Inflammatory fibroid polyps (Vanek's tumor) are rare benign localized lesions originating in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusceptions due to inflammatory fibroid polyps are uncommon; moreover, ileo-ileal intussusception with small bowel necrosis and perforation has rarely been reported. We report a 56-year-old woman who was admitted two days after complaints of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal examination revealed distension, signs of gastrointestinal perforation and clanging intestinal sounds. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy which found a 17-cm invaginated mid-ileal segment with necrosis, perforation and fecal peritonitis. The ileal segment was resected and single-layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathological analysis showed an ulcerative lesion with variable cellularity, formed by spindle cells with small number of mitosis and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate comprising mainly eosinophils. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ileal Vanek's tumor. Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are seen very rarely in adults, they are among the probable diagnoses that should be considered in obstructive tumors of the small bowel causing intussusception with intestinal necrosis and perforation.
Intestinal polyps; Polyps; Ileal neoplasm; Intussusception; Intestinal obstruction; Intestinal perforation; Immunohistochemistry
Intussusception involving heterotopic pancreatic tissue is a rare condition where a portion of the bowel telescopes into an adjacent segment with intraluminal pancreatic tissue as the lead point. Cases of heterotopic pancreas are most often described in the upper intestinal tract, particularly the stomach.
We present the case of a five-month-old boy of Caucasian ethnicity suffering acute abdominal pain and vomiting with an abdominal mass in the upper right quadrant. Work-up including ultrasound scan confirmed the intussusception. Repeated attempts at radiological reduction and two laparoscopic procedures were performed within 24 hours, which eventually led to the diagnosis of a triple intussusception.
To our knowledge, such a case of triple intussusception involving isolated heterotopic pancreatic tissue is previously unreported.
Intussusception is one of the less common causes of intestinal obstruction among adults. It is usually covert (concealed) in its clinical presentation. The ileo-colic type with accompanying anal protrusion is extremely rare. The case at hand is that of both an ileo-colic intussusception with anal protrusion, in the presence of a persistence of both the ascending and descending mesocolons; a case possibly yet to be documented in literature.
A 32 year-old African-Ugandan woman presented with complaints of a mass protruding per anus for 2 weeks. It was reducible and associated with colicky abdominal pain, loose stools, and bloody-mucoid discharge per anus. She had previously had a one and a half month’s history of abdominal pain; periodically continuous, while other times colicky in character. Examination and investigations revealed an intussusception with a partial intestinal obstruction. At laparotomy she was found to have an ileo-colic intussusception with a freely mobile colon throughout its length. There were persistent ascending and descending mesocolons, and absent hepatocolic and splenocolic ligaments. The intussusceptum was ‘milked’ but not completely reducible. A right hemicolectomy was done, with ileo-transverse colonic anastomosis. Histopathological examination revealed no preexisting pathologic lesion as a lead point.
The persistence of the ascending and descending mesocolons (azygosis) best explains the anal protrusion of an ileo-colic intussusception with partial obstruction. In this case zygosis (normal retroperitoneal ascending and descending colonic positioning) failed embryologically. This experience is particularly beneficial to general surgeons, radiologists, gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons and pathologists.
Ileo-colic intussusception; Anal protrusion; Persistent mesocolon; Azygosis; Zygosis
Intussusception is a rare condition in the adult population. However, in contrast to its presentation in children, an identifiable etiology is found in the majority of cases. Clinical manifestations of adult intussusception are non-specific and patients may present with acute, intermittent or chronic symptoms, predominantly those of intestinal obstruction. A 27-year-old male patient with recurrent abdominal pain secondary to intussusception is herein reported. The clinical presentation and ultrasonographic findings led to the diagnosis. At laparotomy, an ileal hamartoma was found as the lead point of the intussusception. Surgical management and histopathologic studies are described. A recurrent intestinal obstruction and classic ultrasound findings may lead to the diagnosis of intussusception but surgical exploration remains essential. The principle of resection without reduction is well established.
Adult intussusception; Ileum hamartoma; Intestinal obstruction
Intussusceptions in adults is rare. Gastrointestinal lipomas are rare benign tumors and intussusceptions due to a gastrointestinal lipoma constitutes an infrequent clinical entity. Lipoma may develop as a benign tumor in all organs and rarely in large or small intestine. The present report describes a case of jejunojejunal intussusceptions in an adult with a history of colicky upper abdominal pain. Ileo-ileal invagination was diagnosed by computed tomography scan. Exploratory laparotomy revealed jejunojejunal intussusceptions secondary to a lipoma which was successfully treated with segmental intestinal resection. A review of the literature is also performed regarding this rare association revealing the diagnostic and therapeutic debates that exist.
L’invagination chez les adultes est rare. Les lipomes gastro-intestinaux sont de rares tumeurs bénignes et l’invagination intestinale due à un lipome gastro-intestinal constitue une entité clinique trés rare. Le lipome peut se développer comme une tumeur bénigne dans tous les organes et rarement dans l’intestin grêle ou le colon. Le présent rapport décrit un cas d’invagination jéjunojéjunale chez un adulte avec une histoire de douleurs abdominales. Iléo-iléale invagination a été diagnostiquée par tomodensitométrie. Une laparotomie exploratrice a révélé l’existence d’une invagination jéjunojéjunale secondaire à un lipome qui a été traitée avec succès par une résection intestinale segmentaire. Une revue de la littérature est également effectuée au sujet de cette association rare révélant les débats diagnostiques et thérapeutiques qui existent.
Intussusceptions; Jéjunal lipoma; Intestinal tumor; Surgery
Lipoma and angiolipoma are common benign neoplasms that occur in the subcutaneous tissue and rarely in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors are usually asymptomatic but may present with abdominal pain, bleeding and obstruction. We present a 53-years-old woman with abdominal discomfort for several weeks accompanied with bloody diarrhea and recurrent vomiting. Ileo-ileal invagination was diagnosed by computed tomography scan. Laparotomy revealed five intraluminal masses that caused intussusception. Histopathological study showed that one was angiolipoma and other lesions were lipoma. We have described some aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this rare cause of intestinal intussusception.
Peutz-Jeghers is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomatous polyps and discoloration of mucosal membranes. The polyps can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract and can grow large enough to cause bowel obstructions.
A 16-year-old male presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of an acute bowel obstruction. He had 2 days of abdominal pain, obstipation, and vomiting. He had a previous history of a colonoscopy with polypectomy at age 4, and hyperpigmentation of his mucous membranes.
Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed an intussusception of the small intestine. An exploratory laparoscopy found an intussusception of the mid jejunum. A laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection was performed. Pathology showed a 5-cm polyp that acted as a lead point for the intussusception. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy revealed 5 more polyps in the stomach and colon that were removed.
Small bowel obstructions can be managed successfully with minimally invasive approaches. The treatment of obstruction in these patients is to remove the offending hamartomatous polyp(s). The rest of the intestine needs to be examined and those polyps found should be removed. This can be done intraoperatively with laparoscopic-assisted enteroscopy and colonoscopy.
Peutz-Jeghers; Intussusception; Laparoscopic; Hamartomatous; Polyp
This report describes an acute presentation of obstructive jaundice, with a clinical picture of cholecystitis. A primary carcinoid tumour in the terminal ileum with hepatic secondaries was found to be the cause. Additionally, in the terminal ileum was a closely associated lipoma leading to an ileo-caecal intussusception. There are few such cases in the literature, particularly in the absence of any changes in bowel habit or lower abdominal pain. The majority of cases of intussusception in clinical practice occur in the paediatric population. Of the small numbers (<5%) that occur in adulthood, the underlying aetiology is most commonly a primary adenocarcinoma, with a far smaller number being attributable to lipoma, lymphoma and polyps.
Intussusception is a condition found primarily in the pediatric population. In the adult population, however, intussusception is usually due to a pathological process, with a higher risk of bowel obstruction, vascular compromise, inflammatory changes, ischemia, and necrosis. Radiographic and sonographic evidence can aid in the diagnosis. Surgical intervention involving resection of affected bowel is the standard of care in adult cases of intussusception.
We present the case of a 21-year-old female who presented to the Emergency Department with diffuse cramping abdominal pain and distention. Workup revealed ileocecal intussusception, with a prior appendectomy scar serving as the lead point discovered during exploratory laparotomy. We also present the case of a 66-year-old male, who presented with one week of intermittent lower abdominal pain associated with several episodes of nausea and vomiting. Workup revealed ileocolic intussusception secondary to adenocarcinoma of the right colon, confirmed upon exploratory laparotomy with subsequent right hemicolectomy.
In the adult population, intussusception is usually caused by a lead point, with subsequent telescoping of one part of the bowel into an adjacent segment. While intussusception can occur in any part of the bowel, it usually occurs between a freely moving segment and either a retroperitoneal or an adhesion-fixed segment. The etiology may be associated with pathological processes such as carcinoma or iatrogenic causes, such as scars or adhesions from prior surgeries. The cases presented here demonstrate important etiologies of abdominal pain in adult patients. Along with gynecological etiologies of lower quadrant abdominal pain in female patients, it is important for the emergency physician to expand the differential diagnosis to include other causes, such as intussusceptions, especially given the symptoms that could be associated with bowel obstruction.
AIM: To give an overview of the literature on intussusception due to inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP).
METHODS: We present a new case of ileal intussusception due to IFP and a literature review of studies published in English language on intussusception due to IFP, accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. For the search, the keywords used were: intussusception, IFP, intussusception and IFP, intussusception due to IFP, and IFP presenting as intussusception. The search covered all articles from 1976 to November 2011.
RESULTS: We present a 38-year-old woman who was admitted 10 d after experiencing abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea. Ultrasonography demonstrated small bowel intussusception. An ileal intussusception due to a mass lesion 50 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction was found during laparotomy. Partial ileal resection and anastomosis were performed. A diagnosis of ileal IFP was made based on the immunohistochemical findings. In addition, a total of 56 reports concerning 85 cases of intussusception due to IFP meeting the aforementioned criteria was included in the literature review. The patients were aged 4 to 81 years (mean, 49 ± 16.2 years); 44 were women (mean, 51.8 ± 14.3 years) and 41 were men (mean, 46 ± 17.5 years). According to the location of the IFP, ileal intussusception was found in 63 patients, while 17 had jejunal, three had colonic, and two had ileojejunal intussusception.
CONCLUSION: Although IFPs are rare and benign, surgery is the only solution in case of intestinal obstruction. Differential diagnosis should be made via immunohistochemical examination.
Intussusception; Inflammatory fibroid polyp; Vanek’s tumor; Immunohistochemical stain
Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for only 5% of all intussusceptions and causes approximately 1% of all adult intestinal obstructions. Unlike paediatric intussusceptions which are usually idiopathic, there is usually a lead point pathology which might be malignant in up to 50% cases. We present an unusual case of adult intussusception which was not diagnosed on any investigation including computerized tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was a case of ileo-ileo-cecal intussusception caused by a large lipoma 38 mm × 43 mm × 61 mm. It was treated by emergency laparotomy for acute intestinal obstruction. A conservative resection with ileostomy was performed with good postoperative recovery.
Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and a palpable tender mass. Small bowel intussusceptions are much less common, with jejuno-ileal and duodeno-jejunal intussusceptions being the rarest types of all. Multiple simultaneous intussusception is a peculiar variety of intussusception. The authors report the simultaneous occurrence of jejuno-jejunal and ileo-ileal intussusception in a patient. As this is an extremely uncommon entity, it is being reported with a brief review of the relevant literature.
Intussusception is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in adults and poses diagnostic challenges for emergency physicians, due to its varied presenting symptoms and time course. Diagnosis is thus often delayed and results in surgical intervention due to the development of bowel ischaemia. We report on a young patient who presented with an ileo-ileal intussusception in whom there were no underlying lesions identified as a causal factor.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenchymal tumors occurring anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract and are believed to originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal. They commonly arise in the stomach or small intestine. The usual growth pattern is exophytic invading adjacent organs or perforation into the peritoneal cavity which may result in bleeding or obstructive symptoms. Intussusception and obstruction is a very uncommon presentation of these lesions because of their tendency to grow in an extraluminal fashion. We report an unusual case of 59 yrs old man presenting with acute small bowel obstruction, which on exploration was found to be due to ileo-ileal intussusception and the lead point of intussusception was a tumor, which was histologically diagnosed as GIST
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Ileo-ileal intussusception; Acute small bowel obstruction
Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare benign tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with the gastric antrum being the most common site, followed by the ileum. Histogenesis is still unknown and controversial. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are one of the rare benign conditions leading to intestinal obstruction in adults.
A 54-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute abdomen pain and a two month history of intermittent cramping and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography imaging demonstrated a partial intestinal obstruction in the location of the terminal ileum. An ileo-ileal intussusception due to a mass lesion 15 cm proximal to the caecum was found on exploratory laparotomy. Intussusception was spontaneously reduced during exploration and a wedge resection was performed to the affected bowel segment. Histopathologic examination showed the mass to be an inflammatory fibroid polyp.
Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare and benign, in the case of intestinal obstruction the only solution is a surgical approach.
This 67-year-old woman, with numerous previous abdominal operations, presented to her general practitioner 3 years ago with generalised abdominal pain and diarrhoea. With unremarkable haematology tests and a CT scan at that time she was given the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. During the next 3 years her symptoms continued intermittently and now associated with vomiting and weight loss. This time both a barium follow-through followed by a CT scan demonstrated a small bowel intussusception. A laparotomy was done but surprisingly no intussusception was found, only a single adhesional band which was divided. She was discharged 5-days postoperative but re-admitted 3 days later with abdominal discomfort, bloating and vomiting. A repeat CT scan again showed the presence of a small bowel intussusception and a second laparotomy was performed, this time demonstrating a jejuno-ileal intussusception which was reduced and resected with primary anastomosis. Her postoperative course was without incidents.
Intussusception is defined as the telescoping of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract (intussusceptum) into an immediately adjacent distal bowel (intussuscipiens). Intussusception is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Unlike in children, a lead point is present in 90% of adult cases. The most common causes of small bowel intussusception are benign, usually hamartomas, lipomas, inflammatory polyps, adenomas and leiomyomas, in contrast to the large intestine where malignant tumors, usually adenocarcinomas, are more common. The clinical presentation of adult intussusception is non-specific with variable manifestations, predominantly those of intestinal obstruction, often making the diagnosis a challenge. The onset of symptoms may be acute, intermittent or chronic. We present a rare case of an ileal fibroma presenting with intussusception. A 43-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a history of recurrent abdominal pain. The clinical presentation and CT scan findings led to the diagnosis of ileoileal intussusception. Subsequently she underwent laparotomy which revealed an ileal fibroma as the lead point of the intussusception. Surgical exploration remains essential for diagnosis and treatment since in the majority of cases a pathologic lead point is identified. Ileal fibroma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of the small bowel and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for small bowel intussusception.
Ileoileal intussusception; Ileal fibroma; Intussusception; Ileoileal; Fibroma
Adult intussusception caused by an inverted Meckel diverticulum is rare. We report a 55-year-old Japanese man with intussusception. He was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. The abdomen was hard with tenderness and muscle guarding. Computed tomography scanning demonstrated a typical inhomogeneous target-shaped mass in the right abdomen. We diagnosed intussusception and performed emergency surgery. At laparotomy, ileocolic intussusception was observed and the ileocecal segment was resected. The surgical specimen comprised an 84 cm segment of resected ileocecum with an elongated polypoid lesion measuring 11 × 2 cm within the ileal lumen. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the polypoid lesion was an inverted Meckel diverticulum. Postoperatively, the patient made an uneventful recovery.
Meckel diverticulum; Intussusception; Inverted diverticulum
We present a rare case of adult intussusception due to cecal lymphangioma. A 30-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and a palpatable mass on the right lower quadrant. Preoperative radiologic studies by ultrasound and computed tomography showed ileocolic intussusception with a multiseptated cystic tumor as a leading point on the cecum. An ileocecectomy was performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathology showed a cecal lymphangioma. Although endoscopic polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection is recommended for pedunculated or semi-pedunculated colonic lymphangiomas less than 2 cm in size, it is proper to treat large or symptomatic colonic lymphangiomas with limited a bowel resection or a tumor resection.
Intussusception; Cecal lymphangioma; Colon lymphangioma
Intussusception in adults accounts for less than 5% of all intussusceptions. It occurs when a segment of intestine invaginates into itself.
PRESENTATION OF A CASE
We report a case of ileocolic intussusception in an adult caused by a giant ileal lipoma.
Intussusceptions can be classified as ileocolic, ileocecal, colo-colic and ileo-ileal. Most are due to neoplasms (60% malign and 24–40% benign). In the colon, the possibility of malignancy is higher than in small intestine.
Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal intestinal tumors, accounting for less than 5% of all gastrointestinal tumors. They are more frequent in colon than small intestine. Small lipomas (less than 2 cm) are usually asymptomatic. Larger lesions may produce symptoms such as abdominal pain, obstruction or intussusception. Lipomas can be diagnosed with endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, barium enemas, CT and US.
Intussusceptions in adults is a rare condition, most of them are caused by a malign neoplasms followed by benign neoplasms. US and CT are useful for diagnosis. Surgery is mandatory.
Intussusception; Lipoma; Ileum; Ileocolic; Invagination
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation and gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamartomatous polyps and an increased risk of malignancy. In addition to polyposis, previous studies have reported increased risk of GI and extraGI malignancies in PJS patients, compared with that of the general population. The most common extraintestinal malignancies reported in previous studies are pancreatic, breast, ovarian and testicular cancers.We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with generalized weakness, recurrent sharp abdominal pain and melena, had exploratory laparotomy and ileal resection for ileo-ileal intussusception. Pigmentation of the buccal mucosa was noted. An abdominal computed tomography scan (CT) revealed multiple polyps in small bowel loops. Gastroscopy revealed multiple dimunitive polyps in stomach and pedunculated polyp in duodenum. Colonoscopy revealed multiple colonic polyps. Pathological examination of the polyps confirmed hamartomas with smooth muscle arborization, compatible with Peutz-Jeghers polyps. CT scan guided left para-aortic lymph node biopsy revealed the characteristic features of extra-adrenal para-aortic paraganglioma. Although cases of various GI and extra GI malignancies in PJS patients has been reported, the present case appears to be the first in literature in which the PJS syndrome was associated with asymptomatic extraadrenal para-aortic paraganglioma. Patients with PJS should be treated by endoscopic or surgical resection and need whole-body screening.
Asymptomatic para-aortic paraganglioma; intussusception; Peutz-Jeghers syndrome; screening
The initial diagnosis of intussusception in adults very often can be missed and cause delayed treatment and possible serious complications. We report the case of an adult patient with complicated double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception.
A 46-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from the gastroenterology service to the abdominal surgery service with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasound, barium enema, and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intraluminal obstruction of his ascending colon. Plain abdominal X-rays showed diffuse air-fluid levels in his small intestine. A double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception was found during an emergent laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy, including resection of a long segment of his ileum, was performed. The postoperative period was complicated by acute renal failure, shock liver, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 30 days. An anatomical pathology examination revealed a lipoma of his ileum.
Intussusception in adults requires early surgical resection regardless of the nature of the initial cause. Delayed treatment can cause very serious complications.
Jejunojejunal intussusception and jejunojejunal lipomas are both very rare clinical entities. The present case report describes this event in an adult patient with severe episodes of hematochezia and colicky upper abdominal pain. The diagnosis was not made preoperatively, as none of the endoscopic findings were pathognomonic and, furthermore, CT scans could not rule out malignancy. Exploratory laparotomy was mandatory and at surgery a jejunojejunal intussusception secondary to a lipoma was found. Segmental resection and primary reanastomosis were performed in the presence of evidence of bowel ischemia.
Lipoma; Jejunojejunal; Intussusception
Myeloid sarcoma is known to precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and can be the only clinical manifestation. Gastrointestinal involvement by AML is rare with the commonest site being small intestine. Patients present with vague abdominal pain and/or obstruction. Prognosis is usually poor as most of them rapidly progress to AML. We report a case of 25-year-old man with complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting of one-year duration. OGD scopy revealed infiltration of lesser curvature of stomach. Subsequently patient came back within a week with signs and symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction for which an ileal resection was done. Although the histology of stomach biopsy and ileal segments showing similar features were thought to be non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow investigations confirmed involvement by AML. Patient succumbed to the disease due to extensive involvement of AML. This case highlights the primary gastrointestinal manifestation of AML which can often prove to be a diagnostic difficulty clinically and histologically. Prompt diagnosis is essential to hasten the management.
Adenomyoma of the ileum is a rare condition. A 68-year-old Japanese man presented with nausea and distension of the abdomen. Enhanced computed tomography of his abdomen revealed wall thickening in the ileum and dilation of the proximal small intestine. Open laparotomy was performed to find the cause of the patient's small bowel obstruction, and a tumor was found in the ileum, which had resulted in intussusception. The tumor and 20 cm of the adjacent ileum were resected. The resected specimen displayed a macroscopic appearance suggestive of a submucosal tumor. Histopathological evaluation showed duct cell proliferation and bundles of smooth muscle cells from the mucosa to the serosa, leading to a diagnosis of adenomyoma. Immunohistochemical examination found that cytokeratin 7 and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were expressed in the duct epithelia. We report a rare case of ileal adenomyoma leading to intussusception in an adult and present the immunohistochemical evaluation of the adenomyoma.
Adenomyoma; Intussusception; Heterotopic pancreatic tissue