Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of the right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in children. Some other conditions including cecal epiploica appendix torsion, can simulate acute abdomen. Epiploica appendix torsion usually occurs in the sigmoid colon and rarely in the cecum of adult males. In children, this entity is extremely rare and may represent a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. We report a case of an 8-year-old Greek girl, presented with signs and symptoms mimicking acute abdomen. Our patient is the younger one among the other four with cecal epiploica appendix torsion that had been reported in the literature.
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in adults. Some other conditions, including appendicitis epiploicae, can simulate an acute abdomen. Appendicitis epiploicae or epiploic appendicitis usually originates in the sigmoid colon and rarely from other parts of colon. We report a case of a 20-year-old man with appendicitis epiploicae of the caecum, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Analysis of this uncommon condition, together with a review of the pertinent literature, are presented.
Abdominal cocoon is a rare disease of the peritoneum and almost invariably presents as an acute or subacute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown and abdominal cocoon of unknown etiology has been limited to the tropical and subtropical zones and primarily affects young adolescent females. In the temperate zone, only one case has been reported from the United Kingdom, but the patient was also born in Pakistan. No case of abdominal cocoon purely developed in the temperate zone has been reported. Recently, we experienced a case of abdominal cocoon in a 34-year-old female patient(Korean) who had never been abroad. The diagnosis was made postoperatively by reviewing the literature. We herein report this rare condition developed in an unusual geographical location with a brief review of the literature.
Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords ‘appendicitis’, ‘abdominal’ and ‘trauma’.
The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis.
Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa.
To compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination, white blood cell and differential count, and C-reactive protein as routine tests for acute appendicitis with that of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ultrasonography.
Eighty-two children were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Intensive Care, Ljubljana, Slovenia because of suspected acute appendicitis. Among them, 49 children underwent surgery for acute appendicitis and 33 had abdominal pain but were not treated surgically and were diagnosed with non-specific abdominal pain or mesenteric lymphadenitis on sonography. Clinical signs of acute appendicitis were determined by surgeons on admission. White blood cell count and differential and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 were measured and abdominal ultrasonography was performed.
Ultrasonography showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (92.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.5%-98.0%, Bayes’ theorem), followed by serum IL-6 concentration (77.6% [67.1-86.1%] receiver-operating characteristic [ROC] curve analysis), clinical signs (69.5% [59.5-79.0%] Bayes’ theorem), white blood cell count (68.4% [57.2-78.3%] ROC curve analysis), and serum C-reactive protein concentration (63.7% [52.1-74.3%] ROC curve analysis). Ultrasonography achieved also the highest specificity (95.2%) and positive (93.8%) and negative (93.3%) predictive values, whereas clinical signs showed the highest sensitivity (93.9%).
Ultrasonography was a more accurate diagnostic method than IL-6 serum concentration, laboratory marker with the highest diagnostic accuracy in our study, and hence it should be a part of the diagnostic procedure for acute appendicitis in children.
Infarctions of the greater omentum and appendices epiploicae are uncommon, but well documented causes of acute abdominal pain. We present a rare case of torted fat on the parietal peritoneum over the anterior abdominal wall, mimicking clinical signs of acute appendicitis, which was diagnosed at laparoscopy. We are aware of only two other similar reported cases, both of which were diagnosed at the time of laparotomy.
A 41-year-old Caucasian woman presented with clinical signs of acute appendicitis. On diagnostic laparoscopy, a non-inflamed appendix was found. Further exploration revealed a necrotic torted appendage of fat overlying the parietal peritoneum of the right iliac fossa of the anterior abdominal wall.
Torted fatty appendages can be a diagnostic dilemma often mimicking more common causes of an acute abdomen. Laparoscopy is an excellent tool making the correct diagnosis in such cases.
Clinical assessment outweighs the use of investigations in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Nevertheless, white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are regularly measured in patients with suspected appendicitis. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of these markers in patients presenting with acute lower abdominal pain.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
WCC and CRP were measured prospectively in 98 patients presenting with lower abdominal pain, and the results were correlated with each patient's outcome.
No patients with WCC and CRP both in the normal range had acute appendicitis. Raised WCC and CRP were poor positive predictors of appendicitis, both alone and in combination, and correlated poorly with the development of complications.
This result may have important clinical and economic implications. We suggest that patients experiencing lower abdominal pain, with normal WCC and CRP values, are unlikely to have acute appendicitis and can be safely sent home.
Appendicitis; White cell count; C-reactive protein
While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case where CT was crucial diagnostically and helpful for pre-surgical planning in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen superimposed on complete congenital gastrointestinal malrotation.
A 46-year-old previously healthy male with four days of primarily left-sided abdominal pain, low-grade fevers, nausea and anorexia presented to the Emergency Department. His medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes and dyslipidemia. His white blood count at that time was elevated. Initial abdominal plain films suggested small bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with oral and IV contrast to exclude diverticulitis, revealing acute appendicitis superimposed on congenital intestinal malrotation. Following consultation with the surgical team for surgical planning, the patient went on to laparoscopic appendectomy and did well postoperatively.
Atypical presentations of acute abdominal conditions superimposed on asymptomatic gastrointestinal malrotation can result in delays in delivery of definitive therapy and potentially increase morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. Appropriate imaging can be helpful in hastening diagnosis and guiding intervention.
Female lower abdominal pain poses diagnostic difficulties for clinicians, especially when little more than the history and physical examination are available. A girl presented with constant lower abdominal pain after taking misoprostol for pregnancy termination. She was eventually referred to a rural District Hospital, where a laparotomy demonstrated acute appendicitis. After treating herself for a self-diagnosed pregnancy with illegally provided misoprostol, this patient presented with persistent lower abdominal pain. The differential diagnosis included ectopic pregnancy and all other causes of female abdominal pain. Yet diagnosing two diseases in the same anatomical area at the same time contradicts diagnostic parsimony. System problems in resource-poor areas can limit access to healthcare services and encourage dispensing potentially dangerous medications without clinicians’ authorization. It is dangerous to rely on patients’ self-diagnoses while neglecting other diagnoses. More than one diagnosis may be needed to explain temporally and anatomically related symptoms.
Appendicitis; misdiagnosis; abortion; pregnancy; misoprostol
Presentations of abdominal pain in patients on peritoneal dialysis deserve maximal attention and careful differential diagnosis on admittance to medical care. In this case report a gangrenous appendicitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis is presented.
We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian man with end-stage renal disease who was on automated peritoneal dialysis and developed acute abdominal pain and cloudy peritoneal dialysate. Negative microbiological cultures of the peritoneal dialysis fluid and an abdominal ultrasonography misleadingly led to a diagnosis of culture negative peritonitis. It was decided to remove the peritoneal catheter but the clinical situation of the patient did not improve. An explorative laparotomy was then carried out; diffuse peritonitis and gangrenous appendicitis were found. An appendectomy was performed. Myocardial infarction and sepsis developed, and the outcome was fatal.
A peritoneal dialysis patient with abdominal pain that persists for more than 48 hours after the usual antibiotic protocol for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis should immediately alert the physician to the possibility of peritonitis caused by intra-abdominal pathology. Not only peritoneal catheter removal is indicated in patients whose clinical features worsen or fail to resolve with the established intra-peritoneal antibiotic therapy but, after 72 hours, an early laparoscopy should be done and in a case of correct indication (intra-abdominal pathology) an early explorative laparotomy.
Abdominal pain; Appendicitis; Myocardial infarction; Peritoneal dialysis
A villous adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumour in the appendix, in contrast to other benign appendiceal lesions. The clinical features are usually asymptomatic. Acute appendicitis is the most common complication with the lesion obstructing the orifice of the appendiceal lumen. Thus, a villous adenoma is usually found during surgical intervention for acute appendicitis. Mechanical obstruction induced by acute perforated appendicitis has been previously reported. Acute appendicitis caused by a villous adenoma presenting with acute intestinal obstruction has not been previously reported.
A 78-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with diffuse abdominal pain and tenderness. The abdominal plain film and computed tomography revealed an intestinal obstruction. After surgical intervention, the ruptured appendix was shown to be associated with intestinal obstruction. The post-operative pathologic diagnosis was an appendiceal villous adenoma.
This is the first report describing an appendiceal villous adenoma, which is an occasional cause of perforated acute appendicitis, presenting as a complete intestinal obstruction. We emphasize that in elderly patients without a surgical history, the occult cause of complete intestinal obstruction must be determined. If an appendiceal tumour is diagnosed, an intra-operative frozen section is suggested prior to selecting a suitable method of surgical intervention.
Rationale: To assess the importance of the new radiographic sign of faecal loading in the cecum for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in comparison with other inflammatory diseases, and to verify the maintenance of this radiographic sign after surgical treatment of appendicitis.
Methods: 470 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital due to acute abdomen were prospectively studied: Group 1 [n=170] – diagnosed with acute appendicitis, subdivided into: Subgroup 1A – [n=100] – submitted to an abdominal radiographic study before surgical treatment, Subgroup 1B – [n=70] – patients who had plain abdominal X-rays done before the surgical procedure and also the following day; Group 2 [n=100] – right nephrolithiasis; Group 3 [n=100] – right acute inflammatory pelvic disease; Group 4 [n=100] – acute cholecystitis. The patients of Groups 2,3 and 4 were submitted to abdominal radiography during the pain episode.
Results: The sign of faecal loading in the cecum, characterized by hypo transparency interspersed with multiple small foci of hyper transparent images, was present in 97 patients of Subgroup 1A, in 68 patients of Subgroup 1B, in 19 patients of Group 2, in 12 patients of Group 3 and in 13 patients of Group 4. During the postoperative period the radiographic sign disappeared in 66 of the 68 cases that had presented with the sign. The sensitivity of the radiographic sign for acute appendicitis was 97.05% and its specificity was 85.33%. The positive predictive value for acute appendicitis was 78.94% and its negative predictive value was 98.
Discussion: The radiographic image of faecal loading in the cecum is associated with acute appendicitis and disappears after appendectomy. This sign is uncommon in other acute inflammatory diseases of the right side of the abdomen.
Appendicitis; Acute abdomen; Radiography; Cecum; Fecal loading
Acute appendicitis is one of the most frequent causes of surgical abdominal pain presenting to the Emergency Department. The diagnosis is confirmed by a set of clinical signs, blood tests and imaging.
The typical presentation consists of periumbilical pain radiating to the right lower quadrant with peritoneal reaction on palpation (Mac Burney).
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this article, we report a case of acute appendicitis presenting with a left upper quadrant pain due to intestinal malrotation and we describe the radiologic findings on computed tomography.
With an Alvarado score of 4 and a nonconclusive abdominal U/S, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was a long shot. Persistence of pain and increasing inflammatory parameters in her blood exams pushed the medical team to further investigate and a CT scan revealed intestinal malrotation with acute appendicitis.
An examining physician should not be mislead by the atypical presentation of acute appendicitis and should bear in mind the diagnosis to avoid serious complications.
Acute appendicitis; Intestinal malrotation; Computed tomography
There are many recorded cases in the medical literature where it has been determined that blunt injury to the abdomen may injure any organ or structure within the abdomen. There were, however, no recorded cases of acute appendicitis resulting from blunt abdominal trauma.
The vermiform appendix is not immune to blunt abdominal trauma; in fact, by its anatomy and disposition, it is a very vulnerable structure.
One case is recorded in this paper where acute appendicitis has followed a steering wheel abdominal injury.
The timely diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology continues to be an elusive problem. Delays in diagnosis and therapeutic decision making are continuing dilemmas in patients who are females of childbearing age, elderly, obese or immunosuppressed. Minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia potentially can provide an accurate, cost-effective method to assist in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain.
Laparoscopy without general anesthesia is not a new technique, but with the combination of two emerging factors— 1) the introduction of new technology with the development of improved, smaller laparoscopes and instruments, and 2) the shifting of emphasis on healthcare to a more cost-effective managed care environment--its value and widespread utilization is being reconsidered.
We report the case of a 22 year old female with an acute onset of increasing abdominal and pelvic pain. Despite evaluation by general surgery, gynecology, emergency room staff, as well as, non-invasive testing, a clear diagnosis could not be made. In view of this, minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia was performed and revealed an acute, retrocecal appendicitis. The diagnosis was made with the assistance from the conscious patient. The utilization of this technique greatly expedited the treatment of this patient. Full-sized laparoscopic equipment was then used to minimally invasively remove the diseased appendix under general anesthesia. Both procedures were well tolerated by the patient.
Minilaparoscopy; Local anesthesia; Diagnosis; Appendicitis
Acute abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for admitting patients to the emergency department for surgical evaluation. A wide number of differential diagnoses are available and their pre-test likelihood ratio varies according to the patients' age, gender, duration of symptoms and overall clinical context. While many patients with abdominal pain do not need to be admitted to the hospital wards and even fewer need eventual surgical intervention, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis remains one of the most frequently entertained differential in patients with abdominal pain. In fact, surgery for appendicitis is one of the most frequently performed operations in the Western world. As the authors of the current study point out, the high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) has been known for many years. The study demonstrates in a small pilot that there is a difference in expression of HMGB1 between those with and those without appendicitis. However, is this difference clinically important? Clinically relevant results can only be documented through larger studies comparing its use and expression levels in both healthy subjects, subjects with abdominal pain for other reasons, patients with 'clear-cut' (histopathologically confirmed) appendicitis and in the difficult subgroup of patients with suspected appendicitis and equivocal symptoms.
Acute appendicitis occurs frequently and is a major indication for acute abdominal surgery. Subhepatic appendicitis has rarely been reported and is more difficult to diagnose.
A 71-year-old man with multiple medical comorbidities presented with undifferentiated right abdominal pain. Diagnostic difficulty was encountered due to subhepatic mal-location of the appendix and subsequently atypical presentation for acute appendicitis.
Subhepatic anatomical location of the appendix makes it more difficult to diagnose acute appendicitis at any age, including in older adults.
AIM: To evaluate the maximal-outer-diameter (MOD) and the maximal-mural-thickness (MMT) of the appendix in children with acute appendicitis and to determine their optimal cut-off values to diagnose acute appendicitis.
METHODS: In total, 164 appendixes from 160 children between 1 and 17 years old (84 males, 76 females; mean age, 7.38 years) were examined by high-resolution abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain and the suspicion of acute appendicitis. We measured the MOD and the MMT at the thickest point of the appendix. Patients were categorized into two groups according to their medical records: patients who had surgery (surgical appendix group) and patients who did not have surgery (non-surgical appendix group). Data were analyzed by MedCalc v.9.3. The rank sum test (Mann-Whitney test) was used to evaluate the difference in the MOD and the MMT between the two groups. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the MOD and the MMT on diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
RESULTS: There were 121 appendixes (73.8%) in the non-surgical appendix group and 43 appendixes (26.2%) in the surgical appendix group. The median MOD differed significantly between the two groups (0.37 cm vs 0.76 cm, P < 0.0001), and the median MMT also differed (0.15 cm vs 0.33 cm, P < 0.0001). The optimal cut-off value of the MOD and the MMT for diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children was > 0.57 cm (sensitivity 95.4%, specificity 93.4%) and > 0.22 cm (sensitivity 90.7%, specificity 79.3%), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The MOD and the MMT are reliable criteria to diagnose acute appendicitis in children. An MOD > 0.57 cm and an MMT > 0.22 cm are the optimal criteria.
Appendicitis; Ultrasonography; Pediatrics; Diagnosis; ROC curve
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition that is usually managed with early surgery, and is associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, some patients may have atypical symptoms and physical findings that may lead to a delay in diagnosis and increased complications. Atypical presentation may be related to the position of the appendix. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain may be clinically indistinguishable from acute pathology in the gallbladder, liver, biliary tree, right kidney and right urinary tract. We report a series of four patients with retrocecal appendicitis who presented with acute right upper abdominal pain. The clinical diagnoses at presentation were acute cholecystitis in two patients, pyelonephritis in one, and ureteric colic in one. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen at presentation showed subhepatic collections in two patients and normal findings in the other two. Computed tomography (CT) identified correctly retrocecal appendicitis and inflammation in the retroperitoneum in all cases. In addition, abscesses in the retrocecal space (n = 2) and subhepatic collections (n = 2) were also demonstrated. Emergency appendectomy was performed in two patients, interval appendectomy in one, and hemicolectomy in another. Surgical findings confirmed the presence of appendicitis and its retroperitoneal extensions. Our case series illustrates the usefulness of CT in diagnosing ascending retrocecal appendicitis and its extension, and excluding other inflammatory conditions that mimic appendicitis.
Retrocecal appendicitis; Upper abdominal pain; Computed tomography
The management of concurrently occurring abdominal aortic aneurysm and another intra-abdominal pathology is controversial and represents a difficult management problem for the surgeon. Most surgeons are reluctant to perform a second non vascular procedure at the time of the aneurysm repair because of the risk of graft infection. Some evidence suggests that the one-stage elective surgical treatment in selected patients with concomitant abdominal aortic aneurysm and other pathologies; especially Gastro-Intestinal malignancies, is safe with superior cost effectiveness. However, there is a major dilemma in the management patients with large aneurysm which require an urgent repair and presented with concomitant pathologies that carry a high risk of sepsis. In this case report, we describe an unusual presentation of a large aneurysm with concomitant Acute Appendicitis where both needed an urgent surgical intervention. To our best knowledge, there has been no similar case report published in literature.
A 66 years old Caucasian male presented with a dual pathology of large abdominal aortic aneurysm and acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by Computerized Tomography scan of his abdomen. He underwent a 2-stage operation; open Appendicectomy followed by open repair of his aneurysm to avoid the risk of graft infection. He had an uneventful recovery period with a full return to normal life.
The incidence of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coexistent intra-abdominal surgical pathology is increasing, and the surgical strategy for those patients remains controversial. There are not enough studies that looked directly into the management of large abdominal aortic aneurysm which require an urgent repair and presented with concomitant pathologies that carry a high risk of sepsis. In such situations, simultaneous operations should be avoided because of the risk of prosthetic graft infection and priority should be given to the symptomatic or most life threatening condition. The second pathology should be dealt with as soon as possible; preferably within the same admission. More studies are needed to look into this issue; however, this would be rather difficult because of the uncommon and complex nature of such presentations.
Rectal examination is considered an important part of the examination of patients presenting with abdominal pain. However, children find anal digitation unpleasant and it was our impression that doctors were becoming less insistent on performing a rectal examination. We performed an audit of rectal examination and assessed whether this made any difference to the management of children with acute abdominal pain. We looked at the records of 48 children from 1989 and 49 children from 1985 presenting with abdominal pain. We found that the rate of rectal examination was halved in this time. Diagnostic accuracy was similar in the two groups, and the morbidity rate was the same. These findings call into question the need for routine rectal examination in children with suspected appendicitis.
Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (RLMS) are a challenging clinical entity. The vast majority of patients are operated on when tumors are advanced. We report herein a case of RLMS, mimicking acute appendiceal disease and treated successfully via laparoscopy.
A 37-year-old woman, para 1, was admitted to our department for right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, and leukocytosis. She had no changes in gastrointestinal and urologic function. A physical examination revealed the presence of abdominal guarding, rebound, and a tender mass in the right lower quadrant. The abdominal ultrasound showed an inhomogeneous ovoid mass (6 cm in diameter) located below the cecum, with no definite margins, and consistent with an appendiceal abscess. The patient was referred for laparoscopy. The procedure was performed with the aid of 3 ports: a 12-mm trocar in the umbilicus (open technique), a 10-mm trocar in the left iliac fossa, and a 5-mm one in the suprapubic space. On inspection of the abdominal cavity, a retroperitoneal 6-cm mass was immediately found below the cecum and the appendix. Neither intraperitoneal seeding nor suspected lymph nodes were present. After dissection of the parietal peritoneum, the mass appeared to be encapsulated and well demarcated from all surrounding structures. It was eventually dissected and removed via a plastic bag. A standard appendectomy was also performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 3rd day. The histology analysis of the resected specimen showed a totally excised G2 leiomyosarcoma. The appendix had no signs of inflammation. Postoperatively, the patient underwent a total-body CT-scan, which had no signs of residual or distant disease. No adjuvant therapy was necessary. At an 18-month follow-up, the patient was doing well and was disease free.
Surgery represents the main therapeutic option for resectable RLMS. Laparoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool that allows safe resection of incidentally discovered, small and well encapsulated RLMS.
Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma; Laparoscopy
We report a case of acute appendicitis in a 36-year-old patient with recurrent abdominal pain diagnosed seven years previously as abdominal epilepsy. Prior to his reported presentation, he successfully managed his pain at home by self-administration of phenobarbital, but on three previous occasions the patient required emergency-department treatment for severe pain. Our patient had been symptom free for several months prior to this presentation. This case raises several important questions regarding the approach to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the emergency department. The case illustrates the relative value of clinical and paraclinical data in establishing the diagnosis. We evaluate accepted clinical and paraclinical data used to diagnose acute appendicitis and advocate using likelihood ratios to increase diagnostic accuracy.
appendicitis; diagnosis; likelihood ratios; abdominal epilepsy
Spontaneous non-occlusive ischemic colitis involving the cecum alone (isolated cecal necrosis) is a rare condition that is generally due to a low-flow state: shock. It presents with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and may resemble acute appendicitis. Little is known about postoperative ischemic necrosis of the remaining colon after surgical treatment of isolated cecal necrosis. We report four cases of isolated cecal necrosis mimicking acute appendicitis seen at our institution within a 4-year period.
The patients were two men and two women with a mean age at diagnosis of 59 years (range 46-68). The patients were of Turkish ethnic origin. All patients presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and had symptoms of nausea and vomiting. The medical histories for three of the patients revealed end-stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis. The other patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Right hemicolectomy with anastomosis was performed in three patients and cecal resection with ileocolostomy was performed in the remaining one patient. All of the patients healed without complications. Median follow-up of patients was 24.5 (range: 17-37) months. There was no recurrence of ischemia in the remaining colon during the follow-up period of the patients.
Isolated cecal infarction should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, especially in those patients on chronic hemodialysis. While diffuse ischemic disease of the intestine has high morbidity, mortality and recurrence rates, patients with isolated cecal necrosis have a good prognosis with early diagnosis and surgical treatment compared to those with diffuse ischemic disease.
Common complications of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) that lead to surgical intervention include intussusception, perforation, necrosis, and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Acute appendicitis is rarely seen as a complication of HSP. A seven-year-old boy was admitted for arthralgia, abdominal pain, hematochezia, melena, and purpuric rash on the lower extremities. On admission day abdominal ultrasonography was normal, but on day 5, he became pyrexial and developed right iliac fossa pain and tenderness with guarding. Ultrasonography showed distended appendix surrounded by hyperechoic inflamed fat. On exploration an acutely inflamed, necrotic appendix was removed and grossly there was an appendiceal perforation in the appendiceal tip. Microscopically some of the small blood vessels in the submucosa showed fibrinoid necrosis with neutrophilic infiltrations. The authors report the case of a child who developed acute perforative appendicitis requiring appendectomy while on treatment for HSP.
Purpura, Henoch-Schoenlein; Appendicitis; complications