Richter’s hernia is an abdominal hernia in which part of the circumference of bowel entrapped in the hernial sac. The segment of the entrapped bowel is nearly always the distal ileum but any part of gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon may become incarcerated. The most common sites for Richter’s hernia are the femoral ring (71%), deep inguinal ring (23%) and ventral or umbilical hernias (6%). The growing popularity of laparoscopic surgery has led to a new possible site for development of Richter’s hernia. In most cases as less than two thirds of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved, the lumen of the gut remains free and thus features of intestinal obstruction are often absent. Richter’s hernia is a deceptive entity whose high death rate can be reduced by accurate diagnosis and early surgery. We report a case of strangulated Richter’s umbilical hernia in a 36 years old male.
Richter’s umbilical hernia; Strangulated
Obturator hernia is a rare condition that may present in an acute or subacute setting in correlation with the degree of small-bowel obstruction. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are often non-specific. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for emaciated elderly women with small-bowel obstruction without a previous abdominal operation and a positive Howship–Romberg sign. When diagnosis is in doubt, computed tomography scan of the abdomen and the pelvis (if available) or laparotomy should be performed immediately, as high mortality rate is related to the perforation of gangrenous bowels. We present 2 cases of strangulated obturator hernia, managed differently with both open and laparoscopic approaches. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography scan is highlighted followed by a brief literature review with an emphasis placed on surgical management.
digestive system surgical procedures; gut; intestinal obstruction; laparoscopy; obturator hernia; X-ray computed tomography scanners
Port site hernia develops through a fascial or peritoneal layer that was inadequate or not repaired. It is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgery which may lead to serious problems. Here, we present a 77-year-old female, diagnosed with a small bowel hernia through a 10-mm port site. We had performed ten cases of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy before this case. The patient complained of left lower abdominal pain with a palpable mass. Abdominal CT showed an incarcerated small bowel hernia and the patient underwent segmental resection of the strangulated small bowel through a minimally extended port site incision.
Port site hernia; Strangulated small bowel; Minimally extended port site incision
“Reduction en masse of inguinal hernia” means reduction/migration of a hernial sac into the properitoneal space. We report the CT findings in a case of reduction en masse with strangulated obstruction. CT scan demonstrated a hernial sac with fibrous constriction band at the neck, situated in the properitoneal space superior to the inguinal region, causing closed-loop obstruction. The hernial sac contained thickened bowel loop with wall enhancement and fluid suggestive of incarceration/strangulation. We propose to call this, ‘The properitoneal hernial sac sign’, defined as “Presence of a hernial sac in the properitoneal space (and not in the inguinal/femoral canal) containing an obstructed/incarcerated bowel loop and causing small bowel obstruction” to identify “reduction en masse of inguinal hernia”.
Inguinal hernia; hernial sac; reduction en masse; properitoneal space; closed-loop obstruction
Presence of vermiform appendix (non-inflamed or inflamed) in inguinal hernia is called Amyand's hernia in honor to surgeon C. Amyand who published the first case of perforated appendicitis within inguinal hernia in a boy caused by ingested pin. This presentation of foreign body Amyand's hernia appendicitis is very rare, and here we present such a case.
A 6-year-old boy, white Kosovar ethnicity, presented with right groin pain, swelling and redness. Two days before admission the patient was injured by football during a children game in the right lower abdomen and the next day he complained of pain in the right inguinal area.
On admission patient had a painful non-reducible mass in the right inguinal region and cellulitis. Plain abdominal x-ray showed no fluid-air levels, but a metallic foreign body (pin) under right superior pubic ramus was apparent. With preoperative diagnosis of suspect incarcerated inguinal hernia with cellulitis the patient was operated on under general anaesthesia in December 2, 2006. Intraoperatively we found the inflamed vermiform appendix perforated by a pin in the hernial sac. Appendectomy and herniotomy were performed. The wound was primary closed, without any post-operative complications and follow up for the patient is three years long.
Foreign body (pin) Amyand's hernia appendicitis seems to be extremely rare, maybe once in a century (Amyand 1735, Hall 1886, and our case in 2006). In patients with clinical signs of incarcerated inguinal hernia, with locally inflammatory signs, but without signs of intestinal obstruction Amyand's hernia appendicitis in differential diagnosis must be considered. In our case, it is possible that the injury during the football game might have induced perforation of the vermiform appendix with the foreign body in it.
We describe a case of strangulated umbilical hernia in a girl aged 5 years. She presented with an acute inflammatory lesion at the umbilicus which was initially thought to be due to cellulitis with possible abscess formation. Exploration revealed an umbilical hernia containing necrotic greater omentum.
The incidence of diaphragmatic hernias caused or exacerbated by diagnostic colonoscopy is not well elucidated at this time, and is believed to be very rare.
We present the case of a 57 year old man with remote history of traumatic injury who first presented with vague left shoulder pain for two weeks, mild anemia, and tested positive for fecal occult blood. Four days post colonoscopy the patient was found to have a strangulated loop of bowel herniated through the diaphragm into the left hemithorax.
In patients with previous history of serious traumatic injury and particularly those with previous splenectomy, a thorough history and physical examination before routine colonoscopy is important. A high level of suspicion for post-operative complications should also be maintained when assessing such patients.
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopic-assisted surgery has been applied for a variety of colonie surgery. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a possible and avoidable complication of laparoscopic colonie surgery.
A 47-year-old woman underwent gasless laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid colectomy. On the 20th postoperative day, she developed bowel obstruction. Decompression with a long tube failed to resolve the bowel obstruction. Open laparotomy was performed. Abdominal exploration revealed a loop of the small bowel incarcerated in the mesenteric defect caused by the previous operation. Adhesiolysis was performed, and the post-operative course was uneventful.
Despite technical difficulty, complete closure of the mesentery after bowel resection is strongly recommended for prevention of transmesenteric incarcerated hernia after laparoscopic surgery.
Laparoscopic surgery; Hernia; Complication; Mesentery
Hernia is one of the commonest complications of peritoneal dialysis. It is recommended that patients undergo surgical repair of hernias immediately after the diagnosis. We report a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis presenting with strangulated umbilical hernia. He underwent resection of the gangrenous ileum and end-to-end anastomosis. He was shifted to hemodialysis on second postoperative day and was continued on hemodialysis for 2 weeks. In the third week, he was initiated on low volume PD exchanges and by the fourth week, he returned to normal CAPD exchanges.
Peritoneal dialysis; strangulation; umbilical hernia
Acute inguinal hernias are a common presentation as surgical emergencies, which have been routinely managed with open surgery. In recent years, the laparoscopic approach has been described by several authors but has been controversial amongst surgeons. We describe the laparoscopic approach to incarcerated/strangulated inguinal hernias based on a review of the literature with regards to its feasibility in laparoscopically managing the acute hernia presentation.
A systematic literature search was carried out including Medline with PubMed as the search engine, and Ovid, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar databases to identify articles reporting on laparoscopic treatment, reduction, and repair of incarcerated or strangulated inguinal hernias from 1989 to 2008.
Forty-three articles were found, and 7 were included according to the inclusion criteria set. Articles reporting on the use of laparoscopy for the evaluation of the hernia but not reducing and repairing it, the use of the open technique, elective hernia repairs, pediatric series, review articles, and other kinds of hernias were excluded after title and abstract review. This resulted in 16 articles that were reviewed in full. Of these 16 articles, 7 reported on the use of the laparoscopic approach exclusively. From these 7 studies, there were 328 cases reported, 6 conversions, average operating time of 61.3 minutes (SD±12.3), average hospital stay of 3.8 days (SD±1.2), 34 complications (25 of which were reported as minor), and 17 bowel resections performed either laparoscopically or through a minilaparotomy incision guided laparoscopically.
The laparoscopic repair is a feasible procedure with acceptable results; however, its efficacy needs to be studied further, ideally with larger multicenter randomized controlled trials.
Intra-abdominal drains have been widely used in order to prevent intra-abdominal fluid accumulation and detection of anastomotic leakage.
Presentation of case
We herein report a case of small bowel herniation followed by strangulation in an 82 year old woman who had undergone sigmoidectomy for colorectal cancer.
Although several complications related to drain usage such as drainsite infection, hemorrhage and intestinal perforation may occur, intestinal incarceration through drain site is rarely reported.
Drains must be used with caution and only if indicated. Careful insertion, regular post-operative or post-removal inspection is strongly recommended.
Abdominal drain; Small bowel herniation; Small bowel incarceration
Internal hernia is a rare entity which can cause intestinal obstruction. The most common type of internal hernia is the paraduodenal hernia which accounts for 53% of cases, and the internal hernia within the pelvis account for 7%. Perineal hernia, which is classified as pelvic hernia, usually occurs due to weakening of the pelvic floor musculature and thus, should be distinguished from the internal hernia caused by peritoneal defects in the pelvic cavity.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of 28-year-old female who presented intestinal obstruction. Conservative therapies failed and she required emergency laparotomy. The operative findings revealed a peritoneal defect of 2 cm in diameter in the pouch of Douglas, through which the ileum was incarcerated and strangulated. The incarcerated bowel was reduced, and the intestinal color quickly returned to normal. Therefore a primary closure of the peritoneal defect was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful.
A PubMed search for the case of internal hernia through a defect in the pouch of Douglas revealed only three, making this an extremely rare condition.
Because of rarity of this hernia, the etiology is unknown. However, our patient is a young female with no history of pregnancy, abdominal surgery, or trauma, therefore the cause of the peritoneal defect is considered congenital.
Pouch of Douglas; Internal hernia; Peritoneal defect; Intestinal obstruction
We report a rare case of a giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. A 61-yr-old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, an umbilical mass, nausea and vomiting. On examination, a large, irreducible umbilical hernia was found. The woman underwent an urgent operation for a possible strangulated hernia. A large, multilocular tumor was found. The tumor was excised, and a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy were performed. The woman was discharged 6 days after her admission. This is the first report of incarcerated umbilical hernia containing a giant ovarian tumor within the sac.
Granulosa Cell Tumor; Hernia, Umbilical; Surgery
We report an incarcerated internal hernia in a huge irreducible parastomal hernia-"hernia within hernia." A 70-year-old obese woman with diabetes who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection 20 years ago was admitted to our hospital with 20 years history of a huge irreducible bulge, 25 cm in diameter. An internal hernia due to an adhesive band extending from the sac wall to proximal colon was found in the parastomal hernia sac during an emergency laparotomy. We cut off the distal colon and relocated the colostomy stoma. The patient was discharged uneventfully 2 weeks after the surgery and was readmitted to have a further laparoscopic hernia repair 8 months later. Unfortunately, an unrecognized enterotomy occurred during the secondary surgery that led to an additional laparotomy during which the mesh was not contaminated by the bowel contents and was kept in place. At 22-month follow-up, there were no evidences of recurrence.
Ventral hernia; Incarceration; Intestinal obstruction; Herniorrhaphy
Strangulated Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical emergencies dealt with by surgeons worldwide. Usually the narrow internal inguinal ring or the external inguinal ring is the site of constriction of the viscus, which forms the content of the hernia resulting in strangulation. We report a rare case of strangulated inguinal hernia where the constricting element is not the internal or external inguinal ring, but an omental band adhesion causing closed loop small bowel obstruction and gangrene within the hernial sac in the inguinal canal.
A 56-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented to us with a 6 hours history of non-reducible tender lump in his right groin. His groin was explored urgently under general anaesthesia and was found to have an omental band adhesion causing closed loop small bowel obstruction with gangrene within the hernial sac in the inguinal canal with a wide internal inguinal ring. Gangrenous small bowel was resected and primary anastomosis was performed through the same inguinal incision.
Strangulation of the inguinal hernial content is usually due to the tight constriction at the level of internal inguinal ring or at external inguinal ring. Uncommonly strangulation of the contents can occur due to other causes like omental band adhesion. Anyone presenting with clinical features of strangulated inguinal hernia with small bowel obstruction mandates prompt exploration of the inguinal canal. Although it may not change the treatment approach, one should be aware about this special entity. Resection of the gangrenous small bowel and primary anastomosis can be safely performed through the same inguinal incision.
A 27-year-old man presented with a 5 day history of abdominal pain and distension, with associated constipation and vomiting. He had presented 8 years earlier following a traumatic injury to the left side of the chest, and no diaphragmatic injury was reported at that time. On this admission, a computed tomography scan showed herniation of the splenic flexure of the colon into the left hemithorax. Subsequently, he had an emergency laparotomy for resection, with formation of a loop ileostomy. The various imaging techniques all have advantages and disadvantages when diagnosing a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. It is the clinician’s role to maintain a high index of suspicion when a patient initially presents with trauma where a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia may be a possibility.
Intra luminal hypopharyngeal and oesophageal foreign bodies are common. Among these the incidence of open safety pin is relatively uncommon and the occurrence of multiple open safety pins in the same ’ individual is a very rare phenomenon. Removal of one open safety pin itself is a surgical enigma, as inadvertant attempts at removal may cause the pointed end to get impacted submucosally or intramurally or may cause oesophageal tear and calls for the assistance of a thoracic surgeon. This article intends to highlight the occurrence of multiple open safety pins in the lumen of the oesophagus and its difficulty in successful retrieval.
Multiple open safety pins; Foreign body — oesophagus
The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia.
An 81-year-old Caucasian man with a history of alcoholic liver disease presented to our emergency department with an erythematous umbilical hernia and clear, yellow discharge from the umbilicus. On straining for stool, after initial clinical assessment, our patient noted a gush of fluid and evisceration of omentum from the umbilical hernia. An urgent laparotomy was performed with excision of the umbilicus and devitalized omentum.
We report the case of a patient with a history of alcoholic liver disease with ascites. Ascites causes a chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure. A sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, vomiting, gastroscopy or, as in this case, straining for stool can cause rupture of an umbilical hernia. The presence of discoloration, ulceration or a rapid increase in size of the umbilical hernia signals impending rupture and should prompt the physician to reduce the intra-abdominal pressure.
Posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernia complicated with colonic obstruction can be managed by experienced surgeons with minimally invasive methods.
Posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernias (PDH) are serious complications of blunt and penetrating abdominal or thoracic trauma. Traditional thoracic or abdominal operations are usually performed in these cases.
We present 2 cases of posttraumatic left-sided diaphragmatic hernia complicated by strangulation and colon obstruction. Both cases were successfully treated with laparoscopy.
We found that laparoscopy is a safe, successful, and gentle procedure not only for diagnosis but also for treatment of complicated PDH. Strangulation and colon obstruction were not contraindications to performing laparoscopic procedures. The postoperative course and long-term follow-up (range, 12 to 30 months) were uneventful and short. We expect the same good long-term results after laparoscopic repair as after open conventional surgery.
We recommend the use a minimally invasive approach to treat posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernia complicated by strangulation and colon obstruction in hemodynamically stable patients.
Laparoscopy; Posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernia; Strangulation; Colon obstruction
Femoral hernias are relatively uncommon, however they are the most common incarcerated abdominal hernia, with strangulation of a viscus carrying significant mortality. Classically three approaches are described to open femoral hernia repair: Lockwood's infra-inguinal, Lotheissen's trans-inguinal and McEvedy's high approach. Each approach describes a separate skin incision and dissection to access the femoral sac. The decision as to which approach to adopt, predominantly dependent on the suspicion of finding strangulated bowel, is often a difficult one and in our opinion an unnecessary one.
We propose a technique for open femoral hernia repair that involves a single skin incision 1 cm above the medial half of the inguinal ligament that allows all of the above approaches to the hernia sac depending on the operative findings. Thus the repair of simple femoral hernias can be performed from below the inguinal ligament. If found, inguinal hernias can be repaired. More importantly, resection of compromised bowel can be achieved by accessing the peritoneal cavity with division of the linea semilunaris 4 cm above the inguinal ligament. This avoids compromise of the inguinal canal, and with medial retraction of the rectus abdominis muscle enables access to the peritoneal cavity and compromised bowel.
This simple technique minimises the preoperative debate as to which incision will allow the best approach to the femoral hernia sac, allow for alteration to a simple inguinal hernia repair if necessary, and more importantly obviate the need for further skin incisions if compromised bowel is encountered that requires resection.
A 90-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with abdominal pain and a fever of up to 39°C. She had a history of hysterectomy about 30 years previously, and redness and swelling were seen at the abdominal median scar. Serum biochemistry showed minor elevation of C-reactive protein and creatine phosphokinase. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed an edematous intestinal tract image over the median abdominal wall. Incarcerated incisional hernia and intestinal necrosis were suspected. Therefore, emergency surgery was performed. On laparotomy, abundant purulent ascitic fluid was found. The small intestine was incarcerated about 100 cm orally from the terminal ileum, and a 2-mm perforation was present in the incarcerated small intestine. In addition, some white areas measuring 1 mm were found in the small intestinal wall. A press-through package (PTP) of a tablet was confirmed in the intestinal tract near the perforated area. We removed the PTP through the perforation and performed direct suture. Postoperatively, we retrospectively reviewed the CT image and found a high-density shadow which seemed to represent the PTP.
Press-through package; Ileus; Incisional hernia; Perforative peritonitis
Intersigmoid hernia is a rare internal hernia presenting with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is uncommon but computerised tomography (CT) may show signs to suggest internal hernia.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 63-year-old female presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and absolute constipation. Examination revealed a tense distended abdomen. A plain abdominal radiograph showed features of small bowel obstruction. Conservative management was initiated without success and a CT scan was performed which showed a dilated distal oesophagus, stomach and small bowel with a non-dilated length of distal ileum and large bowel. Internal hernia was suggested as a possible cause and the patient underwent a laparotomy where a loop of small bowel was found to be strangulated and gangrenous within the intersigmoid fossa. The gangrenous bowel was resected, an end-to-end anastamosis was performed and the fossa was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
Hernias of the sigmoid mesocolon account for 6% of internal hernias with internal hernias themselves causing between 0.2 and 4.1% of intestinal obstruction. This report presents a case of intersigmoid hernia, a rare internal hernia which should be suspected in patients presenting with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Patients with these symptoms should receive an urgent CT scan to facilitate early surgery and minimise strangulation and prevent bowel resection.
Intersigmoid hernia presents with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Urgent CT scanning and early surgery may minimise strangulation, conserve bowel and reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
Intersigmoid hernia; Intersigmoid fossa; Sigmoid mesocolon hernia; Internal hernia; Intestinal obstruction
Meckel's diverticulum affects 1 - 3% of general population and is known as the most common anomaly of gastrointestinal tract. However, its estimated lifetime complication rate is approximately 4%. Intestinal obstruction is most common complication of Meckel's diverticulum in adult population.
In the present study, we reported a 42-year-old female patient with a gangrenous Meckel's diverticulum in a strangulated umbilical hernia sac treated by dissection of diverticulomesenteric bands and diverticulectomy. In 36 months follow-up, there was neither any complication nor recurrence of hernia.
This case represents a gangrenous Meckel's diverticulum in a strangulated umbilical hernia sac diagnosed in case of emergency. Although it is a very rare phenomenon, we should be vigilant for this entity especially in case of emergency.
Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it’ s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it’ s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.
Foreign body; Nose; Safety pin
Ingestion of a foreign body is a frequent and well-known medical problem with several diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Usually, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract without incident. In some cases, they can be lodged in the appendix and may cause appendicitis. We report a case of a 29-year old woman, suffering from mental illness, with a safety pin lodged in the appendix. Initially, the patient consulted for abdominal pain. After a period of waiting, during which time the foreign body did not move, a colonoscopy was performed but failed to see the safety pin. Then, the patient underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathological examination showed an ulcerative appendicitis.
Appendectomy; Appendix; Foreign body; Laparoscopy