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1.  Necrotizing cellulitis of the abdominal wall, caused by Pediococcus sp., due to rupture of a retroperitoneal stromal cell tumor 
INTRODUCTION
Soft tissue necrotizing infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a patient with necrotizing infection of abdominal wall resulting from the rupture of a retroperitoneal stromal tumor.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a 60-year-old Caucasian male patient with necrotizing infection of abdominal wall secondary to the rupture of a retroperitoneal stromal tumor. The patient was initially treated with debridement and fasciotomy of the anterior abdominal wall. Laparotomy revealed purulent peritonitis caused by infiltration and rupture of the splenic flexure by the tumor. Despite prompt intervention the patient died 19 days later. The isolated microorganism causing the infection was the rarely identified as cause of infections in humans Pediococcus sp., a gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus.
DISCUSSION
Necrotizing infections of abdominal wall are usually secondary either to perineal or to intra-abdominal infections. Gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors could be rarely complicated with perforation and abscess formation. In our case, the infiltrated by the extra-gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor ruptured colon was the source of the infection. The pediococci are rarely isolated as the cause of severe septicemia.
CONCLUSION
Ruptured retroperitoneal stromal cell tumors are extremely rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis, and before this case, Pediococcus sp. has never been isolated as the responsible agent.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.12.008
PMCID: PMC3604670  PMID: 23357010
Necrotizing inflammation; Gangrene Fournier; Pediococcus; Fasciitis
2.  Twisted benign ovarian teratoma presenting with pain and generalized pruritus: a case report 
Introduction
Cystic ovarian teratomas comprise 20% of all ovarian neoplasms, and are commonly encountered in patients between 20 and 40 years of age. Although these cysts are usually asymptomatic, we present the case of a patient whose cyst resulted in pruritus and abdominal pain. Based on a MEDLINE search of the literature, we believe this is the first case report of a twisted ovarian cyst presenting with generalized pruritus.
Case presentation
A 35-year-old Sri Lankan woman presented with lower abdominal pain of one day’s duration with vomiting and generalized pruritus. She had no history of allergies and was not on medication. Upon a physical examination, our patient was found to have an acute abdomen, localized peritonism in her lower abdomen and tachycardia of 100 beats per minute. Computed tomography showed that the cyst, which contained calcified structures, originated from her left ovary. After laparoscopy-assisted removal of the twisted ovarian cyst, her symptoms resolved completely. Histological examination confirmed a benign ovarian teratoma.
Conclusions
An unusual case of torsion of an ovarian teratoma presenting with abdominal pain and generalized pruritus, believed to be due to an antibody-mediated response, was resolved after surgical removal of the cyst.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-130
PMCID: PMC3667142  PMID: 23668288
3.  Curative surgery for locally advanced retroperitoneal mature teratoma in an adult. Case report 
INTRODUCTION
Primary teratomas of retroperitoneum are not usual in the adult population. These tumors most commonly seen at the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions. Herein we describe a case of an 18-year-old female who had a benign cystic teratoma at the retroperitoneum.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The patient underwent an operation at another hospital following a misdiagnosis of hydatid cyst. The patient was referred to our hospital because of the detection of an unresectable tumor during her operation. A computerized tomography (CT)–angiography revealed a cystic mass, with a diameter of 14 cm which was invaded into the retrohepatic suprarenal inferior vena cava and also extended to the posterior aspect of the liver. Additionally the mass invaded the posterior wall of the inferior vena cava and the right renal vein. The tumor was completely resected with a vascular resection. The inferior vena cava was reconstructed with a 12 cm Dacron® graft and the renal vein was implanted. The patient's postoperative period was uneventful.
DISCUSSION
Germ cell tumors of retroperitoneum are usually seen in children, but there are also some reports of adult cases in the literature. Adult cases are especially seen in females. Imaging studies are paramount for diagnosis, preoperative strategy and safe surgical excision. CT scans and MRIs can identify various components of these tumors.
CONCLUSION
Even though primary retroperitoneal teratomas are quite rare in adults. Preoperative radiology imaging and strategy is critical for performing a safe surgery. The gold standard treatment strategy for this neoplasm is the surgical resection.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.017
PMCID: PMC3537928  PMID: 23117007
Teratoma; Mature; Vascular invasion
4.  An atypical site of a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst in a middle-aged woman 
INTRODUCTION
Retroperitoneal cysts are rare, usually asymptomatic, abdominal lesions. Epidermoid cysts developing in this space usually occur in middle-aged women and are incidentally discovered in the presacral region during ultrasound examination. Occasionally, cysts may arise from splenic tissue or adrenal glands and develop above the presacral area.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present the unusual location of a cyst in the retroperitoneal space in a 41-year-old woman admitted to hospital due to detection of a lesion in ultrasound imaging. A CT scan confirmed large intra-abdominal cyst. At operation, a large retroperitoneal thin-walled cyst with no evident arising point was discovered. Histologic analysis revealed epidermoid cyst.
DISCUSSION
Our patient presented with giant retroperitoneal cyst extending from the subhepatic region to the uterine and bladder. To our knowledge, this unusual location in adult has not been previously reported in the literature. In our case the lesion was adjacent to inferior vena cava and mesenteric vessel which required special attention during preparation and was technically demanding.
CONCLUSION
Surgery is the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal epidermoid cysts. Successful treatment of benign retroperitoneal epidermoid cysts depends on appropriate diagnosis, careful operative technique, and adequate management of the underlying pathology.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.10.008
PMCID: PMC3537955  PMID: 23124071
Retroperitoneal space; Epidermoid cyst; Surgery
5.  Mature (Benign) Cystic Retroperitoneal Teratoma Involving the Left Adrenal Gland in a 22-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Primary retroperitoneal teratomas involving adrenal glands are exceedingly uncommon accounting for only 4% of all primary teratomas. They are more common in childhood and rarely occur in adults. Only a very few case reports have been documented in literature so far. Herein, we report a mature (benign) cystic retroperitoneal teratoma in the region of left adrenal gland in a 22-year-old otherwise healthy male patient who presented with a 1-month history of left flank pain. In addition, a literature review on teratomas is included.
doi:10.1155/2013/610280
PMCID: PMC3670561  PMID: 23762690
6.  Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor 
Background
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT). There remains some debate as to the clinical benefit and associated morbidity. Our objective was to report our experience with PC-RPLND in NSGCT.
Methods
We have reviewed the clinical, pathologic and surgical parameters associated with PC-RPLND in a single institution. Between 1994 and 2008, three surgeons operated 73 patients with residual masses after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for a metastatic testicular cancer. Patients needed to have normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers, no prior surgical attempts to resect retroperitoneal masses and resectable retroperitoneal tumor mass at surgery to be included in this analysis
Results
Mean age was 30.4 years old. Fifty-three percent had mixed germ cell tumors. The mean size of retroperitoneal metastasis was 6.3 and 4.0 cm, before and post-chemotherapy, respectively. In 56% of patients, the surgeon was able to perform a nerve sparing procedure. The overall complication rate was 27.4% and no patient died due to surgical complications. The pathologic review showed presence of fibrosis/necrosis, teratoma and viable tumor (non-teratoma) in 27 (37.0%), 30 (41.1%) and 16 (21.9%) patients, respectively. The subgroups presenting fibrosis and large tumors were more likely to have a surgical complication and had less nerve sparing procedures.
Conclusion
PC-RPLND is a relatively safe procedure. The presence of fibrosis and large residual masses are associated with surgical complications and non-nerve-sparing procedure.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-97
PMCID: PMC2991320  PMID: 21062470
7.  Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Hematoma 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2010;4(3):318-322.
A 34-year-old female presented with sudden onset of severe abdominal pain in a flank distribution. A large mass was palpable in the right upper quadrant on physical examination. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defined, right-sided, retroperitoneal cystic lesion located between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava (IVC). The tumor size was 55 × 58 mm, and it compressed the gallbladder and the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal radiography revealed a stricture of the second portion of the duodenum by the tumor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed that the whole part was hyperintense with hypointense rims, but the inner was partially hypointense. Based on the radiological findings, the preoperative differential diagnosis included retroperitoneal teratoma, Schwannoma, abscess, and primary retroperitoneal tumor. On laparotomy, the tumor was located in the right retroperitoneal cavity. Kocher maneuver and medial visceral rotation, which consists of medial reflection of the upper part of right colon and duodenum by incising their lateral peritoneal attachments, were performed. Although a slight adhesion to the IVC was detected, the tumor was removed safely. Thin-section histopathology examination detected neither tumor tissues nor any tissues such as adrenal gland, ovarian tissue, or endometrial implants. The final pathological diagnosis was idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma; the origin of the bleeding was unclear. The patient was discharged without any complication 5 days after the operation.
doi:10.1159/000320590
PMCID: PMC2974992  PMID: 21060693
Retroperitoneal cystic tumor; Idiopathic hematoma; Chronic expanding hematoma
8.  Signet ring cell-type adenocarcinoma arising in a mature teratoma of the testis 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(2):299-302.
A 48-year-old male who presented with an enlarged right scrotum was diagnosed with malignant transformation of testicular teratoma. Physical examination revealed a right scrotal mass of hard consistency with no inguinal lymphadenopathy. Since prepuberty, his right testis had been larger than the left one, with no pain or tenderness. Computed tomography and bone scan revealed retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and multiple bone metastases. Right orchiectomy was performed immediately, and a pathological examination revealed a mature teratoma associated with adenocarcinoma, showing signet ring cell differentiation. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy was administered; however, the metastatic lesions progressed, and the patient succumbed to the disease after 15 months. Only a few cases of primary malignant transformation of teratoma in the testis have been reported, and this is the first case report of primary malignant transformation of teratoma in the testis with signet ring cell-type differentiation.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000053
PMCID: PMC3436447  PMID: 22966298
adenocarcinoma; testis; teratoma
9.  Congenital Nasopharyngeal Teratoma in a Neonate 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(2):249-252.
Background
Congenital germ cell tumors are uncommon. The most common site of teratoma is in the sacrococcygeal region. Teratoma arising from the head and neck comprises less than 10% of reported cases and of these, nasopharyngeal lesions are rare. Teratomas are generally benign, and have a well recognized clinical and histopathological entity. We present a case of nasopharyngeal teratoma (NPT) associated with a wide cleft palate.
Case Presentation
A 20 day old female neonate with a teratoma of the nasopharyngeal area, and wide cleft palate was referred to our center. The protruded mass which measured 6×4×3cm, was of soft consistency, blocked the airway, and prevented oral feeding. Preoperative evaluation and imaging was performed and mass was excised 2 days after admission. Pathology revealed a well-differentiated mature solid teratoma (hairy polyp). The patient had no complication in the post-operative period. Cleft palate was surgically repaired when 2 years old. She is now a six year old girl with normal development.
Conclusion
Congenital nasopharyngeal teratomas are usually benign. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and should be undertaken on an urgent basis, especially in a patient who presents with signs and symptoms of airway obstruction.
PMCID: PMC3446152  PMID: 23056797
Teratoma; Nasopharyngeal Tumor; Cleft Palate; Neonate; Airway Obstruction
10.  Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a male patient: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7196.
In the literature, 51 cases of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma have been published. We report the fourth case occurring in a male patient. The 42-year-old patient presented with multiple retroperitoneal cystic masses causing abdominal discomfort without alteration of the global clinical state. The masses were totally removed by a two-stage surgery. No other treatment has been introduced. After a follow-up of 6 months, the patient is disease-free. This rare tumor most likely arises from the mucinous metaplasia of peritoneal inclusion cysts rather than from ectopic ovarian tissue or ovarian teratomas. The occurrence of such a tumor in a male patient supports this theory. Preoperative diagnosis is mostly difficult. Clinical behavior and treatment are still controversial.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-7196
PMCID: PMC2769343  PMID: 19918513
11.  Spontaneous rupture of a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma presenting as an acute abdomen 
INTRODUCTION
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant pancreatic neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on spontaneous rupture of acinar cell carcinoma.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 39-year-old Azari male presented with a history of sudden onset, acute epigastric pain of 12-h duration. Eight hours later the patient's general condition rapidly deteriorated, blood pressure was decreased to 90/70 mm/Hg and heart rate was increased to 120 beat/min. Emergent abdominal computed tomography scan showed a well-defined hypo-dense, necrotic mass, measured 12 cm × 12 cm that was originating from the uncinate process of pancreas with marked free peritoneal fluid and extensive haziness of retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat compatible with marked bleeding. Emergent abdominal operation was performed and histopathology revealed acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
DISCUSSION
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) usually presents with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. To best of our knowledge, no report has been made of spontaneous rupture of ACC.
CONCLUSION
Pancreatic carcinoma may present as acute abdomen due to rupture of underlying neoplasm.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.03.025
PMCID: PMC3356555  PMID: 22543229
Acinar cell carcinoma; Pancrease; Rupture
12.  Retropancreatic Teratoma with Intra-thoracic Extension 
Clinics and Practice  2013;3(1):e13.
Primary retroperitoneal teratoma is a rare entity in adults. We present a case of 23-yearsold female who presented with complaint of abdominal pain in left upper quadrant. Computed tomography scan revealed a retroperitoneal retropancreatic teratoma near celiac axis with intra thoracic extension. Laparotomy with tumor resection was done. The case report is interesting for intra thoracic extension of retropancreatic teratoma.
doi:10.4081/cp.2013.e13
PMCID: PMC3981228  PMID: 24765493
teratoma; retroperitoneum; celiac axis
13.  Case report: Malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:195.
Background
Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix.
Case Presentation
We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
Conclusion
In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-195
PMCID: PMC2709639  PMID: 19538751
14.  Giant primary retroperitoneal teratoma in an adult female patient: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(2):460-462.
The retroperitoneum is an uncommon location for teratoma in adults. The current study presents the case of a rare giant primary retroperitoneal teratoma in a 55-year-old female. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and surgical treatment procedure of this case are retrospectively reviewed. The patient presented with a complaint of an abdominal palpable mass and fullness for 1 month. The patient suffered a massive hemorrhage during the first exploratory laparotomyand only a small section of the tumor was resected. Pathology revealed a mature retroperitoneal teratoma. Eleven months after the first surgery, the tumor was resected successfully at the second laparotomy. The surgical specimen was a large tumor mass measuring 22×18×10 cm in size and weighing 6 kg. At follow-up, the patient was in a stable condition. This case study highlights the importance of imaging for the development of a pre-operative strategy and performing a safe surgical excision in giant retroperitoneal teratoma cases.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1374
PMCID: PMC3789054  PMID: 24137347
retroperitoneal teratoma; primary; adult
15.  Chronic periaortitis (retroperitoneal fibrosis) concurrent with giant cell arteritis: a case report 
Introduction
Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of large-vessel vasculitides. However, it is probable that extracranial involvement is underdiagnosed in patients with classical giant cell arteritis. In the recent literature most cases of giant cell arteritis have been described in conjunction with aortic aneurysms or dissections. Nonetheless the coexistence of giant cell arteritis and retroperitoneal fibrosis is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of giant cell arteritis at a very early clinical stage, in a woman with coexistence of retroperitoneal fibrosis.
Case presentation
We report a case of giant cell arteritis at a very early clinical stage, in a 47-year-old Greek woman with coexistence of retroperitoneal fibrosis who was admitted to our hospital with a history of high-grade fever and mild right periumbilical abdominal pain for the past 30 days. In the context of fever of unknown origin, an abdomen computed tomography was ordered. A temporal artery biopsy was also performed because during hospitalization she complained of a headache. Examination of eosin and hematoxylin slides from biopsy specimens of her temporal artery, showed lesions consisting of predominantly lymphocytes, few plasma cells and occasional polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In addition no giant cells were detected in examining biopsies at multiple levels. This was consistent with giant cell arteritis according to the American college of Rheumatology criteria. An abdomen computed tomography revealed the presence of a retroperitoneal soft-tissue mass located anteriorly to the upper infrarenal aorta at the site of the scintigraphic uptake. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the mass were consistent with retroperitoneal fibrosis, and its morphology suggestive of benignity. Our patient started oral prednisolone and was afebrile from day one.
Conclusions
In our experience this is the first case of retroperitoneal fibrosis due to giant cell arteritis occurring at the same time. Involvement of the aorta (aortitis) and its branches has been also observed in a subset of patients with giant cell arteritis. In addition, giant cell arteritis has been associated with a markedly increased risk of aortic aneurysm particularly thoracic aortic aneurysm.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-167
PMCID: PMC4070639  PMID: 24885445
Giant cell arteritis; Periaortitis; Retroperitoneal fibrosis
16.  Anesthetic management in a patient with giant growing teratoma syndrome: a case report 
Introduction
Growing teratoma syndrome is a rare occurrence with an ovarian tumor. Anesthesia has been reported to be difficult in cases of growing teratoma syndrome of the cystic type due to the pressure exerted by the tumor. However, there have been no similar reports with the solid mass type. Here, we report our experience of anesthesia in a case of growing teratoma syndrome of the solid type.
Case presentation
The patient was a 30-year-old Japanese woman who had been diagnosed with an ovarian immature teratoma at age 12 and had undergone surgery and chemotherapy. However, she dropped out of treatment. She presented to our hospital with a 40cm giant solid mass and severe respiratory failure, and was scheduled for an operation. We determined that we could not obtain a sufficient tidal volume without spontaneous respiration. Therefore, we chose to perform awake intubation and not to use a muscle relaxant before the operation. At the start of the operation, when muscle relaxant was first administered, we could not obtain a sufficient tidal volume. An abdominal midline incision was performed immediately and her tidal volume recovered. Her resected tumor weighed 10.5kg. After removal of her tumor, her tidal volume was maintained at a level consistent with that under spontaneous respiration to avoid occurrence of re-expansion pulmonary edema.
Conclusions
We performed successful anesthetic management of a case of growing teratoma syndrome with a giant abdominal tumor. Respiratory management was achieved by avoiding use of a muscle relaxant before the operation to maintain spontaneous respiration and by maintaining a relatively low tidal volume, similar to that during spontaneous respiration preoperatively, after removal of the tumor to prevent re-expansion pulmonary edema.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-32
PMCID: PMC3917373  PMID: 24467840
Anesthesia; Growing teratoma syndrome; Re-expansion pulmonary edema; Respiratory failure; Solid mass
17.  Primary renal teratoma: a rare entity 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:107.
Abstract
Teratomas are neoplasms that arise from pluripotent cells and can differentiate along one or more embryonic germ lines. Renal teratoma is an exceedingly rare condition. Teratomas commonly arise in the gonads, sacrococcygeal region, pineal gland, and retroperitoneum. They present mainly as an abdominal mass with few other symptoms. Majority of the tumors are benign, situated on the left side and para renal, occasional lesions are bilateral. If diagnosed early, they are amenable to curative excision.
Renal teratomas are rare and most have been dismissed as cases of teratoid nephroblastomas or retroperitoneal teratomas secondarily invading the kidney. The differentiation between these two neoplasms in the kidney is often problematic.
We present a case of intrarenal immature teratoma in a six-month-old baby girl.
Virtual slides
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1746249869599954.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-8-107
PMCID: PMC3751105  PMID: 23800134
Teratoma; Immature; Wilms; Kidney; Extragonadal
18.  Primary Mature Cystıc Teratoma Mimickıng an Adrenal Mass in an Adult Male Patient 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(2):148-151.
Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of a unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking an adrenal mass in a 54-year-old male patient. Complete resection of the adrenal mass was performed by the flank approach by using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.2.148
PMCID: PMC3935074  PMID: 24578814
Adrenal neoplasm; Cystic teratoma
19.  Adenocarcinoma in Retroperitoneal Teratoma 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;75(Suppl 1):33-35.
We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma in retroperitoneal teratoma in a 38 year old female patient who attended surgical OPD with complaints of dragging pain and heaviness in left lumbar region. Straight x-ray abdomen showed few irregular calcifications in left lumbar region. USG and CT showed it to be adrenal tumor and retroperitoneal teratoma respectively. Excised specimen confirmed it as mucin secreting adenocarcinoma in a case of retroperitoneal teratoma.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0294-6
PMCID: PMC3693242  PMID: 24426505
Adenocarcinoma; Retroperitoneal; Teratoma
20.  Expression of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tissue in Ovarian Teratomas and the Importance of Multimodal Management as Illustrated by a BRAF-Positive Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer 
Thyroid  2010;20(9):981-987.
Background
The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
Summary
Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of “struma pearl” should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-131I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E). She underwent extensive secondary debulking and a second course of 131I with lithium pretreatment. Posttreatment scan revealed diffuse abdominal uptake. Six months posttherapy, the patient is asymptomatic with a serum Tg of 18.1 ng/mL.
Conclusions
Aggressive multimodal management appears to be the most promising approach for malignant thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
doi:10.1089/thy.2009.0458
PMCID: PMC2964358  PMID: 20718682
21.  Cystic benign teratoma of the neck in adult 
Teratomas are embryonal neoplasms that arise when totipotential germ cells escape the developmental control of primary organizers and give rise to tumors containing tissue derived from all three blastodermic layers. Teratomas have been reported to occur in various sites and organs. Teratoma of the cervical neck are relatively rare in adulthood. It usually extends from the neck to the thoracic cavity causing local mass effect. In most of the cases intrauterine diagnosis is possible by ultrasound. Because of dyspnea due to mass effect, this condition is treated promptly after birth. However cases of teratoma in adulthood with supraclavicular localization have been reported rarely in the literature. The presented case is of a 25-year-old female with a cervical mass. Histological examination revealed a benign mature teratoma. The patient has been disease free for more than nine years after surgical removal of a neck teratoma.
doi:10.12998/wjcc.v1.i6.202
PMCID: PMC3845957  PMID: 24303501
Teratoma; Neck; Adult; Total surgical resection; Clinically disease-free
22.  Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis presenting with peritonism in a 33-year-old Nepalese man: a case report 
Introduction
Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, fulminant, and potentially lethal complication of intra-abdominal suppuration. A retroperitoneal origin is very rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this case is only the fourth case reported of successful management following retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.
Case presentation
A 33-year-old Tamang man presented to our facility with a history of five days of fever and vomiting and eight days of severe left loin pain. On examination, he had features of peritonism. A laparotomy was performed, revealing extensive necrotizing fasciitis of the retroperitoneum extending to the anterior abdominal wall. Our patient survived following extensive debridement of the necrotic tissues and supportive care.
Conclusions
Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can rarely present with features of peritonism, and hence should be included as a possible differential diagnosis for anyone presenting with peritonism. Although a fatal condition, early intervention and aggressive management can save the life of a patient.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-53
PMCID: PMC3296598  PMID: 22325368
23.  Intrapulmonary and gastric teratoma : report of two cases. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(3):330-334.
The lung and stomach are very unusual sites for teratoma. The histologic findings of intrapulmonary and gastric teratomas are not different from those arising in usual sites, such as the ovary or testis. However, preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult to make partly because of unusual location. We report here two cases of teratoma, one intrapulmonary teratoma and the other gastric. The intrapulmonary teratoma in our study had an endobronchial tumor growth, which rules out mediastinal teratoma. Meanwhile gastric teratomas usually present as a submucosal tumor and most cases are reported in infancy and childhood. Gastric teratoma in this study occurred in a 27-year-old man. To the best of our knowledge, this case of intrapulmonary teratoma is the eighth and the gastric teratoma is the first to be reported in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3054382  PMID: 10402179
24.  Predicting necrosis in residual mass analysis after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a retrospective study 
Background
Recent studies have demonstrated that pathological analysis of retroperitoneal residual masses of patients with testicular germ cell tumors revealed findings of necrotic debris or fibrosis in up to 50% of patients. We aimed at pursuing a clinical and pathological review of patients undergoing post chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in order to identify variables that may help predict necrosis in the retroperitoneum.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent PC-RPLND at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo and Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo between January 2005 and September 2011. Clinical and pathological data were obtained and consisted basically of: measures of retroperitoneal masses, histology of the orchiectomy specimen, serum tumor marker and retroperitoneal nodal size before and after chemotherapy.
Results
We gathered a total of 32 patients with a mean age of 29.7; pathological analysis in our series demonstrated that 15 (47%) had necrosis in residual retroperitoneal masses, 15 had teratoma (47%) and 2 (6.4%) had viable germ cell tumors (GCT). The mean size of the retroperitoneal mass was 4.94 cm in our sample, without a difference between the groups (P = 0.176). From all studied variables, relative changes in retroperitoneal lymph node size (P = 0.04), the absence of teratoma in the orchiectomy specimen (P = 0.03) and the presence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular analysis after orchiectomy (P = 0.03) were statistically significant predictors of the presence of necrosis. A reduction level of 35% was therefore suggested to be the best cutoff for predicting the absence of tumor in the retroperitoneum with a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 82.4%.
Conclusions
Even though retroperitoneal lymph node dissection remains the gold standard for patients with residual masses, those without teratoma in the primary tumor and a shrinkage of 35% or more in retroperitoneal mass have a considerably smaller chance of having viable GCT or teratoma in the retroperitoneum and a surveillance program could be considered.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-203
PMCID: PMC3502267  PMID: 23021209
Testicular cancer; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Necrosis; Teratoma
25.  Retroperitoneal teratoma with somatic malignant transformation: A papillary renal cell carcinoma in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy 
BMC Urology  2013;13:9.
Background
Malignant transformation describes the phenomenon in which a somatic component of a germ cell teratoma undergoes malignant differentiation. A variety of different types of sarcoma and carcinoma, all non-germ cell, have been described as a result of malignant transformation.
Case presentation
A 33-year-old man presented with a left testicular mass and elevated tumour markers. Staging investigations revealed retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with obstruction of the left ureter and distant metastases. Histopathology from the left radical orchiectomy showed a mixed germ cell tumour (Stage III, poor prognosis). The ureter was stented and four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin chemotherapy administered. After initial remission, the patient recurred four years later with a large retroperitoneal mass involving the renal vessels and the left ureter. Left retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with en-bloc resection of the left kidney was performed.
Histopathology revealed a germ cell tumour metastasis consisting mainly of mature teratoma. Additionally, within the teratoma a papillary renal cell carcinoma was found. The diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry showing positivity for AMACR, CD10 and focal expression of RCC and CK7. There was no radiological or histo-pathological evidence of a primary renal cell cancer.
Conclusions
To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation into a papillary renal cell carcinoma has not been reported in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy. This histological diagnosis might have implications for potential future therapies. In the case of disease recurrence, renal cell cancer as origin of the recurrent tumour has to be excluded because renal cell carcinoma metastases would not respond well to the classical germ cell tumour chemotherapy regimens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-13-9
PMCID: PMC3577457  PMID: 23402579
Retroperitoneal teratoma; Malignant transformation; Germ cell tumour metastasis; Renal cell cancer

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