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1.  A pin in appendix within Amyand's hernia in a six-years-old boy: case report and review of literature 
Introduction
Presence of vermiform appendix (non-inflamed or inflamed) in inguinal hernia is called Amyand's hernia in honor to surgeon C. Amyand who published the first case of perforated appendicitis within inguinal hernia in a boy caused by ingested pin. This presentation of foreign body Amyand's hernia appendicitis is very rare, and here we present such a case.
Case presentation
A 6-year-old boy, white Kosovar ethnicity, presented with right groin pain, swelling and redness. Two days before admission the patient was injured by football during a children game in the right lower abdomen and the next day he complained of pain in the right inguinal area.
On admission patient had a painful non-reducible mass in the right inguinal region and cellulitis. Plain abdominal x-ray showed no fluid-air levels, but a metallic foreign body (pin) under right superior pubic ramus was apparent. With preoperative diagnosis of suspect incarcerated inguinal hernia with cellulitis the patient was operated on under general anaesthesia in December 2, 2006. Intraoperatively we found the inflamed vermiform appendix perforated by a pin in the hernial sac. Appendectomy and herniotomy were performed. The wound was primary closed, without any post-operative complications and follow up for the patient is three years long.
Conclusion
Foreign body (pin) Amyand's hernia appendicitis seems to be extremely rare, maybe once in a century (Amyand 1735, Hall 1886, and our case in 2006). In patients with clinical signs of incarcerated inguinal hernia, with locally inflammatory signs, but without signs of intestinal obstruction Amyand's hernia appendicitis in differential diagnosis must be considered. In our case, it is possible that the injury during the football game might have induced perforation of the vermiform appendix with the foreign body in it.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-5-14
PMCID: PMC2882903  PMID: 20482877
2.  Foreign body ingestion in children 
Aim:
Foreign bodies ingested by the oral route enter into the gastrointestinal tract and are considered a significant health problem in the childhood. In this study, we evaluated the pediatric patients who presented to our hospital with the complaint of ingestion of foreign body.
Material and Methods:
The hospital records of all children who presented to our clinic because of ingestion of foreign body between January 2008 and January 2015 were examined retrospectively. The complaints at admission, the types of foreign bodies ingested, the localization of the foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract and the approaches and treatment methods used were examined.
Results:
Thirty-six (56%) of 64 patients included in the study were male and 28 (44%) were female and the mean age was 5.7±4.6 years (10 months–17 years). Thirty eight (59%) of 64 children who were included in the assessment were below the age of five years. The most common complaint at presentation was parental recognition of the ingested object and dysphagia. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies included coins, sewing pins, safety pins and hairclips. Nail clipper detected in the stomach, sewing pin which penetrated through the duodenal wall and stuck to hepatic parenchyma were the first pediatric cases in the literature. Upper esophagus was the most common location for foreign bodies. Endoscopic examinations were performed in 55 of 64 children.
Conclusions:
Early detection and treatment of ingested foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal system is important in terms of preventing possible complications. In our study, the most frequent foreign bodies detected in the upper digestive tract were coins and they were most frequently detected in the upper esophagus. Most of our patients were below the age of five years. Flexible endoscopic method was used commonly for treatment.
doi:10.5152/TurkPediatriArs.2015.3164
PMCID: PMC4743866  PMID: 26884693
Children; endoscopy; gastrointestinal tract; foreign body ingestion
3.  Metastatic ovarian carcinoma presenting as an incarcerated femoral hernia 
Highlights
•Occasionally unusual abdominal structures may be found within the hernia sacs.•Abdominal malignancies have the potential to seed any part of the peritoneum.•Surgeons should be vigilant where there is a known intra-abdominal malignancy & the presence of an incarcerated hernia.
Introduction
Incarcerated femoral hernias usually contain a simple loop of bowel. Occasionally other abdominal structures may be found within the hernial sac. Rarely femoral hernias may contain metastatic tumour deposits.
Presentation of case
We report the case of an 82 year old lady with a background of ovarian carcinoma, who presented with acute small bowel obstruction and an irreducible right groin mass. CT imaging revealed an incarcerated loop of small bowel within a femoral hernia sac. The patient proceeded to theatre for hernia repair. Upon opening the hernial sac an adherent incarcerated small bowel loop was discovered. Interestingly, the sac itself was lined with metastatic deposits, which were later histologically proven to be ovarian in origin. The sac was reduced and the hernia was repaired. The patient’s post-operative course was uneventful.
Discussion
As abdominal wall hernias communicate with the abdominal cavity there is the potential for malignant cells to seed the peritoneal lining of the hernia sac. If the sac also contains bowel wall, this may become involved in the tumour mass. This may result in small bowel incarceration & obstruction.
Conclusion
In cases, where there is a known intra-abdominal malignancy & the presence of an incarcerated hernia, there should be a high index of suspicion for the presence of tumour within the hernial contents.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.04.024
PMCID: PMC4446680  PMID: 25931301
Femoral hernia; Incarcerated; Cancer; Ovarian; Bowel obstruction; Strangulated
4.  Strangulated Richter’s Umbilical Hernia - A Case Report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;73(6):455-457.
Richter’s hernia is an abdominal hernia in which part of the circumference of bowel entrapped in the hernial sac. The segment of the entrapped bowel is nearly always the distal ileum but any part of gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon may become incarcerated. The most common sites for Richter’s hernia are the femoral ring (71%), deep inguinal ring (23%) and ventral or umbilical hernias (6%). The growing popularity of laparoscopic surgery has led to a new possible site for development of Richter’s hernia. In most cases as less than two thirds of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved, the lumen of the gut remains free and thus features of intestinal obstruction are often absent. Richter’s hernia is a deceptive entity whose high death rate can be reduced by accurate diagnosis and early surgery. We report a case of strangulated Richter’s umbilical hernia in a 36 years old male.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0272-z
PMCID: PMC3236258  PMID: 23204709
Richter’s umbilical hernia; Strangulated
5.  The use of mesh in acute hernia: frequency and outcome in 99 cases 
Hernia  2011;15(3):297-300.
Background
Incarceration of inguinal, umbilical and cicatricial hernias is a frequent problem. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of mesh and outcome after surgery. The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the use of mesh in incarcerated hernia and the clinical outcome.
Patients and methods
Correspondence, operation reports and patient files between January 1995 and December 2005 of patients presented at one academic and one teaching hospital in Rotterdam were searched for the following keywords: incarceration, strangulation and hernia. The patient characteristics, clinical presentation, pre-operative findings and clinical course were scored and analysed.
Results
A total of 203 patients could be identified: 76 inguinal, 52 umbilical, 39 incisional, 14 epigastric, 14 femoral, five trocar and three spigelian hernias. In the statistical analysis, epigastric, femoral, trocar and spigelian hernias were pooled, due to their small group sizes. One patient was excluded from the analysis because the hernia was not corrected during operation. In total, 99 hernias were repaired using mesh versus 103 primary suture repairs.
Twenty-five wound infections were registered (12.3%). One mesh was removed during a reintervention for anastomotic leakage, although no signs of wound infection were present. Nine patients died, none of them due to wound-related problems [one cardiovascular, one ruptured aneurysm, two anastomotic leakage, two sepsis e causa incognita (e.c.i.), three pulmonary complications]. Univariate analysis showed that female patients (P = 0.007), adipose patients (P = 0.016), patients with an umbilical hernia (P = 0.01) and patients who underwent a bowel resection (P = 0.015) had a significantly higher rate of wound infections. The type of repair (e.g. primary suture or mesh), use of antibiotic prophylaxis, gender, ASA class and age showed no significant relation with post-operative wound infection. After logistic regression analysis, only bowel resection (P = 0.020) showed a significant relation with post-operative wound infection.
Conclusions
Wound infection rates are high after the correction of acute hernia, but clinical consequences are relatively low. Mesh correction of an acute hernia seems to be safe and should be considered in every incarcerated hernia.
doi:10.1007/s10029-010-0779-4
PMCID: PMC3114066  PMID: 21259032
Hernia; Abdominal; Acute
6.  Laparoscopic port site Richter's hernia – An important lesson learnt 
Introduction
We report a case of small bowel obstruction with strangulation caused by a port site hernia following a laparoscopic appendicectomy and the successful management of the problem by employing a laparoscopy assisted technique. The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of fascial closures of trocar sites in order to significantly decrease postoperative morbidity.
Case report
A 31 years old female presented with a classic clinical picture of acute appendicitis. She underwent an uneventful laparoscopic appendicectomy. A 12 mm trocar was used at the umbilical port. On Postoperative day three, the patient developed abdominal distension, crampy abdominal pain, nausea and bilious vomiting. Her white cell count increased to 16,500/mm3, and CRP was 145. X-ray abdomen showed dilated small bowel with multiple air fluid levels. CT scan showed a herniated loop of small bowel into the trocar site with small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy was done to confirm the Richter's hernia into trocar site with small bowel obstruction. The bowel loop could not be reduced laparoscopically. Limited exploration of the trocar site confirmed findings with necrosis of the antimesenteric portion of the small bowel. A limited bowel resection and anastomosis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.
Conclusion
Most port site hernias present within 10 days of the primary procedures, delayed hernias have been reported. CT scan is a helpful adjunct to differentiate port site hematoma from incarcerated small bowel. The knowledge of such a complication and its early diagnosis are important to avoid complications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2010.11.002
PMCID: PMC3199732  PMID: 22096675
Laparoscopy; Complications; Port site; Hernia
7.  Rare case of a strangulated intercostal flank hernia following open nephrectomy: A case report and review of literature 
Highlights
•Urgent abdominal examination with palpation of the region is necessary in the diagnosis of strangulated hernias but may be misleading so further studies are necessary.•Serological testing of a patient with a strangulated hernia may show lactic acidosis and leukocytosis.•Operative management is necessary for strangulated hernias especially in patients with altered mental status and a clinical picture showing decline.•Intercostal incisional herniation following a previous surgical procedure is a rare entity which should be diagnosed and treated rapidly.•This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management.
Introduction
Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of herniation into the intercostal space after a flank incision for a surgical procedure. This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management.
Presentation of case
We present a case of a 79-year-old adult man with multiple comorbidities presenting with a strangulated flank hernia secondary to an intercostal incision for a right-sided open nephrectomy. The strangulated hernia required emergent intervention including right-sided hemi-colectomy with ileostomy and mucous fistula.
Discussion
Abdominal incisional hernias are rare and therefore easily overlooked, but may result in significant morbidity or even death in the patient.. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough clinical examination and ultrasound or computed topographical investigation. Once a hernia has become incarcerated, emergent surgical management is necessary to avoid strangulation and small bowel obstruction.
Conclusion
Urgent diagnosis and treatment of this extremely rare hernia is paramount especially in the setting of strangulation.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.11.015
PMCID: PMC4701857  PMID: 26629848
CT, computed tomography; SICU, surgical intensive care unit; INR, international normalized ratio; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Flank hernia; Intercostal hernia; Incisional hernia; Post-surgical hernia
8.  Early intervention in intersigmoid hernia may prevent bowel resection—A case report 
INTRODUCTION
Intersigmoid hernia is a rare internal hernia presenting with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is uncommon but computerised tomography (CT) may show signs to suggest internal hernia.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 63-year-old female presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and absolute constipation. Examination revealed a tense distended abdomen. A plain abdominal radiograph showed features of small bowel obstruction. Conservative management was initiated without success and a CT scan was performed which showed a dilated distal oesophagus, stomach and small bowel with a non-dilated length of distal ileum and large bowel. Internal hernia was suggested as a possible cause and the patient underwent a laparotomy where a loop of small bowel was found to be strangulated and gangrenous within the intersigmoid fossa. The gangrenous bowel was resected, an end-to-end anastamosis was performed and the fossa was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
DISCUSSION
Hernias of the sigmoid mesocolon account for 6% of internal hernias with internal hernias themselves causing between 0.2 and 4.1% of intestinal obstruction. This report presents a case of intersigmoid hernia, a rare internal hernia which should be suspected in patients presenting with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Patients with these symptoms should receive an urgent CT scan to facilitate early surgery and minimise strangulation and prevent bowel resection.
conclusion
Intersigmoid hernia presents with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Urgent CT scanning and early surgery may minimise strangulation, conserve bowel and reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.08.010
PMCID: PMC3215259  PMID: 22096754
Intersigmoid hernia; Intersigmoid fossa; Sigmoid mesocolon hernia; Internal hernia; Intestinal obstruction
9.  The laparoscopic transperitoneal approach for irreducible inguinal hernias: Perioperative outcome in four patients 
BACKGROUND:
Incarceration and strangulation are the most feared complications of inguinal hernia. Till date, incarcerated hernias have traditionally been treated by conventional open repair. Reports are now available for the feasibility of laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia. Here, we described our experience with the transperitoneal approach for incarcerated hernias.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Between January 2008 and May 2008, four patients were presented with a history of irreducible hernia, abdominal distention and vomiting. All the patients had right-sided inguinal hernia. Reductions of the hernia contents were not possible in any patient. The patients were treated on emergency basis with laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair. Retrospective analyses of all the patients were done.
RESULTS:
Reduction of the bowel was achieved in all but one patient, who required the division of the internal ring on lateral side. Transperitoneal mesh repair was performed. No major complications were encountered. One patient developed seroma formation that was treated conservatively.
CONCLUSION:
Laparoscopic transperitoneal approach has the advantage of observation of the hernia content for a longer period of time. The division of the internal ring can be done under direct vision. Other intra-abdominal pathology and opposite side hernia can be diagnosed and treated at the same time..
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.55104
PMCID: PMC2734896  PMID: 19727375
Irreducible hernia; laparoscopy; transperitoneal approach
10.  A rare case of spontaneous inguinal faecal fistula as a complication of incarcerated Richter’s hernia with brief review of literature 
BMC Surgery  2015;15:67.
Background
Richter’s hernia has an early misleading presentation with tendency to strangulation due to common lack of obstructive symptoms which may lead to delay in diagnosis and hence increased mortality. Rarely inguinal Richter’s hernia may present with an uncommon complication of spontaneous fistula. The development of spontaneous faecal fistula secondary to incarcerated inguinal hernias is much rarer among the adult population as compared to the paediatric age group. Most of these fistula have been reported from developing countries like India and Nigeria and is usually the result of poverty, lack of knowledge, neglect, late presentation and lack of proper management.
Case presentation
A 62 years old male presented with chief complaints of multiple openings with faecal discharge in the right groin for last 20 days with no history of constipation, trauma, and urinary or other abdominal complaints. CT scan revealed a small gut loop communicating with anterior abdominal wall. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a loop of distal ileum adherent to the internal inguinal ring which was retrieved back into the abdominal cavity. There was perforation over the loop. Resection of the segment of ileum involved was done with ileo-ileal hand sewn anastomosis and the internal inguinal ring was closed from inside of the peritoneal cavity. The openings in the skin over the inguinal region were communicated with each other and laid open due to cellulitis of the area involved and pus discharge.
Conclusion
Spontaneous faecal fistula in inguinal region following rupture of strangulated Richter’s hernia especially in adults is very rare and can occur even in absence of obstructive symptoms. In presentation of any groin swelling, there is need for an early accurate diagnosis followed by prompt treatment. The delay in its diagnosis and management may result in this rare complication of spontaneous faecal fistula. This reflects the state of health care in the developing world and needs to be addressed by the concerned authorities.
doi:10.1186/s12893-015-0055-8
PMCID: PMC4446841  PMID: 26018618
Enterocutaneous fistula; Inguinal; Richter’s hernia; Spontaneous
11.  Internal hernia through a peritoneal defect in the pouch of Douglas: Report of a case 
INTRODUCTION
Internal hernia is a rare entity which can cause intestinal obstruction. The most common type of internal hernia is the paraduodenal hernia which accounts for 53% of cases, and the internal hernia within the pelvis account for 7%. Perineal hernia, which is classified as pelvic hernia, usually occurs due to weakening of the pelvic floor musculature and thus, should be distinguished from the internal hernia caused by peritoneal defects in the pelvic cavity.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of 28-year-old female who presented intestinal obstruction. Conservative therapies failed and she required emergency laparotomy. The operative findings revealed a peritoneal defect of 2 cm in diameter in the pouch of Douglas, through which the ileum was incarcerated and strangulated. The incarcerated bowel was reduced, and the intestinal color quickly returned to normal. Therefore a primary closure of the peritoneal defect was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful.
DISCUSSION
A PubMed search for the case of internal hernia through a defect in the pouch of Douglas revealed only three, making this an extremely rare condition.
CONCLUSION
Because of rarity of this hernia, the etiology is unknown. However, our patient is a young female with no history of pregnancy, abdominal surgery, or trauma, therefore the cause of the peritoneal defect is considered congenital.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.10.015
PMCID: PMC3537959  PMID: 23159912
Pouch of Douglas; Internal hernia; Peritoneal defect; Intestinal obstruction
12.  Neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix inside an incarcerated Amyand’s hernia 
Highlights
•Neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix inside an incarcerated Amyand’s hernia is extremely rare.•The diagnosis of Neuroendocrine tumor in a such emergency situation is a real challenge.•Treatment of the hernia defect in a such condition is interesting.
Amyand’s hernia is a rare type of hernia where the vermiform appendix is within an inguinal hernia sac. Tumors of the appendix are quite uncommon. The coincidence of an Amyand’s hernia with neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix, as in our case, is even more rarely reported.
We report the case of an 81-year-old male who presented with an incarcerated right inguinal hernia. After resuscitation, the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. It showed an incarcerated right inguinal hernia which contained the distal ileum, cecum, thickened appendix, as well as a small amount of fluid. Subsequently, the patient was prepared for emergency surgery. During the operation, the hernia sac was found and opened. The appendix was swollen. Therefore, appendectomy was performed. The inguinal defect was repaired using the Modified Bassini Technique. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and surprisingly the histopathology of the appendix revealed a 1.5 cm well-differentiated low grade neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid) of the appendix tip.
An incidental finding of neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix in a patient with s hernia is extremely rare. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnose such a coincidence in order to safely and optimally treat such a condition.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.07.038
PMCID: PMC4573861  PMID: 26279257
Neuroendocrine; Carcinoid; Amyand; Hernia
13.  Open femoral hernia repair: one skin incision for all 
Background
Femoral hernias are relatively uncommon, however they are the most common incarcerated abdominal hernia, with strangulation of a viscus carrying significant mortality. Classically three approaches are described to open femoral hernia repair: Lockwood's infra-inguinal, Lotheissen's trans-inguinal and McEvedy's high approach. Each approach describes a separate skin incision and dissection to access the femoral sac. The decision as to which approach to adopt, predominantly dependent on the suspicion of finding strangulated bowel, is often a difficult one and in our opinion an unnecessary one.
Methods
We propose a technique for open femoral hernia repair that involves a single skin incision 1 cm above the medial half of the inguinal ligament that allows all of the above approaches to the hernia sac depending on the operative findings. Thus the repair of simple femoral hernias can be performed from below the inguinal ligament. If found, inguinal hernias can be repaired. More importantly, resection of compromised bowel can be achieved by accessing the peritoneal cavity with division of the linea semilunaris 4 cm above the inguinal ligament. This avoids compromise of the inguinal canal, and with medial retraction of the rectus abdominis muscle enables access to the peritoneal cavity and compromised bowel.
Discussion
This simple technique minimises the preoperative debate as to which incision will allow the best approach to the femoral hernia sac, allow for alteration to a simple inguinal hernia repair if necessary, and more importantly obviate the need for further skin incisions if compromised bowel is encountered that requires resection.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-4-44
PMCID: PMC2789711  PMID: 19948016
14.  Strangulated hernia through a defect of the broad ligament and mobile cecum: A case report 
We report a case of 28-year-old woman presenting with small bowel obstruction. She had neither prior surgery nor delivery. An upright abdominal radiograph revealed several air-fluid levels in the small bowel in the midabdomen and the pelvic cavity. Computed tomography demonstrated a dilated small bowel loop in the Douglas’s fossa, but no definite diagnosis could be made. Supportive therapy with draining the intestinal fluid by a long intestinal tube did not result in improvement, which suggested the possibility of a strangulated hernia. Exploratory laparotomy revealed mobile cecum and a 20-cm length of the ileum herniated into a defect of the right broad ligament. As a gangrenous change was recognized in the incarcerated bowel, its resection was carried out, followed by end-to-end anastomosis and closure of the defects of the broad ligament. The postoperative course was uneventful. Intestinal obstruction is a very common cause for presentation to an emergency department, while internal hernia is a rare cause of obstruction. Among internal hernias, those through defects of the broad ligament are extremely rare. Defects of the broad ligament can be either congenital or secondary to surgery, pelvic inflammatory disease, and delivery trauma. In conclusion, we emphasize that hernia of the broad ligament should be added to the list of differential diagnosis for female patients presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Early diagnosis and surgical repair reduce morbidity and mortality from strangulation.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i9.1479
PMCID: PMC4124335  PMID: 16552826
Internal hernia; Broad ligament; Intestinal obstruction; Mobile cecum
15.  Reduction en masse can be treated using pure laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty following early CT diagnosis: report of a case 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2015;2015(5):rjv055.
Reduction en masse refers to the rare occurrence of an incarcerated inguinal hernia arising from the manual reduction of a hernia. Such a condition constitutes a medical emergency because the hernia contents, such as the small bowel, remain strangulated in the preperitoneal space. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis, with early treatment, is important. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with an irreducible lump over his left groin, leading to the reduction of an incarcerated inguinal hernia by a doctor at another hospital. Later, he was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a ball-like lesion containing an incarcerated bowel loop over his left pelvis. The patient was diagnosed with an incarcerated small bowel obstruction due to a reduction en masse; a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) hernioplasty was performed. TAPP hernioplasty is a safe method for treating reductions en masse that allows confirmation of bowel viability.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rjv055
PMCID: PMC4423048  PMID: 25952955
16.  Laparoscopic Approach to Incarcerated and Strangulated Inguinal Hernias 
Introduction:
Acute inguinal hernias are a common presentation as surgical emergencies, which have been routinely managed with open surgery. In recent years, the laparoscopic approach has been described by several authors but has been controversial amongst surgeons. We describe the laparoscopic approach to incarcerated/strangulated inguinal hernias based on a review of the literature with regards to its feasibility in laparoscopically managing the acute hernia presentation.
Methods:
A systematic literature search was carried out including Medline with PubMed as the search engine, and Ovid, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar databases to identify articles reporting on laparoscopic treatment, reduction, and repair of incarcerated or strangulated inguinal hernias from 1989 to 2008.
Results:
Forty-three articles were found, and 7 were included according to the inclusion criteria set. Articles reporting on the use of laparoscopy for the evaluation of the hernia but not reducing and repairing it, the use of the open technique, elective hernia repairs, pediatric series, review articles, and other kinds of hernias were excluded after title and abstract review. This resulted in 16 articles that were reviewed in full. Of these 16 articles, 7 reported on the use of the laparoscopic approach exclusively. From these 7 studies, there were 328 cases reported, 6 conversions, average operating time of 61.3 minutes (SD±12.3), average hospital stay of 3.8 days (SD±1.2), 34 complications (25 of which were reported as minor), and 17 bowel resections performed either laparoscopically or through a minilaparotomy incision guided laparoscopically.
Conclusion:
The laparoscopic repair is a feasible procedure with acceptable results; however, its efficacy needs to be studied further, ideally with larger multicenter randomized controlled trials.
PMCID: PMC3015964  PMID: 19793471
17.  Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery for Intersigmoid Hernia 
Case Reports in Surgery  2014;2014:589649.
Intersigmoid hernia is a rare form of internal hernia. Here, we report a case of intersigmoid hernia and provide a brief review of the 62 cases involving the mesosigmoid reported in Japan from 2000 to 2013. In the current case, a 26-year-old man with no previous history of abdominal surgery presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an extensively dilated small bowel and a closed loop of small bowel in the mesosigmoid. The patient was diagnosed with an intestinal obstruction due to an incarcerated internal hernia involving the mesosigmoid. There was no blood flow obstruction at the incarcerated bowel. An elective single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed after decompression of the bowel using ileus tube. As the ileum herniated into the intersigmoid fossa, the patient was diagnosed with an intersigmoid hernia. The incarcerated small bowel was reduced in order to make it viable, and the hernial defect was closed with interrupted sutures. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on postoperative day five.
doi:10.1155/2014/589649
PMCID: PMC4258357  PMID: 25506032
18.  Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma as content of an incarcerated umbilical hernia: A case-report and review of the literature 
Highlights
•We report on a rare case of primary peritoneal carcinoma.•During operation there was no sign of malignancy.•The diagnosis of primary peritoneal carcinoma was made by routine histological examination.•We recommend routine histological examination of resected tissue.•An overview of the literature on primary peritoneal carcinoma is given.
Introduction
Umbilical hernia is a common finding in many cases, posing potentially life-threatening complications, such as incarceration or strangulation. The presence of malignancy in hernia sacs is, however, rather rare.
Presentation of case
Here we report on a case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma found through histological examination of omental tissue, resected due to an incarcerated umbilical hernia of an 84-years-old woman. There was no macroscopic sign of malignancy during operation; only after routine examination of histological sections the diagnosis was found.
Discussion
To our knowledge this is the first report of primary peritoneal cancer as content of an umbilical hernia. This is a rare neoplasm and histologically identical to epithelial ovarian carcinoma. For this reason, the diagnosis is usually based on the histological finding and exclusion of a primary ovarian tumor. Primary peritoneal cancer has a poor outcome in general. Early diagnosis is, therefore, essential for effective treatment.
Conclusion
Histological analysis of resected hernia sac or content should be performed routinely to discover malignant diseases in the background of a hernia.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.12.022
PMCID: PMC4756186  PMID: 26748210
Primary peritoneal carcinoma; Umbilical hernia; Incarceration
19.  Intussusception caused by dried apricot: A case report 
INTRODUCTION
An unusual cause of intussusception due to small bowel obstruction secondary to dried apricot consumption was encountered. Phytobezoar small bowel obstruction is a rare, but interesting pathology that accounts for 2–4% of small bowel obstructions (18). Even rarer, is an intussusception caused by dried fruit ingestion. We present the case of a 56-year-old female that presented with an intussusception after she ingested a large amount of dried apricots.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The patient is a 56-year-old female with a small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception in the distal ileum. She was taken to the operating room for a celiotomy where an intussusception of the distal small bowel was found. An enterotomy was performed which revealed dried apricots as the lead point. The intussusception was successfully reduced and the apricots removed.
DISCUSSION
Small bowel obstruction due to intussusception can be caused secondary to malignancy, Meckel's Diverticulum, benign neoplasm, and strictures. A less common cause for small bowel obstruction due to intussusception in adults is secondary to mechanical obstruction by bezoars. Risk factors for bezoar formation include previous gastric surgery, diabetes, and mastication problems.
CONCLUSION
Bezoars are an extremely rare cause of intussusception in adults. A high level of suspicion needs to exist in the presence of a history of eating dried fruit, history of gastric surgery, diabetes mellitus, and problems with mastication. Various treatment modalities exist to treat obstructions secondary to bezoars, including open reduction and removal of bezoar via enterotomy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.11.016
PMCID: PMC4276074  PMID: 25437689
Phytobezoar; Small bowel obstruction; Intussusception; Bezoar; Dried apricot
20.  Giant Ovarian Tumor Presenting as an Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(3):539-541.
We report a rare case of a giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. A 61-yr-old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, an umbilical mass, nausea and vomiting. On examination, a large, irreducible umbilical hernia was found. The woman underwent an urgent operation for a possible strangulated hernia. A large, multilocular tumor was found. The tumor was excised, and a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy were performed. The woman was discharged 6 days after her admission. This is the first report of incarcerated umbilical hernia containing a giant ovarian tumor within the sac.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.3.539
PMCID: PMC2698209  PMID: 19543424
Granulosa Cell Tumor; Hernia, Umbilical; Surgery
21.  Diagnostic dilemmas due to fish bone ingestion: Case report & literature review 
Highlights
•Pre-operative diagnosis of fish bone perforation of the bowel is difficult.•It usually mimics common abdominal pathology.•A low threshold must be maintained to perform a diagnostic laparoscopy.
Introduction
The diagnosis of abdominal complications due to fish bone ingestion is particularly difficult as the presentation may mimic common abdominal pathologies.
Presentation of case
65 year-old male presented with a two day history of right iliac fossa pain. He denied any nausea and vomiting. He had no systemic systems including fever, change in bowel habit. He had tenderness and guarding localized to the right iliac fossa. He had raised inflammatory markers. A CT scan of the abdomen was performed which showed fat standing in proximity to the terminal ileum, with the appearance of Crohn’s disease. The clinical picture did not match the imaging and so the patient underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy. Findings included an acutely inflamed terminal ileum. A foreign body was identified piercing through at the small bowel wall at the terminal ileum. The foreign body was removed and revealed a fish bone. Intracorporeal sutures were inserted at the site of the microperforation. The patient was discharged well two days post operatively.
Discussion
Fish bone perforation is not a common cause of gastrointestinal perforation. Unfortunately the history is often non-specific and these people can be misdiagnosed with acute appendicitis & other pathologies. CT scans can be useful to aid diagnostics. It is not however fully sensitive in detecting complications arising from fishbone ingestion.
Conclusion
Management therefore, should be based taking into account primarily the clinical picture & may necessitate diagnostic laparoscopy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.06.034
PMCID: PMC4529669  PMID: 26188981
22.  Traumatic Spigelian Hernia: A Rare Clinical Scenario 
Traumatic Spigelian hernia is a rare clinical entity with variable clinical presentation and requires a high index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis and the management. Delay in the diagnosis can lead to incarceration or strangulation of bowel loops and subsequent morbidity.
Here, we are reporting a case of traumatic Spigelian hernia followed by blunt trauma to the right lower abdomen. The herniated bowel loop was gangrenous and perforated. There was spillage of fecal matter into the adjoining parietal layer. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with resection of gangrenous bowel loop and ileostomy was performed. Post-operative course was uneventful.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8006.4334
PMCID: PMC4080031  PMID: 24995210
Traumatic; Spigelian hernia; Abdominal wall hernia
23.  Inguinal hernia 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:0412.
Introduction
The main risk factors for inguinal hernia are male sex and increasing age. Complications of inguinal hernia include strangulation, intestinal obstruction, and infarction. Recurrence can occur after surgery.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of elective treatments for primary unilateral, primary bilateral, and recurrent inguinal hernia in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 24 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: expectant management, open mesh repair, open suture repair, totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic repair, and transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic repair.
Key Points
The main risk factors for inguinal hernia are male sex and increasing age. Complications of inguinal hernia include strangulation, intestinal obstruction, and infarction. Recurrence can occur after surgery.
The consensus is that surgery is the treatment of choice for inguinal hernia, although few good-quality studies have compared surgery with expectant management.
Open suture repair is a well-established surgical treatment for people with unilateral inguinal hernia, but seems less effective at preventing recurrence, and prolongs recovery, compared with other techniques. Open mesh repair reduces the risk of recurrence compared with open suture repair, without increasing the rate of surgical complications. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic repair may lead to less pain, faster recovery, and similar recurrence rates compared with open mesh repair, but studies have given inconclusive results. Transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic repair reduces pain and speeds up recovery compared with open mesh repair, but both procedures have similar recurrence rates.
Open suture repair may be associated with longer recovery times compared with open mesh repair or TAPP laparoscopic repair in people with bilateral inguinal hernia. Open mesh repair seems as effective as TEP laparoscopic repair, but may prolong recovery and increase complication rates compared with TAPP laparoscopic repair.
Open suture repair may be associated with an increased recovery time compared with open mesh repair in people with recurrent inguinal hernia. We don't know how open suture repair compares with TEP or TAPP laparoscopic repair in people with recurrent inguinal hernia.TAPP and TEP laparoscopic repair may both reduce recovery time compared with open mesh repair, but complication rates seem to be similar.
PMCID: PMC2908002  PMID: 19445744
24.  Patient Awareness and Symptoms From an Incisional Hernia 
International Surgery  2014;99(3):241-246.
Incisional hernia is a common postoperative complication following open abdominal surgery with incidence varying between 3% and 20%.1 Approximately half of all incisional hernias are diagnosed within 1 year following surgery. In the United Kingdom alone, about 10,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed annually. Incisional hernia repairs are generally elective with emergency repair due to incarceration or strangulation constituting about 15% of repairs.1 Incisional hernia repair is not a low-risk operation and generally has relatively poor results due to chronic postoperative pain and high recurrence rates.2−3 Little has been published on patients' awareness of incisional hernia following open abdominal surgery. Moreover, there are very few publications on indications for incisional hernia repair and on the natural course of such hernias. The literature suggests that symptoms and complaints usually presented by patients include pain, discomfort, cosmetic complaints, skin problems, incarceration, strangulation, functional disability, and pulmonary dysfunction.4−6 The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients were aware that they had a hernia. In addition, we sought to determine symptoms for those who knew that they had an incisional hernia.
doi:10.9738/INTSURG-D-14-00039.1
PMCID: PMC4027907  PMID: 24833146
Incisional hernia; Awareness; Symptoms; Recurrence; Complications
25.  Amyand’s hernia: A review 
Amyand’s hernia is defined as when the appendix is trapped within an inguinal hernia. While the incidence of this type of hernia is rare, the appendix may become incarcerated within Amyand’s hernia and lead to further complications such as strangulation and perforation. Incarceration of the appendix most commonly occurs within inguinal and femoral hernias, but may arise to a lesser extent in incisional and umbilical hernias. Incarcerated appendix has been reported in a variety of ventral abdominal and inguinal locations, yet its indistinct clinical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge. This paper reviews the literature on incarceration of the appendix within inguinal hernias and discusses current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of Amyand’s hernia and complications that may arise from incarceration of the appendix within the hernia.
doi:10.12659/MSM.889873
PMCID: PMC3915004  PMID: 24473371
Appendicitis; incarceration; Hernia; Inguinal; Laparoscopy

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