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1.  Abdominal Actinomycosis Associated with a Sigmoid Colon Perforation in a Patient with a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(4):583-586.
Abdominal actinomycosis causing hydronephrosis in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is very rare. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted complaining of lower abdominal pain. She had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery 10 years ago. Abdominal Ultrasonography and a CT scan demonstrated an inflammatory mass in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen causing obstructive hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Laparotomy revealed a diffusely infiltrating mass involving the small bowel, mesentery, and sigmoid colon, and a 1 cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. Actinomycosis was diagnosed upon histological examination. After treatment with antibiotics and surgery, the patient's condition improved.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.4.583
PMCID: PMC2687743  PMID: 16941752
Actinomycosis; hydronephrosis; ventriculoperitoneal shunt
2.  Actinomycosis in urachal remnants: A rare cause of pseudotumor 
Actinomycosis is a chronic inflammatory condition caused by Actinomyces israeli, a gram positive anaerobic bacterium. It can have a variety of clinical manifestations and can mimic a malignancy. We present one such case of urachal actinomycosis that mimicked a tumor. A 28-year-old man presented with abdominal pain of 20 days duration. Per abdominal palpation revealed a firm mass with ill-defined borders in the suprapubic region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the pelvis showed an irregular lesion in the urinary bladder extending to the umbilicus, giving the impression of urachal remnants with inflammation. Peroperatively, an irregular, hard mass measuring 6 × 5 cm, involving the anterior and posterior bladder walls, the appendix, the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, was seen, which was suspicious for a malignancy. Frozen sections from the mass showed extensive inflammation and a florid fibroblastic proliferation, giving the impression of an inflammatory pseudotumor. The tissue was extensively sampled for paraffin sections and only one of them revealed a colony of Gram, PAS and GMS- positive organisms, conclusive for Actinomycosis. It is important to be aware of this uncommon, yet significant, presentation of a common infectious disease in order to avoid misdiagnosis and over-treatment as a malignancy.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.91450
PMCID: PMC3263229  PMID: 22279327
Actinomycosis; pseudotumor; urachal remnants
3.  Urachal Actinomycosis Mimicking a Urachal Tumor 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(6):438-440.
A 26-year-old man presented with lower abdominal discomfort and a palpable mass in the right lower quadrant. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an abdominal wall mass that extended from the dome of the bladder. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) showed hypermetabolic wall thickening around the bladder dome area that extended to the abdominal wall and hypermetabolic mesenteric infiltration. Differential diagnosis included a urachal tumor with invasion into adjacent organs and chronic inflammatory disease. Partial cystectomy with abdominal wall mass excision was performed, and the final pathologic report was consistent with urachal actinomycosis.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.6.438
PMCID: PMC2890064  PMID: 20577614
Actinomycosis; Positron-emission tomography; Urachal cyst
4.  Actinomycosis of the sigmoid colon: A case report 
Abdominal actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection caused by Actinomyces species. The ileo-cecal region is most commonly affected, while the left side of the colon is more rarely involved. The infection has a tendency to infiltrate adjacent tissues and is therefore rarely confined to a single organ. Presentation may vary from non specific symptoms and signs to an acute abdomen. A computed tomography scan is helpful in identifying the inflammatory process and the organs involved. It also allows visual guidance for percutaneous drainage of abscesses, thus aiding diagnosis. Culture is difficult because of the anaerobic character and slow growth of actinomycetes. Colonoscopy is usually normal, but may shows signs of external compression. Preoperative diagnosis is rare and is established only in less than 10% of cases. In uncomplicated disease, high dose antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is often performed because of a difficulty in diagnosis. Surgery and antibiotics are required in the case of complicated disease. Combined medical and surgical treatment achieves a cure in about 90% of cases. The authors report a case of sigmoid actinomycosis where diagnosis was made from the histology, and a review of the literature is presented.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v1.i1.62
PMCID: PMC2999117  PMID: 21160798
Abdominal pain; Actinomycosis; Gram-positive bacteria; Sigmoid colon; Sulfur
5.  Extensive colonic stricture due to pelvic actinomycosis. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1995;10(2):142-146.
A 36-year-old woman presented with a palpable tender mass at the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. She had suffered from constipation for five years and had a previous history of intrauterine device-use for one year. Preoperative barium enema and abdominopelvic CT showed a compatible finding of rectosigmoid colon cancer or left ovary cancer. She underwent segmental resection of the sigmoid colon along with the removal of left distal ureter, left ovary and salpinx. Pathologic examination revealed actinomycotic abscesses containing sulfur granules. Thereafter, she took parenteral ampicillin (50mg/kg/day) for one month and oral amoxicillin (250mg, tid) for 2 months consecutively. The patient has no specific problems for 6 months after surgical resection and long-term antibiotic therapy. This report may be the first of intrauterine device-associated pelvic actinomycosis involving both sigmoid colon and rectum extensively.
PMCID: PMC3054142  PMID: 7576294
6.  Isolated hepatic actinomycosis: a case report 
Introduction
Actinomyces are slow growing, non-spore forming, gram-positive, branching bacilli that thrive in anaerobic and microareophilic conditions. Actinomyces are more commonly associated with oral and cervicofacial infections. Hepatic involvement in infections of the abdomen (known as isolated hepatic actinomycosis) is rare, accounting for only 5% of all cases of actinomycosis.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman with a 3-month history of night sweats, fever, chills, abdominal bloating, anorexia, weight-loss, and early satiety. The patient was found to have isolated hepatic actinomycosis infection after undergoing a laparotomy with a biopsy of the liver. The patient has now recovered.
Conclusion
Isolated hepatic actinomycosis is a rare and often overlooked etiology for a liver mass. Given its subacute presentation and nondescript symptomatology, physicians should be aware of this differential and the potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-45
PMCID: PMC2833155  PMID: 20181118
7.  A case report of incisional hernia through a 5 mm lateral port site following laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
INTRODUCTION:
Less than 10 mm port-site herniation is a rare complication after laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of complicated herniation through the 5-mm lateral trocar port site.
CASE REPORT:
A 63-year old obese female was admitted due to intestinal obstruction. She has undergone the laparoscopic cholecystectomy 1 year ago. On examination, abdomen was bloated and roughly 10 cm size mass was palpable on the right subcostal area. Plane radiogram of the abdomen showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Since conservative treatment was ineffective, the patient was operated on. The laparotomy revealed a protrusion of a part of right large intestine and greater omentum into the subcutaneous space through the abdominal wall defect below right subcostal margin. There was a dilatation of intestines proximally incarcerated colon. It was released and a part of omentum was resected. The peritoneum and fascia-muscular defect was closed by interrupted vicryl sutures.
CONCLUSION:
Acute herniation through a 5 mm size most lateral trocar port site is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgery requiring prompt differential diagnosis.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.83512
PMCID: PMC3193761  PMID: 22022103
Bowel obstruction; Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopy; Lateral 5 mm port; Port-site hernia
8.  Actinomycosis of the colon with invasion of the abdominal wall: An uncommon presentation of a colonic tumour 
Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infectious disease that is caused by Actinomycetes organisms, which are gram-positive, microaerophilic, anaerobic bacteria. The most common type causing disease in humans is Actinomyces israelii. This organism is a commensal of the human mouth and is seldom pathogenic. When it does cause disease, however, three main clinical types of involvement are recognized including cervico-facial, thoracic and abdominal actinomycosis.
Herein, we present the case of a 79-year-old male patient who underwent surgical exploration following presentation with abdominal pain and an abdominal mass, initially thought to be a malignancy. Pathologic examination confirmed this as a case of abdominal actinomycosis. This diagnosis should always be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with an infiltrative abdominal mass.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2010.07.002
PMCID: PMC3199683  PMID: 22096664
Abdominal; Actinomycosis; Abdominal mass; Abscess; Colonic tumour
9.  Actinomycosis of Cecum Associated with Entamoeba Infection Mimicking Perforated Colon Cancer 
Actinomycosis is a granulomatous disease caused by Actinomyces that mimics other intra-abdominal pathologies especially neoplasms. Correct diagnosis can be rarely established before radical surgery. On the other hand Entamoeba infection affects a considerable number of people worldwide. To our knowledge only one case has been reported to be affected by both organisms. We report a man who has been operated for a mass in the cecum mimicking a perforated colon cancer. Abdominal CT revealed a mass with features of an invading neoplasm. After radical surgery, definitive pathology revealed that the mass was due to actinomycosis associated with Entamoeba infection. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was on long-course antibiotherapy. It is important to consider actinomycosis especially in patients with intra-abdominal masses with unusual aggressiveness to prevent unnecessary surgery. However, surgery can be unavoidable especially in the presence of complicated disease or high index of suspicion for malignancy.
doi:10.1155/2013/143218
PMCID: PMC3657401  PMID: 23738157
10.  Incarcerated spontaneous transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia 
Introduction
Prolapse of abdominal viscera into the thoracic subcutis through the chest wall is known as transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia (TIH). Herein, we present the first case of spontaneous TIH presenting as a thoracoabdominal emergency.
Presentation of case
A 78-year-old male presented with acute left thoracoabdominal pain following a sudden bulge at the left posterolateral chest wall corresponding to a partially reducible soft tissue mass with ecchymosis at the overlying skin. Paroxysmal cough during the last four days was also reported along with a prolonged daily application of a special tight abdominal belt that used while milking sheep. CT-scan of the abdomen showed intrathoracic proptosis of the splenic flexure through a defect of the left hemidiaphragm and subcutaneous prolapse of the herniated colon through the 7th intercostal space. On laparotomy, the herniated colon showed signs of ischemic necrosis leading to segmental colectomy followed by repair of the diaphragmatic defect.
Discussion
The clinical diagnosis of spontaneous TIH demands very high index of suspicion and thorough patient's history. In this case the daily elevation of the intraabdominal pressure due to an abdominal milking belt might have caused gradual slimming and loosening of the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles rendering them vulnerable to sudden increases of the thoracoabdominal pressure due to violent coughing. Such a hypothesis is reasonable in the absence of traumatic injury in this patient.
Conclusion
Spontaneous TIH should be suspected in patients presenting with a sudden palpable chest wall bulge and associated thoracoabdominal symptoms in the absence of preceding injury.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.07.002
PMCID: PMC3199691  PMID: 22096730
Incarcerated; Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia; Pleuroperitoneal hernia
11.  Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm 
Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.
doi:10.1155/2011/747059
PMCID: PMC3163399  PMID: 21904441
12.  Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon is a rare occurrence in surgical practice. The aim of this article is to present a case of mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon and a short review of the literature.
Case presentation
We reviewed the hospital record of a 63-year-old man who presented with a palpable mass in the left abdomen and clinical signs of a partial bowel obstruction. The pre-operative impression was a possible cancer of the sigmoid colon. A laparotomy was performed through a midline incision. The mesentery was found to be markedly thickened, constricted and puckered. The normal architecture of the adipose tissue had been lost and replaced with an irregular nodular mass. The microscopic pathologic sections demonstrated a chronic reactive inflammatory process with an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts and fibrocytes. The adipose tissue contained scattered areas of steatonecrosis with foci of lipid-laden macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. The sigmoid colon and its mesocolon were resected. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged in good condition, and followed up for the next two years.
Conclusion
Mesenteric panniculitis of sigmoid is an extremely rare entity of unknown origin in which the normal architecture of the mesentery is replaced by fibrosis, necrosis and calcification. On gross examination the alterations may be mistaken for a neoplastic process. A frozen section may be necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis. When the advanced inflammatory changes became irreversible and bowel obstruction occurs, resection may be indicated.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-108
PMCID: PMC2092431  PMID: 17910751
13.  Omental Torsion After Repeated Abdominal Blunt Trauma 
Archives of Trauma Research  2012;1(2):75-78.
Omental torsion is caused by the rotation of the greater omentum on its axis which may lead to tissue infarction and necrosis. It is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Signs, symptoms and paraclinical data are not specific. The patients usually undergo laparotomy for acute abdomen of poorly defined origin. High index of suspicious is required for the diagnosis of this entity. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after an explorative laparotomy. We present clinical characteristics and imaging findings of omental torsion in a young man following repeated blunt abdominal trauma.
doi:10.5812/atr.6881
PMCID: PMC3876522  PMID: 24396748
Acute Abdomen; Greater Omentum; Trauma; Omental Torsion
14.  Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon 
A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9 × 8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.
doi:10.1155/2009/918401
PMCID: PMC2821771  PMID: 20169095
15.  Nasopharyngeal Actinomycosis 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2011;2011:367364.
Nasopharyngeal actinomycosis is a rarely encountered bacterial infection which usually occurs after nasal trauma or surgery. In some clinical cases, nasopharyngeal actinomycosis has appeared in patients without prior trauma, making diagnosis difficult. Here we present three such cases successfully treated with appropriate dosages of penicillin. One 16-year-old boy with no previous medical antecedents showed an important thickening of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. A similar nasopharyngeal thickening was found in a 42-year-old woman exhibiting poor dental hygiene. In another 42-year-old woman, nasopharyngeal inflammation was accompanied by multiple right lymphoadenopathies. Like the first two patients, the woman had no prior trauma but did exhibit poor dental hygiene and teeth rottenness. In all three patients, actinomycosis diagnosis was confirmed by anaerobic microbial culturing of the biopsy specimen. Although diagnosis is delayed in patients with no prior trauma, treatment with antibiotics has greatly improved the prognosis for all forms of actinomycosis, and neither death nor deformity is common.
doi:10.1155/2011/367364
PMCID: PMC3420374  PMID: 22937364
16.  Secondary omental torsion 
BMJ Case Reports  2012;2012:bcr1220115447.
A middle-aged-woman presented with symptoms and signs of acute abdomen. Clinically a suspicion of acute appendicitis was raised, although the abdominal x-ray and ultrasound were normal. She was managed conservatively, which she failed to respond. In the view of persisting pain, a contrast enhanced CT (CECT) was done. CECT showed a whirling mass of fatty and fibrous tissue adherent to the anterior abdominal wall suggestive of omental torsion and the diagnosis was confirmed on laparotomy and she underwent excision of the ischaemic omentum. Omental torsion though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. High index of suspicion is required to diagnose this entity. CECT abdomen shows the classical finding of fatty mass with whirling pattern. It is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis preoperatively based on clinical findings and the diagnosis is only established during the surgical procedure.
doi:10.1136/bcr.12.2011.5447
PMCID: PMC3291029  PMID: 22665571
17.  Two cases of paraduodenal hernia, a rare internal hernia. 
Paraduodenal hernia is a rare congenital internal hernia which arises from an error of rotation of the midgut with entrapment of the small intestine beneath the developing colon. It is important as it usually presents as intestinal obstruction, and before laparotomy is often misdiagnosed. Mortality increases significantly with delays in surgical treatment. Two cases are presented: an 8 year old boy and a 52 year old man. Both presented with a short history of abdominal pain and an acute abdomen. With prompt surgical treatment, they recovered rapidly.
Images
PMCID: PMC1342615  PMID: 8821234
18.  Delayed diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia may cause colonic perforation: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:6863.
Early diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture after traumas may be difficult, and delayed diagnosis may result in increased morbidity and mortality. This paper describes the case of a 32-year-old man who experienced a traffic accident and had diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia nearly four months later. The patient was referred to our emergency room suffering from ileus symptoms. Physical examination demonstrated an apparent abdominal distention, tenderness at the upper abdominal quadrants, rebound, and defense. Thoraco-abdominal X-rays and computerized tomography imaging demonstrated intestinal segments with air-fluid levels in thorax. Laparotomy was performed after a preoperative diagnosis of a strangulated-diaphragmatic hernia. At abdominal exploration, it was found that transverse colon and omentum entered into thorax through diaphragmatic defect located at the left diaphragm. Herniating colon segment was complicated with ischemic necrosis and perforation. In conclusion, colon necrosis and perforation may develop when early diagnosis of diaphragmatic ruptures are missed.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-6863
PMCID: PMC2769322  PMID: 19918552
19.  A malignant omental extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor on a young man: a case report and review of the literature 
Background
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are uncommon intra-abdominal tumors. These tumors tend to present with higher frequency in the stomach and small bowel. In fewer than 5% of cases, they originate primarily from the mesentery, omentum, or peritoneum. Furthermore, these extra-gastrointestinal tumors (EGIST) tend to be more common in patients greater than 50 years of age. Rarely do EGIST tumors present in those younger than 40 years of age.
Case presentation
We report a case of a large EGIST in a 27-year-old male. An abdominal pelvic computerized tomography imaging demonstrated an intra-abdominal mass of 22 cm, without invasion of adjacent viscera or liver lesions. This mass was resected en bloc with its fused omentum and an adherent portion of sigmoid colon. Pathology results demonstrated a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor with positive CD117 (c-kit) staining, and negative margins of resection, and no continuity of tumor with the sigmoid colon. Due to the malignant and aggressive nature of this patient's tumor, he was started on STI-571 as adjuvant chemotherapy.
Conclusion
Stromal tumors of an extra-gastrointestinal origin are rare. Of the reported omental and mesenteric EGISTs in four published series, a total of 99 tumors were studied. Of the 99 patients in these series only 8 were under 40 years of age, none were younger than 30 years old; and only 5 were younger than 35 years old. Our patient's age is at the lower end of the age spectrum for the reported EGISTs. Young patients who present with an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST), who have complete resection with negative margins, have a good prognosis. There is little data to support the role of STI-571 in adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy after curative resection. Given the lack of data, the use of STI-571 must be individualized.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-6-50
PMCID: PMC2409333  PMID: 18479530
20.  Diaphragmatic rupture with right colon and small intestine herniation after blunt trauma: a case report 
Introduction
Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are an unusual presentation of trauma, and are observed in about 10% of diaphragmatic injuries. The diagnosis is often missed because of non-specific clinical signs, and the absence of additional intra-abdominal and thoracic injuries.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian man hospitalized for abdominal pain and vomiting. His medical history included a blunt trauma seven years previously. A chest X-ray showed right diaphragm elevation, and computed tomography revealed that the greater omentum, a portion of the colon and the small intestine had been transposed in the hemithorax through a diaphragm rupture. The patient underwent laparotomy, at which time the colon and small intestine were reduced back into the abdomen and the diaphragm was repaired.
Conclusions
This was a unusual case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic ruptures may be revealed many years after the initial trauma. The suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture in a patient with multiple traumas contributes to early diagnosis. Surgical repair remains the only curative treatment for diaphragmatic hernias. Prosthetic patches may be a good solution when the diaphragmatic defect is severe and too large for primary closure, whereas primary repair remains the gold standard for the closure of small to moderate sized diaphragmatic defects.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-289
PMCID: PMC2936927  PMID: 20735836
21.  Abdominopelvic Actinomycosis Associated With an Intrauterine Device and Presenting With a Rectal Mass and Hydronephrosis: A Troublesome Condition for the Clinician 
International Surgery  2012;97(3):254-259.
Actinomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, granulomatous disease that can be mistaken for a malignant tumor. Abdominopelvic actinomycosis constitutes about 20% of all actinomycosis cases and may mimic malignancy, tuberculosis, or other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases. This condition is more prevalent in women who use an intrauterine device. We treated a 44-year-old woman who presented with vaginal discharge, right flank pain, dysuria, and difficulty with defecation. She had anorexia and weight loss (8 kg) during the previous 2 months and had a history of intrauterine device use for 12 years. Clinical, radiologic, and endoscopic examinations revealed a rectal mass and right hydronephrosis. Rectal biopsy showed nonspecific colitis. Laparotomy showed a mass that was invading and obstructing the pelvic orifice. Surgery included total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, appendectomy, low anterior resection, and Hartmann colostomy. Histopathologic evaluation of surgical specimens showed actinomycosis originating from the tubo-ovarian structures and invading the rectal wall. The patient was placed on penicillin for 6 months, and then had closure of the colostomy with no complication.
doi:10.9738/CC121.1
PMCID: PMC3723221  PMID: 23113856
Abdominopelvic actinomycosis; Intrauterine device; Rectum; Tuboovarian structure; Hydronephrosis
22.  An Unusual Case of Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Rectal Bleeding and Haematuria 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2009;3(2):265-268.
Adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, usually being diagnosed intraoperatively when performing appendicectomy or at subsequent histological examination. Here we report a case with acute abdominal pain, rectal bleeding with haematuria being the presenting symptoms. Subsequent computerised tomography demonstrated a complex mass involving the ileum, right colon, sigmoid colon and bladder with inflammatory bowel disease being the most likely cause. At laparotomy a right hemicolectomy, sigmoid colectomy and partial cystectomy was performed with pathological specimens confirming an appendiceal adenocarcinoma as the primary source of the abdominal mass fistulating into adjacent structures. We conclude that although appendiceal tumours are rare – usually diagnosed at appendicectomy, they should be considered in the diagnosis of complex abdominal masses involving small bowel, large bowel and adjacent pelvic structures.
doi:10.1159/000234906
PMCID: PMC2988968  PMID: 21103286
Appendiceal adenocarcinoma; Colovesical fistula; Enterocolic fistula
23.  Mesenteric cyst: an unusual presentation 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(5):247-249.
A 5-year-old boy presented with the history of a small lower abdominal swelling since childhood which increased in size and became painful following a fall. Examination revealed a mobile, globular, cystic intraabdominal mass in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonography of the abdomen suggested a 7.5 × 5.5 cm cystic lesion, separate from the bladder, containing an echogenic mobile mass. Intra venous urography excluded any abnormality of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a sigmoid mesenteric cyst protruding out of one of the mesenteric leaves and attached to it by a narrow stalk. The excised cyst was found to be thin walled and unilocular. It was internally lined with fibrinous exhudate and contained serous fluid and a solid spherical blood clot. The child had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed maturing granulation and fibrous tissue with hemosiderin laden macrophages and lymphoid aggregates consistent with the diagnosis of a lymphagioma with chronic inflammatory changes and evidence of past hemorrhage.
doi:10.1007/s12262-008-0071-3
PMCID: PMC3452410  PMID: 23133074
Mesenteric cyst; Complications; Hemorrhage
24.  Actinomycosis of the Gallbladder Mimicking Carcinoma: a Case Report with US and CT Findings 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(2):169-172.
We describe a case of actinomycosis of the gallbladder mimicking carcinoma. Sonography showed a hypoechoic mass replacing gallbladder lumen and engulfing a stone; contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced thickened gallbladder wall with subtle, disrupted luminal surface enhancement, which formed a mass. As a result of the clinical and radiologic presentation, our impression was of gallbladder carcinoma. Actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when sonography and computed tomography findings show a mass engulfing the stone in the gallbladder and extensive pericholecystic infiltration with extension to neighboring abdominal wall muscle.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2007.8.2.169
PMCID: PMC2626786  PMID: 17420635
Gallbladder, actinomycosis; Gallbladder, sonography; Gallbladder, computed tomography; Gallbladder, carcinoma
25.  Primary Urachal Actinomycosis: Case Report and Literature Review 
Nephro-urology Monthly  2013;5(5):997-1000.
Actinomycosis can involve all parts of the urogenital system. Urachal actinomycosis rarely reported and was mistaken with urachal adenocarcinoma. We report a case of urachal actinomycosis that presented with abdominal pain and underwent laparotomy with the diagnosis of urachal malignancy pathology reviewed the diagnosis of urachal actinomycosis. Patient had no problem in two years follow up.
doi:10.5812/numonthly.10933
PMCID: PMC3955295
Urachal Cyst; Actinomycosis; Abdominal Pain

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