Hepatic hydatid cysts may cause serious complications. Intraperitoneal rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is rarely seen and the prognosis can be fatal. By experience, we know that it might be difficult to diagnose an unruptured cyst expulsed into the peritoneal cavity. In this report, we present the case of a 54-year-old man with an intraperitoneal cystic mass of 10 cm of diameter which had extruded out from the liver due to a blunt abdominal trauma.
Biliary peritonitis; “fallen” hydatid cyst; trauma
Hydatid cysts, which are endemic to certain areas, typically are found in the liver. Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture, which can be life threatening, is rare. This article presents a case of spontaneous rupture of a hydatid cyst in a 69-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department. The patient had no history of trauma. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography suggested rupture of a hydatid cyst. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy, and the cystic area was washed with hypertonic saline and the peritoneal cavity was washed with isotonic saline and drained. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with albendazole for 3 months. No additional pathology was observed at the 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. Although rare, a ruptured hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in a patient residing in an endemic area.
Liver; Hydatid cyst; Spontaneous rupture
Hydatid liver cysts can rupture into neighboring structures in 15–60% of patients, and most often involves the bile duct, the bronchi, and the peritoneal/pleural cavities. Rarely, chest or abdominal wall involvement occurs that are challenging to manage. This case report and literature review describes the management of patients with chest wall and rib invasion.
Presentation of case
A 74-year-old woman, of Spanish origin, presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and tender localized swelling. On computer tomography (CT) assessment, the rupture of a hydatid cyst into the right anterior chest wall was identified. Partial involvement of the 10th and 11th rib were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by a serological test. Surgical treatment involved a radical en bloc right hepatic resection together with resection of the involved ribs, diaphragm and subcutaneous tissue. Primary diaphragm and wall closures were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful with three weeks of albendazole treatment. CT follow-up at six months demonstrated the absence of recurrence.
Complete resection is the gold standard treatment of patients with hydatid cysts with the aim to remove all parasitic and pericystic tissues.
The present report illustrates that an aggressive surgical en bloc resection is feasible and should be preferred for the treatment of hydatid cysts with rupture into the chest wall, even when the ribs are involved.
Hydatid; Rib; Liver
AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver.
METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study.
RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts.
CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results.
Liver hydatid disease; Complicated liver hydatid; Drainage; Operative techniques
Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture with biliary peritonitis in a case of hepatic hydatid cyst is extremely rare but serious complication. It is a surgical emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates. Very few cases have been reported in the literature.
We report an unusual case of a biliary peritonitis due to spontaneous rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst in a male patient of 34 years of age. He presented with acute peritonitis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography 2 days prior to laparotomy showed a dumbbell shaped hydatid cyst of right lobe of the liver with perihepatic fluid collection. At operation 1.5 L bile was found in the peritoneal cavity with rupture of the anterior wall of the cyst and large cystobiliary communication. He was managed with deroofing of the cyst, cholecystectomy, and placement of T tube in the cystobiliary communication and in the extrahepatic bile duct. He developed biliary fistula which was closed over a period of 34 days with conservative therapy. At 6 months follow up patient is well and free of recurrence.
Though rare, ruptured hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in a patient residing in the endemic zone.
Hydatidosis is endemic in the Mediterranean region including morrocco, the Middle and Far East, Australia, New Zealand, and South America—all areas where animal husbandry is common. Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease. The cysts may be ruptured after a trauma, or spontaneously as a result of increased intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires emergency surgical intervention.
Fourteen patients received surgical treatment for intraperitoneal rupture of the cysts over a period of 5 years. Age, gender, time to surgery from the onset of the symptoms, laboratory findings, diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment modalities, in-hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively.
Eight of the patients were men and six were women. All of the patients had signs of peritoneal irritation. One patient (7,14%) had a history of blunt abdominal trauma. Ultrasonography scans revealed intra-abdominal fluid in all cases, intraperitoneal multiple cysts in 11 cases and heterogeneous cavity or cystic structures in the liver in 12 cases. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intra-abdominal free fluid. The ruptured cysts were located in the right lobe of the liver in seven patients, in the left lobe in six patients and in both lobes in one patients. Procedures to fill the cystic cavities were applied after removal of the intraperitoneal fluid. Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure. No patients died in the early postoperative period. A total of seven morbidities developed in six patients (35.3%). Median hospital stay was 08 days and median follow-up was 12 months. Intra-abdominal recurrence occurred in one case (7.7%).
Rupture of hydatid cysts into the peritoneal cavity, although rare, presents a challenge for surgeons. This pathology should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in endemic areas. The operative procedures, either radical or conservative, should be based on the patient’s condition, the regional characteristics, and the surgeon’s experience. The morbidity and mortality rates of surgical interventions for ruptured hydatid cysts are higher than the rates for elective uncomplicated cases.
Echinococcosis; Abdomen; Peritonitis; Surgery
The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the rupture of hydatid cysts into the abdominal cavity after trauma. We present both a new case of hydatid cyst rupture that occurred after blunt abdominal trauma and a literature review of studies published in the English language about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma; studies were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. We identified 22 articles published between 2000 and 2011 about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma. Of these, 5 articles were excluded because of insufficient data, duplication, or absence of intra-abdominal dissemination. The other 17 studies included 68 patients (38 males and 30 females) aged 8 to 76 years who had a ruptured hydatid cyst detected after trauma. The most common trauma included traffic accidents and falls. Despite optimal surgical and antihelmintic therapy, 7 patients developed recurrence. Complications included biliary fistula in 5 patients, incisional hernia in 2 patients, and gastrocutaneous fistula in 1 patient. Death occurred from intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 patient and gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary failure in 1 patient. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare and challenging for the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients.
Acute abdomen; Diagnosis; Peritonitis; Accident
Hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a common parasitic infection of the liver. Disseminated intra-abdominal hydatid disease may occur following rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity, producing secondary echinococcosis. Rarely cyst may develop de-novo in the peritoneal cavity without involvement of any other intra-abdominal organs. We present a unique case of 56-year-old woman with a primary intraabdominal hydatid cyst in the right iliac fossa masquerading as appendicular lump.
Hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a common parasitic infection of the liver. Disseminated intra-abdominal hydatid disease may occur with the rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity, producing secondary echinococcosis, but occasional cases of primary peritoneal hydatid disease involving the pelvis have been reported. Occasionally, the cyst does not rupture, but instead enlarges, thus mimicking an ovarian tumour.
We present a 30-years-old woman with an intra-abdominal hydatid cyst that had no communication with the liver. It is therefore probably a primary case of ovarian hydatid cyst, which is very rare. An imprint smear was also taken, which revealed scolex with hooklets.
The incidence of hydatid cyst in the female reproductive system is very low, constituting less than 0.5% of all hydatid cysts. Hence clinicians should consider hydatid cyst among differential diagnosis whenever a cystic pelvic mass is found.
hydatid cyst; echinococcus; ovarian cyst
Echinococcosis is a disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The adult worm lives parasitically in the intestine of the definitive host, the dog, wolf and other wild carnivores. The ova, which are passed in the feces, are ingested by grazing animals. The intestinal juices free the ovum from its cuticle and, having entered a capillary, it is carried by the blood stream to the liver or lung, where it develops into a hydatid cyst. Man becomes infected by ingesting contaminated vegetables or drinking contaminated water.
In a mature hydatid cyst there may be thousands of scolices and each one of these, if released from the hydatid cyst, may form a new cyst if it is planted in a suitable environment. Hydatid cysts are most commonly found in the liver and the lung, but may occur in other organs.
A hepatic cyst may rupture into the peritoneal cavity and produce a hydatidoperitoneum. A pulmonary cyst frequently ruptures into a bronchus and is thus evacuated.
The disease is of world-wide distribution. In Canada most of the cases of this disease have occurred among Indians and Eskimos. It is now known that a sylvatic cycle has been established in North America and that it serves as a source of infection of the dog and man.
The patient reported herein had spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst, with subsequent development of secondary peritoneal echinococcosis. Repeated laparotomies had to be performed to relieve pressure on or obstruction of various organs. The patient made an uneventful recovery and is again usefully employed. No effective medical treatment for this disease is available.
Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of
morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications
of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the
hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent
and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In
the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic
liver echinococcosis were operated on in the
1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to
1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female
with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was
based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological
studies. In 5 cases the operative method was
cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of
the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and
primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases,
omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a
piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and
external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of
those with drainage, after a period of time, a second
operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous
wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate
Our results could be considered satisfactory. In
the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed
technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative
procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with
a “planned” reoperation with a bloodless, due
to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the
In the last 10 years we have operated on 33 cases of hydatid cyst of the liver with intrathoracic rupture. Twenty-one out of 33 cases ruptured into bronchi, in seven the rupture affected the pleural cavity, and in six simultaneous rupture into the bronchus and pleural cavity occurred. Laboratory tests were not carried out in all cases. The Casoni intradermal test was carried out in 23 cases and was positive in 18. A liver scan was performed in 10 and was positive in all. Conservative operations were carried out in 22 patients. In these the hepatic cavity was evacuated and separately drained. This was followed by suturing the diaphragmatic rupture and also closing the bronchial opening if present. Lung resections were performed in 11 out of 33 cases. In eight lobectomy was carried out and in three segmental resections. Resection was necessary when suppuration and bronchiectatic changes affected the lung. Ruptured cyst into the pleural cavity requires emergency thoracotomy after the anaphylactic shock is over. Removal of the parasite, re-expansion of the lung, and drainage of the pleural and hepatic cavities is necessary. Immediate and late complications occurred in 13 patients. In two postoperative haemorrhage occurred and in two postoperative empyema developed. Recurrent haemoptysis was seen in five, persistent bile fistula in one, and dissemination of hydatid cyst in three. In the remaining 20 cases there was no complication. Operative mortality was nil.
Hydatid cysts located in the interatrial septum are especially rare but when they occur, they might cause intracavity rupture. We report on a patient with acute pulmonary embolism caused by an isolated, ruptured hydatid cyst on the right side of the interatrial septum. A 16-year-old-boy with an uneventful history was hospitalized for exercise-induced dyspnea and blood expectorations. Multiple and bilateral opacities were visualized on standard chest x-ray. Signs of right-sided hypertrophy were seen on ECG. Imaging findings led to the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism complicating cardiac hydatid cysts. An operation was performed through median sternotomy to remove the cardiac cyst. The pleural cavity was entered through the fifth intercostal space to withdraw lung hydatid cysts. Operative recovery was uneventful and the patient resumed his normal activities 19 months later. Prompt diagnosis and an appropriate surgical treatment prevented a potentially fatal outcome.
Echinococcosis; Hydatidosis; Pulmonary embolism; cardiac; hydatid cyst
Hepatic hydatid disease can be successfully treated by a variety of modalities.
We report a case of a 60 year old male with giant hepatic hydatid disease who presented with a huge cystic mass in the upper abdomen. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology, ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated successfully by open minimally invasive surgery with minimum breaching of the peritoneal cavity using a laparoscopic trocar to evacuate the cyst.
The use of a laparoscopic trocar through a small abdominal incision in selected patients with hepatic hydatid disease with subfascial extension can be a safe, minimally-invasive option of treatment
Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease that necessitates emergency surgical intervention. We present herein a case with mild abdominal symptoms due to hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneum after trauma. A 24-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with mild abdominal pain. His symptoms had started after a fall four days earlier. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intraabdominal free fluid. He was treated surgically with partial cystectomy and falciformoplasty. Postoperative albendazole therapy was given for two months. There was not recurrence four months postoperatively at control computed tomography.
Hydatid disease; Liver; Trauma; Rupture
Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus, results from the presence of one or more massive cysts or hydatids, and can involve any organ, including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and long bones. Muscle hydatidosis is usually secondary in nature, resulting from spread of larval tissue from a primary site after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures. Primary muscle hydatidosis is extremely uncommon, because implantation at this site would require passage through the filters of the liver and lung. Intramuscular hydatid cyst can cause a variety of diagnostic problems, especially in the absence of typical radiologic findings. We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the popliteal fossa of the right knee of a 52-year-old woman, presenting as an enlarging soft-tissue tumor for 6 months associated with pain. The mass initially was diagnosed to be Backer′s cyst by ultrasonography, but later it was confirmed postoperatively through histopathological studies to be due to hydatid disease. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of any unusual muscular mass.
Echinococcus; muscle hydatidosis; popliteal fossa; primary hydatid cyst; scolicidal agent
Hydatid cysts commonly affect liver and lung but it can also affect the brain in rare cases. We report a case of 22 year female with history of headache for one and half years. Intracranial hydatid cyst was diagnosed on computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. The cyst was delivered without rupture using hydrostatic dissection followed by post-operative anthelminthic medication. Surgery remains to be the standard management. Amongst the surgical techniques described, Dowling's technique is the most acceptable. However, care must be taken in to avoid rupture of the cyst peroperatively which can result in subsequent complications and recurrence. Albendazole and corticosteroids can be used as adjunct to surgical treatment in selective cases.
Antihelminthic medication; craniotomy; hydrostatic dissection; intracranial hydatid cyst
Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with the larval cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Cysts commonly develop in the liver and lungs. Diagnosis in non-endemic regions is often delayed due to a failure to consider hydatidosis. This results from a non-specific presentation and a failure to record an accurate geographical history. The diagnosis requires integrating an appropriate index of suspicion with correct interpretation of imaging and serological tests.
In our case, a 44-year-old woman of Yemeni origin presented to a UK hospital with chest pain, pruritus and weight loss. Following detection of pulmonary nodules, a CT-guided biopsy was carried out to exclude malignancy. Iatrogenic cyst rupture precipitated an acute eosinophilic pleurisy. Cystic hydatid disease was subsequently diagnosed following strongly positive hydatid serological tests.
This case illustrates the importance of considering diagnoses appropriate to an individual's geographical history particularly in the context of rising immigration and foreign travel.
Cystic Echinococcosis also known as cystic hydatid disease is a parasitic infection endemic in many parts of the world. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts with cysts most commonly developing in the liver. This case describes a rare presentation of hydatid disease following trauma to the liver. Intraparenchymal cyst rupture led to haemodynamic instability with release of the parasites protoscolices into hepatic venules producing severe life threatening anaphylaxis.
Hydatid cysts rarely appear isolated in the orbital cavity without involvement of other organs. Most of these are situated in the superolateral and superomedial angles of the orbit. Inferiorly located cysts are very uncommon. The authors report a case of a primary hydatid cyst of the orbit with inferiolateral localization. The cyst was enucleated surgically via a rhinotomy approach. This case was considered as a primary infection, because there was no previous history of hydatid disease and no findings of liver and lung cysts on radiological examination. Physicians should include orbital hydatid cyst in the differential diagnosis of unilateral proptosis. To avoid complications that might occur during surgery, the cyst can be easily removed using a gentile enucleation technique.
Exopthalmia investigation; follow-up; intraorbital hydatid cyst; proptosis; surgical treatment
Echinococcal cysts are usually found in liver and lungs, but any other organ can potentially be involved. Extrahepatic disease due to hydatid cyst may develop in the abdominal and pelvic cavity, aside from in other less common locations, which may make both diagnosis and treatment more complex. We present a rare case of extrahepatic echinococcosis in a 70-year old patient with a 4-d history of dull abdominal pain, anemia within the transfusion range and fever. She underwent surgery for left renal hydatid cysts 30 years ago. After non operative treatment, imaging studies showed a calcified hydatid cyst in a retrogastric location communicating with a proximal jejunal loop. En-block resection of the mass together with the adrenal gland was performed including closure of the enteric fistula. Anatomic pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a calcified hydatid cyst of left adrenal origin. Surgery is the treatment of choice and most authors recommend removal of cyst and adrenal gland.
Echinococcosis; Adrenal cyst; Surgery
We present a case of multiple hydatidosis in an 8-year-old boy that resulted from a ruptured hydatid cyst of the spleen and spread into the peritoneal cavity. We also present a new approach for managing these difficult and high-risk cases.
Hydatid disease (HD) is an endemic illness in many countries, and it poses an important public health problem that's influenced by peoples' socioeconomic status and migration that spreads this disease. Although rare, it may occur in any organ or tissue. The most common site is the liver (59-75%), followed in frequency by lung (27%), kidney (3%), bone (1-4%) and brain (1-2%). Other sites such as the heart, spleen, pancreas and muscles are very rarely affected. Unusual sites for this disease can cause diagnostic problems. This pictorial essay illustrates various radiological findings of HD in the liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, peritoneal cavity, omentum, adrenal, ovary, lung, mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Familiarity with the imaging findings of HD may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and preventing potential complications.
Hydatid Disease; Computed tomography (CT); Magnetic resonance (MR); Ultrasound (US)
Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms.
Hydatid Disease; Cholelithiasis; Echinococcal Cyst Rupture; Cystobiliary Fistula
Selection of the most appropriate treatment to obtain the lowest morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates is mandatory for hydatid disease of the liver. This study evaluated the results of laparoscopic treatment (compared with the open approach) in the context of a 10-year single-institution experience.
Between January 1998 and January 2008, 333 patients with hydatid disease of the liver underwent surgery in the authors’ department. Only the following aspects were considered as selection criteria for laparoscopic surgery: liver cyst not located in segment 1 or 7, with corticalization on the surface and no evidence of intrabiliary rupture. Of 62 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment, 3 required conversion to open surgery. The remaining 59 patients (group 1) were analyzed. During the same period, 271 patients with hepatic hydatid disease underwent conventional surgery, but only 172 records were compatible with the criteria for the laparoscopic approach and the respective patients were retrospectively reviewed (group 2).
Conversion to open surgery occurred in three cases (4.84 %). The mean cyst diameter was 6.62 cm (range, 2–15 cm) in group 1 and 7.23 cm (range, 2–18 cm) in group 2 (p = 0.699). The mean operative time was 72 min (range, 45–140 min) in group 1 and 65 min (range, 35–120 min) in group 2 (p < 0.001). The general complication rate and abdominal wound complication rate were respectively 0 % and 0 % in group 1 (p = 0.023) compared with 5.23 and 8.72 % in group 2 (p = 0.015). The mean hospital stay was 6.42 days (range, 1–21 days) in group 1 and 11.7 days (range, 4–80 days) in group 2 (p < 0.001). The mean follow-up period was 24.2 months (range, 6–32 months) in group 1 and 28.4 months (range, 6–40 months) in group 2. No recurrences were observed in either group during this period.
Laparoscopic surgery provides a safe and efficacious approach for almost all types of hepatic hydatid cysts. Large, prospective, randomized trials are needed to confirm its superiority.
Hepatic hydatid cyst; Laparoscopic surgery; Treatment of hydatid disease