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1.  Pediatric gastric volvulus--experience with 7 cases. 
Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenterioaxial, is a rare condition in infancy and childhood. We experienced 7 cases of pediatric gastric volvulus, consisting of 3 cases of secondary gastric volvulus due to left diaphragmatic eventration or paraesophageal hernia and 4 cases of idiopathic gastric volvulus. Of 7 cases, five were organoaxial in type and two were mesenterioaxial. The main symptoms of secondary gastric volvulus were vomiting and respiratory difficulty whereas those of idiopathic gastric volvulus were abdominal distension and weight loss with or without failure to thrive. It may be suspected on plain abdominal radiographs and usually confirmed by upper gastrointestinal series. Upper gastrointestinal series in organaxial volvulus demonstrated characteristic findings such as reversal of the greater and lesser curvatures and two air-fluid levels. In mesenterioaxial volvulus, the stomach was rotated into inverted position with pyloroantral obstruction showing a beak appearance. The three patients with secondary volvulus underwent repair of associated defect with or without gastropexy and the 3 patients with idiopathic volvulus underwent anterior gastropexy or gastrostomy. In those with idiopathic gastric volvulus, there was no obvious cause such as laxity of the perigastric ligaments. The operative results were satisfactory except for the three patients with idiopathic gastric volvulus whose abdomen remained distended regardless of weight gain.
PMCID: PMC3053782  PMID: 1285925
2.  Laparoscopic treatment of intestinal malrotation in neonates and infants: retrospective study 
Surgical Endoscopy  2010;25(1):217-220.
Background
Intestinal malrotation in neonates or infants may require urgent surgical treatment, especially when volvulus and vascular compromise of the midgut are suspected. Successful laparoscopic management of malrotation has been described in a number of case reports. It remains unclear, however, whether laparoscopy for the treatment of malrotation has a success rate equal to that of open surgery and what relative risks exist in terms of conversion and redo surgery in larger numbers of patients. This report describes a retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome for 45 children who underwent laparoscopic treatment of intestinal malrotation at the authors’ institution.
Methods
The 45 patients in this series, ages several days to 13 years, underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected intestinal malrotation. For 37 patients, malrotation with or without volvulus was diagnosed. All these patients underwent laparoscopic derotation and Ladd’s procedure.
Results
Successful laparoscopic treatment of intestinal malrotation could be performed in 75% of the cases (n = 28), and conversion to an open procedure was necessary in 25% of the cases (n = 9). The median hospital stay was 11 days (range, 2–60 days). Postoperative clinical relapse due to recurrence of malrotation, volvulus, or both occurred for 19% of the laparoscopically treated patients (n = 7). These patients underwent laparoscopic (n = 1) or open (n = 6) redo surgery.
Conclusion
Diagnostic laparoscopy is the procedure of choice when intestinal malrotation is suspected. If present, malrotation can be treated adequately with laparoscopic surgery in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, to prevent recurrence of malrotation or volvulus, a low threshold for conversion to an open procedure is mandated.
doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1162-3
PMCID: PMC3003780  PMID: 20559662
Gastrointestinal surgery; Laparoscopy; Malrotation; Neonates
3.  A Case of Cecal Volvulus Presenting with Chronic Constipation in Lissencephaly 
Cecal volvulus is uncommon in pediatric patients and there are few reports of cecal volvulus with cerebral palsy. Here, we report the case of a 19-year-old male patient who presented with abdominal distension, a history of cerebral palsy, refractory epilepsy due to lissencephaly, and chronic constipation. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomography without contrast enhancement showed fixed dilated bowel intensity in the right lower abdomen. Despite decompression with gastric and rectal tube insertion, symptoms did not improve. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy that revealed cecal volvulus. Cecal volvulus usually occurs following intestinal malrotation or previous surgery. In this patient, however, intestinal distension accompanying mental disability and chronic constipation resulted in the development of cecal volvulus. We suggest that cecal and proximal large bowel volvulus should be considered in patients presenting with progressive abdominal distension combined with a history of neuro-developmental delay and constipation.
doi:10.5223/pghn.2013.16.2.131
PMCID: PMC3760704  PMID: 24010118
Cecum; Inteseinal volvulus; Lissencephaly
4.  Intestinal malrotation and volvulus in adult life 
INTRODUCTION
Midgut volvulus due to intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction when occurring in adult life. This paper documents the difficulties in reaching an early diagnosis.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe the case of an 85-year-old man with non-specific abdominal complaints for 20 years, who presented with sudden onset central abdominal pain. An acute median laparotomy under general anaesthesia was performed during which a 360° clockwise rotation of the small bowel around the mesenteric pedicle of the superior mesenteric artery and vein was found.
DISCUSSION
Malrotation is considered any deviation of the normal rotation of the midgut in embryological development, causing intermittent episodes of gastrointestinal obstruction or acute events of midgut volvulus. Although mainly a paediatric diagnosis, some cases do present in adult life. Radiologic investigations include: upper gastrointestinal contrast studies, Doppler sonography and a contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen. If a true malrotation is diagnosed or found by coincidence, a Ladd's procedure is advised, even if the patient is asymptomatic. There is no proven surgical strategy for preventing the recurrence of small bowel volvulus in case of malfixation of the midgut.
CONCLUSION
Non-specific recurrent abdominal complaints in adults of any age should raise suspicion of the possibility of a midgut malrotation or malfixation with or without intermittent volvulus. This case highlights the importance of diagnosis in an early stage.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.02.013
PMCID: PMC4008858  PMID: 24709622
Malrotation; Volvulus
5.  Recurrent intestinal volvulus in midgut malrotation causing acute bowel obstruction: A case report 
Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd’s procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v5.i3.43
PMCID: PMC3615303  PMID: 23556060
Gut volvulus; Intestinal malrotation; Acute bowel obstruction; Computerised tomography scan; Laparotomy
6.  Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Adults 
Background:
Congenital midgut malrotation is rarely encountered outside the pediatric population. The Ladd's procedure is the standard corrective measure for intestinal malrotation in children and consists of division of peritoneal bands (Ladd's bands) traversing the posterior abdomen, reduction of volvulus, appendectomy, and functional postioning of the intestine with or without fixation. Clinical manifestations of malrotation and results of Ladd's procedure have been described in adults, but laparoscopic treatment remains to be established as adequate treatment.
Methods:
Records were reviewed of 7 patients, ages 17 to 45, all with a history of abdominal discomfort dating from childhood or early adolescence. The diagnosis of malrotation was made by barium small bowel examination in all cases. Symptoms consisted of recurrent bouts of abdominal pain that were most often postprandial, with bloating and, less frequently, constipation. Surgical treatment consisted of laparoscopic exploration via 4 ports. Peritoneal bands were completely divided, and an appendectomy performed in all patients. Three patients required reduction of nonstrangulated chronic midgut volvulus.
Results:
No early complications occurred, and all patients were discharged on postoperative days 1 through 3. At 2 months to 48 months after surgery, 1 patient had been lost to follow-up. Five patients (71%) reported substantial improvement in abdominal discomfort, with only occasional mild symptoms. Constipation continued in 1 patient, but required less aggressive treatment. One patient reported only slight improvement in postprandial abdominal pain.
Conclusions:
Although rarely encountered, intestinal malrotation after childhood can produce significant clinical symptoms that respond to surgical treatment. The results of the present series indicate that laparoscopic Ladd's procedure is an acceptable alternative to the open technique in treating symptoms of intestinal malrotation in adults.
PMCID: PMC3015603  PMID: 16121875
Intestinal malrotation; Ladd's procedure; Laparoscopy
7.  Laparoscopic Repair of Gastric Volvulus 
Background and Objectives:
Acute and chronic gastric volvulus usually present with different symptoms and affect patients primarily after the fourth decade of life. Volvulus can be diagnosed by an upper gastrointestinal contrast study or by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There are three types of gastric volvulus: 1) organoaxial (most common type); 2) mesenteroaxial; and 3) a combination of the two. If undetected or if a delay in diagnosis and treatment occurs, serious complications can develop.
Methods:
We present four cases of surgical repair of organoaxial volvulus consisting of laparoscopic reduction of the volvulus with excision of the hernia sac and reapproximation of the diaphragmatic crura. A Nissen fundoplication, to prevent reflux, was performed, and the stomach was pexed to the anterior abdominal wall by laparoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube, thus preventing recurrent volvulus.
Results:
There were no operative complications, and all four patients tolerated the procedure well. The patients were discharged one to three days postoperatively and were asymptomatic within two months.
Conclusion:
With the advancement of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal and hiatal hernias, minimally invasive surgical repair is possible. Based on our experience, we advocate the laparoscopic technique to repair gastric volvulus.
PMCID: PMC3113174  PMID: 10987399
Laparoscopy; Volvulus; Gastric volvulus
8.  Midgut Malrotation with Chronic Abdominal Pain 
Abnormalities in midgut rotation occur during the physiological herniation of midgut between the 5th and 10th week of gestation. The most significant abnormality is narrow small bowel mesentery which is prone to volvulus. This occurs most frequently in the neonatal period, less commonly midgut malrotation presents in adulthood with either acute volvulus or chronic abdominal symptoms. It is the latter group that represents a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented with 10-year history of nonspecific gastro-intestinal symptoms. After extensive investigation the patient was diagnosed with midgut malrotation following computed tomography of abdomen. The patient was treated with a laparoscopic Ladd's procedure and at 3 months he was gaining weight and had stopped vomiting. A laparoscopic Ladd's procedure is an acceptable alternative to the open technique in treating symptomatic malrotation in adults. Midgut malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly which may present as chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal CT is helpful for diagnosis.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.94950
PMCID: PMC3334262  PMID: 22536565
Congenital; Malrotation; Midgut
9.  Management of acute upside-down stomach 
BMC Surgery  2013;13:55.
Background
Upside-down stomach (UDS) is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. Symptoms may vary heavily as they are related to reflux and mechanically impaired gastric emptying. UDS is associated with a risk of incarceration and volvulus development which both might be complicated by acute gastric outlet obstruction, advanced ischemia, gastric bleeding and perforation.
Case presentation
A 32-year-old male presented with acute intolerant epigastralgia and anterior chest pain associated with acute onset of nausea and vomiting. He reported on a previous surgical intervention due to a hiatal hernia. Chest radiography and computer tomography showed an incarcerated UDS. After immediate esophago-gastroscopy, urgent laparoscopic reduction, repair with a 360° floppy Nissen fundoplication and insertion of a gradually absorbable GORE® BIO-A®-mesh was performed.
Conclusion
Given the high risk of life-threatening complications of an incarcerated UDS as ischemia, gastric perforation or severe bleeding, emergent surgery is indicated. In stable patients with acute presentation of large paraesophageal hernia or UDS exhibiting acute mechanical gastric outlet obstruction, after esophago-gastroscopy laparoscopic reduction and hernia repair followed by an anti-reflux procedure is suggested. However, in cases of unstable patients open repair is the surgical method of choice. Here, we present an exceptionally challenging case of a young patient with a giant recurrent hiatal hernia becoming clinically manifest in an incarcerated UDS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-55
PMCID: PMC3830558  PMID: 24228771
Upside-down stomach; Hiatal hernia; Paraesophageal hernia; Gastric incarceration; Gastric outlet obstruction; Gastric volvulus
10.  Intestinal occlusion through extrinsec stenosis of transverse colon associated with internal right mesocolic hernia 
Journal of Medicine and Life  2012;5(3):321-324.
Rationale. The incidence of malrotation has been estimated at 1 in 600 live births. An increased incidence of 0,2% has been found in barium swallow studies, whereas autopsy studies estimate that the true incidence may be high as 1% of the total population. The clinical manifestations are elusive; therefore, the diagnosis must be based on the presence or absence of the acute obstruction. Radiologic investigations, especially those using contrast substances, are the ones used most often in the diagnosis of malrotation. Laparoscopy may give the clinician a valuable tool that will help him diagnose the rotational anomalies and correct the potentially obstructing lesions with minimal surgical trauma to the patient. The role of the surgical treatment is to prevent volvulus and to treat any kind of obstruction. Ladd’s procedure provides all the elements for reaching this goal.
Objective. The following report describes a particular case of one female patient, 8 years old, admitted in our clinic with signs of intestinal obstruction. She had similar episodes in the last three months, but the symptoms had resolved spontaneously.
Methods and results. Upper gastrointestinal series showed an anomaly of rotation and barium enema discovered a tight stenosis on the transverse colon. Emergency surgery using laparotomy enabled diagnosis. Intraoperatively, a right mesocolic hernia and a transverse colon extrinsic stenosis due to abnormal peritoneal attachments were noted.
Discussion. Colon obstruction due to peritoneal bands is extremely rare. The clinical manifestations are not specific and we need radiologic procedures to help diagnose the disease. The cause of the obstruction is not always evident despite the availability of modern imaging techniques. Since preoperative diagnosis is difficult, morbidity and mortality can be decreased by an early surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC3465002  PMID: 23049636
malrotation ; intestinal obstruction ; transverse colon stenosis ; internal right mesocolic hernia
11.  Difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2013;2013(10):rjt078.
Mesenteroaxial volvulus is a form of gastric volvulus that rotates around the short axis of the stomach. Mesenteroaxial volvulus typically presents secondary to an anatomical defect with symptoms that include epigastric pain, retching, dysphagia and early satiety. Our patient presented with episodic abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 years. Previous imaging was unremarkable but an esophagogastroduodenoscopy done when the patient most recently presented with abdominal pain revealed a mesenteroaxial volvulus. He underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy-tube gastropexy and has not had any recurrence of his symptoms to date. This case illustrates the difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent volvulus as untimely imaging of a temporarily unfolded volvulus can delay diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rjt078
PMCID: PMC3852863  PMID: 24964322
12.  Laparoscopic anterior gastropexy for chronic recurrent gastric volvulus: a case report 
Introduction
Gastric volvulus is an uncommon clinical entity, first described by Berti in 1866. It is a rotation of all or part of the stomach through more than 180°. This rotation can occur on the longitudinal (organo-axial) or transverse (mesentero-axial) axis. This condition can lead to a closed-loop obstruction or strangulation. Traditional surgical therapy for gastric volvulus is based on an open approach. Here we report the case of a patient with chronic intermittent gastric volvulus who underwent a successful laparoscopic treatment.
Case presentation
A 34-year-old woman presented with multiple episodes of recurrent upper abdominal pain associated with retching and vomiting, treated unsuccessfully with intramuscular metoclopramide. Endoscopic examination of the upper digestive tract showed a suspected rotation of the stomach, and a chronic recurrent gastric volvulus was revealed by barium meal. The patient was operated on successfully, with an anterior laparoscopic gastropexy performed as the first surgical approach.
Conclusion
Experience with laparoscopic anterior gastropexy is limited only to a few described cases. Our patient was clinically and radiologically followed-up for 2 years with no evidence of recurrence, either radiological or symptomatic. Based on this result, laparoscopic gastropexy can be seen and considered as an initial 'gold standard' for the treatment of gastric volvulus.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-244
PMCID: PMC2500025  PMID: 18652696
13.  Pediatric Gastric Volvulus: Diagnostic and Clinical Approach 
Gastric volvulus is a significant, rare cause of non-bilious vomiting and consists of a pathological rotation of the stomach of more than 180° around the axis without obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. A definitive diagnosis is made with upper radiological gastrointestinal studies. Treatment may be conservative or surgical with anterior and fundal gastropexy in patients with ingravescent symptoms. We describe the case of a 16-month-old female admitted to our hospital for recurrent and postprandial vomiting episodes which had started at 11 months of age. A history of gastroesophageal reflux was present until 1 year of age, in association with recurrent respiratory infections. The basic metabolic panel was normal. Barium study showed stomach rotation along a horizontal plane stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed no mucosal alterations. The diagnosis was chronic organoaxial gastric volvulus. In our patient, the surgical procedure of gastropexy, both anterior and fundal, without fundoplication was performed. She showed good improvement after surgery, with resolution of symptoms and weight gain.
doi:10.1159/000348758
PMCID: PMC3617890  PMID: 23626505
Postprandial vomiting; Chronic gastric volvulus; Anterior; fundal gastropexy
14.  Successful treatment of a 14-year-old patient with intestinal malrotation with laparoscopic Ladd procedure: case report and literature review 
Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd’s bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-8-19
PMCID: PMC3663692  PMID: 23684081
Malrotation; Laparoscopic surgery; Ladd procedure; Acute abdomen; Teenager
15.  Acute gastric volvulus: Late-onset ischemic consequences and their management 
We report three infants who presented with acute gastric volvulus and recovered initially after de-torsion, but later presented with sequelae due to ischemia of gastroesophageal junction, stomach and gastroduodenal junction. The first two infants could not be fed orally or by gastrostomy tube because of microgastria and stricture of the lower esophagus and gastroduodenal junction, and were managed on jejunostomy feeds, while the third child was managed on gastrostomy feeds till the gastric substitution surgery. The first case was treated nonsurgically with repeated dilatations, but ultimately succumbed to sepsis and malnutrition. In the second child, attempted dilatation resulted in esophageal perforation and she was reconstructed using ileocecal segment as a substitute for stomach and lower esophagus, and has done well. The third child was managed surgically by the Hunt Lawrence J pouch as stomach substitute and has also done well.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.86875
PMCID: PMC3221158  PMID: 22121314
Eventration; gastric volvulus; gastroesophageal stenosis
16.  Volvulus of the Stomach: An African Series and a Review 
A radiological diagnosis of gastric volvulus (GV) was made in 11 of 576 consecutive upper gastrointestinal series at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a two-year period. The clinical symptoms were thoracico-abdominal in three and abdominal in eight; these cases were evaluated as acute in three, acute upon chronic in two, and chronic in six. There was a significant delay in the diagnosis in all cases (except a neonate in the series), and no case was diagnosed on clinical grounds alone.
The predisposing factors (except the clinical misdiagnosis of the neonate) in six of the seven cases that came to surgery were: diaphragmatic hernia and perigastritis (left lung abscess, thoracic empyema), arteriomesenteric compression of the duodenum in pregnancy (peptic ulcer), splenomegaly (hepatosplenomegaly, ascites, esophageal varices), previous gastrojejunostomy (stomal ulcer, left subphrenic abscess) and two cases of intestinal malrotation with mesenteric abnormalities (small bowel obstruction in one and duodenal atresia in the other). In one idiopathic case, gastric outlet obstruction was clinically suspected prior to surgery. Thus, the putative rarity of GV in black Africans is not supported by this experience.
Gastric volvulus is a clinico-radiologic entity that may present with a confusing thoracico-abdominal symptom complex. A greater awareness of the radiologic features is quintessential to an expeditious and usually successful surgical management that will avoid potentially serious complications. Negative surgical findings do not exclude GV as the underlying cause of acute abdomens necessitating emergency laparotomies.
Images
PMCID: PMC2571460  PMID: 3560244
17.  Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;69(6):260-263.
Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known. Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric volvulus have been described depending on the rotation axis: organoaxial, mesentericoaxial and combination of both types. Operative treatment includes reduction, correction of underlying cause and gastropexy.
doi:10.1007/s12262-007-0039-8
PMCID: PMC3452533  PMID: 23133000
Volvulus; Gastropexy; Diaphragmatic hernia
18.  Volvulus: Small Bowel and Colon 
ABSTRACT
Volvulus of the intestine is a surgical emergency. Volvulus of the small bowel is more common in children and is most often secondary to malrotation. Small bowel volvulus is an uncommon cause for small bowel obstruction in adults, and is more likely to be secondary to postoperative adhesive bands. Colonic volvulus is a rare cause of large bowel obstruction, but more common than small bowel volvulus. The sigmoid is most frequently involved, with redundant colon as the primary cause. Cecal volvulus most commonly is due to lack of fixation. Colonic volvulus has a specific radiographic appearance; however, small bowel volvulus is difficult to distinguish from other causes of small bowel obstruction by radiographic means. New surgical techniques with minimally invasive surgery are increasingly being applied to this old problem with good results in selected cases.
doi:10.1055/s-2008-1075856
PMCID: PMC2780196  PMID: 20011403
Volvulus; bowel obstruction; minimally invasive surgery
19.  Perforated gastric corpus in a strangulated paraesophageal hernia: a case report 
Introduction
Patients with paraesophageal hernias often present secondary to chronic symptomatology. Infrequently, acute intestinal ischemia and perforation can occur as a consequence of paraesophageal hernias with potentially dire consequences.
Case presentation
An 86-year-old obtunded male presented to the emergency department with hypotension and severe back and abdominal pain. An emergency abdominal CT scan was ordered with a presumptive diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. CT topograms revealed extensive free intra-abdominal air and herniated abdominal viscera into the right hemithorax. Prior to completion of the CT study, the patient sustained a cardiopulmonary arrest. Surgery was consulted, but the patient was unable to be revived. Post-mortem examination revealed gross contamination within the abdomen and a giant, incarcerated, hiatal hernia with organoaxial volvulus and ischemic perforation.
Conclusion
Current recommendations call for prompt repair of giant hiatal hernias before they become symptomatic due to the increased risk of strangulation. Torsion of the stomach in large hiatal hernias frequently leads to a fatal complication such as this warranting elective repair as soon as possible.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-6507
PMCID: PMC2726547  PMID: 19830111
20.  Acute gastric volvulus: an uncommon complication of a hiatus hernia 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0920114753.
An 80-year-old male patient with a history of a hiatus hernia presented with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. CT of his abdomen revealed extraluminal free gas consistent with a perforation. He had a large hiatus hernia. The subdiaphragmatic portion of the stomach was distended and adopted a more transverse lie. The radiological findings were in keeping with acute gastric volvulus with secondary ischaemic complications. Acute gastric volvulus is an abnormal rotation of the stomach resulting in complete obstruction. It is a surgical emergency and does not always present in its classical form. Clinicians should be mindful of this diagnosis in patients presenting with an acute surgical abdomen, especially if the presentation is non-specific, as delays in diagnosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4753
PMCID: PMC3207776  PMID: 22675018
21.  Midgut malrotation first presenting as acute bowel obstruction in adulthood: a case report and literature review 
Malrotation of the midgut is generally regarded as paediatric pathology with the majority of patients presenting in childhood. The diagnosis is rare in adults, which sometimes leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. A high index of suspicion is therefore required when dealing with patients of any age group with abdominal symptoms. We present a case of a 55-year old man who presented with an acute abdomen with preoperative computed tomography scan and operative findings confirming midgut rotation. The duodenum, small bowel, caecum and appendix were abnormally located, with the presence of classical Ladd's bands. There was no evidence of intestinal volvulus. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy with an uneventful postoperative recovery.
A review of the literature is presented to highlight the rarity of intestinal malrotation and the controversies surrounding its management in the adult population.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-6-22
PMCID: PMC3158108  PMID: 21801417
Midgut malrotation; acute abdomen; Ladd's bands; computed tomography scan; laparoscopy
22.  Duodenal web associated with malrotation and review of literature 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2013;2013(12):rjt110.
Intestinal obstruction due to midgut malrotation in neonates is well known. The incidence of malrotation in newborns is around 1:500 and the symptomatic incidence is 1:6000 births. Duodenal web as a cause of intestinal obstruction is less common and is reported to be 1:10 000–1:40 000. Malrotation is known to be associated with other congenital obstructive anomalies including duodenal atresia, stenosis and duodenal web. But, intestinal obstruction due to malrotation associated with duodenal web has been reported only rarely with a few published cases in our literature review. We present a case of intestinal obstruction diagnosed in the prenatal period via sonogram. A plain X-ray of the abdomen after birth showed a distended duodenum with paucity of air distally suggesting duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy showed a duodenal web proximal to the sphincter of oddi. The patient also had an associated malrotation and underwent Ladd's procedure and appendectomy. The post-operative period was uneventful.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rjt110
PMCID: PMC3887994  PMID: 24968440
23.  Gastric Volvulus, Borchardt's Triad, and Endoscopy: A Rare Twist 
Hawaii Medical Journal  2011;70(4):80-82.
The authors describe a case of gastric volvulus, which is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction. An 85-year-old man presented with nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. Admission abdominal radiograph demonstrated a grossly distended stomach with air-fluid levels. Multiple attempts at nasogastric tube placement failed. Endoscopy revealed a fluid-filled, tortuous stomach with a paraesophageal hernia, and the operator was unable to locate or pass the scope through the pylorus. Traditionally Borchardt's triad is believed to be diagnostic for acute gastric volvulus and consists of unproductive retching, epigastric pain and distention, and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube. The authors propose that the following features on endoscopy are highly suggestive of the most common type of volvulus (organoaxial): tortuous stomach, paraesophageal hernia, and inability to locate or pass the scope through the pylorus.
PMCID: PMC3072542  PMID: 21785507
24.  Chilaiditi's syndrome associated with colonic volvulus and intestinal malrotation—A rare case 
INTRODUCTION
Chilaiditi's syndrome (symptomatic hepatodiaphragmatic interposition of the colon) is an exceptionally rare cause of bowel obstruction and may present difficulty in diagnosis and management. This is the first reported case of colonic volvulus occurring in Chilaiditi's syndrome in association with intestinal malrotation and this case study describes its successful management.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
An 18 year old male presented as an emergency with vague abdominal pain and a past history of gastroschisis repair with intestinal malrotation. CT scanning showed a closed loop obstruction due to a volvulus of the colon herniating under the falciform ligament. The patient was successfully treated by surgical reduction of the hernia, anatomical correction of the malrotation and caecopexy with a tube caecostomy. At six month follow up the patient was well and asymptomatic.
DISCUSSION
In nine of the previously reported cases of Chilaiditi's syndrome with colonic volvulus, treatment was by partial colonic resection of which a third underwent stoma formation. One patient died as a consequence of anastomotic leak following primary anastomosis. We therefore suggest an alternative approach to management.
CONCLUSION
Chilaiditi's syndrome with colonic volvulus in association with intestinal malrotation has not previously been described. As there is no consensus in the literature as to how to manage such a case we suggest that reduction of the volvulus, anatomical correction of the malrotation and fixation of the caecum by tube caecostomy results in a successful outcome. This approach avoids the need for colonic resection and possible stoma formation.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.03.011
PMCID: PMC4066568  PMID: 24811427
Chilaiditi's syndrome; Colonic volvulus; Internal hernia; Adult malrotation; Nonrotation
25.  A novel plain abdominal radiograph sign to diagnose malrotation with volvulus 
Malrotation with associated volvulus is a potentially lethal event for a neonate. The gold standard for diagnosis is an upper gastrointestinal contrast study. However this can delay the diagnosis and the timing of surgical intervention. We present a novel abdominal radiographic sign; duodenal and gastric dilatation occurring in association with limited small bowel gas confined to the right lower quadrant of abdomen and the total absence of colonic air that is indicative of malrotation with associated volvulus. This allows for an earlier diagnosis and expeditious surgery.
doi:10.3941/jrcr.v4i5.386
PMCID: PMC3303406  PMID: 22470728
Malrotation; volvulus; abdominal radiograph

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