapleural fibrinolysis has not been shown to reduce mortality, but has been shown to enhance drainage of the pleural space and was safe. In addition, two prospective, randomized trials have shown that intrapleural fibrinolysis is as effective as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for the treatment of childhood empyema and is a more cost-effective treatment and therefore should be the primary treatment of choice.
doi:10.2147/CPAA.S14104
PMCID: PMC3262383  PMID: 22291507
parapneumonic effusions; empyema; intrapleural fibrinolysis; intrapleural DNase
3.  Empyema Thoracis 
Epmyema thoracis is associated with high mortality ranging between 6% to 24%. The incidence of empyema is increasing in both children and adults; the cause of this surge is unknown. Most cases of empyema complicate community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia but a proportion results from iatrogenic causes or develops without pneumonia. Parapneumonic effusions (PPE) develop in about one half of the patients hospitalized with pneumonia and their presence cause a four-fold increase in mortality. Three stages in the natural course of empyema have long been described: the exudative, fibrinopurulent, and organizing phases. Clinically, PPE are classified as simple PPE, complicated PPE, and frank empyema. Simple PPE are transudates with a pH > 7.20 whereas complicated PPE are exudates with glucose level <2.2 mmol/l and pH < 7.20. Two guidelines statements on the management of PPE in adults have been published by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the British Thoracic Society (BTS). Although they differ in their approach on how to manage PPE, they agree on drainage of the pleural space in complicated PPE and frank empyema. They also recommend the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis and surgical intervention in those who do not show improvement, but the level of evidence for the use of intrapleural fibrinolysis is not high highlighting the need for more research in this area. A recently published large randomized trial has shown no survival advantage with the use of intrapleural streptokinase in patients with pleural infection. However, streptokinase enhances drainage of infected pleural fluid and may still be used in patients with large collection of infected pleural fluid causing breathlessness or ventilatory failure. There is emerging evidence that the combination of intrapleural tPA/DNase is significantly superior to tPA or DNase alone, or placebo in improving pleural fluid drainage in patients with pleural space infection. A guideline statement on the management of PPE in children has been published by the BTS. It recommends the use of antibiotics in all patients with PPE in addition to either video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or tube thoracostomy and intrapleural fibrinolysis. Prospective randomized trials have shown that intrapleural fibrinolysis is as effective as VATS for the treatment of childhood empyema and is a more economic treatment and therefore, should be the primary treatment of choice.
PMCID: PMC2998927  PMID: 21157522
empyema; management; intrapleural fibrinolysis; drainage; surgery
4.  Surgical Strategy of Complex Empyema Thoracis 
Background:
The optimal treatment of empyema thoracis has been widely debated. Proponents of pleural drainage alone, drainage plus fibrinolytic therapy, videoassisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) debridement, and open thoracotomy each champion the efficacy of their approach.
Methods:
This study examines treatment of complex empyema thoracis between June 1, 1994, and April 30, 1997. Twenty-one men and 9 women underwent 30 drainage/decortication procedures (14 open thoracotomies and 16 VATS) in treatment of their disease. Effusion etiology was distributed as follows: infectious -14; neoplastic-associated - 7; traumatic - 3; other - 6.
Results:
The mean preoperative hospital stay was 14 ±8.8 days, (11.4 ± 6.5 days for VATS vs 16.8 ± 10.2 days for thoracotomy). Hospital stay from operation to discharge for thoracotomy patients was 10.0 ± 7.2 days (median 8.5 days) and for VATS patients 17.6 ± 16.8 days (median 11 days). These differences were not statistically significant. Duration of postoperative thoracostomy tube drainage was 8.3 ± 4.6 days for thoracotomy patients and 4.7 ± 2.8 days in the VATS group (p = 0.01). Operative time for the thoracotomy group was 125.0 ± 71.7 minutes, while the VATS group time was only 76.2 ± 30.7 minutes. Estimated blood loss for the thoracotomy group was 313.9 ± 254.0 milliliters and for the VATS group 131.6 ± 77.3 milliliters. Three of the 30 patients (10.0%) required prolonged ventilator support (>24 hours). Morbidity included one diaphragmatic laceration (VATS group) and one thoracic duct laceration (thoracotomy). Two VATS procedures (6.7%) required conversion to open thoracotomy for thorough decortication.
Conclusions:
The surgical approach to empyema thoracis is evolving. In the absence of comorbid factors, the significantly lower requirement for chest tube drainage time in the VATS patients suggests that this modality is an attractive alternative to thoracotomy in the treatment of complex empyema thoracis.
PMCID: PMC3021260  PMID: 11051186
Complex empyema thoracis; Videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)
5.  ICD Versus VATS as Primary Treatment in Fibrinopurulent Stage of Empyema Thoracis 
Background and Objectives: Empyema thoracis is a condition in which pus collects in the pleural cavity. The optimal treatment of Empyema thoracis especially in the fibrinopurulent phase (Stage II) remains controversial. While the Inter Costal Drainage (ICD) is less invasive and cheap, it is not clearly proved that it is better than the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) in terms of conversion into thoracotomy, morbidity and duration of hospital stay. No large randomized trial is available for comparing the two treatment strategies in the condition.
Methodology: This study was a prospective comparative study of ICD insertion versus VATS as primary intervention in the fibrinopurulent stage of Empyema thoracis, which was conducted over a period of 2 years (Dec 2008 to Nov 2010), in a tertiarry care Medical College Hospital. With an incidence of around 5-10% and a considerable burden in our hospital, the study was taken up to compare the efficacy of ICD versus VATS, in terms of morbidity and cost effectiveness and to identify the optimal way of managing the condition. The study included a total of 40 patients with each group consisting of 20 patients.
Sampling: Purposive sampling technique.
The Statistical Methods Used: Descriptive statistics, Frequencies, Crosstabs, Independent sample t-test.
Results: It was found that VATS was better than the conventional ICD insertion in terms of the variables like mean duration of hospital stay (p<0.05), mean duration of the chest tube in situ (p<0.05), mean cost of the treatment (p<0.05), complications (p<0.05) and failure rate (p<0.05) which were statistically significant.
Conclusion: Our study concluded that Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery is better than conventional ICD tube insertion as a primary mode of treatment in the fibrinopurulent stage of Empyema thoracis.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/7228.3776
PMCID: PMC3919299  PMID: 24551657
VATS; Thoracotomy; Decortication; Computed tomography thorax
6.  Empyema thoracis: a problem with late referral? 
Thorax  1993;48(9):925-927.
BACKGROUND--Patients are often referred to thoracic units for management of empyema after the acute phase has been treated with antibiotics but without adequate drainage. This study evaluates the effects of delay in surgical treatment of empyema thoracis on morbidity and mortality. METHODS--Thirty nine consecutive patients were studied from January 1991 to June 1992. Two groups (group 1, 16 patients; group 2, 23 patients) were compared depending on the time spent under the care of other specialists before referral to the thoracic unit (group 1, seven days or less; group 2, eight days or more). The reasons for delay in referral were analysed. RESULTS--Four patients were treated conservatively with chest drainage alone (all in group 1). Thirty five patients required rib resection and drainage of their empyema (group 1, 12 patients; group 2, 23 patients). Nineteen (all in group 2) of the 35 patients who had rib resections went on to have decortication. The commonest cause of empyema was post-pneumonic (37 out of 39 patients). Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. Misdiagnosis (five patients), inappropriate antibiotics (six patients), and inappropriate placement of chest drainage tubes (three patients) all contributed to persistence and eventual progression of empyema. The overall mortality was 10% and mortality increased with age. The median stay in hospital was 9.5 days (range 7-12 days, n = 4) for patients treated with closed tube drainage only; 18 days (range 10-33 days, n = 16) for patients who had undergone rib resections and open drainage; and 28 days (range 22-49 days, n = 19) for patients who underwent decortication. The likelihood of having a staged procedure (antibiotics, closed tube drainage, open drainage with rib resection, and finally decortication) increased when closed tube drainage was persevered with for more than seven days. The total hospital stay was positively related with the time before referral for surgical treatment. Anaemia, low albumin concentrations, and worsening liver function were found in group 2 compared with group 1. CONCLUSIONS--Early adequate operative drainage in patients with empyema results in low morbidity, shorter stays in hospital, and good long term outcome. These patients should be treated aggressively and early referral for definitive surgical management is recommended.
PMCID: PMC464779  PMID: 8236076
7.  Empyema thoracis: A clinical study 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2007;2(1):14-17.
BACKGROUND:
Empyema thoracis is a disease that, despite centuries of study, still causes significant morbidity and mortality.
AIM:
The present study was undertaken to study the age-sex profile, symptomatology, microbiologic findings, etiology and the management and treatment outcome in a tertiary care hospital.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A prospective study of empyema thoracis was conducted on 40 consecutive patients with empyema thoracis admitted to the tuberculosis and chest diseases ward of a teaching hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The demographic data, clinical presentation, microbiological findings, etiology, the clinical course and management were recorded as per a planned pro forma and analyzed.
RESULTS:
The peak age was in the range of 21-40 years, the male-to-female ratio was 3.4:1.0 and the left pleura was more commonly affected than the right pleura. Risk factors include pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, smoking, diabetes mellitus and pneumonia. Etiology of empyema was tubercular in 65% cases and nontubercular in 35% cases. Gram-negative organisms were cultured in 11 cases (27.5%). Two patients received antibiotics with repeated thoracentesis only, intercostal chest tube drainage was required in 38 cases (95%) and more aggressive surgery was performed on 2 patients. The average duration for which the chest tube was kept in the complete expansion cases was 22.3 days.
CONCLUSION:
It was concluded that all cases of simple empyema with thin pus and only those cases of simple empyema with thick pus where size of empyema is small should be managed by aspiration/s. Cases failed by the above method, all cases of simple empyema with thick pus and with moderate to large size of empyema and all cases of empyema with bronchopleural fistula should be managed by intercostal drainage tube connected to water seal. It was also observed that all cases of empyema complicated by bronchopleural fistula were difficult to manage and needed major surgery.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.30356
PMCID: PMC2732064  PMID: 19724669
Closed tube thoracostomy; empyema; parapneumonic effusion
8.  Empyema thoracis: Surgical management in children 
Empyema thoracis can produce significant morbidity in children if inadequately treated. Correct evaluation of the stage of the disease, the clinical condition of the child and proper assessment of the response to conservative treatment is crucial in deciding the mode of further surgical intervention. This ranges from intercostal chest tube drainage and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to open decortication. Surgical decortication becomes mandatory in neglected cases; it gives very gratifying results ameliorating the disease rapidly and is well tolerated by young patients. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the important considerations while managing these patients. Indications for surgery are highlighted, based on our large experience at a tertiary care center.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.57698
PMCID: PMC2847142  PMID: 20376247
Chest tube drainage; empyema thoracis; fibrinolytic agents; open decortications; thoracocentesis; video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
9.  Surgical management of recalcitrant peripheral bronchopleural fistula with empyema: A preliminary experience 
Background:
Peripheral bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and empyema from necrotising infections of the lung and pleural is difficult to treat resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM) flap and patch closure techniques in the management of recalcitrant peripheral BPFs with the aid of thoracotomy.
Materials and Methods:
Five patients with BPF and empyema out of 26 patients who were initially treated for empyema thoracis by single or multiple chest tube insertions and/or ultrasound-guided drainage were prospectively identified and followed up for 2 years, postoperatively. The postoperative hospital stay, dyspnoea score, function of the ipsilateral upper limb and any deformity of chest wall were assessed at follow-up visits by asking relevant questions.
Results:
The mean age was 46.8 years (23-69 years) (4 males and 1 female). The cause of the BPF in 18 patients was Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 8 was pneumonia. The mean total months of the chest tube insertions was 1.5 months (range 2.5-6 months) prior to the thoracotomy and closure of fistula procedures performed on the 5 patients (with LDM flap in 4 patients and pleural patch in 1 patient). The complications recorded were: subcutaneous emphysema, residual pus and haemothorax in three patients. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 20.8 days (13-28 days);There was improved dyspnoea score to 1 or 2 in the 5 (19.2%) patients. There was no recurrence of BPF or residual pus in all the patients; no loss of function or deformity of the chest wall.
Conclusion:
The use of LDM Flap was effective in treating peripheral BFP without any adverse long-term outcome.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149164
PMCID: PMC4314853  PMID: 25657487
Latissimus dorsi muscle flap; peripheral bronchopleural fistula; recalcitrant
10.  Esophgeal Perforation and Bilateral Empyema Following Endoscopic EsophyX Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(6):560-563.
Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) has been used for endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). TIF using the EsophyX device system (EndoGastric Solutions) was designed to create a full-thickness valve at the gastroesophageal junction through the insertion of multiple fasteners; it improves GERD, reduces proton pump inhibitor use, and improves quality of life. Although TIF is effective in select patients, a significant subset of patients undergoing TIF develop persistent or recurrent GERD symptoms and may need antireflux surgery to control the GERD symptoms. We now report a 48-year-old man with chronic GERD unresponsive to medical management. He underwent TIF complicated by esophageal perforation and developed mediastinitis, left pneumothorax, bilateral pleural effusions, and acute respiratory failure. He required chest tube placement and bilateral decortication for treatment of nonresolving empyemas. Additional postmarketing studies are required to assess the safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes of this novel procedure, and patients undergoing this procedure need close postprocedural follow-up.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.6.560
PMCID: PMC4260105  PMID: 25505723
Gastroesophageal reflux; Transoral incisionless fundoplication; Esophageal perforation; Empyema; Pneumothorax
11.  Paediatric complicated pneumonia: Diagnosis and management of empyema 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2011;16(7):425-427.
Pneumonia can be complicated by an empyema, progressing from an exudative effusion, to a fibrinopurulent stage with loculations, and then organized with a thick fibrinous peel. The predominant causative organisms are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphyloccocus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes. Recently, an increased incidence of paediatric complicated pneumonia has been reported. For diagnostic imaging, a chest radiograph followed by a chest ultrasound is preferred. Computed tomography chest scans, with associated radiation, should not be routinely used. Antibiotic coverage should treat the most common causative organisms. Additional invasive or surgical management is recommended to reduce the duration of illness in cases not promptly responding to antibiotics or with significant respiratory compromise. Choice of management should be guided by best evidence and local expertise. Video-assisted thorascopic surgery or insertion of a small-bore percutaneous chest tube with instillation of fibrinolytics are the best current options.
PMCID: PMC3200394  PMID: 22851899
Chest tube; Complicated pneumonia; Empyema; Fibrinolytics; Paediatric
12.  Treatment of a tuberculous empyema with simultaneous oral and intrapleural antituberculosis drugs 
A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with an uncomplicated tuberculous (TB) empyema. Differential penetration of anti-TB drugs, believed to explain the phenomenon of acquired drug resistance in TB empyema, was confirmed by measurement of serum and pleural fluid anti-TB drug concentrations. Simultaneous oral and intrapleural anti-TB drugs were administered and a cure was achieved. The present case is discussed in the context of the literature on acquired drug resistance in TB empyema. It is argued that high-end doses of oral drugs or combined oral plus intrapleural drugs, along with tube thoracostomy or intermittent thoracentesis, will cure uncomplicated TB empyema without threatening to induce drug resistance or having to resort to surgery.
PMCID: PMC2679544  PMID: 18716684
Acquired drug resistance; Tuberculous empyema
13.  A study of empyema thoracis and role of intrapleural streptokinase in its management 
Background
Clinical spectrum, microbiology and outcome of empyema thoracis are changing. Intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic agents is being increasingly used for management of empyema thoracis. The present study was carried out to describe the clinical profile and outcome of patients with empyema thoracis including those with chronic empyema and to study the efficacy and safety of intrapleural streptokinase in its management.
Methods
Clinical profile, etiological agents, hospital course and outcome of 31 patients (mean age 40 ± 16 years, M: F 25: 6) with empyema thoracis treated from 1998 to 2003 was analyzed. All patients were diagnosed on the basis of aspiration of frank pus from pleural cavity. Clinical profile, response to therapy and outcome were compared between the patients who received intrapleural streptokinase (n = 12) and those who did not (n = 19).
Results
Etiology was tubercular in 42% of the patients (n = 13) whereas the rest were bacterial. Amongst the patients in which organisms could be isolated (n = 13, 42%) Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest (n = 5). Intrapleural streptokinase was instilled in 12 patients. This procedure resulted in increase of drainage of pleural fluid in all patients. Mean daily pleural fluid drainage after streptokinase instillation was significantly higher for patients who received intrapleural streptokinase than those who did not (213 ml vs 57 ml, p = 0.006). Only one patient who was instilled streptokinase eventually required decortication, which had to be done in five patients (16.1%). Mean hospital stay was 30.2 ± 17.6 days whereas two patients died.
Conclusions
Tubercular empyema is common in Indian patients. Intrapleural streptokinase appears to be a useful strategy to preserve lung function and reduce need for surgery in patients with late stage of empyema thoracis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-4-19
PMCID: PMC459221  PMID: 15222893
14.  Residual hemothorax after chest tube placement correlates with increased risk of empyema following traumatic injury 
BACKGROUND:
Empyema complicates tube thoracostomy following trauma in up to 10% of cases. Studies of potential risk factors of empyema have included use of antibiotics, site of injury and technique of chest tube placement. Residual fluid has also been cited as a risk factor for empyema, although the imaging technique to identify this varies.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether residual hemothorax detected by chest x-ray (CXR) after one or more initial chest tubes predicts an increased risk of empyema.
METHODS:
A study of patients admitted to two level I trauma centres between January 7, 2004, and December 31, 2004, was conducted. All patients who received a chest tube in the emergency department, did not undergo thoracotomy within 24 h, and survived more than two days were followed. Empyema was defined as a pleural effusion with positive cultures, and a ratio of pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase to serum lactate dehydrogenase greater than 0.6 in the setting of elevated leukocyte count and fever. Factors analyzed included the presence of retained hemothorax on CXR after the most recent tube placement in the emergency room, age, mechanism of injury and injury severity score.
RESULTS:
A total of 102 patients met the criteria. Nine patients (9%) developed empyema: seven of 21 patients (33%) with residual hemothorax developed empyema versus two of 81 patients (2%) without residual hemothorax developed empyema (P=0.001). Injury severity score was significantly higher in those who developed empyema (31.4±26) versus those who did not (22.6±13; P=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS:
The presence of residual hemothorax detected by CXR after tube thoracostomy should prompt further efforts, including thoracoscopy, to drain it. With increasing injury severity, there may be increased benefit in terms of reducing empyema with this approach.
PMCID: PMC2679547  PMID: 18716687
Empyema; Residual hemothorax; Tube thoracostomy
15.  Empyema thoracis: lack of awareness results in a prolonged clinical course 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2001;44(4):284-288.
Objective
To assess the hypothesis that empyema thoracis (ET) is a problem often not optimally treated. Long delays in diagnosis are common, long hospital stays are typical and recovery with surgery is relatively rapid.
Design
A chart review.
Setting
The Regina Health District associated hospitals, a tertiary referral centre.
Patients
The charts of 34 consecutive patients having primary respiratory tract disease and seen during the 6-year period Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1997, were identified.
Outcome measures
Patient presentation, time until diagnosis of ET, number of radiologic investigations, microbiologic features, treatment methods, postoperative course and mortality.
Results
The mean delay in diagnosis, defined as the time of admission to the time of correct diagnosis, was 44.2 days (range from 0 to 573 days) and the mean delay until thoracic surgery referral was 47.4 days (range from 0 to 578 days). On average each patient underwent CT 10.1 times, had 2.6 percutaneous drainage procedures and 2.0 chest tube insertions. The mean time from the first percutaneous chest drainage to the date of diagnosis was 29.8 days (range from 0 to 564 days). Of the 26 patients who underwent CT, the mean time from the first CT of the chest to the date of diagnosis was 9.5 days (range from 0 to 75 days). Cultures of pleural fluid grew no organisms in 17 patients; in the remaining 17 patients cultures grew 23 different microorganisms. Of 26 patients who were referred for surgical opinion, 18 underwent decortication; 8 were not considered to be surgical candidates. Pathological examination showed 17 cases of inflammatory empyema and 1 case of mesothelioma (unrecognized clinically). The mean length of hospital stay postoperatively was 15.2 days.
Conclusions
Early suspicion of ET facilitates its treatment, resulting in fewer investigations and shorter hospital stays. When percutaneous drainage does not eliminate pleural effusions, empyema must be considered. Recovery from surgical decortication is rapid in comparison with the typical protracted preoperative hospital course.
PMCID: PMC3692661  PMID: 11504262
16.  Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience. 
Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required.
PMCID: PMC2502667  PMID: 8659973
17.  VATS: first step in the parapneumonic empyema* 
Il Giornale di Chirurgia  2014;35(5-6):146-148.
Pneumonia is a common cause of pediatric hospitalization and almost 50% of children hospitalized for pneumonia develops meta pneumonic pleural effusion, most of which resolve spontaneously (1). The meta pneumonic effusion remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population and is a complication on the rise in both the U.S. (2) and Europe (3–6).
There is no uniformity of treatment of the meta pneumonic effusion in its early stages and are still questioning some aspects of proper management, remains uncertain and not always shared the operative timing (7). The treatment options are represented, in combination with antibiotic therapy, the thoracentesis (8), the positioning of one or more pleural drainage (9), fibrinolytic therapy (10), the toilet of the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) (11) or “open” with thoracotomy (12) or traditional mini thoracotomy. We report our experience concerning the processing of meta pneumonic effusion, suggesting how the video thoracoscopy may be the treatment of choice in the early stages of the disease.
PMCID: PMC4321519  PMID: 24979108
VATS; Meta pneumonic effusion; Empyema
18.  Esophagopleural Fistula: A Complication of Chest Intubation for Empyema 
This report documents the first recorded patient in the recent literature with an esophageal perforation and an esophagopleural fistula following chest intubation for empyema. It was treated successfully by conservative method with feeding gastrostomy. It is important to realize that tube thoracostomy drainage is not an innocuous procedure and to be alert to this complication, especially in the presence of empyema.
Images
PMCID: PMC2552417  PMID: 7365819
19.  Intrapleural streptokinase in the management of empyema. 
Thorax  1994;49(9):856-859.
BACKGROUND--Significant morbidity and mortality result from the ineffective evacuation of empyema. Failure of conventional first line treatment with closed intercostal tube drainage and antibiotic therapy may result in fibrin deposition and loculated empyema. Enzymatic debridement using intrapleural instillation of streptokinase is a non-invasive therapeutic option which may obviate the need for surgical intervention. METHODS--Eleven adults with multiloculated post-pneumonic empyemas who had failed to respond satisfactorily to intercostal tube drainage and antibiotic therapy were treated with intrapleural streptokinase between November 1992 and January 1994. A small catheter was inserted under ultrasound guidance into a loculation within the pleural space. Aliquots of 250,000 units of streptokinase in 100 ml normal saline were instilled into the pleural cavity and the tube clamped for four hours. Response was assessed by clinical outcome, measurement of drain output after unclamping, and subsequent pleural ultrasound, chest radiography, or both. RESULTS--Streptokinase enhanced drainage in all patients. Complete resolution of the empyema with re-expansion of the underlying lung was effected in eight patients, all of whom remain well. Further resolution of minimal pleural thickening was shown on subsequent chest radiographs. Two patients with considerably thickened visceral pleura following empyema drainage underwent successful decortication. The other, with myocarditis and a pyopneumothorax, underwent surgery for non-resolution of the pneumothorax but died perioperatively from cardiac failure. The number of streptokinase instillations per patient ranged from two to six (median three), and the volume of empyema fluid drained per patient ranged from 100 ml to 4870 ml (median 900 ml). Streptokinase was well tolerated in all patients. CONCLUSIONS--Intrapleural streptokinase is an effective adjunct in the management of complicated empyema and may reduce the need for surgery.
Images
PMCID: PMC475168  PMID: 7940421
20.  Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess 
Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273942
PMCID: PMC3140254  PMID: 22379278
Pleural effusion; empyema; lung abscess; malignant pleural effusion; interventional radiology
21.  Prosthesis for Open Pleurostomy (POP): Management for Chronic Empyemas 
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)  2009;64(3):203-208.
OBJECTIVES
We developed a prosthesis for open pleurostomy cases where pulmonary decortication is not indicated, or where post-pneumonectomy space infection occurs. The open pleural window procedure not only creates a large hole in the chest wall that is shocking to patients, also results in a permanent deformation of the thorax. prosthesis for open pleurostomy is a self-retained silicone tube that requires the removal of 3 cm of one rib for insertion, and acts as a mature conventional open pleural window. Herein, we report our 13–year experience with this device in the management of different kinds of pleural empyema.
METHODS
Forty-four consecutive patients with chronic empyema were treated. The etiology of empyema was diverse: pneumonia, 20; lung resections, 12 (pneumonectomies, 7; lobectomies, 4; non-anatomical, 1); mixed-tuberculous, 6; and mixed-malignant pleural effusion, 6. After debridment of both pleural surfaces, the prosthesis for open pleurostomy was inserted and attached to a small recipient plastic bag.
RESULTS
Infection control was achieved in 20/20 (100%) of the parapneumonic empyemas, in 3/4 (75%) of post-lobectomies, in 6/7 (85%) of post-pneumectomies, in 6/6 (100%) of mixed-tuberculous cases, and in 4/6 (83%) of mixed-malignant cases. Lung re-expansion was also successful in 93%, 75%, 33%, and 40% of the groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Prosthesis for open pleurostomy insertion is a minimally invasive procedure that can be as effective as conventional open pleural window for management of chronic empyemas. Thus, we propose that the use of prosthesis for open pleurostomy should replace the conventional method.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322009000300010
PMCID: PMC2666462  PMID: 19330246
Open Pleural Window; Pleurostomy; Empyema; Pleural Effusion; Pulmonary Decortication
22.  Surgical management and outcome analysis of stage III pediatric empyema thoracis 
Aim:
Report of 125 pediatric patients of empyema thoracis treated by open decortication, highlighting the presentation, delay in referral, operative findings, the response to surgical intervention and follow-up.
Materials and Methods:
All the children who underwent open decortication for stage III empyema thoracis during the study period were included. Preoperative workup included hemogram, serum protein, chest radiographs and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) scan of the chest.
Results:
One hundred and twenty-five patients (81 males, 44 females) (age 3 months–12 years, mean 4.9 years) were operated during a 4.5-year period. Among them, two children underwent bilateral thoracotomies. Also, 81.6% patients were referred 3 weeks after the onset of disease (mean duration 9 weeks). Intercostal chest drainage (ICD) had been inserted in (119) 95% cases. Thickened pleura, multiloculated pus and lung involvement were invariably seen on CECT scan. Bronchopleural fistula was present in 10 patients and empyema necessitatis in 2. Decortication, removal of necrotic tissue and closure of air leaks was performed in all the patients. Necrotizing pneumonia was seen in (35) 27.5% cases. Mean duration of postoperative ICD was 7 days. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 4 years (mean 12 months). There was no mortality. Six patients had proven tuberculosis.
Conclusions:
The duration of the disease had a direct relationship with the thickness of the pleura and injury to the underlying lung. Delayed referral causes irreversible changes in the lung prolonging recovery. Only 18% presented within the early period of the disease. Meticulous open surgical debridement gives gratifying results. The status of the lung at the end of surgery is a major prognostic factor.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.69134
PMCID: PMC2998674  PMID: 21180497
Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic chest scan; decortication; empyema thoracis; pediatric
23.  A colonic splenic flexure tumour presenting as an empyema thoracis: a case report 
Introduction
The case report describes the rare presentation of a 79-year-old patient with a locally perforated splenic flexure tumour of the colon presenting with an apparent empyema thoracis in the absence of abdominal signs or symptoms.
Case presentation
Initial presentation was with a non-productive cough, anorexia and general malaise. An admission chest X-ray and subsequent computed tomographic image of the thorax showed a loculated pleural effusion consistent with an empyema. The computed tomography also showed a thickened splenic flexure. Thoracotomy was performed and a defect in the diaphragm was revealed after the abscess had been evacuated. A laparotomy was carried out at which point a tumour of the splenic flexure of the colon was found to be invading the spleen and locally perforated with subsequent collection in communication with the thorax. The tumour and spleen were resected and a transverse end colostomy was fashioned.
Conclusion
One must consider the diagnosis of pathology inferior to the diaphragm when an apparent empyema thoracis is encountered even in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-9
PMCID: PMC2629468  PMID: 19144103
24.  Thoracoscopic decortication vs tube thoracostomy with fibrinolysis for empyema in children: a prospective, randomized trial 
Journal of pediatric surgery  2009;44(1):106-111.
Purpose
Management of empyema has been debated in the literature for decades. Although both primary video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and tube thoracostomy with pleural instillation of fibrinolytics have been shown to result in early resolution when compared to tube thoracostomy alone, there is a lack of comparative data between these modes of management. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing VATS to fibrinolytic therapy in children with empyema.
Methods
After Institutional Review Board approval, children defined as having empyema by either loculation on imaging or more than 10,000 white blood cells/μL were treated with VATS or fibrinolysis. Based on our retrospective data using length of postoperative hospitalization as the primary end point, a sample size of 36 patients was calculated for an α of .5 and a power of 0.8. Fibrinolysis consisted of inserting a 12F chest tube followed by infusion of 4 mg tissue plasminogen activator mixed with 40 mL of normal saline at the time of tube placement followed by 2 subsequent doses 24 hours apart.
Results
At diagnosis, there were no differences between groups in age, weight, degree of oxygen support, white blood cell count, or days of symptoms. The outcome data showed no difference in days of hospitalization after intervention, days of oxygen requirement, days until afebrile, or analgesic requirements. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was associated with significantly higher charges. Three patients (16.6%) in the fibrinolysis group subsequently required VATS for definitive therapy. Two patients in the VATS group required ventilator support after therapy, one of whom required temporary dialysis. No patient in the fibrinolysis group clinically worsened after initiation of therapy.
Conclusions
There are no therapeutic or recovery advantages between VATS and fibrinolysis for the treatment of empyema; however, VATS resulted in significantly greater charges. Fibrinolysis may pose less risk of acute clinical deterioration and should be the first-line therapy for children with empyema.
doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.10.018
PMCID: PMC3086274  PMID: 19159726
Fibrinolysis; VATS; Empyema; Children
25.  The treatment of chronic pleural empyema with laparoscopic omentoplasty. Initial report 
Introduction
Pleural empyema is the most serious, life-threatening postoperative complication of pneumonectomy, observed after 1–12% of all pneumonectomies, with bronchopleural fistula being its main cause.
Aim
The aim of this publication is to present early outcomes of minimally invasive surgical management of pleural empyema. Patients were subjected to a single, complex procedure, consisting of the laparoscopic mobilization of the greater omentum and its transposition via the diaphragm into the pleural cavity to fill in the empyema cavity with the consecutive pleuro-cutaneous fistuloplasty (thoracoplasty).
Material and methods
Between May 2011 and April 2013, 8 patients were qualified to undergo the procedure. The mean age was 61 years (range: 46–77 years). Presence of bronchopleural fistula was confirmed in 3 cases. The median time of treatment with thoracostomy was 14.5 months.
Results
The mean operative time was 125 min. The mean duration of post-operative hospital stay was 13.5 days (range: 7–31 days). In 6 patients (75%) the objective of permanent resolution of pleural empyema was achieved. In total, 4 patients had complications: pleural empyema recurrence (2 patients), splenic injury, hiatal hernia, gastrointestinal bleed. Two patients with empyema recurrence had Staphylococcus aureus infections prior to surgery. They were successfully managed both with prolonged thoracic drainage and antibiotics.
Conclusions
Use of the greater omentum that was laparoscopically mobilized and transpositioned into the pleural cavity allows simultaneous management of the pleural empyema cavity and thoracostomy. The procedure is safe, with few direct complications. It is well tolerated and has at least a satisfactory cosmetic effect. The minimally invasive approach allows faster recovery and return to daily activities in comparison to the fully open technique.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2014.45129
PMCID: PMC4280418  PMID: 25561992
pleural empyema; bronchopleural fistula; minimally invasive surgery; laparoscopic omentoplasty; pleuro-cutaneous fistuloplasty; thoracoplasty

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