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1.  INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION COMPLICATING ACUTE PERFORATIVE APPENDICITIS 
California Medicine  1957;87(4):231-236.
Upon preoperative diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction, without an obvious cause, acute perforative appendicitis must be considered. Reevaluation of the history and careful reexamination of the physical findings with that diagnosis in mind should be carried out. If appendiceal disease is likely, maximum antibiotic therapy must be begun immediately along with the administration of fluids, electrolytes and other corrective therapy. A mercury-weighted small bowel tube should be inserted and every effort made to advance it into the small bowel before operation. Operative treatment should be restricted to the least possible. A McBurney incision is best unless wider operation is indicated. If an abscess is present, drainage alone may be the procedure of choice. Severely distended and decompensated small bowel must be decompressed, for if not relieved it can be the cause of death in acute perforative appendicitis. Decompression may be accomplished either by small bowel intubation with continuous suction or by enterotomy and aspiration. If not relieved, small bowel distention will be the mechanism responsible for death in a large percentage of patients with acute perforative appendicitis.
Images
PMCID: PMC1512160  PMID: 13460738
2.  Appendiceal duplication with simultaneous acute appendicitis and appendicular perforation causing small bowel obstruction 
Acute appendicitis, as well as intestinal obstruction, is a common surgical emergencies. Both the conditions can present as an acute abdomen, however the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be overlooked when it presents as a small bowel obstruction. Difficulties in correctly identifying the cause of pain can be hazardous to the patient and care needs to be taken in obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis enabling the most appropriate management. Appendiceal duplication although rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, should be checked while operating for appendicular pathology in order to avoid serious clinical and medicolegal implications.
We hereby report a case of appendiceal duplication presenting as small bowel obstruction with one appendix having acute appendicitis and the other one perforated in the middle third.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2011.2.3
PMCID: PMC3649207  PMID: 24950558
3.  Time to Appendectomy and Risk of Perforation in Acute Appendicitis 
JAMA surgery  2014;149(8):837-844.
IMPORTANCE
In the traditional model of acute appendicitis, time is the major driver of disease progression; luminal obstruction leads inexorably to perforation without timely intervention. This perceived association has long guided clinical behavior related to the timing of appendectomy.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate whether there is an association between time and perforation after patients present to the hospital.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Using data from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP), we evaluated patterns of perforation among patients (≥18 years) who underwent appendectomy from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011. Patients were treated at 52 diverse hospitals including urban tertiary centers, a university hospital, small community and rural hospitals, and hospitals within multi-institutional organizations.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
The main outcome of interest was perforation as diagnosed on final pathology reports. The main predictor of interest was elapsed time as measured between presentation to the hospital and operating room (OR) start time. The relationship between in-hospital time and perforation was adjusted for potential confounding using multivariate logistic regression. Additional predictors of interest included sex, age, number of comorbid conditions, race and/or ethnicity, insurance status, and hospital characteristics such as community type and appendectomy volume.
RESULTS
A total of 9048 adults underwent appendectomy (15.8% perforated). Mean time from presentation to OR was the same (8.6 hours) for patients with perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. In multivariate analysis, increasing time to OR was not a predictor of perforation, either as a continuous variable (odds ratio = 1.0 [95% CI, 0.99-1.01]) or when considered as a categorical variable (patients ordered by elapsed time and divided into deciles). Factors associated with perforation were male sex, increasing age, 3 or more comorbid conditions, and lack of insurance.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
There was no association between perforation and in-hospital time prior to surgery among adults treated with appendectomy. These findings may reflect selection of those at higher risk of perforation for earlier intervention or the effect of antibiotics begun at diagnosis but they are also consistent with the hypothesis that perforation is most often a prehospital occurrence and/or not strictly a time-dependent phenomenon. These findings may also guide decisions regarding personnel and resource allocation when considering timing of nonelective appendectomy.
doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.77
PMCID: PMC4160117  PMID: 24990687
4.  Appendectomy and Resection of the Terminal Ileum with Secondary Severe Necrotic Changes in Acute Perforated Appendicitis 
Patient: Female, 19
Final Diagnosis: Acute perforated appendicitis • appendiceal abscess • secondary necrosis of the ileal wall
Symptoms: Right lower quadrant abdominal pain • fever
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Diagnostic laparoscopy • open drainage of an appendiceal abscess • appendectomy • ileal resection
Specialty: Surgery
Objective:
Management of emergency care
Background:
Resectional procedures for advanced and complicated appendicitis are performed infrequently. Their extent can vary: cecal resection, ileocecectomy, and even right hemicolectomy. We present a very rare case of appendectomy that was combined with partial ileal resection for severe necrotic changes and small perforation of the ileum.
Case Report:
A 19-year-old female patient was hospitalized with right iliac fossa pain and fever 10 days after the onset of symptoms. On laparoscopy, a large mass in a right iliac fossa was found. The ultrasound-guided drainage of the suspected appendiceal abscess was unavailable. After conversion using McBurney’s incision, acute perforated appendicitis was diagnosed. It was characterized by extension of severe necrotic changes onto the ileal wall and complicated by right iliac fossa abscess. A mass was bluntly divided, and a large amount of pus with fecaliths was discharged and evacuated. Removal of necrotic tissues from the ileal wall led to the appearance of a small defect in the bowel. A standard closure of this defect was considered as very unsafe due to a high risk of suture leakage or bowel stenosis. We perform a resection of the involved ileum combined with appendectomy and drainage/tamponade of an abscess cavity. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged on the 15th day.
Conclusions:
In advanced appendicitis, the involved bowel resection can prevent possible complications (e.g., ileus, intestinal fistula, peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess). Our case may be the first report of an appendectomy combined with an ileal resection for advanced and complicated appendicitis.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.892471
PMCID: PMC4307687  PMID: 25618525
Abdominal Abscess; Appendicitis; Intestine, Small
5.  Carcinoma of the larynx, metastatic to illeum, presents as ruptured appendicitis: case report and literature review 
Objectives
Metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the intra-abdominal gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. The objectives of this case report are to describe a case involving a perforated metastasis of a laryngeal SCC to the ileum and to review the literature pertaining to other similar cases.
Methods
A review of patient’s chart and a review of the English literature involving malignant SCC of the larynx with metastasis to the small bowel.
Results
We describe the case of a 58-year-old man who had failed induction chemotherapy and underwent a laryngopharyngectomy with bilateral neck dissection and pectoralis major flap for a T4N2c laryngeal SCC. Subsequently, the patient was treated with postoperative radiation and cituximab.
The patient went on to present with symptoms consistent with a ruptured appendix, supported by ultrasound imaging. The patient was taken to the operating room where a right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathological gross examination confirmed a 4 cm transmural perforation in the terminal ileum. Microscopy demonstrated deposits of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the surrounding smooth muscle. Metastatic carcinoma was also found in a separate nodule from the abdominal wall. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative period, and survived several months thereafter.
Conclusions
Metastasis of laryngeal SCC to the small bowel with perforation is exceedingly rare, but possible. These patients may be successfully managed with resection.
doi:10.1186/1916-0216-43-18
PMCID: PMC4090631  PMID: 24965761
Larynx; Squamous cell carcinoma; Metastasis; Small intestine; Perforation
6.  Acute appendicitis with unusual dual pathology 
INTRODUCTION
Meckel's diverticulum is a rare congenital abnormality arising due to the persistence of the vitelline duct in 1–3% of the population. Clinical presentation is varied and includes rectal bleeding, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis and ulceration; therefore diagnosis can be difficult.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a case of acute appendicitis complicated by persistent post operative small bowel obstruction. Further surgical examination of the bowel revealed an non-inflamed, inverted Meckel's diverticulum causing intussusception.
DISCUSSION
Intestinal obstruction in patients with Meckel's diverticulum may be caused by volvulus, intussusception or incarceration of the diverticulum into a hernia. Obstruction secondary to intussusception is relatively uncommon and frequently leads to a confusing and complicated clinical picture.
CONCLUSION
Consideration of Meckel's diverticulum although a rare diagnosis is imperative and this case raises the question “should surgeons routinely examine the bowel for Meckel's diverticulum at laparoscopy?”
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.10.008
PMCID: PMC3267289  PMID: 22288035
Meckel's diverticulum; Acute appendicitis; General surgery; Paediatric surgery
7.  Meckel's Diverticulum with Small Bowel Obstruction Presenting as Appendicitis in a Pediatric Patient 
The authors suggest that the small bowel be assessed in all appendectomy cases for a pathological Meckel's diverticulum.
Background:
Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital anomaly resulting from incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. The incidence ranges from 0.3% to 2.5% with most patients being asymptomatic. In some cases, complications involving a Meckel's diverticulum may mimic other disease processes and obscure the clinical picture.
Methods:
This case presents an 8-year-old male with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting and an examination resembling appendicitis.
Results:
A CT scan revealed findings consistent with appendicitis with dilated loops of small bowel. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the appendix appeared unimpressive, and an inflamed Meckel's diverticulum was found with an adhesive band creating an internal hernia with small bowel obstruction. The diverticulum was resected after the appendix was removed.
Conclusion:
The incidence of an internal hernia with a Meckel's diverticulum is rare. A diseased Meckel's diverticulum can be overlooked in many cases, especially in those resembling appendicitis. It is recommended that the small bowel be assessed in all appendectomy cases for a pathological Meckel's diverticulum.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13176785204553
PMCID: PMC3340971  PMID: 22643517
Meckel's diverticulum; Appendicitis; Laparoscopic; Internal hernia; Omphalomesenteric duct; Small bowel obstruction
8.  Rapunzel Syndrome Causing Appendicitis in an 8-year-old Girl 
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare type of presentation of trichobezoar, an extension of hair fibers into the small bowel and rarely beyond the ileocecal valve. Its clinical presentation is deceptive ranging from abdominal mass to symptoms of obstruction. We report a 8-year-old girl admitted with a history of abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for a period of 1 year. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of subacute intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy, trichobezoar was found in the stomach extending into small bowel and was removed. Appendix was inflammed hence it was also resected. Microscopic evidence of a hair shaft was seen in the appendix indicating appendicitis was due to luminal obstruction by hair concretions.
doi:10.4103/0974-7753.111203
PMCID: PMC3681112  PMID: 23766615
Rapunzel syndrome; trichobezoar; appendicitis
9.  Acute appendicitis presenting as small bowel obstruction: two case reports 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9106.
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical problem however the diagnosis is often overlooked when it presents as a small bowel obstruction. In this report we present two cases of elderly patients who presented with small bowel obstruction and raised inflammatory markers. Both patients were successfully treated with a laparotomy, adhesiolysis and appendicectomy and went on to make a good recovery.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-9106
PMCID: PMC2803903  PMID: 20062683
10.  Internal transomental herniation with a trapped small bowel mimicking acute appendicitis☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Internal herniation with subsequent bowel obstruction is uncommon, and making a correct diagnosis prior to surgery is often difficult.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this case report we present a man, who suffered from sudden extreme right-sided abdominal pain. The diagnostic workup was inconclusive. Emergency surgery was indicated with a suspicion of acute appendicitis. We found a strangulated ileus caused by an internal herniation of the small intestine through a hole in the greater omentum. The patient had no history of surgery or other physical disorders explaining this finding. The obstruction was resolved and the postoperative clinical course was uncomplicated.
DISCUSSION
A thorough diagnostic workup including CT scan would most probably have given the correct diagnosis. However, the clinical course and initiation of the correct treatment would have been delayed significantly.
CONCLUSION
We suggest that the diagnostic workup of patients with unclear lower abdominal pain should be limited and that acute clinical symptoms require rapid laparoscopic evaluation and surgical treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.10.019
PMCID: PMC3860037  PMID: 24291681
Internal herniation; Small bowel; Appendicitis; Abdominal pain; Laparoscopy
11.  Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a case report 
Background
While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case where CT was crucial diagnostically and helpful for pre-surgical planning in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen superimposed on complete congenital gastrointestinal malrotation.
Case presentation
A 46-year-old previously healthy male with four days of primarily left-sided abdominal pain, low-grade fevers, nausea and anorexia presented to the Emergency Department. His medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes and dyslipidemia. His white blood count at that time was elevated. Initial abdominal plain films suggested small bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with oral and IV contrast to exclude diverticulitis, revealing acute appendicitis superimposed on congenital intestinal malrotation. Following consultation with the surgical team for surgical planning, the patient went on to laparoscopic appendectomy and did well postoperatively.
Conclusion
Atypical presentations of acute abdominal conditions superimposed on asymptomatic gastrointestinal malrotation can result in delays in delivery of definitive therapy and potentially increase morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. Appropriate imaging can be helpful in hastening diagnosis and guiding intervention.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-92
PMCID: PMC2034390  PMID: 17880685
12.  Perforated acute appendicitis resulting from appendiceal villous adenoma presenting with small bowel obstruction: a case report 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:35.
Background
A villous adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumour in the appendix, in contrast to other benign appendiceal lesions. The clinical features are usually asymptomatic. Acute appendicitis is the most common complication with the lesion obstructing the orifice of the appendiceal lumen. Thus, a villous adenoma is usually found during surgical intervention for acute appendicitis. Mechanical obstruction induced by acute perforated appendicitis has been previously reported. Acute appendicitis caused by a villous adenoma presenting with acute intestinal obstruction has not been previously reported.
Case presentation
A 78-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with diffuse abdominal pain and tenderness. The abdominal plain film and computed tomography revealed an intestinal obstruction. After surgical intervention, the ruptured appendix was shown to be associated with intestinal obstruction. The post-operative pathologic diagnosis was an appendiceal villous adenoma.
Conclusions
This is the first report describing an appendiceal villous adenoma, which is an occasional cause of perforated acute appendicitis, presenting as a complete intestinal obstruction. We emphasize that in elderly patients without a surgical history, the occult cause of complete intestinal obstruction must be determined. If an appendiceal tumour is diagnosed, an intra-operative frozen section is suggested prior to selecting a suitable method of surgical intervention.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-35
PMCID: PMC3094313  PMID: 21477328
13.  Perforated Appendicitis After Colonoscopy 
Background:
Acute appendicitis is a rare complication of colonoscopy that has been reported only 12 times in the English-language literature and is usually associated with obstruction of the appendiceal lumen with fecal matter during colonoscopy. None of the previous reports have described findings of perforation of the appendix within 24 hours of colonoscopy.
Methods:
We present the case report of a patient who underwent urgent laparotomy within 16 hours of colonos-copy for findings of free intraabdominal air and peritonitis from acute perforated appendicitis.
Results:
Laparoscopy confirmed 2 perforations of the appendix and diffuse peritonitis. Laparotomy was necessary to perform appendectomy, exclude a right colonic injury, and control intraabdominal sepsis.
Conclusion:
In patients with abdominal pain who have had a recent colonoscopy, a high index of suspicion is necessary for accurate diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. Perforation can occur hours after colonoscopy even when a biopsy is not performed.
PMCID: PMC3015887  PMID: 18765066
Perforated appendicitis; Colonoscopy
14.  ACUTE PERFORATED APPENDICITIS IN CHILDHOOD—Analysis of Management, Including the Use of Hypothermia 
California Medicine  1956;85(2):89-92.
From an analysis of a recent series of 99 cases of acute perforated appendicitis in childhood several conclusions appeared valid.
1. The majority of infants and young children with acute perforated appendicitis do not exhibit the signs of localization of peritoneal irritation so characteristically seen in older children and adults. Hence if a history compatible with acute perforated appendicitis is present and there is evidence of peritoneal irritation on repeated examinations, patients of this age group may be assumed to have the disease and should be prepared and operated upon with minimal delay. Early operation after a maximum of several hours of preparation with parenteral hydration, nasogastric suction and antibiotics is the treatment of choice.
2. In nine patients in the present series with temperature and rapid pulse that did not fall to safe levels with the usual preoperative preparation, mild hypothermia appeared to reduce the risk of anesthesia and operation.
3. The use of intraperitoneal drains in children with acute perforated appendicitis is associated with a definite reduction in the incidence of postoperative intraperitoneal abscesses and with a probable reduction in the number of serious wound infections.
PMCID: PMC1531910  PMID: 13343013
15.  Appendicitis in children: a continuing clinical challenge. 
This article discusses the findings of a study of pre-adolescent children to determine if the mode of presentation of appendicitis had changed over the past 10 years, if the incidence of perforations decreased with age, and if diagnosis related groups (DRGs) impacted the length of hospital stay. The charts of 42 children under the age of 12 years who were discharged from two inner-city hospitals with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis from 1980 to 1989 were reviewed. There were 20 blacks and 22 whites, 26 males and 16 females with an average age of 7.31 years (range: 2 to 11 years). Over 95% of patients presented with right lower quadrant pain, 78% with guarding, 80% with a positive psoas sign, 93% with a positive Rovsing's sign, and 65% with rectal tenderness. Over 85% of patients had a history of nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. The mean duration of pain was 52.8 hours and the mean temperature was 99.6 degrees F. The mean white blood cell count was 18,176 +/- 4682 for whites versus 14,615 +/- 5459 for blacks. At surgery 15/42 (36%) of patients had a perforation, 11 of whom had positive wound cultures. Escherichia coli was recovered in all 11 of these patients. The average duration of pain in the perforated group was 50.9 hours, and the average age was 7 years. Eleven of these patients had normal bowel sounds on admission. Only 31% of the total cohort had a fecalith identified by pathology. The average postoperative length of stay was 6.5 +/- 2.5 days before the initiation of DRGs and 7.5 +/- 3 days afterward.
PMCID: PMC2571792  PMID: 1404459
16.  Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by a fish bone presenting as acute appendicitis: a case report 
Introduction
Meckel’s diverticulum is the commonest congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of them are asymptomatic but can rarely present with forms of complications such as bleeding, obstruction, diverticulitis, intussusception and neoplasm. Patients with a perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by a foreign body are rare and may present with right iliac fossa pain, which mimics acute appendicitis.
Case presentation
A 64-year-old Greek man presented with an eight-hour history of right iliac fossa pain. On examination, our patient had tenderness in his right iliac fossa. A provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. He was taken to theatre with the option of an appendicectomy. His appendix was found to have an about normal appearance. An inflamed Meckel’s diverticulum that had been perforated by a fish bone was found to be the cause of the abdominal pain. A Meckel’s diverticulectomy was performed. Our patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged after two days.
Conclusions
Complications of Meckel’s diverticulum can be difficult to diagnose and early recognition and timely operative intervention must occur in order to provide the best outcome for these patients. This is an interesting and unusual case of perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum that highlights the importance of considering Meckel’s diverticulum as a differential diagnosis in every patient presenting with acute abdomen.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-231
PMCID: PMC4015311  PMID: 24088307
Meckel’s diverticulum; Perforation; Acute appendicitis
17.  Appendicitis 
Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:0408.
Introduction
Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen. The lifetime risk is approximately 7-9% in the USA, making appendicectomy the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute appendicitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2006 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, laparoscopic surgery, ligation, open surgery, stump inversion, surgery.
Key Points
The incidence of acute appendicitis is falling, although the reasons are unclear. The lifetime risk is approximately 7-9% in the USA, making appendicectomy the most common abdominal surgical emergency.Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen.Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Spontaneous resolution of acute appendicitis has been reported in at least 8% of episodes. Very limited evidence suggests that conservative treatment of acute appendicitis with antibiotics may reduce pain and morphine consumption, but that a third of people are likely to be readmitted with acute appendicitis requiring surgery within 1 year.
Standard treatment for acute appendicitis is appendicectomy. Clinical trials to compare surgery with no surgery would be considered unethical, and have not been done.There is some evidence that laparoscopic appendicectomy in adults reduces wound infections, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, and time off work compared with open surgery, but may increase the risk of intra-abdominal abscesses.Limited evidence suggests that laparoscopic surgery in children may reduce wound infections and duration of hospital stay compared with open surgery, but it has not been shown to reduce other complications.
The most common complication of appendicectomy is wound infection, with intra-abdominal abscess formation less common. Treatment with surgery plus antibiotics reduces wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses compared with surgery alone in adults with simple or complicated appendicitis.However, in children, the benefit of antibiotics may be limited to those with complicated appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC2943782  PMID: 19454096
18.  Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus – a case series 
Introduction
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis but an established cause of mechanical bowel obstruction in the elderly. Perforation of the small intestine proximal to the obstructing gallstone is rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported. We present two cases of perforation of the jejunum in gallstone ileus, and remarkably in one case, the gallstone ileus caused perforation of a jejunal diverticulum and is to the best of our knowledge the first such case to be described.
Case presentations
Case 1
A 69 year old man presented with two days of vomiting and central abdominal pain. He underwent laparotomy for small bowel obstruction and was found to have a gallstone obstructing the mid-ileum. There was a 2 mm perforation in the anti-mesenteric border of the dilated proximal jejunum. The gallstone was removed and the perforated segment of jejunum was resected.
Case 2
A 68 year old man presented with a four day history of vomiting and central abdominal pain. Chest and abdominal radiography were unremarkable however a subsequent CT scan of the abdomen showed aerobilia. At laparotomy his distal ileum was found to be obstructed by an impacted gallstone and there was a perforated diverticulum on the mesenteric surface of the mid-jejunum. An enterolithotomy and resection of the perforated small bowel was performed.
Conclusion
Gallstone ileus remains a diagnostic challenge despite advances in imaging techniques, and pre-operative diagnosis is often delayed. Partly due to the elderly population it affects, gallstone ileus continues to have both high morbidity and mortality rates. On reviewing the literature, the most appropriate surgical intervention remains unclear.
Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus is extremely rare. The cases described illustrate two quite different causes of perforation complicating gallstone ileus. In the first case, perforation was probably due to pressure necrosis caused by the gallstone. The second case was complicated by the presence of a perforated jejunal diverticulum, which was likely to have been secondary to the increased intra-luminal pressure proximal to the obstructing gallstone.
These cases should raise awareness of the complications associated with both gallstone ileus, and small bowel diverticula.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-157
PMCID: PMC2222670  PMID: 18045463
19.  Acute mechanical bowel obstruction: Clinical presentation, etiology, management and outcome 
AIM: To identify and analyze the clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients with acute mechanical bowel obstruction along with the etiology of obstruction and the incidence and causes of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all adult patients admitted with acute mechanical bowel obstruction between 2001 and 2002.
RESULTS: Of the 150 consecutive patients included in the study, 114 (76%) presented with small bowel and 36 (24%) with large bowel obstruction. Absence of passage of flatus (90%) and/or feces (80.6%) and abdominal distension (65.3%) were the most common symptoms and physical finding, respectively. Adhesions (64.8%), incarcerated hernias (14.8%), and large bowel cancer (13.4%) were the most frequent causes of obstruction. Eighty-eight patients (58.7%) were treated conservatively and 62 (41.3%) were operated (29 on the first day). Bowel ischemia was found in 21 cases (14%), necrosis in 14 (9.3%), and perforation in 8 (5.3%). Hernias, large bowel cancer, and adhesions were the most frequent causes of bowel ischemia (57.2%, 19.1%, 14.3%), necrosis (42.8%, 21.4%, 21.4%), and perforation (50%, 25%, 25%). A significantly higher risk of strangulation was noticed in incarcerated hernias than all the other obstruction causes.
CONCLUSION: Absence of passage of flatus and/or feces and abdominal distension are the most common symptoms and physical finding of patients with acute mechanical bowel obstruction, respectively. Adhesions, hernias, and large bowel cancer are the most common causes of obstruction, as well as of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. Although an important proportion of these patients can be nonoperatively treated, a substantial portion requires immediate operation. Great caution should be taken for the treatment of these patients since the incidence of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation is significantly high.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i3.432
PMCID: PMC4065900  PMID: 17230614
Acute mechanical bowel obstruction; Clinical presentation; Etiology; Management; Outcome
20.  Appendicitis 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0408.
Introduction
Appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the appendix that can lead to an abscess, ileus, peritonitis, or death. Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency, with a lifetime risk of approximately 7% to 9% in the USA. Mortality from acute appendicitis is less than 0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute appendicitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, laparoscopic surgery, ligation, open surgery, stump inversion, and surgery.
Key Points
The incidence of acute appendicitis is falling, although the reasons are unclear. Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency, with a lifetime risk of approximately 7% to 9% in the USA.Potential causes of appendicitis include faecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, fibrous bands, foreign bodies, and caecal carcinoma, all of which can lead to obstruction of the appendix lumen.Mortality from acute appendicitis is <0.3%, but rises to 1.7% after perforation.
Spontaneous resolution of acute appendicitis has been reported in at least 10% of episodes.
Very limited evidence suggests that conservative treatment of acute appendicitis with antibiotics may reduce pain and morphine consumption, but that one third of people are likely to be readmitted with acute appendicitis requiring surgery within 1 year.
Standard treatment for acute appendicitis is appendicectomy. Clinical trials to compare surgery with no treatment would be considered unethical, and have not been done.There is good evidence that laparoscopic surgery in adults reduces wound infections, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, and time off work compared with open surgery, but increases the risk of intra-abdominal abscesses.Limited evidence suggests that laparoscopic surgery in children may reduce wound infections and duration of hospital stay compared with open surgery, but it has not been shown to reduce other complications.There is some evidence to suggest that stapling reduces operative time compared with endoloops, but no reliable evidence to suggest that it reduces other complications.We don't know how natural orifice surgery compares with laparoscopic surgery, as we found no RCTs.There is limited evidence to suggest that stump inversion has an increased rate of wound infection compared with simple ligation, and no difference in rate of intra-abdominal abscess formation.
The most common complication of appendicectomy is wound infection, with intra-abdominal abscess formation less common. Treatment with surgery plus antibiotics reduces wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses compared with surgery alone in adults with simple or complicated appendicitis.However, in children, the benefit of antibiotics may be limited to those with complicated appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC3275312  PMID: 21477397
21.  Meconium obstruction in absence of cystic fibrosis in low birth weight infants: an emerging challenge from increasing survival 
Background
Meconium abnormalities are characterized by a wide spectrum of severity, from the meconium plug syndrome to the complicated meconium ileus associated with cystic fibrosis. Meconium Related Ileus in absence of Cystic Fibrosis includes a combination of highly viscid meconium and poor intestinal motility, low grade obstruction, benign systemic and abdominal examination, distended loops without air fluid levels. Associated risk factors are severe prematurity and low birth weight, Caesarean delivery, Maternal MgSO4 therapy, maternal diabetes. In the last 20 yrs a new specific type of these meconium related obstructions has been described in premature neonates with low birth weight. Its incidence has shown to increase while its management continues to be challenging and controversial for the risk of complicated obstruction and perforation.
Materials and methods
Among 55 newborns admitted between 1992-2008 with Meconium Related Ileus as final diagnosis, data about Low Birth Weight infants (LBW < 1500 g) were extracted and compared to those of patients ≥ 1500 g. Hischsprung's Diseases and Cystic Fibrosis were excluded by rectal biopsy and genetic probe before discharge. A softening enema with Gastrografin was the first option whenever overt perforation was not present. Temporary stoma or trans appendiceal bowel irrigation were elected after unsuccessful enema while prompt surgical exploration was performed in perforated cases. NEC was excluded in all operated cases. Data collected were perinatal history and neonatal clinical data, radiological signs, clinical course and complications, management and outcome.
Results
30 cases with BW ≥ 1500 g had an M/F ratio16/14, Mean B.W. 3052 g, Mean G.A. 37 w Caesarean section rate 40%. There were 10 meconium plug syndrome, 4 small left colon syndromes, and 16 meconium ileus without Cystic Fibrosis. Five cases were born at our institution (inborn) versus 25 referred after a mean of 2, 4 Days (1-7) after birth in another Hospital (outborn). They were managed, after a Gastrografin enema with 90% success rate, by 1 temporary Ileostomy and 2 trans appendiceal irrigation. 25 cases with BW< 1500 g (LBW) had M/F ratio 11/14, Mean B.W. 818 g, Mean G.A. 27 w, Caesarean section rate 70%, assisted ventilation 16/25. There were 8 inborn and 17 outborn. Gastrografin enema was successful in 6 out 8 inborn infants only, all referred within one week from birth. There were 12 perforations mainly among late referred LBW outborn.
Conclusions
Meconium Related Ileus without Cystic Fibrosis responds to conservative management and softening enema in most of mature infants. In LBW clinical course is initially benign but as any long standing bowel obstruction management may present particular challenges. Clinical and plain radiographic criteria are reliable for making diagnosis and testing for Cystic Fibrosis may not be indicated. Enema may be resolutive when performed in a proper environment. Perforated cases may be confused with NEC which is excluded by clinical history, no signs of sepsis, lab signs missing, abdominal signs missing, typical radiological signs missing. The higher complication rate is recorded among cases delivered and initially managed in Neonatal Units without co-located Surgical Facilities. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical therapy may lead to higher success rate and help avoiding surgical interventions. Surgical therapy in uncomplicated cases, unresponsive to medical management, should be minimally aggressive.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-37-55
PMCID: PMC3262744  PMID: 22082231
22.  Acute Appendicitis in a Man Undergoing Therapy for Mantle Cell Lymphoma 
Case Reports in Hematology  2012;2012:868151.
A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with an aggressive mantle cell lymphoma and was started on six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Approximately two weeks after starting his first cycle of chemotherapy, he complained of severe right lower quadrant abdominal pain, and an abdominal CT scan demonstrated an enlarged appendix with evidence of contained perforation. The man underwent open appendectomy for acute appendicitis and recovered. The appendectomy specimen was submitted for routine pathological analysis. There was histologic evidence of perforation in association with an inflammatory infiltrate with fibrin adhered to the serosal surface; scattered small lymphoid aggregates were present on the mucosal surface. Although the lymphoid aggregates in the submucosa and lamina propria were rather unremarkable by routine histologic examination, immunohistochemistry revealed the lymphocytes to be predominantly Cyclin D1-overexpressing B cells. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis in association with appendiceal involvement by mantle cell lymphoma.
doi:10.1155/2012/868151
PMCID: PMC3420562  PMID: 22953079
23.  Postcolonoscopy appendicitis in a patient with active ulcerative colitis 
Complications due to diagnostic colonoscopy are uncommon and acute appendicitis is a very rare complication of colonoscopy. This poses a diagnostic challenge as the presentation of appendicitis is similar to that of other complications of colonoscopy such as perforation or postpolypectomy syndrome. It is hypothesized that postcolonoscopy appendicitis might be associated with obstruction of the appendiceal lumen with fecal matter during colonoscopy. None of the previous reports in the literature have described findings of appendicitis after colonoscopy in a patient with active ulcerative colitis. We present a case of a 28 year-old man with active ulcerative colitis who underwent colonoscopy and subsequently developed acute appendicitis.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v2.i6.232
PMCID: PMC2999133  PMID: 21160939
Postcolonoscopy appendicitis; Ulcerative colitis; Complications; Colonoscopy
24.  Isolated superior mesenteric venous thrombophlebitis with acute appendicitis 
INTRODUCTION
Isolated superior mesentericveinous thrmbophlebitis is a rarely recognised condition associated with a high morbidity. It usually develops secondary to infection in the drainage area of the portal venous system, like appendix.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a case of neglected perforated acute appendicitis complicated by superior mesenteric venous pyelephlebitis patiant represented with a vague pain to right of umlicus, which is atypical this why cat scan was done and showed obstructed superiormesentric vein, portal vein was free with acute appendicitis. Appendicectomy and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation, and platelets led to a full recovery. Follow-up imaging after one month revealed complete canalization of superior mesentric vein.
DISCUSSION
Abdominal pain if atypical like our case report need imaging diagnosis. Modern diagnostic imaging techniques help the early diagnosis of acute phase pylephlebitis. CT can detect primary source of infection, extent of pylephlebitis, CT scan is the most reliable initially. Ultrasound scan with color flow Doppler is also a sensitive test for confirming partial patency of the portal vein and portal vein thrombosis accidentally discovered complete obliteration of superior mesenteric vein with thrombosis which remained not propagated by serial Doppler ultrasound of liver.
Appropriate treatment should be initiated as soon as possible. To avoid extension to portal vein. The principal treatment for pylephlebitis is to remove the source of infection as appendicectomy.
Anticoagulants must be used. Regarding the treatment of portal thrombosis, post operative use of heparin has been advocated.
CONCLUSION
Cat scan play an important role in case of atypical abdominal pain.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.10.019
PMCID: PMC3604662  PMID: 23500734
Thrombophlebitis; Thrombophlebosis; Portapyemia; Appendicitis
25.  Appendicitis as a cause of intestinal strangulation: a case report and review 
Intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency caused by varied conditions. Appendicitis as a cause is both uncommon and unsuspected. Strangulation of intestine caused by appendicitis is extremely rare with very few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of such a condition is possible only on table, with CT having questionable value. This is a very rare and dangerous complication of a very common disease which can easily be overlooked. Every emergency surgeon needs to be aware of such a possibility.
We report a case of a 24 year old male presenting with classical features of intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy strangulated bowel was seen and appendix was found to be the cause. Although we obtained a history of appendicitis in this patient, it was not correlated to the present condition due to the rarity of such a scenario. We reviewed literature to find similar cases reported in the past.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-4-34
PMCID: PMC2765939  PMID: 19818149

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