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1.  Relapsing massive metal bezoar: a case report 
Bezoars are uncommon findings in the gastrointestinal tract and are composed of a wide variety of materials. We report a case of a relapsing metal bezoar in a man with schizophrenia.
Case presentation
A 34-year-old man presented with a history of sub-acute onset of mild diffuse abdominal pain and abdominal distention. Physical examination revealed dullness to percussion in the upper and lower left quadrants. Past medical history was remarkable for epilepsy, schizophrenia and previous abdominal surgery for intestinal occlusion. Plain radiographs revealed objects of metal density contained within a dilated stomach. Celiotomy was performed revealing more than 350 metal objects inside the stomach. The patient was discharged and referred to a psychiatric facility.
Intestinal occlusion in patients with psychiatric disorders can result from rare causes such as bezoars. This report alerts surgeons to rule out bezoars in the differential diagnosis of intestinal occlusion in people with mental health problems.
PMCID: PMC2649143  PMID: 19208216
2.  Bezoar in gastro-jejunostomy presenting with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of the literature 
Gastric outlet obstruction usually presents with non-bilious vomiting, colicky epigastric pain, loss of appetite and occasionally, upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Causes can be classified as benign or malignant, or as extra- or intraluminal. Gastrojejunostomy is a well-recognised surgical procedure performed to bypass gastric outlet obstruction. A bezoar occurs most commonly in patients with impaired gastrointestinal motility or with a history of gastric surgery. It is an intestinal concretion, which fails to pass along the alimentary canal.
Case presentation
A 62-year-old Asian woman with a history of gastrojejunostomy for peptic ulcer disease was admitted to hospital with epigastric pain, vomiting and dehydration. All investigations concluded gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a "stricture" at the site of gastrojejunostomy. Subsequent laparotomy revealed that the cause of the obstruction was a bezoar.
Many bezoars can be removed endoscopically, but some will require operative intervention. Once removed, emphasis must be placed upon prevention of recurrence. Surgeons must learn to recognise and classify bezoars in order to provide the most effective therapy.
PMCID: PMC2567335  PMID: 18831730
3.  An Unusual Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child: Ingested Rhubarb 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:497214.
Small bowel obstruction is rarely caused by bezoars concretions formed from undigested foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract. An important cause of bezoars is phytobezoars, formed from vegetables or fruits. A four-year-old boy presented to our emergency department with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction. Upright plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple air fluid levels. Ultrasound showed no abnormalities, and because of worsening symptoms computed tomography of abdomen was performed. It showed intraluminal obstruction of the terminal ileum. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a phytobezoar consisting of undigested rhubarb. The mass was milked through the large bowel and out the anus. Although rare in humans, bezoars are a well-documented cause of small bowel obstruction and should be considered when intraluminal bowel obstruction occurs. Bezoars causing small bowel obstruction may require surgical treatment.
PMCID: PMC3708412  PMID: 23878756
4.  Giant Trichobezoar of Duodenojejunal Flexure: A Rare Entity 
Bezoars are concretions of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. Duodenojejunal localization of bezoars is exceptional. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman who experienced nausea, vomiting and severe abdominal pain for one week. By palpation a mobile and sensitive mass, 15 × 15 cm, was detected, which filled the upper quadrant. Results of gastric endoscopy were normal. X-ray and ultrasonography suggested a bezoar. A laparotomy revealed that the jejunum was fissured by the trichobezoar ball. This trichobezoar mass was totally excised by intestinal resection.
To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of duodenojejunal fissuration caused by trichobezoar in an adult. Among patients with high subocclusif syndrome, duodenojejunal bezoar should remain a possibility in differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3003208  PMID: 20616419
Duodenojejunal flexure; intestinal partial obstruction; surgery; trichobezoar
5.  An unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction during percutaneous endogastric feeding: a case report 
The differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in children include common and rare pathologies. Within this list, different types of bezoars causing gastrointestinal obstruction have been reported in the literature and different methods of management have been described. The aim of this article is to highlight a rare presentation of lactobezoars following prolonged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding and its successful surgical management.
Case presentation
A 16-year-old boy was admitted to a paediatric ward with abdominal distension and high output from his permanent gastrostomy feeding tube, with drainage of bilious fluids. The clinical, radiological and endoscopical examinations were suggestive of partial duodenal obstruction with multiple bezoars in the stomach and duodenum. Gastrojejunostomy was performed after the removal of 14 bezoars. The child had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the sixth postoperative day in a stable condition.
Lactobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in patients with percutaneous endogastric feeding. Endoscopy is important in making the diagnosis of this surgical condition of the upper gastrointestinal tract in a child.
PMCID: PMC2432065  PMID: 18547437
6.  A Case of Successful Colonoscopic Treatment of Colonic Obstruction Caused by Phytobezoar 
A phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar, which is a gastrointestinal mass composed of vegetable. A persimmon is a common cause of a phytobezoar. The majority of bezoars are found in the stomach, with the small intestine being the next most commonly involved site. The colon is a rare site for a bezoar. Recently, we experienced a colonic bezoar that caused colonic obstruction in a 66-year-old female patient who took persimmons regularly. The patient came to the hospital because of abdominal pain and distension. To differentiate a tumor or other problems that can cause intestinal obstruction, we performed an abdominal computed tomography scan and found an ovoid intraluminal mass with a mottled gas pattern in the distal descending colon. A large impacted bezoar was seen in the sigmoid colon, which was completely obstructed, and it was successfully removed by using colonoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3180602  PMID: 21980592
Bezoars; Intestinal obstruction; Colonoscopy
7.  Complications of Bezoar in Children: What Is New? 
Case Reports in Pediatrics  2013;2013:523569.
A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system. The condition may be associated with pica, especially in developmentally retarded children. Clinical manifestations are usually nonspecific. Endoscopic diagnosis and removal of the foreign materials is often indicated. Occasionally, severe complications may occur. We report two cases to illustrate the clinical features and complications in these children. In the first case, a reliable history was not obtained in the developmentally delayed girl which precluded prompt diagnosis, but the grossly dilated stomach on plain abdominal radiograph gave clues to an underlying insidious mechanical obstruction of upper gastrointestinal tract. In the second case of a normal child, the unrelenting symptoms and weight loss prompt further investigations which revealed the diagnosis. Literature on pediatric bezoar is reviewed. Oesophagoduodenoscopy is the investigation of choice for diagnostic confirmation, but surgical facilities must be available to deal with acute complications.
PMCID: PMC3830779  PMID: 24288642
8.  Cotton Bezoar- a rare cause of intestinal obstruction: case report 
BMC Surgery  2003;3:5.
Bezoars usually present as a mass in the stomach. The patient often has a preceding history of some psychiatric predisposition. Presentation could be in the form of trichophagy followed by trichobezoar (swallowing of hair leading to formation of bezoar), orphytobezoar (swallowing of vegetable fibres). Rapunzel syndrome is a condition where the parent bezoar is in the stomach and a tail of the fibres or hair extends in to the jejunum. Presentation as intestinal obstruction due to a bezoar in the intestine without a parent bezoar in the stomach is rare, therefore we report it here.
Case report
A 35 year old lady tailor with a previous history of receiving treatment for depression on account of being infertile- years after her marriage, presented to the surgical emergency department with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy revealed a cotton bezoar in the terminal ileum without a parent bezoar in the stomach. She was managed by resection of the affected segment of the ileum and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel. In the postoperative period the patient gave a history of ingesting cotton threads whenever she was depressed.
Presence of cotton bezoar is rare and an intestinal bezoar in the absence of parent bezoar in the stomach is still rarer.
PMCID: PMC194753  PMID: 12956890
cotton bezoar; ileum
9.  Bizarre Metal Bezoar: A Case Report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):356-358.
Bezoars are uncommon findings in the gastrointestinal tract and are composed of a wide variety of materials. Large metal bezoars are very rare with only a few case reports till date in literature. We report a case of a metal bezoar in a man with Maniac Depressive Psychosis who had a history of ingesting Nails and screws of sizes varying from 2 cm to 15 cm for more than 1 year without causing any perforation and other acute complication.
Case presentation
A 24-year-old man presented with a history of mild dull aching type of abdominal pain of chronic onset and no other GI symptoms. The patient had history of passing small sized nails in the stools and intermittent melena for last 1 year. Physical examination revealed mild tenderness in Para umbilical region. Past medical history was remarkable for treatment of Maniac depressive psychosis. Plain radio graphs revealed objects of metal density contained within a dilated stomach at the level of L2–3 vertebrae in the midline. Celiotomy was performed and 27 metal nails and screws of sizes 6 cm to 15 cm and bent in various shapes were removed from inside the stomach. Post operatively patient recovery was normal and he was referred to psychiatrist.
Abdominal pain in patients with psychiatric disorders can result from rare causes such as bezoars and such bizarre metal nails without causing any acute abdominal symptoms. This report alerts surgeons to rule out bezoars in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain and melenic stools with no abdominal symptoms in patients with psychiatric health problems.
PMCID: PMC3693286  PMID: 24426615
Bizarre; Metal; Bezoars; Nails and screws
10.  Rapunzel Syndrome Case Report: A 13-year-old Girl 
Bezoars are masses, which are commonly encountered in patients after stomach surgery or in those with psychiatric problems, formed by the accumulation of intraluminal nondigestible substances that can lead to obstruction of the stomach and the small intestine. The anatomical changes in the gastrointestinal tract are known to cause bezoar formation. In the absence of an anatomical change, psychiatric disorders such as trichotillomania may lead to the formation of trichobezoars in the stomach. The so-called Rapunzel syndrome is the extension of the bezoars down to the duodenum and the jejunum, which is a rare condition. In this paper, a 13-year-old patient with trichotillomania is reported, who was admitted to our clinic with nausea, vomiting, and fatigue complaints, in whom a giant trichobezoar was identified, which completely filled the stomach and duodenum, without causing obstruction.
PMCID: PMC3681111  PMID: 23766614
Rapunzel syndrome; trichobezoar; trichotillomania
11.  Huge simultaneous trichobezoars causing gastric and small-bowel obstruction 
Bezoars are concretions of foreign materials that impair gastrointestinal motility or cause intestinal obstruction in the stomach, small intestine or bowel of humans or animals. There are many types of them such as phyto, lacto and trichobezoars. Although bezoars are not rare, multiple giant bezoars which totally fill the stomach lumen and have extension to the small intestine (Rapunzel syndrome) are very rare. This is a case report of a young girl who had a history of trichophagia and presented with partial gastric and intestinal obstructive signs. The patient was healthy, and her physical exam was almost normal and the only positive thing in her past medical history was trichophagia from several years ago. She had a big trapped bobble in her stomach and several air-fluid levels in abdominal radiograph and was investigated with endoscopy which confirmed the diagnosis of a huge gastric trichobezoar.
PMCID: PMC3252776  PMID: 22247733
Bezoars; Gastric Outlet Obstruction
12.  Gastric outlet obstruction due to duodenal bezoar: A case report☆ 
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting. Causes of GOO include both benign and malignant disease. Bezoars, concretions of undigested or partially digested material in the gastrointestinal tract, are a rare entity and GOO due to duodenal bezoar is an uncommon presentation.
We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department acutely with a 3-day history of epigastric pain, weakness and postprandial nonbilious vomiting. Initially, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) was performed to evaluate the cause of the GOO. A solid impacted bezoar was detected in the first portion of the duodenum with complete obstruction of the pyloric canal. In spite of multiple attempts for fragmentation using different devices, the extraction attempts failed. We administered acetylcysteine and cola per os. Abdominal computerized tomography was obtained and showed a solid mass in the duodenum. UGE was performed once more however, the mass was not suitable for fragmentation and removal. Thus, surgical treatment was decided. The bezoar was extracted via gastrotomy. The postoperative period was uneventful.
Even if a duodenal bezoar is small, because of its location it may cause GOO with abruptly clinical features. The diagnostic approach is similar to the other causes of the GOO. However, therapeutic options differ for each patient.
We should remember all the therapeutic and diagnostic options for a patient with upper gastrointestinal bezoars who present at the hospital whether or not there is a predisposing risk factor.
PMCID: PMC3437390  PMID: 22889707
Bezoar; Duodenal bezoar; Endoscopy; Gastric outlet obstruction; Gastrotomy
13.  Complicated Rapunzel syndrome mimicking intussusception 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0820103277.
A 5-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of pain and distension of abdomen, bilious vomiting, bleeding per rectum and a hard lump in the left iliac fossa. Intussusception was clinically diagnosed. On exploratory laparotomy, trichobezoar showing cast of the stomach, duodenal C-loop and tail were extracted. The stomach cast was impacted at the distal ileum, while its tail traversed the ileum, ileocecal valve and extended up to the hepatic flexor. At the site of impaction, a large ileal perforation, covered by bezoar was present. Hence, x-ray did not reveal pneumoperitoneum. There was no evidence of trichobezoar in the stomach. Perforation was exteriorised as loop ileostomy. She was of normal intelligence. Psychological evaluation of the child was performed and a behaviour therapy was advocated. Ileostomy closure was done after 2 months. At 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was found.
PMCID: PMC3105568  PMID: 22696764
14.  Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar 
Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely.
PMCID: PMC3471120  PMID: 23082068
Bezoar; Diverticulum; Pancreatitis; Duodenal obstruction
15.  Bezoar-induced Small Bowel Obstruction 
The aim of this study was to observe the clinical features of a bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction and to investigate the role of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in establishing the diagnosis.
We retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction in our hospital from 1996 to 2010.
Thirteen patients (65%) had a history of abdominal surgery. Nine patients (45%) were diagnosed with a bezoar before surgery, seven patients were diagnosed by using abdominal CT, and two patients were diagnosed with a small bowel series. Abdominal CT was performed in 15 patients, and the diagnostic accuracy was 47% (7/15). Surgery revealed ten bezoars in the jejunum and 11 in the ileum. Two patients had bezoars found concurrently in the stomach. Spontaneous removal took place in two patients. An enterotomy and bezoar extraction was performed in 15 patients. Fragmentation and milking, a small bowel resection, and a Meckel's diverticulectomy were performed in one patient each. Early operative treatment was possible (P = 0.036) once the bezoar had been diagnosed by using abdominal CT. There tended to be fewer postoperative complications in patients who were diagnosed with a bezoar by using abdominal CT, but the result was not statistically significant (P = 0.712).
A preoperative diagnosis of bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction by using clinical features was difficult. Increased use of abdominal CT led to a more accurate diagnosis and to earlier surgery for bezoar-induced small bowel obstructions, thereby reducing the rate of complications.
PMCID: PMC3349816  PMID: 22606648
Bezoars; Small intestine, Intestinal obstruction; Computed tomography
16.  CT Findings of Patients with Small Bowel Obstruction due to Bezoar: A Descriptive Study 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:298392.
Purpose. The aim of this study was to present the computed tomography (CT) findings of bezoars that cause obstruction in the small bowel and to emphasize that some CT findings can be considered specific to some bezoar types. Materials and Methods. The records of 39 patients who underwent preoperative abdominal CT and subsequent operation with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction due to bezoars were retrospectively analyzed. Results. In total, 56 bezoars were surgically removed from 39 patients. Bezoars were most commonly located in the jejunum (n = 26/56, 46.4%). Sixteen (41.0%) patients had multiple bezoar locations in the gastrointestinal tract. Common CT findings in all patients were a mottled gas pattern and a focal ovoid or round intraluminal mass with regular margins and a heterogeneous internal structure. Furthermore, some CT findings were determined to be specific to bezoars caused by persimmons. Conclusions. Preoperative CT is valuable in patients admitted with signs of intestinal obstruction in geographic regions with a high bezoar prevalence. We believe that the correct diagnosis of bezoars and the identification of their number and location provide a great advantage for all physicians and surgeons. In addition, some types of bezoars have unique CT findings, and we believe that these findings may help to establish a diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3654257  PMID: 23690741
17.  Rapunzel syndrome: A rare presentation with multiple small intestinal intussusceptions 
Bezoars are usually confined to the stomach which is seen in individuals with psychiatric illness like trichotillomania, trichophagia and gastric dysmotility. Long standing bezoars may extend into the small intestine leading to a condition known as Rapunzel syndrome. Diagnosis can be established by endoscopy, ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. Treatment includes improvement of general condition and removal of bezoar by laparoscopic approach or laparotomy. Psychiatric consultation is necessary to treat and prevent relapse. We report a case of Rapunzel syndrome in a 16-year-old girl with trichotillomania. She presented with history of epigastric mass for three months and recent onset of pain abdomen, vomiting and early satiety. Skiagram of abdomen was showing distended stomach and endoscopy revealed trichobezoar. At laparotomy, stomach was distended with trichobezoar and there were multiple small intestinal intussusceptions. Gastrotomy and manual reduction of intussusceptions with the removal of trichobezoar with its tail was done. Patient recovered completely after the procedure.
PMCID: PMC3812444  PMID: 24179628
Rapunzel syndrome; Trichobezoar; Trichotillomania; Intussusception
18.  Congenital Antral Web in Premature Baby 
Antral web is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in neonate. It is a 2-4 mm thin mucous membrane that can be found anywhere from 1 to 7 cm proximal to the pylorus. The baby was born at gestational age of 32+1 weeks with 1,880 g as 2nd baby of dizygotic twin. After birth, the baby had constant non-bilious vomiting without feeding while he didn't show abdominal distension or discoloration. The infantogram showed distended stomach with distal small bowel gas. Upper gastrointestinal series revealed that the antrum was abruptly narrowed at 1 cm proximal to pylorus. We performed laparotomy at the 10th day after birth and excised the 2 mm-thick web circumferentially. He began milk feeding after 6 days and discharged uneventfully at postoperative 35 days with corrected age of 38+4 weeks with body weight 2,420 g. The antral web should be considered in the case of non-bilious vomiting in neonate.
PMCID: PMC3746043  PMID: 24010106
Gastric outlet obstruction; Antrum; Web; Vomiting
19.  Esophageal and small bowel obstruction by occupational bezoar: report of a case 
BMC Gastroenterology  2003;3:13.
Phytobezoar may be a cause of bowel obstruction in patients with previous gastric surgery. Most bezoars are concretions of poorly digested food, which are usually formed initially in the stomach. Intestinal obstruction (esophageal and small bowel) caused by an occupational bezoar has not been reported.
Case presentation
A 70-year old male is presented suffering from esophageal and small bowel obstruction, caused by an occupational bezoar. The patient has worked as a carpenter for 35 years. He had undergone a vagotomy and pyloroplasty 10 years earlier. The part of the bezoar, which caused the esophageal obstruction was removed during endoscopy, while the part of the small bowel was treated surgically. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the 8th postoperative day.
Since occupational bezoars may be a cause of intestinal obstruction (esophageal and/or small bowel), patients who have undergone a previous gastric surgery should avoid occupational exposures similar to the presented case.
PMCID: PMC165420  PMID: 12795814
20.  Development of bile duct bezoars following cholecystectomy caused by choledochoduodenal fistula formation: a case report 
The formation of bile duct bezoars is a rare event. Its occurrence when there is no history of choledochoenteric anastomosis or duodenal diverticulum constitutes an extremely scarce finding.
Case presentation
We present a case of obstructive jaundice, caused by the concretion of enteric material (bezoars) in the common bile duct following choledochoduodenal fistula development. Six years after cholecystectomy, a 60-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated multiple filling defects in her biliary tract. The size of the obstructing objects necessitated surgical retrieval of the stones. A histological assessment of the objects revealed fibrinoid materials with some cellular debris. Post-operative T-tube cholangiography (9 days after the operation) illustrated an open bile duct without any filling defects. Surprisingly, a relatively long choledochoduodenal fistula was detected. The fistula formation was assumed to have led to the development of the bile duct bezoar.
Bezoar formation within the bile duct should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis, which can alter treatment modalities from surgery to less invasive methods such as more intra-ERCP efforts. Suspicions of the presence of bezoars are strengthened by the detection of a biliary enteric fistula through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Furthermore, patients at a higher risk of fistula formation should undergo a thorough ERCP in case there is a biliodigestive fistula having developed spontaneously.
PMCID: PMC1351192  PMID: 16396681
21.  Gastric Trichobezoar Causing Intermittent Small Bowel Obstruction: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:217570.
We report the unusual case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of small bowel obstruction. Initial exploratory lap-roscopy did not reveal an etiology of the obstruction. Subsequent upper endoscopy identified a non-obstructing gastric trichobezoar which could not be removed endoscopically but was not thought to be responsible for the small bowel obstruction given its location. One week postoperatively, the patient experienced recurrence of small bowel obstruction. Repeat endoscopy disclosed that the trichobezoar was no longer located in the stomach and upon repeat laparotomy was extracted from the mid-jejunum. In the following 8 months, the patient had no further episodes of small bowel obstruction. Consequently, gastric bezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent small bowel obstruction.
PMCID: PMC3114431  PMID: 21687591
22.  Small intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar: a case report 
Patients with mechanical small-bowel obstructions usually present with abdominal pain, vomiting, absolute constipation and varying degrees of abdominal distention. Causes can be classified as benign or malignant, or as extra- or intraluminal. A bezoar occurs most commonly in patients with impaired gastrointestinal motility. In edentulous older patients with abnormal food habits, it can also be an intestinal concretion that fails to pass along the alimentary canal.
Small bowel phytobezoars are rare and almost always obstructive. In a normal stomach, vegetable fibres that cannot pass through the pylorus undergo hydrolysis within the stomach, which softens them enough to go through the small bowel.
We present an unusual case of small intestinal obstruction caused by a phytobezoar in a patient who had neither a history of gastric surgery nor of intestinal pathology.
Case presentation
A 70-year-old Iraqi Kurdish man was hospitalized due to abdominal pain, vomiting and dehydration. Investigations concluded small intestinal obstruction. Subsequent laparotomy revealed that the cause of the obstruction was an eggplant phytobezoar.
Many types of bezoar can be removed endoscopically, but some will require operative intervention. Subsequently, prevention of any recurrence should be emphasized.
PMCID: PMC2803835  PMID: 20062741
23.  Esophageal obstruction due to enteral feed bezoar: A case report and literature review 
This paper describes a rare complication of enteral feeding, esophageal obstruction due to feeding formula bezoar, and reviews the published cases. An attempt to re-insert the nasogastric tube in a chronically ventilated 80-year-old female fed via a nasogastric tube with Jevity® failed. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an 18 cm-long concretion of the feeding formula, filling most of the esophageal lumen, which was removed endoscopically. Forty-two cases of feeding formula esophageal bezoars have been reported in the literature. The formation of feeding formula bezoars is triggered by acidic gastroesophageal reflux. The acidic pH in the esophagus causes clotting of the casein in the formula. Predisposing factors for bezoar formation are: mechanical ventilation, supine position, neurological diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity and history of partial gastrectomy. Diagnosis and removal of the bezoar is done endoscopically. Feeding in a semi-recumbent position, administration of prokinetic agents and proton pump inhibitors may prevent this complication.
PMCID: PMC2998820  PMID: 21160586
Casein; Enteral feeding; Esophageal bezoar; Nasogastric tube
24.  Bouveret's syndrome: revisiting gallstone obstruction of the duodenum. 
Bouveret's Syndrome is obstruction of the duodenum secondary to an impacted gallstone, usually without the presence of pneumobilia. With the steadily increasing life expectancy, greater numbers of these cases are being seen. Gallstones enter the gastrointestinal tract following fistula formation between the gallbladder and an adjacent hollow viscus and may cause obstruction at any point along the intestinal tract. Duodenal obstruction is the least common and represents only a very small percentage of cases. The presenting signs of nausea vomiting, abdominal cramping, and the absence of abdominal distension should alert the clinician to pathology in the proximal small bowel. The purpose of this report is to heighten the awareness of the primary care physicians, emergency room doctors, and surgeons to this diagnosis in elderly patients so that it can be included in the differential with the usual causes of gastric outlet obstruction--including ulcer disease; neoplasm; gastric volvulus; and other enteroliths, such as bezoars. Early diagnosis is critical, as these cases require urgent surgical intervention. Early resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment are essential for a successful outcome.
PMCID: PMC2594488  PMID: 14620710
25.  Trichobezoar: A rare cause of bowel obstruction 
A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. A trichobezoar is a bezoar made up of hair and is a rare cause of bowel obstruction of the proximal gastrointestinal tract. They are seen mostly in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia and symptoms include epigastric pain, nausea, loss of appetite and bowel or gastric outlet obstruction. We herein describe a case of a trichobezoar that presented as a gastric outlet obstruction and was subsequently successfully removed via a laparotomy.
PMCID: PMC3083501  PMID: 21528095
Obstruction; Bezoar; Trichobezoar; Trichotillomania

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