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1.  Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) in adult male. A case report 
INTRODUCTION
Abdominal cocoon (sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis) (SEP) is a rare condition, mostly affecting adolescent girls living in tropical/subtropical region. Its etiology is unknown. It may cause acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report here a 39 year old male who complained of long standing colicky abdominal pain, with significant weight loss. Abdomen CT scan showed clumping of ileal loops at the level of umbilicus, with a thin capsule surrounding it. Laparoscopy revealed abdominal cocoon, biopsy of which showed dense hypocellular fibro-collagenous tissue with no neoplastic or granulomatous process. Excision of fibrous tissue and release of adhesions was done. Patient was symptoms free after five months follow up.
DISCUSSION
Abdominal exploration is usually needed for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cocoon. A thick fibrotic peritoneal wrapping of the bowel is usually found. Complete recovery is the result in majority of cases after surgical removal of the wrap causing the cocoon.
CONCLUSION
Primary sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (cocoon abdomen) diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion, as signs and symptoms are nonspecific and imaging findings are not always conclusive. Careful excision of the accessory peritoneal sac and lysis of adhesions between bowels is the best treatment. Prognosis is generally good.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.07.017
PMCID: PMC4189066  PMID: 25217877
Idiopathic; Sclerosing; Encapsulating peritonitis; Abdominal cocoon
2.  Abdominal cocoon—A rare cause of intestinal obstruction☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Abdominal cocoon syndrome is characterized by small bowel encapsulation by a fibro-collagenous membrane or “cocoon”. It is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 42-year old man presented with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. Intra-operatively, the entire small bowel was found to be encapsulated in a dense fibrous sac. The peritoneal sac was excised, followed by lysis of the inter-loop adhesions. Postoperative recovery was unremarkable.
DISCUSSION
Most patients with abdominal cocoon syndrome present with features of recurrent acute or chronic small bowel obstruction secondary to kinking and/or compression of the intestines within the constricting cocoon. An abdominal mass may also be present due to an encapsulated cluster of dilated small bowel loops.
CONCLUSION
Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition causing intestinal obstruction and diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion because of the nonspecific clinical picture. CECT of the abdomen is a useful radiological tool to aid in preoperative diagnosis. Peritoneal sac excision and adhesiolysis is the treatment and the outcome is usually satisfactory.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.08.004
PMCID: PMC3825929  PMID: 24055916
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis; Subacute intestinal obstruction
3.  Abdominal Cocoon Syndrome is a Rare Cause of Mechanical Intestinal Obstructions: A Report of Two Cases 
Case series
Patient: Male, 30 • Male, 47
Final Diagnosis: Abdominal cocoon syndrome
Symptoms: Abdominal pain • nausea • vomiting
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Operation
Specialty: Surgery
Objective:
Rare disease
Background:
Abdominal cocoon syndrome is also known in the literature as sclerosing peritonitis or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is characterized by total or partial encapsulation of abdominal viscera by a fibrous membrane. It has been reported mainly in adolescent women and the majority of the cases are of unknown etiology. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is usually established during laparotomy. We present 2 cases of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.
Case Report:
Two male patients, ages 30 and 47, were admitted to our emergency department for mechanical intestinal obstruction. They were treated surgically and were diagnosed with abdominal cocoon syndrome.
Conclusions:
If abdominal cocoon syndrome is diagnosed pre-operatively and acute abdomen symptoms are not observed, surgery is unnecessary. If surgery is inevitable, membrane resection and bridotomy must be performed, as in our 2 cases. If resection is going to be performed, primary anastomosis is not recommended. Iatrogenic injuries that happened during the operation should not be immediately repaired, because creation of the stoma from the proximal part of the injury is recommended.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.892658
PMCID: PMC4335564  PMID: 25671606
Intestinal Obstruction; Peritoneal Fibrosis; Tomography, Spiral Computed
4.  A rare cause of small bowel obstruction: Abdominal cocoon 
INTRODUCTION
The clinical manifestations of abdominal ‘cocoon’ are non-specific and hence its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively and the management is often delayed. Surgery remains the main stay of treatment with satisfactory outcome and comprises excision of the fibrous membrane, meticulous adhesionolysis and release of the entrapped small bowel.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 45-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of progressive subacute small bowel obstruction. After initial radiological investigations, he underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and was misdiagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis. He was started on anti-tuberculous therapy, but exploratory laparotomy was carried out after failure to respond to anti-tuberculous therapy. At laparotomy, the abdominal ‘cocoon’ which was encapsulating the entire small bowel was excised, and the adhesions were carefully lysed. The patient remained well and without recurrence at 1-year follow-up.
DISCUSSION
Abdominal ‘cocoon’ is a rare cause of subacute, acute and chronic small bowel obstruction. Its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively.
CONCLUSION
Abdominal ‘cocoon’ should be thought of as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. It may be mistaken with abdominal tuberculosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of curative treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.03.016
PMCID: PMC3356543  PMID: 22522743
Abdominal cocoon; Intestinal obstruction; Surgery; Adhesionlysis
5.  Appendicitis 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0408.
Introduction
Appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the appendix that can lead to an abscess, ileus, peritonitis, or death. Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency, with a lifetime risk of approximately 7% to 9% in the USA. Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute appendicitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, laparoscopic surgery, ligation, open surgery, stump inversion, and surgery.
Key Points
The incidence of acute appendicitis is falling, although the reasons are unclear. Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency, with a lifetime risk of approximately 7% to 9% in the USA.Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, fibrous bands, foreign bodies, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen.Mortality from acute appendicitis is <0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Spontaneous resolution of acute appendicitis has been reported in at least 10% of episodes.
Very limited evidence suggests that conservative treatment of acute appendicitis with antibiotics may reduce pain and morphine consumption, but that one third of people are likely to be readmitted with acute appendicitis requiring surgery within 1 year.
Standard treatment for acute appendicitis is appendicectomy. Clinical trials to compare surgery with no treatment would be considered unethical, and have not been done.There is good evidence that laparoscopic surgery in adults reduces wound infections, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, and time off work compared with open surgery, but increases the risk of intra-abdominal abscesses.Limited evidence suggests that laparoscopic surgery in children may reduce wound infections and duration of hospital stay compared with open surgery, but it has not been shown to reduce other complications.There is some evidence to suggest that stapling reduces operative time compared with endoloops, but no reliable evidence to suggest that it reduces other complications.We don't know how natural orifice surgery compares with laparoscopic surgery, as we found no RCTs.There is limited evidence to suggest that stump inversion has an increased rate of wound infection compared with simple ligation, and no difference in rate of intra-abdominal abscess formation.
The most common complication of appendicectomy is wound infection, with intra-abdominal abscess formation less common. Treatment with surgery plus antibiotics reduces wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses compared with surgery alone in adults with simple or complicated appendicitis.However, in children, the benefit of antibiotics may be limited to those with complicated appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC3275312  PMID: 21477397
6.  A case of abdominal cocoon. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1995;10(3):220-225.
Abdominal cocoon is a rare disease of the peritoneum and almost invariably presents as an acute or subacute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown and abdominal cocoon of unknown etiology has been limited to the tropical and subtropical zones and primarily affects young adolescent females. In the temperate zone, only one case has been reported from the United Kingdom, but the patient was also born in Pakistan. No case of abdominal cocoon purely developed in the temperate zone has been reported. Recently, we experienced a case of abdominal cocoon in a 34-year-old female patient(Korean) who had never been abroad. The diagnosis was made postoperatively by reviewing the literature. We herein report this rare condition developed in an unusual geographical location with a brief review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC3054113  PMID: 8527051
7.  Appendicitis 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:0408.
Introduction
Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen. The lifetime risk is approximately 7-9% in the USA, making appendicectomy the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute appendicitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2006 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, laparoscopic surgery, ligation, open surgery, stump inversion, surgery.
Key Points
The incidence of acute appendicitis is falling, although the reasons are unclear. The lifetime risk is approximately 7-9% in the USA, making appendicectomy the most common abdominal surgical emergency.Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen.Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Spontaneous resolution of acute appendicitis has been reported in at least 8% of episodes. Very limited evidence suggests that conservative treatment of acute appendicitis with antibiotics may reduce pain and morphine consumption, but that a third of people are likely to be readmitted with acute appendicitis requiring surgery within 1 year.
Standard treatment for acute appendicitis is appendicectomy. Clinical trials to compare surgery with no surgery would be considered unethical, and have not been done.There is some evidence that laparoscopic appendicectomy in adults reduces wound infections, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, and time off work compared with open surgery, but may increase the risk of intra-abdominal abscesses.Limited evidence suggests that laparoscopic surgery in children may reduce wound infections and duration of hospital stay compared with open surgery, but it has not been shown to reduce other complications.
The most common complication of appendicectomy is wound infection, with intra-abdominal abscess formation less common. Treatment with surgery plus antibiotics reduces wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses compared with surgery alone in adults with simple or complicated appendicitis.However, in children, the benefit of antibiotics may be limited to those with complicated appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC2943782  PMID: 19454096
8.  Family History Is a Predictor for Appendicitis in Adults in the Emergency Department 
Introduction:
A family history of appendicitis has been reported to increase the likelihood of the diagnosis in children and in a retrospective study of adults. We compare positive family history with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a prospective sample of adults.
Methods:
We conducted a prospective observational study of a convenience sample of 428 patients. We compared patients with surgically proven appendicitis to a group without appendicitis. The latter were further grouped by their presenting symptoms: those presenting with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and those with other chief complaints. Participants answered questions regarding their family history of appendicitis. Family history was then compared for the appendicitis group versus the nonappendicitis group as a whole, and then versus the subgroup of patients without appendicitis but with abdominal pain. The primary analysis was a χ2 test of proportions and the calculation of odds ratio (OR) for the relationship between final diagnosis of appendicitis and family history.
Results:
Of 428 patients enrolled, 116 had appendicitis. Of those with other diagnoses, 158 had abdominal pain and 154 had other complaints. Of all patients with appendicitis, 37.9% (confidence interval [Cl] = 29.1–46.8) had positive family history. Of those without appendicitis, 23.7% (Cl = 19.0–28.4) had positive family history. In the subgroup without appendicitis but with abdominal pain, 25.9% (Cl = 19.1–32.8) had positive family history. Both comparisons were significant (P = 0.003; OR = 1.97; 95% Cl = 1.2–3.1; and P=0.034; OR = 1.74; 95% Cl = 1.04–2.9, respectively). By multivariate logistic regression analysis across the full sample, family history was a significant independent predictor (P = 0.011; OR = 1.883) of appendicitis.
Conclusion:
Adults presenting to the emergency department with a known family history of appendicitis are more likely to have this disease than those without.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2011.6.6679
PMCID: PMC3555584  PMID: 23359540
9.  Appendicitis epiploicae: a rare cause of acute abdomen 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr08.2009.2171.
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in adults. Some other conditions, including appendicitis epiploicae, can simulate an acute abdomen. Appendicitis epiploicae or epiploic appendicitis usually originates in the sigmoid colon and rarely from other parts of colon. We report a case of a 20-year-old man with appendicitis epiploicae of the caecum, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Analysis of this uncommon condition, together with a review of the pertinent literature, are presented.
doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2009.2171
PMCID: PMC3047281  PMID: 22736317
10.  The cost effectiveness of early management of acute appendicitis underlies the importance of curative surgical services to a primary healthcare programme 
Introduction
Appendicitis in the developing world is a cause of significant preventable morbidity. This prospective study from a regional hospital in South Africa constructs a robust cost model that demonstrates the cost effectiveness of an efficient curative surgical service in a primary healthcare-orientated system.
Methods
A prospective audit of all patients with acute appendicitis admitted to Edendale Hospital was undertaken from September 2010 to September 2011. A microcosting approach was used to construct a cost model based on the estimated cost of operative and perioperative interventions together with the associated hospital stay. For cost analysis, patients were divided into the following cohorts: uncomplicated appendicitis, complicated appendicitis with localised intra-abdominal sepsis, complicated appendicitis with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis, with and without intensive care unit admission.
Results
Two hundred patients were operated on for acute appendicitis. Of these, 36% (71/200) had uncomplicated appendicitis and 57% (114/200) had perforation. Pathologies other than appendicitis were present in 8% (15/200) and these patients were excluded. Of the perforated appendices, 45% (51/114) had intra-abdominal contamination that was localised while 55% (63/114) generalised sepsis. The mean cost for each patient was: 6,578 ZAR (£566) for uncomplicated appendicitis; 14,791 ZAR (£1,272) for perforation with localised intra-abdominal sepsis and 34,773 ZAR (£2,990) for perforation with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis without intensive care admission. With intensive care admission it was 77,816 ZAR (£6,692). The total cost of managing acute appendicitis was 4,272,871 ZAR (£367,467). Almost 90% of this total cost was owing to advanced disease with abdominal sepsis and therefore potentially preventable.
Conclusions
Early uncomplicated appendicitis treated appropriately carries little morbidity and is relatively inexpensive to treat. As the pathology progresses, the cost rises exponentially. An efficient curative surgical service must be regarded as a cost effective component of a primary healthcare orientated system.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958415
PMCID: PMC4132504  PMID: 23676814
Appendicitis; Complications; Cost; Model
11.  The Diagnostic Value of D-dimer, Procalcitonin and CRP in Acute Appendicitis 
BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute abdomen is of great importance. To date, several inflammatory markers have been used for the diagnosis of acute abdominal conditions, including acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of D-dimer, Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements in the acute appendicitis.
METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between March 1st, 2010 and July 1st, 2011. In this period, seventy-eight patients were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and D-dimer, PCT and CRP levels of the patients were measured. The patients were grouped as phlegmonous appendicitis (Group 1), gangrenous appendicitis (Group 2), perforated appendicitis (Group 3) and negative appendectomy (Group 4) according to the surgical findings and histopathological results.
RESULTS: Of 78 patients, 54 (69.2 %) were male and 24 (30.8 %) were female, and the mean age was 25.4 ± 11.1 years (range, 18 to 69 years). 66 (84.6 %) patients had increased leukocyte count (white blood cell count). The PCT values were higher than the upper normal limit in 20 (25.6%) patients, followed by D-dimer in 22 (28.2 %) patients and CRP in 54 (69.2 %) patients. The diagnostic value of leukocyte count and CRP in acute appendicitis was higher than that of the other markers, whereas leukocyte count showed very low specificity. CRP values were higher in perforated appendicitis when compared with the phlegmonous appendicitis (p<0.05). However, PCT and D-dimer showed lower diagnostic values (26% and 31%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: An increase in CRP levels alone is not sufficient to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. However, CRP levels may differentiate between phlegmonous appendicitis and perforated appendicitis. Due to their low sensitivity and diagnostic value, PCT and D-dimer are not better markers than CRP for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4733
PMCID: PMC3520016  PMID: 23236260
Appendicitis; D-dimer; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein.
12.  Abdominal Mondor disease mimicking acute appendicitis 
Highlights
•We report a very rare case of Mondor disease, simulating acute appendicitis.•We discuss the differential diagnosis of right iliac fossa pain and the value of ultrasound scanning.•Increasing awareness to this rare pathology will minimize unnecessary investigations and costs.
Introduction
Mondor disease (MD), a superficial thrombophlebitis of the thoraco-epigastric veins and their confluents is rarely reported in the literature. The superior epigastric vein is the most affected vessel but involvement of the inferior epigastric vessels or their branches have also been described. There is no universal consensus on treatment in the literature but most authors suggest symptomatic treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Case report
We report the case of a marathon runner who presented with right iliac fossa pain mimicking the clinical symptomatology of an acute appendicitis. The history and the calculated Alvarado score were not in favor of an acute appendicitis. This situation motivated multiple investigations and we finally arrived at the diagnosis of MD.
Discussion
Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common cause of surgical emergencies and one of the most frequent indications for an urgent abdominal surgical procedure around the world. In some cases, right lower quadrant pain remains unclear in spite of US, CT scan, and exclusion of urological and gynecological causes, thus we need to think of some rare pathologies like MD.
Conclusion
MD is often mentioned in the differential diagnosis of breast pathologies but rarely in abdominal pain assessment. It should be mentioned in the differential diagnosis of the right lower quadrant pain when the clinical presentation is unclear and when acute appendicitis has been excluded. Awareness of MD can avoid misdiagnosis and decrease extra costs by sparing unnecessary imaging.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.12.031
PMCID: PMC4818280  PMID: 26803533
MD, Mondor disease; AA, acute appendicitis; CT, computed tomography; US, ultrasound; MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; RLQ, right lower quadrant; NSAIDS, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs; Mondor disease; Right lower quadrant pain; Thrombophlebitis; Epigastric vessels
13.  The effect of blunt abdominal trauma on appendix vermiformis 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2005;22(12):874-877.
Objectives: Trauma and appendicitis are the most common conditions of childhood for which surgical consultation is sought in emergency departments. Occasionally, appendicitis and trauma exist together, which causes an interesting debate whether trauma has led to appendicitis. We aimed to evaluate our patients with traumatic appendicitis and to discuss their properties in the light of the literature.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children of blunt abdominal trauma accompanied by appendicitis.
Results: Of 29 cases of blunt abdominal trauma that had required surgical exploration, five were found to have gross findings of acute appendicitis and underwent appendicectomy. Appendicitis was confirmed histopathologically.
Conclusion: It should be kept in mind that children managed for severe blunt abdominal trauma may develop appendicitis. If clinical outlook suggests appendicitis in cases conservatively managed for blunt abdominal trauma, physical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography and/or abdominal computed tomography should be repeated for diagnosis of traumatic appendicitis. This approach will help to protect the patients against the complications of appendicitis that are likely to develop.
doi:10.1136/emj.2004.018895
PMCID: PMC1726629  PMID: 16299198
14.  Abdominal CT Does Not Improve Outcome for Children with Suspected Acute Appendicitis 
Introduction
Acute appendicitis in children is a clinical diagnosis, which often requires preoperative confirmation with either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) studies. CTs expose children to radiation, which may increase the lifetime risk of developing malignancy. US in the pediatric population with appropriate clinical follow up and serial exam may be an effective diagnostic modality for many children without incurring the risk of radiation. The objective of the study was to compare the rate of appendiceal rupture and negative appendectomies between children with and without abdominal CTs; and to evaluate the same outcomes for children with and without USs to determine if there were any associations between imaging modalities and outcomes.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective chart review including emergency department (ED) and inpatient records from 1/1/2009–2/31/2010 and included patients with suspected acute appendicitis.
Results
1,493 children, aged less than one year to 20 years, were identified in the ED with suspected appendicitis. These patients presented with abdominal pain who had either a surgical consult or an abdominal imaging study to evaluate for appendicitis, or were transferred from an outside hospital or primary care physician office with the stated suspicion of acute appendicitis. Of these patients, 739 were sent home following evaluation in the ED and did not return within the subsequent two weeks and were therefore presumed not to have appendicitis. A total of 754 were admitted and form the study population, of which 20% received a CT, 53% US, and 8% received both. Of these 57%, 95% CI [53.5,60.5] had pathology-proven appendicitis. Appendicitis rates were similar for children with a CT (57%, 95% CI [49.6,64.4]) compared to those without (57%, 95% CI [52.9,61.0]). Children with perforation were similar between those with a CT (18%, 95% CI [12.3,23.7]) and those without (13%, 95% CI [10.3,15.7]). The proportion of children with a negative appendectomy was similar in both groups: CT (7%, 95% CI [2.1,11.9]), US (8%, 95% CI [4.7,11.3]) and neither (12%, 95% CI [5.9,18.1]).
Conclusion
In this uncontrolled study, the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of appendicitis and the incidence of pathology-proven perforation appendix were similar for children with suspected acute appendicitis whether they had CT, US or neither imaging, in conjunction with surgical consult. The imaging modality of CT was not associated with better outcomes for children presenting to the ED with suspected appendicitis.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2015.10.25576
PMCID: PMC4703157  PMID: 26759641
15.  The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain 
BMJ Open  2011;1(1):e000006.
Background
Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery.
Methods/design
This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved on November 2009 by Maggiore Hospital Ethical Review Board (ID CE09079).
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01096927.
Article summary
Article focus
Acute appendicitis can have severe complications including perforation and generalised peritonitis.
The appendix is found to be free of disease in 15–30% of appendectomies.
As surgery carries various risks, conservative non-surgical treatment with antibiotics for suspected appendix inflammation may avoid needless surgery, in particular as the relapse rate is low and the rate of complications is similar.
Key messages
Case control studies that randomly assign patients with acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment show a relapse rate of approximately 14% at 1 year.
The relapse rate of patients who are treated based on a thorough clinical evaluation should be below 14%.
Once factors predictive of outcome and/or the need of surgery are identified, an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will help avoid the risks and costs of needless surgery can be developed.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This non-randomised controlled study will evaluate the effectiveness and short and long term outcomes of non-operative antibiotic treatment of acute appendicitis.
Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are common and easily managed low cost drugs, available both for intravenous and oral use.
Better analysis of clinical data might lead to better decision-making in patients with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis.
The study also aims to evaluate the Alvarado score, which is used to diagnose acute appendicitis and discriminate patients needing immediate surgery from patients who may safely undergo observation and antibiotic treatment.
A large sample of patients undergoing non-operative antibiotic treatment will allow a statistically powerful evaluation of safety, efficacy and cost.
An additional objective is to identify clinical, laboratory and imaging findings that are predictive of failure of conservative treatment and/or relapse of appendicitis and need for appendectomy within 1 year.
As efficacy can not be reliably determined in the absence of a control group, a case series observation determining ‘efficacy’ has limited value.
The Alvarado score is used to separate those with acute appendicitis from those with similar symptoms but no appendicitis and there is no evidence that this score can identify those who would benefit from antibiotic treatment.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2010-000006
PMCID: PMC3191386  PMID: 22021722
Lower abdominal Pain; right iliac fossa pain; acute appendicitis; antibiotic therapy; conservative Management; appendectomy; recurrence; length of hospital stay; sick leave time; short and long Term abdominal pain evaluation; study protocol; case control study
16.  The comparison of the effectiveness of tomography and Alvarado scoring system in patients who underwent surgery with the diagnosis of appendicitis 
Objective:
The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of computed tomography and Alvarado scoring system in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients who underwent appendectomy with the preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Material and Methods:
One hundred and one patients who underwent appendectomy with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January and December 2011 were included in the study. Alvarado scores were calculated, and abdominal tomography scans were obtained for each patient before surgery. Patients with Alvarado score ≥7 were considered to have appendicitis while patients with a score <7 were considered not to have appendicitis. Patients were classified into two groups based on the presence of appendicitis findings on abdominal tomography. Histopathological examination of the appendices was performed following appendectomy. All patients were classified into groups according to pathology results, Alvarado score and tomography findings. The effectiveness of Alvarado score and tomography were compared using the McNemar test.
Results:
Sixty patients (59.4%) were male and 41 (40.6%) were female, with a mean age of 32 years (5–85 years). The rate of negative appendectomy was 3.9%. In 78 patients (77.3%) the Alvarado score was ≥7, while 23 patients (22.7%) had Alvarado scores <7. The presence of appendicitis was determined by histopathology in 22 out of 23 patients whose Alvarado score was <7. Tomography indicated appendicitis in 97 patients (95.9%) whereas four patients (4.1%) exhibited no signs of appendicitis by tomography. However, histopathological evaluation indicated the presence of appendicitis in those four patients as well.
Conclusion:
The study results imply that tomography is a more effective means of diagnosing acute appendicitis as compared to the Alvarado scoring system.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2015.2813
PMCID: PMC4942155  PMID: 27436935
Appendicitis; Alvarado score; tomography
17.  Normal inflammatory markers in appendicitis: evidence from two independent cohort studies 
JRSM Short Reports  2011;2(5):43.
Objectives
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition which can lead to severe complications. Recent work suggested that patients experiencing right lower abdominal pain, with normal white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are unlikely to have acute appendicitis and can be discharged. We present two independent data-sets that suggest that this strategy may not be risk-free.
Design
Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients from two district general hospitals. Sensitivity and specificity of CRP, WCC and neutrophil count (NC) in predicting appendicitis were calculated. Markers were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Kruskul-Wallace test.
Setting
Two district general hospitals in the UK.
Participants
Patients undergoing appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis.
Main outcome measures
Inflammatory markers and appendix histology.
Results
A total of 297 patients were included. Appendicitis occurred in four patients with normal CRP, WCC and NC in centre A and 13 patients in centre B. The sensitivity of all three markers combined was 94% (centre A) and 92% (centre B). The specificity was 60% (centre A) and 64% (centre B). No single marker could differentiate uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, but a raised NC or a CRP >35.5 mg/l predicted complicated appendicitis. CRP, WCC and NC combined differentiated between patients with a normal appendix, uncomplicated appendicitis and complicated appendicitis.
Conclusions
Appendicitis in the presence of normal inflammatory markers is not uncommon. We disagree with the view of Sengupta et al. who suggest that patients with normal WCC and CRP are unlikely to have appendicitis, and recommend that clinicians be wary of normal inflammatory markers in patients with a high clinical suspicion of appendicitis.
doi:10.1258/shorts.2011.010114
PMCID: PMC3105453  PMID: 21637404
18.  Fecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis 
AIM: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis with images of fecal loading in the cecum.
METHODS: Plain abdominal radiographs of 400 patients operated upon for acute appendicitis (n = 100), acute cholecystitis (n = 100), right acute pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 100) and right nephrolithiasis (n = 100) were assessed. The presence of fecal loading was recorded and the sensitivity and specificity of this sign for acute appendicitis were calculated.
RESULTS: The presence of fecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 patients with acute appendicitis, 13 patients with acute cholecystitis, 12 patients with acute inflammatory pelvic disease and 19 patients with nephrolithiasis. The sensitivity of this sign for appendicitis was 97% and its specificity to this disease was 85.3%. Its positive predictive value for appendicitis was 68.7%; however, its negative predictive value for appendicitis was 98.8%.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the presence of radiological images of fecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis, and the absence of this sign probably excludes this disease. This is the first description of fecal loading as a radiological sign for acute appendicitis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i27.4230
PMCID: PMC4615448  PMID: 16015695
Appendicitis; Radiography; Cecum; Fecal loading; Diagnosis
19.  Predictive Factors to Distinguish Between Patients With Noncomplicated Appendicitis and Those With Complicated Appendicitis 
Annals of Coloproctology  2015;31(5):192-197.
Purpose
Recently, randomized controlled trials have reported that conservative therapy can be a treatment option in patients with noncomplicated appendicitis. However, preoperative diagnosis of noncomplicated appendicitis is difficult. In this study, we determined predictive factors to distinguish patients with noncomplicated appendicitis from those with complicated appendicitis.
Methods
A total of 351 patients who underwent surgical treatment for acute appendicitis from January 2011 to December 2012 were included in this study. We classified patients into noncomplicated or complicated appendicitis groups based on the findings of abdominal computed tomography and pathology. We performed a retrospective analysis to find factors that could be used to discriminate between noncomplicated and complicated appendicitis.
Results
The mean age of the patients in the complicated appendicitis group (54.5 years) was higher than that of the patients in the noncomplicated appendicitis group (40.2 years) (P < 0.001), but the male-to-female ratios were similar. In the univariate analysis, the appendicocecal junction's diameter, appendiceal maximal diameter, appendiceal wall enhancement, periappendiceal fat infiltration, ascites, abscesses, neutrophil proportion, C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were statistically significant factors. However, in the multivariate analysis, the appendiceal maximal diameter (P = 0.018; odds ratio [OR], 1.129), periappendiceal fat infiltration (P = 0.025; OR, 5.778), ascites (P = 0.038; OR, 2.902), and CRP (P < 0.001; OR, 1.368) were statistically significant.
Conclusion
Several factors can be used to distinguish between noncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. Using these factors, we could more accurately distinguish patients with noncomplicated appendicitis from those with complicated appendicitis.
doi:10.3393/ac.2015.31.5.192
PMCID: PMC4644707  PMID: 26576398
Appendicitis; Appendectomy
20.  Mean Platelet Volume is Reduced in Acute Appendicitis 
SUMMARY
Objectives
Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common indication for emergency abdominal surgery, although it remains difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the the clinical utility of mean platelet volume in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Methods
The medical records of 241 patients who had undergone appendectomy between June 2013 and March 2014 were investigated retrospectively. Sixty patients who had undergone at least one complete blood count during preoperative hospital admission and who had no other active inflammatory conditions at the time the sample was taken were included in the study. Mean platelet volume and leukocyte count values were determined in each patient at hospital admission and during active acute appendicitis. Age, sex, mean platelet volume and leukocyte counts were recorded for each patient.
Results
The mean age of patients was 33.15±10.94 years and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean leukocyte count prior to acute appendicitis was 7.42±2.12×103/mm3. Mean leukocyte count was significantly higher (13.14±2.99×103/mm3) in acute appendicitis. The optimal leukocyte count cutoff point for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was 10.10×103/mm3, with sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 75%. The mean platelet volume prior to acute appendicitis was 7.58±1.11 fL. Mean platelet volume was significantly lower (7.03±0.8 fL) in acute appendicitis. The optimal mean platelet volume cutoff point for the diagnosis of AA was 6.10 fL, with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 42%. Area under the curve for leukocyte count diagnosis was 0.67 and 0.69 for the diagnosis of AA by mean platelet volume.
Conclusions
Mean platelet volume was significantly decreased in acute appendicitis. Mean platelet volume can be used as a supportive diagnostic parameter in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
doi:10.5505/1304.7361.2015.32657
PMCID: PMC4909950  PMID: 27331191
Acute appendicitis; diagnosis; mean platelet volume
21.  Systematic review of blunt abdominal trauma as a cause of acute appendicitis 
INTRODUCTION
Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords ‘appendicitis’, ‘abdominal’ and ‘trauma’.
RESULTS
The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis.
CONCLUSIONS
Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa.
doi:10.1308/003588410X12664192075936
PMCID: PMC3182788  PMID: 20513274
Trauma; Appendicitis
22.  Acute appendicitis: transcript profiling of blood identifies promising biomarkers and potential underlying processes 
BMC Medical Genomics  2016;9:40.
Background
The diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be surprisingly difficult without computed tomography, which carries significant radiation exposure. Circulating blood cells may carry informative changes in their RNA expression profile that would signal internal infection or inflammation of the appendix.
Methods
Genome-wide expression profiling was applied to whole blood RNA of acute appendicitis patients versus patients with other abdominal disorders, in order to identify biomarkers of appendicitis. From a large cohort of emergency patients, a discovery set of patients with surgically confirmed appendicitis, or abdominal pain from other causes, was identified. RNA from whole blood was profiled by microarrays, and RNA levels were filtered by a combined fold-change (>2) and p value (<0.05). A separate set of patients, including patients with respiratory infections, was used to validate a partial least squares discriminant (PLSD) prediction model.
Results
Transcript profiling identified 37 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in appendicitis versus abdominal pain patients. The DEG list contained 3 major ontologies: infection-related, inflammation-related, and ribosomal processing. Appendicitis patients had lower level of neutrophil defensin mRNA (DEFA1,3), but higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and interleukin-8 receptor-ß (CXCR2/IL8RB), which was confirmed in a larger cohort of 60 patients using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).
Conclusions
Patients with acute appendicitis have detectable changes in the mRNA expression levels of factors related to neutrophil innate defense systems. The low defensin mRNA levels suggest that appendicitis patient’s immune cells are not directly activated by pathogens, but are primed by diffusible factors in the microenvironment of the infection. The detected biomarkers are consistent with prior evidence that biofilm-forming bacteria in the appendix may be an important factor in appendicitis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12920-016-0200-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12920-016-0200-y
PMCID: PMC4946184  PMID: 27417541
Appendicitis; Transcript profiling; Biomarkers; Interleukin-8 receptor; Alkaline phosphatase; Defensin
23.  Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis 
The Journal of surgical research  2014;190(1):230-234.
Background
Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis.
Materials and Methods
We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis.
Results
251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.0001), and IG% (p=0.0299). In the adjusted model, only elevated CRP (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.40-8.54) and presence of left shift (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.09-6.46) were significant predictors of perforated appendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis.
Conclusions
IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis.
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2014.04.008
PMCID: PMC4277231  PMID: 24793450
appendicitis; pediatric; immature granulocyte percentage
24.  Acute appendicitis complicated by mass formation occurring simultaneously with serologically proven dengue fever: a case report 
Introduction
Acute abdomen and acute appendicitis are unusual clinical presentations that occur in dengue infection–caused illness. Lymphoid hyperplasia and mesenteric adenitis are possible explanations, although vasculitis in the pathology of dengue infection has not been reported. Authors of previous case reports have described mimicking of acute appendicitis discovered upon surgical treatment. Dengue virus has not been proven to cause acute appendicitis.
Case presentation
We report a case of an 8-year-old Sinhalese boy who developed acute appendicitis during the acute phase of serologically confirmed dengue fever. Although abdominal pain, vomiting and right-sided tenderness were present at the time of admission, a diagnosis of acute appendicitis was considered only 18 hours later, when abdominal guarding and a well-defined mass in the right iliac fossa were detected clinically and ultrasonographically. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics was successful.
Conclusion
In areas where dengue is endemic, awareness of dengue viral infection as a non-surgical cause of acute abdomen, as well as its ability to mimic acute appendicitis, is important because unnecessary surgery-related morbidity can be decreased. However, delaying or missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can result in serious complications. This message is particularly relevant to clinicians, especially pediatricians and surgeons, who encounter large numbers of patients during dengue epidemics and run the risk of missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Likewise, delaying or missing the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever can lead to dengue shock syndrome and even death. This case highlights the need for careful evaluation of each patient who presents with acute abdomen and dengue infection.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-116
PMCID: PMC4234973  PMID: 24708584
Acute appendicitis; Dengue fever
25.  Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2015;21(44):12713-12721.
This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with this proposed pentad may benefit from testing for Aspergillus infection by silver-stains/immunohistochemistry and considering empirical anti-Aspergillus therapy pending a tissue diagnosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i44.12713
PMCID: PMC4658627  PMID: 26640349
Aspergillosis; Aspergillus appendicitis; Fungal appendicitis; Appendicitis; Neutropenia; Chemotherapy; Acute myelocytic leukemia

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