Duodenal duplication cyst is a rare anomaly, totaling only 4% to 12% of gastrointestinal duplications, and is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Most are commonly located posterior to the first or second portion of the duodenum. Presenting signs and symptoms include vomiting, decreased oral intake, periumbilical tenderness, abdominal distention, obstructive jaundice, acute pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The traditional treatment of a duodenal duplication cyst has been complete surgical resection, but very few cases of endoscopic treatment have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of duodenal duplication cyst that was manifested by a duodenal polyp.
Duodenum; Duplication cyst; Endoscopic resection
A child with cystic duplication of the rectum containing ectopic duodenal mucosa and aberrant pancreatic tissue presenting as a chronic perianal fistula is reported. The duplication was removed by subtotal excision of the cyst along with mucosal sleeve resection from the common septum with the rectal wall.
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities which are more commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, these lesions can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. The combination of duplication cyst and pancreas divisum is extremely rare and both conditions have been linked with acute recurrent pancreatitis. We present the case of a 37 years-old patient who presented with repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. By means of magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography we discovered a duplication cyst whose cavity received drainage from the dorsal pancreas. After opening the cyst cavity to the duodenal lumen with a needle knife the patient presented no further episodes in the clinical follow-up. Comparable literature findings and therapeutic options for these abnormalities are discussed with regard to the presented case.
Duplication cyst; Pancreas divisum; Acute recurrent pancreatitis; Endoscopic ultrasonography
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults.
Congenital anomalies; Duodenal duplication cyst; Pancreatitis; Recurrent
Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly. They can be associated with other congenital anomalies, such as spinal abnormalities, and tracheoesophageal fistulas. In adults, almost of the patients with esophageal duplication cyst is asymptomatic and accidentally diagnosed by chest X-ray or computed tomography. However, cysts may become symptomatic owing to complications such as esophageal stenosis, respiratory system compression, rupture, infarction, or malignancy. Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment even in patients with asymptmatic cysts. Traditional approach for resection is via thoracotomy. But, the thoracoscopic approach makes more indicate for mediastinal diseases, because of minimally invasive for patients. We describe a case with esophageal duplication cyst, which contained the ectopic pancreatic tissue in the solid portion, resected under the thoracoscopic approach in adult.
esophageal duplication cyst; thoracoscopic surgery; ectopic pancreas
A duodenal duplication cyst is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Duodenal duplication cysts generally appear on the first or second portion of the duodenum and may cause duodenal obstruction, hemorrhage or pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of a duodenal duplication cyst on the second and third portion of the duodenum in an old aged man with obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis, which was treated successfully by a surgical excision.
Abnormalities; Duplication Cyst; Duodenum; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing; Jaundice, Obstructive
Ectopic pancreas (EP) is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. This condition is usually asymptomatic and rarely complicated by pancreatitis and malignant transformation. A few cases of neoplastic phenomena that developed from EP into the duodenal wall are described in the literature. Herein we report a case of gastric outlet obstruction due to adenocarcinoma arising from EP of the duodenal wall. The patient underwent a Whipple’s procedure and had an uneventful post-operative recovery. Traditional imaging studies are often inconclusive in the definitive diagnosis, whilst endoscopic ultrasonography and guided biopsy may aid accurate pre-operative diagnosis. Diagnostic uncertainty warrants surgical exploration and if necessary extended resection is indicated.
Ectopic pancreas; Duodenum; Gastrointestinal obstruction; Neoplasm; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of ectopic pancreatic tissue surrounding the descending part of the duodenum. It is one of the few congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract which can produce symptoms late in life. In adults, the factors initiating symptoms are recurrent pancreatitis, duodenal stenosis at the site of the annulus, or duodenal or gastric ulceration. We report a new case involving a 24-year-old woman hospitalised for epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. Radiological examination was consisted with an annular pancreas. At operation a complete obstruction of the second part of the duodenum was found, caused by an annular pancreas, no other congenital anomaly of the intra-abdominal organs was noted. A gastroenterostomy was performed.
Annular pancreas; duodenal stenosis; bypass
This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered.
gastric duplication cyst; adenocarcinoma; gastrointestinal duplication
Necrosis of small volumes of tumour tissue with photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be achieved relatively easily. For this to be clinically relevant, it is essential to know what the same treatment parameters do to adjacent normal tissues into which the tumour has spread. For pancreatic cancers, local spread to vital structures is common. We have studied chemical extraction, microscopic fluorescence kinetics and photodynamic effects of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) in normal pancreas and adjacent tissues in hamsters. Chemical extraction exhibited a peak duodenal concentration of AlS2Pc 48 h after sensitisation, with levels much higher than in stomach and pancreas. With microscopic fluorescence photometry highest levels were seen in duodenal submucosa and bile duct walls 48 h after photosensitisation. Pancreatic ducts, duodenal mucosa and gastric mucosa and submucosa exhibited intermediate fluorescence with relatively weak fluorescence in pancreatic acinar tissue and the muscle layer of the stomach. As expected, on the basis of fluorescence intensity and chemical extraction studies, the duodenal and bile duct wall were the most vulnerable tissues to photodynamic therapy. When the dose of 5 mumol kg-1 of sensitiser was used, duodenal perforations, gastric ulcers and transudation of bile from the bile duct occurred. However, the lesions in the stomach and bile duct healed without perforation or obstruction, so only the duodenum was at risk of serious, irreversible damage. Using a lower dose of photosensitiser markedly reduced damage.
Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) in an adult can have several clinical presentations. A review of the literature showed previously reported cases of GDC presenting as pancreatic pseudocyst or with greatly raised concentrations of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). It is often difficult to discriminate GDC from pancreatic cystic tumour, in particular pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma, in which concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 are classically raised. This report describes an adult case of GDC mimicking a mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas. This is the first report of a simultaneous increase in carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 in GDC in the absence of malignancy. Although few cases of carcinoma arising from a GDC having been reported, the production of oncofetal antigens raises the problem of a precancerous condition in long standing intestinal duplications. In this situation surgical resection must be performed.
carcinoembryonic antigen; gastric duplication; adenocarcinoma; mucinous; gastrointestinal duplication
We report a case of an 8-month-old, asymptomatic child who was incidentally detected to have two cystic structures in the abdomen. Surgical exploration revealed a gastric and pancreatic duplication cyst along with a blind-ending duplication of the right ureter. Excision of the duplications was relatively straightforward, and the child made an uneventful recovery. This constellation of duplications has not been reported before.
Gastrointestinal duplications; pancreatic duplications; ureteral atresia; ureteric duplication
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental anomalies that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal duplication cysts account for approximately 4% of all duplication cysts. They usually present in childhood with symptoms of mass effect, local infection or more rarely with rectal bleeding from ectopic gastric mucosa.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 26 year old male presented with a history of bright red blood per rectum. On examination a mucosal defect with an associated cavity adjacent to the rectum was identified. This was confirmed with rigid proctoscopy and CT scan imaging. A complete transanal excision was performed.
Rectal duplication cysts are more common in pediatric patients. They more frequently present with symptoms of mass effect or local infection than with rectal bleeding. In adult patients they are a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Definitive treatment is with surgical excision. A transanal, transcoccygeal, posterior sagittal or a combined abdominoperineal approach may be used depending on anatomic characteristics of the duplication cyst.
We present a rare case of a rectal duplication cyst presenting in adulthood with rectal bleeding, managed with transanal excision.
Rectal duplication cyst; Adult; Rectal bleeding
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is localised in man to salivary and Brunner's glands. It is present in large concentrations in saliva and duodenal contents but the mechanisms of its release have been little studied. This study carried out on four groups of healthy subjects was designed to determine the distribution and the release of immunoreactive EGF (IR-EGF) in salivary, gastric, duodenal, and pancreatic secretions. Under basal conditions, the concentrations of IR-EGF in salivary, gastric, duodenal and pancreatic secretions were; 2.7 (0.4), 0.42 (0.12), 21 (5) and 8.5 (1.2) ng/ml, respectively. Chewing of Parafilm* significantly increased salivary but not gastric or duodenal EGF output while atropinisation led to the reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output without affecting the increment in EGF release induced by chewing. Cigarette smoking caused a marked reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output. Infusion of pentagastrin increased salivary and duodenal EGF output and this was blocked by the addition of somatostatin. Injection of secretin lead to an increase in pancreatic output of EGF. We conclude that in man the major sources of EGF are salivary glands, duodenum, and pancreas and that the release of EGF remains under neurohormonal control.
Heterotopic gastric mucosa is described almost everywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, from the oral cavity to the rectum. The occurrence of heterotopic gastric tissue in the gallbladder is rare. A choristoma can be defined as a new growth developing from a displaced anlage not normally present in the anatomical site where it developed. We present an extremely uncommon case of a cyst (choristoma) attached to the gallbladder, which contained gastric and intestinal mucosa.
A 33-year-old woman was hospitalized with clinical symptoms of chronic cholecystitis. The laboratory findings were within the normal range. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a thickened gallbladder wall and a stone in the cystic duct was suspected. In the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a cyst was visualized in the vicinity of the duct and the gallbladder neck. Microscopic examination of the removed cyst revealed evidence of gastric, duodenal and small-intestinal mucosa. The immunohistochemical study revealed many endocrine cells, which were positive for several endocrine cell markers such as chromogranin, serotonin, gastrin and so on. It can be inferred that the observed cyst had arisen from the foregut early in the development of the gastrointestinal tract.
The presence of endocrine cells together with epithelial cells supports the hypothesis that these had developed simultaneously, and that the endocrine cells had probably supported the development of the epithelial cells by the release of hormones and growth factors. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to report a gastrointestinal cyst choristoma with endocrine cells in the region of the cystic duct and gallbladder.
Background. Duplication of the alimentary tract is a rare congenital anomaly. Gastric duplication cysts (GDCs) represent 4% of all alimentary tract duplications, and approximately 67% manifest within the first year of life. Duplication cysts in adults are generally encountered as incidental findings at endoscopy or laparotomy. Herein, we report two rare cases of symptomatic GDC presenting in adults. Case 1. A 27-year-old male presented with a five-month history of back pain. Exam revealed mild epigastric tenderness with a vague palpable mass in left upper abdomen. CT scan showed 8 × 7.4 × 6 cm homogenous, nonseptated cystic mass posterosuperior to pancreatic tail. On laparotomy, a cystic mass measuring 11 × 8 cm was found, which was densely adherent to posterior wall of stomach suggestive of GDC. Case 2. A 28-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain associated with vomiting for 2 months. Exam revealed mild epigastric tenderness. CT scan showed four cystic lesions in the medial wall of distal stomach measuring approximately one cm each suggestive of duplication cysts. Exploratory laparotomy with antrectomy and truncal vagotomy with Billroth II reconstruction were performed. Pathology in both patients was diagnostic of GDC. Conclusion. GDC is a rare anomaly, and its presentation in adults is even rarer.
Duodenal polyps are a rare finding in patients presenting for gastroscopy, being found in 0.3–4.6% of cases. The majority of patients are asymptomatic. The most common lesions necessitating removal are duodenal adenomas which should be differentiated from other mucosal lesions such as ectopic gastric mucosa, and submucosal lesions such as carcinoids and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Adenomas can occur sporadically or as part of a polyposis syndrome. Both groups carry malignant potential but this is higher in patients with a polyposis syndrome. The majority of sporadic duodenal adenomas are flat or sessile and occur in the second part of the duodenum. Historically duodenal adenomas have been managed by radical surgery, which carried significant mortality and morbidity, or more conservative local surgical excision which resulted in high local recurrence rates. There is growing evidence for the use of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) techniques for treatment of sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomas, with good outcomes and low complication rates. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) carries greater risk of complications and should be reserved for experts in this technique. Patients with sporadic duodenal adenomas carry an increased risk of colonic neoplasia and should be offered colonoscopy. The impact of endoscopic resection on the course of polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) needs further study.
adenoma; carcinoid; duodenum; endoscopic mucosal resection; endoscopic submucosal dissection; familial adenomatous polyposis; gastrointestinal stromal tumour
Lysolecithin is formed when pancreatic juice and bile mix in the duodenum. Lysolecithin concentrations have been measured in intermittent samples of night gastric juice from patients with gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers and in normal controls. In gastric ulcer patients, the mean of the peak concentrations (444 μg/ml) and mean of concentrations in all samples (199 μg/ml) were significantly higher than in controls (34 μg/ml and 18 μg/ml respectively). Duodenal ulcer patients had normal or moderately raised values. The levels in gastric ulcer patients were as high as those which have been found experimentally to cause severe damage to the gastric mucosal barrier, and it is concluded that lysolecithin may be as important, or more important, than bile salts in the destruction of the gastric mucosal barrier and therefore in the aetiology of gastric ulcer.
Ten patients in whom cystic dystrophy developed in a heterotopic pancreas of the duodenal (nine patients) or gastric (one patient) wall are reported. All were young or middle aged white men, only two of whom were alcoholic. The symptoms were caused by intestinal or biliary stenosis, or both, secondary to the inflammation and fibrosis. Only endosonography provided strong evidence for the diagnosis in three patients. All patients underwent surgery: a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in eight patients. The surgical specimen showed cystic lesions of the gut wall, occurring in inflammatory and fibrous heterotopic pancreatic tissue. The pancreas proper was normal in all patients. It is suggested that cystic dystrophy is an uncommon and serious complication of heterotopic pancreas. Similar cases associated with chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas have been observed and it is suggested that this process could be responsible for some of the chronic pancreatitis encountered in young, non-alcoholic patients.
Small bowel lymphomas of the extranodal type occur in the young and are characteristically associated with malabsorption syndrome. We present the case of an elderly in whom there was no malabsorption and the duodenal tumor was a gastric type marginal zone B cell lymphoma also known as gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A 73-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with 2 weeks of general weakness, recurrent vomiting containing food particles and abdominal distension. She had been diagnosed with diabetic gastroparesis 4 years prior. CT of the abdomen and pelvis was suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction but no evidence of pancreatic or duodenal mass. Endoscopy and biopsy of the tumor obstructing the distal first part of the duodenum confirmed a gastric marginal MALT lymphoma. The patient's symptoms improved with radiotherapy. Gastric MALT lymphoma, an extranodal lymphoma primarily described in the stomach, can also present in the small bowel and is not associated with malabsorption.
Small bowel lymphoma; Gastric lymphoma; Duodenum
Choledochal cysts are rare congenital anomalies which are principally diagnosed by disproportional dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts. In addition, choledochal cysts are believed to arise from the anomalous union of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct outside the duodenal wall which is also proximal to the sphincter of the Oddi mechanism. The various types of choledochal cysts have been classified on the basis of these anomalous unions (Komi classification) and their anatomical locations (Todani classification). The multidetector computed tomography with reformatted imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography represent the important techniques providing the anatomical resolution and detail required to properly diagnose and classify choledochal cysts and their associated abnormal features of the biliary tree, as well as their pancreaticobile duct union. This study describes the various imaging features of a choledochal cyst in adults according to the various types of anomalous unions of the pancreaticobile duct according to Komi's classification and anatomic location according to Todani's classification. Lastly, we also review and discuss the associated abnormal findings developed in biliary systems.
Bile duct; Choledochal cyst; Magnetic resonance (MR); Computed tomography (CT); Cholangiography
Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome.
Gastric duplication cyst; Acute abdomen; Peritonitis
We have evaluated the effects of porcine pancreatic extracts on human pancreatic secretion. Ten male volunteers were intubated with a 4-lumen jejunal tube to collect gastric and duodenal secretions separately via the first and third tube, to infuse PEG 4000 distal the pylorus via the second tube and to apply porcine pancreatic extracts via the fourth tube distal the ligament of Treitz. Pancreatic extracts were given four times at 40 minute intervals; the first two as active enzymes and subsequently as heat denatured proportions. Secretin was continuously infused intravenously (0.5 E/kg bw/h) to achieve minimal pancreatic flow. Lipase, amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, volume, and bicarbonate were measured in duodenal contents in eight pooled 15 minute fractions. Three subjects who received HEPES-Ringer buffer instead of pancreatic enzymes served as controls. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) was measured using a sensitive bioassay. Both active and heat denatured pancreatic extracts caused a small but significant increase in amylase and chymotrypsin secretion. Basal plasma CCK values were 0.85 (0.05) pM. After intrajejunal instillation of either active or heat denatured pancreatic extracts plasma CCK rose to 3.25 (0.30) pM and to 3.28 (0.36) pM respectively. In a second group of five volunteers, plasma CCK concentrations were measured after a test meal. On day 1, volunteers received a liquid fat and protein rich meal and on day 2, the same test meal containing porcine pancreatic extracts. In both cases, a similar increase in plasma CCK was observed. We conclude that therapy with pancreatic extracts stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion. This may be mediated through release of CCK.
Only 10% to 20% of pancreatic tumors are resectable at the time of diagnosis. Patients with advanced disease have a median survival of 4.9 months. Palliation is often required for biliary or duodenal obstruction, or both, and for pain. Optimal palliation should guarantee the shortest possible hospital stay and as long a survival as possible with a good quality of life. In recent years, treatment options for palliation of biliary and duodenal obstruction due to pancreatic cancer have broadened. Endoscopic and percutaneous biliary stenting have been shown to be successful tools for safe palliation of high-risk patients. Nevertheless, fit patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer benefit from surgery, which allows long-lasting biliary and gastric drainage.
While laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy and gastroenterostomy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have been widely reported, laparoscopic hepatico-jejunostomy has been rarely described. In this article, we describe our technique of laparoscopic hepatico-jejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy. We also discuss current evidence on the indications for these procedures in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.
Laparoscopy; Hepatico-jejunostomy; Gastroenterostomy; Pancreatic cancer
A case of invasive ductal carcinoma of an ectopic pancreas in the stomach in a 74-year-old woman is presented. A 4.0 cm gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was resected surgically. Histologically, the tumor showed cystic tissue consisting of an ectopic pancreas with foci of a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. In this tumor, small pancreatic tissues, acini, Langerhans islets, and ductular cells were detected in the gastric SMT. The patient has experienced long-term survival. The incidence of pancreatic cancer of an ectopic pancreas is rare, and the etiology of this disease is discussed in the literature.
Ectopic pancreas; Pancreas cancer; Gastric wall