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1.  Immature Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Tumour 
Gastric teratomas are very rare tumours in children. They usually present with a palpable mass in the upper abdomen. We report a case of gastric teratoma in one and half month old male infant who presented with a palpable mass in abdomen, extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components. CT scan delineated calcifications in the mass. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. The mass was excised completely with seromuscular layer of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be grade-3 immature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the origin of teratoma in addition to its immature variety prompted us to report the case.
PMCID: PMC3417998  PMID: 22953260
Gastric teratoma; Immature teratoma; Infant
2.  Synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and primary adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney: a unique case report and review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2009;4:17.
Background
Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is a rare complication. While any of the constituent tissues of a teratoma has the potential to undergo malignant transformation, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly associated malignancy. Renal carcinoid tumors are rare and frequently associated with horseshoe kidney and renal teratoma. Renal teratoma rarely presents together with carcinoid tumor or adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, there has never been a report of renal teratoma coexisting with both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
Methods
Here, we present a unique and first case of synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney in a 50-year-old female. Lumbar spine X-ray, done for her complaint of progressive chronic low back pain, accidentally found a large calcification overlying the lower pole of the right kidney. Further radiologic studies revealed horseshoe kidney and a large multiseptated cystic lesion immediately anterior to the right renal pelvis with central calcification and peripheral enhancement. She underwent right partial nephrectomy.
Results
Macroscopically, the encapsulated complex solid and multiloculated cystic tumor with large calcification, focal thickened walls and filled with yellow-tan gelatinous material. Microscopically, the tumor showed coexistent mature cystic teratoma, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A-racemase, calretinin, CD10 and thyroid transcription factor-1 were negative in all the three components of the tumor. The teratomatous cysts lined by ciliated epithelium showed strong staining for cytokeratin 7 and pancytokeratin, and those lined by colonic-like epithelium showed strong staining for CDX2, cytokeratin 20 and pancytokeratin, but both were negative for calretinin. Additionally, the teratomatous cyst wall showed strong staining for smooth muscle actin, and weak staining for carbonic anhydrase IX, CD99, chromogranin and synaptophysin. The adenocarcinoma component was strongly positive for cytokeratin 7 and pancytokeratin, weakly positive for synaptophysin and CD56, and negative for carbonic anhydrase IX, CD99, CDX2, chromogranin, cytokeratin 20 and smooth muscle actin. The carcinoid tumor component was strongly positive for CD56, chromogranin and synaptophysin, weakly positive for pancytokeratin, and negative for carbonic anhydrase IX, CD99, CDX2, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20 and smooth muscle actin. She received no adjuvant therapy and is alive without evidence of disease six months after diagnosis and surgery.
Conclusion
This unique and first case herein presented with synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and primary adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney emphasizes the need for thorough sectioning and entire submission for histologic evaluation of mature cystic teratomas, in order to avoid missing multiple additional histogenetically distinct neoplasms.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-4-17
PMCID: PMC2704177  PMID: 19523243
3.  Prenatal findings and neonatal immature gastric teratoma 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr10.2008.1050.
Immature teratoma of the stomach in the neonate is extremely rare.1,2 This report outlines a case of giant immature teratoma of the stomach, which was detected by prenatal ultrasonography in the third trimester as an echogenic mass contiguous with the stomach bubble. It increased from 4.5 cm in diameter to 7 cm between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. The baby was delivered by elective caesarean section at 37 weeks gestation. Neonatal imaging highlighted a differential diagnosis of nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, pancreatoblastoma and teratoma. The infant underwent surgical excision of the abdominal mass on the 10th day of life. Histology revealed grade III immature gastric teratoma arising from the posterior wall of stomach, outlining the unknown implications of such a designation in an extraovarian site. The infant made a good postoperative recovery and is currently well 9 months later, without adjuvant therapy, and with no evidence of recurrent disease.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2008.1050
PMCID: PMC3028133  PMID: 21686482
4.  Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2010;21(2):129-131.
A 26-year-old girl was referred to us in December 2008 with progressive pelvic mass while on chemotherapy. In May 2008, she presented with large adnexal mass and high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 265.7 ng/mL; normal range, 0 to 10). She underwent laparoscopic right salpingo-oophorectomy with staging. Since histology was immature teratoma grade I, FIGO stage 1 she was kept on surveillance. In September 2008, she developed recurrent pelvic mass with AFP levels of 2,400 ng/mL. Three courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin) were given. Post-chemotherapy AFP normalized but tumor size increased. CT-scan (abdomen-pelvis) showed a large pelvic mass with calcification specks; infiltrating the sigmoid colon and abdominal wall. With provisional diagnosis of growing teratoma syndrome she had exploratory laparotomy with excision of pelvic mass along with sigmoid colon, excision of right pelvic and subcutaneous deposits, omentectomy and sigmoid anastomosis. Left ovary, left tube and uterus appeared normal and were preserved. Histology of all masses showed mature teratoma, no immature elements. At six months follow up she is disease free and has resumed menstruation. Growing teratoma syndrome is a clinico-pathological presentation during/post-chemotherapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumor where mature teratoma grows and requires complete surgical excision. Our case highlights the safety and adequacy concerns of laparoscopic management of malignant ovarian tumor. Literature review suggests good prospects of resumption of menses, child bearing and five year survival in case of growing teratoma syndrome.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2010.21.2.129
PMCID: PMC2895713  PMID: 20613905
Salpingo-oophorectomy; Growing teratoma syndrome; Immature teratoma; Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor; Chemotherapy; Laparoscopy
5.  Mature Ovarian Teratoma with Carcinoid Tumor in a 28-Year-Old Patient 
Introduction. Coexistence of carcinoid tumor inside a mature cystic teratoma is an extremely rare phenomenon, especially in young women. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with a right ovarian carcinoid and treated uneventfully with conservative surgical approach. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman, gravid 0, parity 0, presented to our department for her annual gynecological examination and Pap smear test. During her examination, a mobile cystic mass was detected in the right lower abdomen. Ultrasound indicated a right ovarian mass 10.5 × 6.3 cm, confirmed by CT scan. Further investigation revealed AFP levels (1539 ng/mL). The ovarian mass was excised by laparoscopy, leaving intact the remaining right ovary. Frozen sections showed a mature cystic teratoma. However, paraffin sections revealed the presence of a small carcinoid within the teratoma's gastric-type mucosa. The patient was set to a close followup. Nine months postoperatively, ultrasound pelvis imaging and CT scan of the abdomen as well as serum tumor markers have shown no evidence of recurrence disease. Conclusion. Despite the weak evidence, fertility spare surgical approach for women wanting to preserve their genital tract might be a reasonable option.
doi:10.1155/2013/108582
PMCID: PMC3741922  PMID: 23984130
6.  Expression of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tissue in Ovarian Teratomas and the Importance of Multimodal Management as Illustrated by a BRAF-Positive Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer 
Thyroid  2010;20(9):981-987.
Background
The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
Summary
Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of “struma pearl” should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-131I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E). She underwent extensive secondary debulking and a second course of 131I with lithium pretreatment. Posttreatment scan revealed diffuse abdominal uptake. Six months posttherapy, the patient is asymptomatic with a serum Tg of 18.1 ng/mL.
Conclusions
Aggressive multimodal management appears to be the most promising approach for malignant thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
doi:10.1089/thy.2009.0458
PMCID: PMC2964358  PMID: 20718682
7.  Ganglioneuroblastoma arising within a retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma 
We discuss an extremely rare case of ganglioneuroblastoma arising within a retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma. Radiological examinations showed a cystic tumor sandwiched between the pancreas and left kidney. Surgery was scheduled because the tumor seemed to have originated from the pancreas. En-block resection of the tumor with distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy was performed. In terms of macroscopic appearance, the tumor mainly consisted of a unilocular cystic mass, but the presence of a smaller, solid mass was also noted within the tumor. Histopathologic examination confirmed that the cystic mass was consistent with a mature cystic teratoma of the retroperitoneum, and in addition, a ganglioneuroblastoma was evident in the solid component. Histopathologically, the ganglioneuroblastomatous area was intimately associated with dermoid tissue of the mature cystic teratoma, thus this case was diagnosed to be a mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation. To best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ganglioneuroblastoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma.
doi:10.5306/wjco.v3.i12.155
PMCID: PMC3536834  PMID: 23293755
Ganglioneuroblastoma; Malignant transformation; Mature cystic teratoma; Retroperitoneum; Surgical treatment
8.  Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2014;11(1):e11260.
Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.11260
PMCID: PMC3955850  PMID: 24693294
Teratoma; Ultrasound; Computed Tomography; Cystic; Kidney
9.  Echogenic Mobile Spherules in a Cyst as an Ultrasound Finding in Cystic Mediastinal Teratoma 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):385-387.
Mature teratomas are the most common mediastinal germ cell tumor. They are mostly cystic. They are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on chest X-ray or CT scan. The diagnosis of teratoma is usually confirmed by CT scan. It shows variable combination of fat, fluid, soft tissue component, and calcification. Ultrasound, a cheap and widely available imaging modality, also provides valuable characteristic appearances of mediastinal teratomas. We present a case of mediastinal cystic teratoma showing characteristic echogenic mobile spherules in the cyst and its brief discussion.
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0638-x
PMCID: PMC3693361  PMID: 24426624
Cystic mediastinal; Mature teratomas; Ultrasound
10.  Benign mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the renal pelvis with exophytic growth: case report 
Background
Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor (MEST) is a distinctive benign composite neoplasm of the kidney predominantly seen in females mostly in the perimenopausal period. Although these tumors are known to arise from renal pelvis, our case was distinct in that it had no intrapelvic component growing in exophytic fashion.
Case report
A 35 year old female patient presented to us with vague abdominal pain. She had undergone excision of bilateral ovarian cystic masses for cystic teratoma twelve years earlier. A computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed a 9 × 7 cm uniformly solid mass with poor contrast enhancement situated in the inferomedial aspect of the left kidney. On exploration, the mass was arising from the inferior and anterior aspect of left renal pelvis, and was attached to it with a narrow pedicle. There was no adherence or attachment to the renal parenchyma. The mass was excised preserving the kidney. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of large collagenized areas containing bundles of spindle cells and several 'microcysts' lined by cuboidal epithelium suggestive of a benign mixed epithelial stromal tumor.
Discussion
Mixed epithelial tumors usually present in perimenopausal women as a partially cystic mass. Tumors are composed of irregular mixtures of cystic and solid areas, glands with variable complexity and distribution and the stromal component is characterized by a spindle cell proliferation. Commonly, it arises from the renal parenchyma and pelvis and nephrectomy is advocated to manage these tumors.
Conclusion
MEST is a distinctive benign tumor of the kidney that should be distinguished from other renal neoplasms. MEST arising from the renal pelvis and growing exophytically is a rare entity. The overall prognosis is favorable.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-2-18
PMCID: PMC1215508  PMID: 16150156
11.  Carcinosarcoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1996;49(6):519-521.
A case of carcinosarcoma arising within an otherwise benign cystic teratoma is reported. The patient, a 78 year old nulliparous woman, presented with right sided abdominal pain of short duration and subsequently underwent a bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy. Slicing of the left ovary revealed a unilocular cyst containing hair admixed with soft yellow material with a thin wall apart from a solid area at one pole. Extensive areas of necrosis and cystic degeneration were present within this mass. Histologically, the large cyst was a typical mature cystic teratoma, containing carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Mature cystic teratomas have been reported in association with a variety of malignant ovarian tumours such as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and malignant germ cell neoplasms. Secondary malignant transformation within a dermoid cyst is a much rarer occurrence, estimated as less than 2% of all such lesions. Adenocarcinomas are the second most common malignancies arising within dermoid cysts. Sarcomas alone or in combination with squamous carcinoma have been described arising in a mature cystic teratoma. To the best of our knowledge, no case of sarcoma arising in association with adenocarcinoma has been described before.
Images
PMCID: PMC500550  PMID: 8763274
12.  Adenocarcinoma Arising from Sacrococcygeal Mature Teratoma in an Adult Female: Report of a Case 
Frontiers in Oncology  2014;4:117.
We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from a sacrococcygeal mature teratoma in an adult female. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a presacral tumor 10 years ago. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a presacral heterogeneous tumor, containing multiloculated cystic area and enhanced solid component with calcification. Percutaneous needle biopsy for the solid component of the tumor identified an adenocarcinoma and the patient was diagnosed as having a sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation. Abdomino-sacral rectal resection with sacral amputation at the upper edge of the S5 was performed. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma derived from a mature teratoma. The tumor cells had infiltrated the rectal wall. After 7 months, a follow-up CT demonstrated swelling of the right inguinal lymph nodes and a right inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed metastatic lymph nodes. The patient is doing well 21 months after the second surgery, with no signs of recurrence.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2014.00117
PMCID: PMC4032893  PMID: 24904830
adenocarcinoma; teratoma; malignant transformation; sacrococcygeal
13.  Immature extragastric teratoma of infancy: a rare tumour with review of the literature 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr1220103674.
A full term otherwise healthy, 4-months-old male infant presented with progressive distension of abdomen from 2 months. The clinical examination showed shifting dullness only but no definite lump palpable. The abdominal radiography revealed calcification in right hypochondrium. Serum α-feto protein (AFP), neuron specific enolase, β human chorionic gonadotrophin and urinary vanillymandelic acid (VMA) were appropriate for age-range. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT showed predominantly multicystic lesion in right hypochondrium with central solid component and calcification, but no definite organ of origin determined. The exploratory laparotomy showed extra gastric multilobulated cystic mass sized 23×15×8 cm lesion arising from the lesser curvature of body of stomach. The tumour was feeding through short pedicle based on left gastric artery. There was no infiltration to adjacent areas. Histopathology of excised specimen showed immature teratoma. The child was discharged with appropriate advice and had no recurrence in 1 year of follow-up.
doi:10.1136/bcr.12.2010.3674
PMCID: PMC3070927  PMID: 22700350
14.  Comparison of computed tomography, endosonography, and intraoperative assessment in TN staging of gastric carcinoma. 
Gut  1993;34(5):604-610.
From 1986 to 1990 a prospective comparative study was undertaken to compare the relative accuracy of computed tomography, endogastric ultrasonography, and intraoperative surgical assessment in evaluating the depth of invasion (T category) and involvement of lymph nodes (N category) of patients with gastric carcinoma. One hundred and eight consecutive patients, who were treated by total gastrectomy and previously evaluated with computed tomography, endogastric ultrasonography, and intraoperative surgical assessment, entered the study. Results (T and N category) were compared with those of histopathological staging (pT and pN category). T categories were correctly staged in 43% of cases with computed tomography, 86% with endogastric ultrasonography, and 56% with intraoperative surgical assessment. Computed tomography scanning correctly staged 51% of all N1 and N2 lymph nodes compared with 74% for endogastric ultrasonography and 54% for intraoperative surgical assessment. In general, computed tomography was more accurate for advanced stages of cancer and showed a tendency to overstage the T category and understage N category of gastric tumours. By contrast, endogastric ultrasonography was equally accurate for all T categories and showed an understaging for N categories. Intraoperative surgical assessment overstaged early T stages, understaged T4 tumours, and was equally accurate for all grades of N categories. Computed tomography scanning and intraoperative surgical assessment of T and N categories were of little value in staging of gastric carcinoma. Endogastric ultrasonography is more accurate than computed tomography scanning and intraoperative surgical assessment. Therefore endogastric ultrasonography should be introduced in the preoperative assessment of patients with gastric carcinoma.
Images
PMCID: PMC1374175  PMID: 8504959
15.  Calcified cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome: Case presentation and literature review 
Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome (CMLNS) is a rare complication of celiac disease. Globally, only 36 cases of CMLNS have been reported to date. The present article reports an incidence of its unique pathology and possible complications of celiac disease, followed by a review of the syndrome. A case involving a 51-year-old man with celiac disease who was referred to hospital because of a non-tender abdominal mass is described. Plain film x-ray of the abdomen revealed fine curvilinear calcifications in the left lower quadrant. A complex, cystic-appearing, lobulated mass with somewhat echogenic walls most consistent with calcifications was revealed on subsequent ultrasound (US) imaging. Colour Doppler imaging showed no evidence of vascularity within the lesion. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a thin rim of calcification in the walls of multiple cystic components. Enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a mixed solid and cystic multiloculated mass, with fat-fluid layers originating from the root of the small bowel mesentery. A CT-guided biopsy was performed. The fine-needle aspirate revealed calcified matter with no associated cellular material. No malignant cells were seen; CMLNS was established as the diagnosis. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature describing the finding of rim calcification on US or MR imaging in the setting of CMLNS. CMLNS is an important diagnosis to consider, particularly in patients with a history of celiac disease. The finding of rim calcification on US in the setting of cavitating mesenteric adenopathy should prompt further diagnostic imaging studies such as CT or MR imaging. These may lead to additional pathology studies such as a CT-guided biopsy to further characterize the lesion at the cellular level, to investigate potential malignancy and to further guide follow-up and patient management.
PMCID: PMC2898488  PMID: 20559576
Calcification; Cavitating; Celiac; CT; Lymph node; MR; US
16.  Teratoma of the anterior mediastinum presenting as a cystic neck mass: a case report 
Introduction
Teratomas of anterior mediastinum are rare tumors and are often slow growing, asymptomatic and detected incidentally on chest imaging. Results of surgical resection are very satisfactory.
Case presentation
A 19-years old male presented with an asymptomatic cystic neck mass. X-ray and CT scan of chest and neck showed an extrathyroidal multi-septate, predominantly cystic neck mass, that was continuous with a solid intrathoracic mass extending up to the level of right atrium and which contained areas of calcification and cystic necrosis. The mediastinal structures did not show any features of compression or infiltration. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the neck mass was suggestive of a dermoid cyst. In view of the extent and uncertain pathological nature of the tumor, it was excised via a combined cervical and trans-sternal route. Histo-pathology of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a mature cystic teratoma. The patient made an uneventful recovery, and after five years of follow-up, he has been symptom free with no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrent disease. We discuss the role of imaging and the need for surgical treatment to avoid possible catastrophic complications in patients with cervical and mediastinal masses of uncertain histological nature.
Conclusion
A mediastinal teratoma may rarely present as a cystic neck swelling due to its cephalad extension. This entity needs to be considered in cases where clinical and investigative work-up fail to provide a convincing clue to a primary neck pathology as cause of a cystic neck swelling.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-23
PMCID: PMC2259367  PMID: 18221571
17.  A benign teratoma presenting as an obstruction of the nasal cavity: a case report 
Introduction
Teratoma refers to a neoplasm that recapitulates all three germ layers. Teratomas may be histologically mature and oncologically benign. Teratomas may also be histologically immature while being oncologically benign, or they may harbor malignant components and have the potential to exhibit an aggressive biological behavior. Teratomas of the head and neck are extremely rare and usually present in the neonatal period. As a general rule, pediatric teratomas of the head and neck tend to be oncologically benign, whereas adult teratomas tend to be histologically and oncologically malignant. Most of these teratomas are found in the cervical region and nasopharynx. Calcification within the mass is often evident.
Case presentation
A 27-year-old Caucasian man complaining of a nasal obstruction was admitted to our clinic in January 2006. A transnasal endoscopic examination revealed a mass arising from the nasal septum which was completely removed using an endoscopic approach. Histologically, it was determined to be a benign teratoma.
Conclusion
Herein, we present a rare case, along with a review of the related literature, in order to emphasize that a benign teratoma of the nasal septum should not be ignored.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-147
PMCID: PMC3410769  PMID: 22691605
18.  Sebaceous Carcinoma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma of Ovary 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(4):383-387.
Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.4.383
PMCID: PMC3759639  PMID: 24009635
Sebaceous carcinoma; Sebaceous adenoma; Mature cystic teratoma; Ovary
19.  MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: Preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations 
Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13–14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1–3 cm diameter tumors located 2–10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240 min) tumors measuring 2.3–3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20–30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5–10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3–4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20–25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control.
doi:10.1117/12.2004669
PMCID: PMC4031683  PMID: 24860246
hyperthermia; ablation; pancreatic cancer; MR temperature imaging; ultrasound; modeling
20.  A giant primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma in right adrenal region in a 39-year-old female 
We report an unusual case of a giant primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma in right adrenal region in a 39-year-old Chinese female. The patient has complained of dizziness and a high blood pressure approximately 170/110 mmHg for half one year. A plain helical and enhanced CT scan showed a huge tumor with a mixing density in recessus hepatorenalis. This tumor had calcification and fat, as well as a mild enhancement in part of the tumor. The patient was successfully treated with a right surgical resection of the mass. Although the primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratomas in right adrenal regions are extremely rare, we should pay attention to it and close follow up is indispensable on account of the incidence of malignant transformation is approximately 3-6%.
PMCID: PMC4100974  PMID: 25035788
Mature cystic teratoma; primary retroperitoneal; adrenal region
21.  Gastric Teratoma in an Infant: A Rare Case Report and Discussion 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):152-154.
Gastric teratoma is a rare tumor, accounting for less than 1 % of all teratomas in infants & children. To date, only about 102 cases have been reported in the literature. A 10 month old infant was brought with a history of upper abdominal mass which was otherwise asymptomatic. On evaluation it was diagnosed as gastric teratoma. On laparotomy the mass was found to be originating from lesser curvature of stomach. Mass was excised and histopathologically it was a mature cystic teratoma. No recurrence after 18 months of follow-up.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0568-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0568-7
PMCID: PMC3693341  PMID: 24426547
Gastric; Teratoma; Stomach; Teratomas; Germ cell tumors
22.  Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney: report of a rare entity and review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2007;2:15.
Background
Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and their clinicopathologic features are not well described. Our objective was to further define the clinical features and pathologic spectra of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney.
Methods
Six previously reported case reports were identified using MEDLINE and a subsequent bibliographic search of all pertinent reports and reviews was performed. We also searched the electronic medical archival records of our institution and identified one additional unreported case. Data were extracted on the demographics, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, radiographic features, gross pathology, microscopic pathology, immunophenotype, therapy, and outcome of each of these seven cases.
Results
Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney was found at a mean age of 41.4 years. Of the 7 cases, 3 were female and 4 were male. Two of the 7 cases (28.6%) were associated with horseshoe kidney. It typically presented with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It typical radiologic appearance was well circumscribed partly calcified Bosniak II-III lesion. Histologically, the carcinoid tumor showed monotonous small round cells arranged in classic anastomosing cords/ribbons intermixed with solid nests. Surgery was curative, no additional treatment was required, no local recurrences occurred, and no metastases occurred in all 7 cases. The 3 cases with available outcome data were alive at the time of publication of their respective cases (mean, 5 months).
Conclusion
Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is a rare tumor that typically presents with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It is not associated with local recurrence and metastasis, is surgically curable, and has excellent prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-2-15
PMCID: PMC1884130  PMID: 17509135
23.  Congenital Nasopharyngeal Teratoma in a Neonate 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(2):249-252.
Background
Congenital germ cell tumors are uncommon. The most common site of teratoma is in the sacrococcygeal region. Teratoma arising from the head and neck comprises less than 10% of reported cases and of these, nasopharyngeal lesions are rare. Teratomas are generally benign, and have a well recognized clinical and histopathological entity. We present a case of nasopharyngeal teratoma (NPT) associated with a wide cleft palate.
Case Presentation
A 20 day old female neonate with a teratoma of the nasopharyngeal area, and wide cleft palate was referred to our center. The protruded mass which measured 6×4×3cm, was of soft consistency, blocked the airway, and prevented oral feeding. Preoperative evaluation and imaging was performed and mass was excised 2 days after admission. Pathology revealed a well-differentiated mature solid teratoma (hairy polyp). The patient had no complication in the post-operative period. Cleft palate was surgically repaired when 2 years old. She is now a six year old girl with normal development.
Conclusion
Congenital nasopharyngeal teratomas are usually benign. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and should be undertaken on an urgent basis, especially in a patient who presents with signs and symptoms of airway obstruction.
PMCID: PMC3446152  PMID: 23056797
Teratoma; Nasopharyngeal Tumor; Cleft Palate; Neonate; Airway Obstruction
24.  Three Cases of Immature Teratoma Diagnosed after Laparoscopic Operation 
While mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is the most common ovarian tumor in young women, immature teratoma is a very rare tumor, representing only 1% of all ovarian cancers. In the three cases presented here, young women who were suspected to have mature cystic teratoma, based on CT scan and MRI, were ultimately diagnosed with immature teratoma Ic (b) G1 after laparoscopic operation. They underwent salpingo-oophorectomy of the affected side only and have shown no sign of recurrence during follow-up. We sometimes encounter patients with immature teratoma who have no findings pointing to malignancy on CT or MRI. Generally, if the components of immature nerve cells that represent immature teratoma are very few, it is difficult to diagnose the entity as immature teratoma with imaging evaluations such as CT or MRI. In many hospitals, laparoscopic surgery is selected for patients with ovarian mature teratoma. Therefore, it is essential to attempt as much as possible not to disseminate the fluid content of the tumor into the intra-abdominal space during laparoscopic operation, because in rare cases the tumor turns out not to be benign mature teratoma.
doi:10.4137/CCRep.S17455
PMCID: PMC4159361  PMID: 25232281
mature teratoma; immature teratoma; laparoscopic surgery
25.  Immature Teratoma after Three Laparoscopic Resections for Mature Cystic Teratomas 
We report a case in which an immature teratoma developed following three previous resections for mature cystic teratomas. The patient was a 26-year-old nulliparous woman with a regular menstrual cycle. Twelve years earlier, she had consulted a pediatrician for complaints of lower abdominal pain. Bilateral cystic teratomas were suspected and she underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a right cystectomy laparoscopically, and bilateral mature cystic teratomas were diagnosed histologically. She underwent a right cystectomy twice afterwards and mature cystic teratomas were diagnosed. Three years after the third surgery, a regular checkup performed annually for ovarian cyst recurrence revealed a 9.3 cm ovarian cyst by ultrasonography without marker elevation or complaint of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 10 cm multilocular cyst, including a part with heterogeneous medium and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which revealed enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI unlike the previous images. Ovarian tumors, including immature teratomas and malignancy, were considered. She had a strong wish to undergo laparoscopic surgery. She was diagnosed with an immature teratoma, grade 1 of the right ovary. Although the frequency of recurrence of immature teratomas after resection of mature cystic teratomas is very low, regular checkups are necessary because there may be no associated symptoms.
doi:10.1155/2014/264959
PMCID: PMC4036825  PMID: 24900932

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