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1.  A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena 
Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3801321  PMID: 24151370
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Duodenum; Duplication
2.  Duplicate pancreas meets gastric duplication cyst: A tale of two anomalies 
Congenital anomalies are a rare cause of pancreatitis in adults. Gastric duplications are the least common duplication of the gastrointestinal tract and are even more uncommon in the setting of a duplicate pancreas.
This manuscript contains a case report and review of the literature of an adult who presented with recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have a gastric duplication cyst that communicated with a duplicate pancreas. The study aim is to alert practitioners to the duplicate anomaly and recommend appropriate therapy.
Combined gastric and pancreatic duplications usually occur in young females with nonspecific, recurrent abdominal pain. This combined duplication can result in pancreatitis when the gastric duplication is contiguous with the stomach. Heightened awareness of the condition, appropriate diagnostics with accurate interpretation and a minimalist approach to resection are warranted.
Recurrent abdominal pain and pancreatitis in young adults devoid of risk factors should lead to consideration of congenital anomalies. Not all cysts near the pancreas and stomach are pseudocysts. ECRP and abdominal CT/MRI provide critical diagnostic information. This dual anomaly is best treated by simple excision of the gastric duplication and heterotopic pancreas.
PMCID: PMC3710888  PMID: 23827696
Gastric duplication; Pancreas duplication; Pancreatitis
3.  A Case of Duodenal Duplication Cyst Manifested by Duodenal Polyp 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(4):425-427.
Duodenal duplication cyst is a rare anomaly, totaling only 4% to 12% of gastrointestinal duplications, and is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Most are commonly located posterior to the first or second portion of the duodenum. Presenting signs and symptoms include vomiting, decreased oral intake, periumbilical tenderness, abdominal distention, obstructive jaundice, acute pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The traditional treatment of a duodenal duplication cyst has been complete surgical resection, but very few cases of endoscopic treatment have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of duodenal duplication cyst that was manifested by a duodenal polyp.
PMCID: PMC3521947  PMID: 23251893
Duodenum; Duplication cyst; Endoscopic resection
4.  Chronic perianal fistula: beware of rectal duplication. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1987;63(737):213-214.
A child with cystic duplication of the rectum containing ectopic duodenal mucosa and aberrant pancreatic tissue presenting as a chronic perianal fistula is reported. The duplication was removed by subtotal excision of the cyst along with mucosal sleeve resection from the common septum with the rectal wall.
PMCID: PMC2428266  PMID: 3671263
5.  Duodenal duplication cyst and pancreas divisum causing acute pancreatitis in an adult male 
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities which are more commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, these lesions can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. The combination of duplication cyst and pancreas divisum is extremely rare and both conditions have been linked with acute recurrent pancreatitis. We present the case of a 37 years-old patient who presented with repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. By means of magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography we discovered a duplication cyst whose cavity received drainage from the dorsal pancreas. After opening the cyst cavity to the duodenal lumen with a needle knife the patient presented no further episodes in the clinical follow-up. Comparable literature findings and therapeutic options for these abnormalities are discussed with regard to the presented case.
PMCID: PMC2999032  PMID: 21160764
Duplication cyst; Pancreas divisum; Acute recurrent pancreatitis; Endoscopic ultrasonography
6.  Recurrent acute pancreatitis and massive hemorrhagic ascites secondary to a duodenal duplication in a child: a case report 
Duodenal duplication is a rare congenital malformation and has been reported as a rare cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis. Hemorrhagic ascites has been reported in only one case of duodenal duplication.
Case presentation
An 11-year-old Chinese girl presented with abdominal pain, hematemesis and dark stools. On admission, an abdominal examination revealed a moderately distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Biochemical investigations showed increased serum levels of amylase, lipase, and urine amylase. An abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed an enlarged and heterogeneous pancreas with poorly delineated borders. There was a cystic lesion measuring 25mm × 48mm × 28mm, located between the descending portion of her duodenum and the head of her pancreas. There were massive effusion signals in her abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. A tubular cyst measuring 32mm × 52mm × 30mm was found in the second part of the duodenum, next to the head of her pancreas. The anterior wall of the duplication cyst was resected and anastomosis of the remaining cyst to the duodenum was performed for drainage. Histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed duodenal mucosa, submucosa and muscle coats, indicative of a duodenal duplication.
It is important to be aware of duodenal duplication when evaluating a patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis accompanied by massive hemorrhagic ascites.
PMCID: PMC3601004  PMID: 23497458
Acute pancreatitis; Child; Duodenal duplication; Hemorrhagic ascites
7.  Recurrent acute pancreatitis secondary to a duodenal duplication cyst in an adult. A case report and literature review 
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults.
PMCID: PMC2777087  PMID: 19893770
Congenital anomalies; Duodenal duplication cyst; Pancreatitis; Recurrent
8.  Double esophageal duplication cysts, with ectopic gastric mucosa: a case report 
Esophageal duplication cyst (EDC) is a congenital malformation of the posterior primitive foregut, which mainly occurs in the thoracic esophagus. Here, we describe a 3-year-old Han Chinese boy afflicted with intermittent fever of acute onset and dry cough. Thoracic computed tomography revealed an 10 cm × 5.4 cm × 5.8 cm oval-shaped, cyst-like tumor located in the extrapleural space, extending along the right paravertebral gutter and compressing the trachea forward. An additional small-sized, oval-shaped cyst was identified in the posterior mediastinum, between the esophagus and the spinal column, at the T1 level. During open thoracotomy, under general anesthesia, an opaque, thick-walled, esophageal cyst was revealed not to be in communication with the esophageal lumen or the trachea. This cyst was subsequently resected in an en bloc manner. The small (1-cm) esophageal cyst was left untreated based on a “wait-and-see” policy. Histological analysis showed that the resected cyst was walled by hyperplastic, fibrous tissues and locally lined with gastric mucosa inherent glands. This finding was consistent with a diagnosis of EDC, with ectopic gastric mucosa. The respiratory tract symptoms resolved immediately after the operation. Computed tomography obtained at the 6-month follow-up showed that no disease, residual or recurrence, was present after the resection of the large-sized cyst, and the small-sized cyst remained unchanged in size.
PMCID: PMC4222059  PMID: 24289795
Esophageal duplication cyst; Ectopic gastric mucosa; Mediastinal cyst; ‘Wait-and-see’ policy
9.  Rare adult gastric duplication cyst mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor 
Gastric duplication cyst is a very rare gastrointestinal tract malformation that accounts for 2%-4% of alimentary tract duplications. Most cases are diagnosed within the first year of life, following presentation of abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss and clinical discovery of an abdominal palpable mass. This case report describes a very uncommon symptomatic gastric duplication cyst diagnosed for the first time in adulthood. Only a few other case reports of similar condition exist, and all were identified by endosonography. The current case involves a 52-year-old male who presented with a one-month history of progressive iron deficiency anemia without overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed a 2.0 cm pinkish subepithelial lesion, suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and source of gastrointestinal bleeding. The endosonography showed inhomogeneous hypoechoic lesions with focal anechoic areas arising from a second and third layer of the gastric wall. Differential diagnoses of GIST, neuroendocrine tumor, or pancreatic heterotopia were made. The lesion was removed using an endoscopic submucosal resection technique. Histopathology revealed an erosive gastric mass composed of a complex structure of dilated gastric glands surrounded by fibro-muscular tissue, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle bundles, which led to the diagnosis of gastric duplication.
PMCID: PMC3857471  PMID: 24363539
Gastric duplication cyst; Gastrointestinal bleeding; Endoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Differential diagnosis; Adult
10.  Laparoscopy-Assisted Billroth I Gastrectomy for Ectopic Pancreas in the Prepyloric Region 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(3):712-719.
Ectopic pancreatic tissue is an uncommon developmental anomaly. The condition mostly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is usually asymptomatic. It rarely causes symptoms of inflammation, bleeding and perforation, and has potential for malignant change. Though it is an uncommon condition, cases of ectopic pancreas have been reported worldwide. Preoperative diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is challenging because of its nonspecific symptoms and signs. Owing to the revolution of minimally invasive surgery, submucosal tumors of the stomach can be resected by laparoscopic techniques. We have earlier reported on a case of ectopic pancreas in the stomach treated by robotics-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection. Herein, we report a case of ectopic pancreas in the prepyloric region of the stomach. A 44-year-old female presented with a two-week history of epigastralgia with radiation to the back. She received endoscopy check-up which disclosed a mass in the stomach. By endoscopic findings, a submucosal lesion in the prepyloric region with umbilical folding on the mucosa was identified. The umbilical folding on the mucosa hint the orifice of the duct of ectopic pancreas into the gastric mucosa suggestive of ectopic pancreas. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed a 5 cm cystic mass with heterogeneous content. To sum it up, the patient was diagnosed as ectopic pancreas in the stomach. She underwent laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis (excision of the antrum and prepyloric region with reconstruction of gastrointestinal continuity by gastroduodenostomy) and had an uneventful hospitalization course. The histopathology of the resected tumor demonstrated ectopic pancreatic tissue in the gastric wall. To the best of our knowledge, excision of gastric ectopic pancreas using laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis has never been reported in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3506063  PMID: 23185154
Laparoscopy-assisted Billroth I gastrectomy; Ectopic pancreas; Prepyloric region
11.  Thoracoscopic resection of thoracic esophageal duplication cyst containing ectopic pancreatic tissue in adult 
Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly. They can be associated with other congenital anomalies, such as spinal abnormalities, and tracheoesophageal fistulas. In adults, almost of the patients with esophageal duplication cyst is asymptomatic and accidentally diagnosed by chest X-ray or computed tomography. However, cysts may become symptomatic owing to complications such as esophageal stenosis, respiratory system compression, rupture, infarction, or malignancy. Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment even in patients with asymptmatic cysts. Traditional approach for resection is via thoracotomy. But, the thoracoscopic approach makes more indicate for mediastinal diseases, because of minimally invasive for patients. We describe a case with esophageal duplication cyst, which contained the ectopic pancreatic tissue in the solid portion, resected under the thoracoscopic approach in adult.
PMCID: PMC3189109  PMID: 21943206
esophageal duplication cyst; thoracoscopic surgery; ectopic pancreas
12.  Distribution and photodynamic effect of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine in the pancreas and adjacent tissues in the Syrian golden hamster. 
British Journal of Cancer  1991;64(6):1108-1115.
Necrosis of small volumes of tumour tissue with photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be achieved relatively easily. For this to be clinically relevant, it is essential to know what the same treatment parameters do to adjacent normal tissues into which the tumour has spread. For pancreatic cancers, local spread to vital structures is common. We have studied chemical extraction, microscopic fluorescence kinetics and photodynamic effects of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) in normal pancreas and adjacent tissues in hamsters. Chemical extraction exhibited a peak duodenal concentration of AlS2Pc 48 h after sensitisation, with levels much higher than in stomach and pancreas. With microscopic fluorescence photometry highest levels were seen in duodenal submucosa and bile duct walls 48 h after photosensitisation. Pancreatic ducts, duodenal mucosa and gastric mucosa and submucosa exhibited intermediate fluorescence with relatively weak fluorescence in pancreatic acinar tissue and the muscle layer of the stomach. As expected, on the basis of fluorescence intensity and chemical extraction studies, the duodenal and bile duct wall were the most vulnerable tissues to photodynamic therapy. When the dose of 5 mumol kg-1 of sensitiser was used, duodenal perforations, gastric ulcers and transudation of bile from the bile duct occurred. However, the lesions in the stomach and bile duct healed without perforation or obstruction, so only the duodenum was at risk of serious, irreversible damage. Using a lower dose of photosensitiser markedly reduced damage.
PMCID: PMC1977869  PMID: 1764374
13.  Duodenal Duplicated Cyst Manifested by Acute Pancreatitis and Obstructive Jaundice in an Elderly Man 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;19(4):604-607.
A duodenal duplication cyst is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Duodenal duplication cysts generally appear on the first or second portion of the duodenum and may cause duodenal obstruction, hemorrhage or pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of a duodenal duplication cyst on the second and third portion of the duodenum in an old aged man with obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis, which was treated successfully by a surgical excision.
PMCID: PMC2816899  PMID: 15308856
Abnormalities; Duplication Cyst; Duodenum; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing; Jaundice, Obstructive
14.  Barrett’s esophagus and animal models 
Concise summaries
Significant progress has been made in the last few decades using animal models to recreate the esophagitis–metaplasia–carcinoma sequence similar to that seen in human Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and EAC. More recent works focus on molecular pathways associated with intestinal metaplasia and carcinogenesis, as well as similarities between genetic mutations occurring in humans and animal models, mouse, rat, pig, rabbit, guinea pig, dog, cat, ferret, and possum.
Despite the lack of a perfect model, there is still significant potential in using these models to clarify the contribution of different types of reflux (gastric, biliary, and pancreatic) to esophageal adenocarcinoma and to determine how the different types of refluxate interact.
Refluxed duodenal contents cause gastric and esophageal carcinoma in rats without exposure to carcinogens, and several rat duodenal contents reflux models have been developed. BE in the animal models has well-developed goblet cells positive forMUC2, gastric pyloric-type mucins positive for MUC6, and sometimes intermingled with gastric foveolar-type mucins positive for MUC5AC.
A gut regenerative cell lineage, characterized by pyloric–foveolar metaplasia followed by the appearance of goblet cells, occurs in the regenerative process in response to chronic inflammation.
High animal-fat dietary intake causes severe obesity, resulting in the development of increased abdominal pressure and increased refluxate, particularly of the duodenal contents. The N-nitroso bile acid conjugates, which have mutagenecity, play an important role in Barrett’s carcinogenesis, and are stabilized by gastric acid.
Experiments have been made in a rodent duodeno-esophageal reflux model using thioproline or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor to prevent the inflammation–metaplasia– adenocarcinoma sequence. Thioproline is one of the nitrite scavengers, which reduce the production of carcinogenic nitroso-compounds. Celecoxib could postpone the sequence itself, whereas thioproline could only prevent the evolution of Barrett’s esophagus to cancer.
The Levrat’s surgical model of esophago-duodenal anatomosis in rats has been shown to induce gastroduodenojejunal reflux. This in vivo model reproduces the sequence of histologic and molecular events that lead to the development of BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans and, as such, provides a realistic and translatable model for development of therapeutics for EAC.
A pilot study using proteomics to evaluate for differentially expressed markers in the progression from metaplasia to dysplasia and ultimately adenocarcinoma in human tissues has been conducted.
Differential expression of cytokeratin 20 in specimens from human patients and the Levrat’s model substantiated the hypothesis that the animal model is representative of human cancer and, hence, further supporting the basis for its utilization.
Furthermore, if this data is confirmed, the Levrat’s approach may serve as a model for preclinical drug development. Up to ten potential novel target regimens identified and selected through the proteomics screen will be tested in a multi-arm study in rats.
PMCID: PMC4091915  PMID: 21950831
esophageal neoplasm; Barrett’s esophagus; duodenogastric reflux; bile reflux; carcinoma; histogenesis; gut regenerative cell lineage; pyloric–foveolar metaplasia; fat intake; DNA adducts; N-nitroso bile acids; chemoprevention; duodenoesophageal reflux; thioproline; cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor
15.  Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas 
Clinical Endoscopy  2015;48(1):31-38.
Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery.
PMCID: PMC4323429
Pancreatic cyst; Neoplastic cyst; Nonneoplastic cyst
Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be formed in no other way than by the activity of the intestinal mucosa and the growth of the intestinal bacteria. This material after dilution, autolysis, sterilization, and filtration produces a characteristic effect when introduced intravenously. When in toxic doses it causes a profound drop in blood pressure, general collapse, drop in temperature, salivation, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea, which is often blood-stained. Splanchnic congestion is the conspicuous feature at autopsy and shows especially in the villi of the duodenal and jejunal mucosæ. Adrenalin, during this period of low blood pressure and splanchnic congestion, will cause the usual reaction when given intravenously, but applied locally or given intravenously it causes no bleaching of the engorged intestinal mucosa. Secretin is not found in the duodenal loop fluid, and the loop material does not influence the pancreatic secretion. Intraportal injection of the toxic material gives a reaction similar to intravenous injection. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections produce a relatively slow reaction which closely resembles the picture seen in the closed duodenal loop dog. In both cases there is a relatively slow absorption, but the splanchnic congestion and other findings, though less intense, are present in both groups. There seems, therefore, to be no escape from the conclusion that a poisonous substance is formed in this closed duodenal loop which is absorbed from it and causes intoxication and death. Injection of this toxic substance into a normal dog gives intoxication and a reaction more intense but similar to that developing in a closed-loop dog.
PMCID: PMC2125034  PMID: 19867644
17.  Mutant GNAS detected in duodenal collections of secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice indicates the presence or emergence of pancreatic cysts 
Gut  2012;62(7):1024-1033.
Pancreatic cysts are commonly detected in patients undergoing pancreatic imaging. Better approaches are needed to characterize these lesions. In this study we evaluated the utility of detecting mutant DNA in secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice.
Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice was collected from the duodenum of 291 subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening trials at 5 US academic medical centers. The study population included subjects with a familial predisposition to pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreatic screening, and disease controls with normal pancreata, chronic pancreatitis, sporadic IPMN, or other neoplasms. Somatic GNAS mutations (reported prevalence; ~66% of IPMNs) were measured using high-resolution digital melt-curve analysis and pyrosequencing.
GNAS mutations were detected in secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice samples of 50 of 78 familial and sporadic cases with IPMN(s) (64.1%), 15 of 33 (45.5%) with only diminutive cysts (<5mm), but none of 57 disease controls. GNAS mutations were also detected in 5 of 123 screened subjects without a pancreatic cyst. Among 97 subjects who had serial pancreatic evaluations, GNAS mutations detected in baseline juice samples predicted subsequent emergence or increasing size of pancreatic cysts.
Duodenal collections of secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice from patients with IPMNs have a similar prevalence of mutant GNAS to primary IPMNs, indicating these samples are an excellent source of mutant DNA from the pancreas. The detection of GNAS mutations before an IPMN is visible suggests that pancreatic juice analysis has potential to help in the risk stratification and surveillance of patients undergoing pancreatic screening.
PMCID: PMC3893110  PMID: 22859495
Pancreatic cancer; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; pancreatic cyst; pancreatic juice; GNAS
18.  An unusual presentation of a rectal duplication cyst 
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental anomalies that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal duplication cysts account for approximately 4% of all duplication cysts. They usually present in childhood with symptoms of mass effect, local infection or more rarely with rectal bleeding from ectopic gastric mucosa.
A 26 year old male presented with a history of bright red blood per rectum. On examination a mucosal defect with an associated cavity adjacent to the rectum was identified. This was confirmed with rigid proctoscopy and CT scan imaging. A complete transanal excision was performed.
Rectal duplication cysts are more common in pediatric patients. They more frequently present with symptoms of mass effect or local infection than with rectal bleeding. In adult patients they are a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Definitive treatment is with surgical excision. A transanal, transcoccygeal, posterior sagittal or a combined abdominoperineal approach may be used depending on anatomic characteristics of the duplication cyst.
We present a rare case of a rectal duplication cyst presenting in adulthood with rectal bleeding, managed with transanal excision.
PMCID: PMC3356524  PMID: 22554938
Rectal duplication cyst; Adult; Rectal bleeding
19.  Acute Ectopic Pancreatitis Occurring after Endoscopic Biopsy in a Gastric Ectopic Pancreas 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(5):455-459.
Ectopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly and the most common type of ectopic tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. Most patients with an ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic and rarely have complications. Ectopic pancreatitis after an endoscopic biopsy has not been reported. We report a patient who developed acute ectopic pancreatitis in the stomach after an endoscopic biopsy. A 71-year-old male patient presented with a subepithelial tumor (SET) in the stomach and had no symptoms. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a 30-mm hypoechoic mural mass, lobulated margins, and anechoic duct-like lesions. To obtain proper tissue specimen, endoscopic biopsy was performed through the opening on the surface of the mass. The pathologic results confirmed an ectopic pancreas. One day after the endoscopic biopsy, he developed persistent epigastric pain. His serum amylase and lipase elevated. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed swelling of the SET and diffuse edema of the gastric wall. His condition was diagnosed as acute ectopic pancreatitis occurring after endoscopic biopsy.
PMCID: PMC4198565  PMID: 25325008
Pancreatitis; Ectopic pancreas; Stomach
20.  Distribution and release of epidermal growth factor in man. 
Gut  1989;30(9):1194-1200.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is localised in man to salivary and Brunner's glands. It is present in large concentrations in saliva and duodenal contents but the mechanisms of its release have been little studied. This study carried out on four groups of healthy subjects was designed to determine the distribution and the release of immunoreactive EGF (IR-EGF) in salivary, gastric, duodenal, and pancreatic secretions. Under basal conditions, the concentrations of IR-EGF in salivary, gastric, duodenal and pancreatic secretions were; 2.7 (0.4), 0.42 (0.12), 21 (5) and 8.5 (1.2) ng/ml, respectively. Chewing of Parafilm* significantly increased salivary but not gastric or duodenal EGF output while atropinisation led to the reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output without affecting the increment in EGF release induced by chewing. Cigarette smoking caused a marked reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output. Infusion of pentagastrin increased salivary and duodenal EGF output and this was blocked by the addition of somatostatin. Injection of secretin lead to an increase in pancreatic output of EGF. We conclude that in man the major sources of EGF are salivary glands, duodenum, and pancreas and that the release of EGF remains under neurohormonal control.
PMCID: PMC1434230  PMID: 2806986
21.  Dual-phase CT findings of groove pancreatitis☆ 
European journal of radiology  2014;83(8):1337-1343.
Groove pancreatitis is a rare focal form of chronic pancreatitis that occurs in the pancreaticoduodenal groove between the major and minor papillae, duodenum and pancreatic head. Radiologic appearance and clinical presentation can result in suspicion of malignancy rendering pancreaticoduodenectomy inevitable. This study reports dual phase CT findings in a series of 12 patients with pathology proven groove pancreatitis.
Materials and methods
Retrospective review of preoperative CT findings in 12 patients with histologically proven groove pancreatitis after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Size, location, attenuation, presence of mass or cystic components in the pancreas, groove and duodenum, calcifications, duodenal stenosis and ductal changes were recorded. Clinical data, laboratory values, endoscopic ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were collected.
Soft tissue thickening in the groove was seen in all patients. Pancreatic head, groove and duodenum were all involved in 75% patients. A discrete lesion in the pancreatic head was seen in half of the patients, most of which appeared hypodense on both arterial and venous phases. Cystic changes in pancreatic head were seen in 75% patients. Duodenal involvement was seen in 92% patients including wall thickening and cyst formation. The main pancreatic duct was dilated in 7 patients, with an abrupt cut off in 3 and a smooth tapering stricture in 4. Five patients had evidence of chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcifications.
Presence of mass or soft tissue thickening in the groove with cystic duodenal thickening is highly suggestive of groove pancreatitis. Recognizing common radiological features may help in diagnosis and reduce suspicion of malignancy.
PMCID: PMC4316673  PMID: 24935140
Pancreatitis; Chronic pancreatitis; Multidetector computed tomography; Duodenal disease
22.  Risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy 
AIM: To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to evaluate whether duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy could reduce the risk of pancreatic leakage.
METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent PD at our hospital between January 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The primary diseases of the patients included pancreas cancer, ampullary cancer, bile duct cancer, islet cell cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystadenoma, and gastric cancer. Standard PD was performed for 25 cases, PD with extended lymphadenectomy for 27 cases, pylorus-preserving PD for 10 cases. A duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy was performed for patients with a hard pancreas and a dilated pancreatic duct, and a traditional end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy for patients with a soft pancreas and a non-dilated duct. Patients were divided into two groups according to the incidence of postoperative pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage: 10 cases with leakage and 52 cases without leakage. Seven preoperative and six intraoperative risk factors with the potential to affect the incidence of pancreatic leakage were analyzed with SPSS10.0 software. Logistic regression was then used to determine the effect of multiple factors on pancreatic leakage.
RESULTS: Of the 62 patients, 10 (16.13%) were identified as having pancreatic leakage after operation. Other major postoperative complications included delayed gastric emptying (eight patients), abdominal bleeding (four patients), abdominal abscess (three patients) and wound infection (two patients). The overall surgical morbidity was 43.5% (27/62). The hospital mortality in this series was 4.84% (3/62), and the mortality associated with pancreatic fistula was 10% (1/10). Sixteen cases underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 case (1/16, 6.25%) devel-oped postoperative pancreatic leakage, 46 cases underwent invagination pancreaticojejunostomy and 9 cases (9/46, 19.6%) developed postoperative pancreatic leakage. General risk factors including patient age, gender, history of jaundice, preoperative nutrition, pathological diagnosis and the length of postoperative stay were similar in the two groups. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of pancreatic leakage between the patients who received the prophylactic use of octreotide after surgery and the patients who did not undergo somatostatin therapy. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that none of the above factors seemed to be associated with pancreatic fistula. Two intraoperative risk factors, pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas, were found to be significantly associated with pancreatic leakage. The incidence of pancreatic leakage was 4.88% in patients with a pancreatic duct size greater than or equal to 3 mm and was 38.1% in those with ducts smaller than 3 mm (P = 0.002). The pancreatic leakage rate was 2.94% in patients with a hard pancreas and was 32.1% in those with a soft pancreas (P = 0.004). Operative time, blood loss and type of resection were similar in the two patient groups. The incidence of pancreatic leakage was 6.25% (1/16) in patients with duct-to-mucosa anastomosis, and was 19.6% (9/46) in those with traditional invagination anastomosis. Although the difference of pancreatic leakage between the two groups was obvious, no statistical signific-ance was found. This may be due to the small number of patients with duct-to-mucosa anastomosis. By further analyzing with multivariate logistic regression, both pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas were demonstrated to be independent risk factors (P = 0.007 and 0.017, OR = 11.87 and 15.45). Although anastomotic technique was not a significant factor, pancreatic leakage rate was much less in cases that underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy.
CONCLUSION: Pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas are risk factors influencing pancreatic leakage after PD. Duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy, as a safe and useful anastomotic technique, can reduce pancreatic leakage rate after PD.
PMCID: PMC4305634  PMID: 15832417
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreatic leakage
23.  Malignant transformation of ectopic pancreatic cells in the duodenal wall 
Ectopic pancreas (EP) is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. This condition is usually asymptomatic and rarely complicated by pancreatitis and malignant transformation. A few cases of neoplastic phenomena that developed from EP into the duodenal wall are described in the literature. Herein we report a case of gastric outlet obstruction due to adenocarcinoma arising from EP of the duodenal wall. The patient underwent a Whipple’s procedure and had an uneventful post-operative recovery. Traditional imaging studies are often inconclusive in the definitive diagnosis, whilst endoscopic ultrasonography and guided biopsy may aid accurate pre-operative diagnosis. Diagnostic uncertainty warrants surgical exploration and if necessary extended resection is indicated.
PMCID: PMC2839185  PMID: 20222176
Ectopic pancreas; Duodenum; Gastrointestinal obstruction; Neoplasm; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
24.  A rare cause of proximal intestinal obstruction in adults - annular pancreas: a case report 
Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of ectopic pancreatic tissue surrounding the descending part of the duodenum. It is one of the few congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract which can produce symptoms late in life. In adults, the factors initiating symptoms are recurrent pancreatitis, duodenal stenosis at the site of the annulus, or duodenal or gastric ulceration. We report a new case involving a 24-year-old woman hospitalised for epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. Radiological examination was consisted with an annular pancreas. At operation a complete obstruction of the second part of the duodenum was found, caused by an annular pancreas, no other congenital anomaly of the intra-abdominal organs was noted. A gastroenterostomy was performed.
PMCID: PMC3290886  PMID: 22384302
Annular pancreas; duodenal stenosis; bypass
25.  Adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst with invasion to the stomach: a case report with literature review 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(4):428-431.
This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered.
PMCID: PMC1770274  PMID: 15047751
gastric duplication cyst; adenocarcinoma; gastrointestinal duplication

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