This is an analysis of 6 patients with enteric duplications seen over an 8 year period at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dongsan Medical Center. They were all males but one. All duplications were cystic, and single except one. Locations of duplications were in the duodenum in one patient, in the jejunum in one, and in the terminal ileum in four. Five of the 6 patients were seen within 1 year of life. Three were newborn infants who had symptoms of intestinal obstruction with palpable mass since birth. Duplication cyst acted as a leading point of intussusception in 4 month and 8 month old infants respectively. One jejunal duplication was found in an 11-year-old boy who had malrotation of the midgut with Ladd's bands. Clinical presentation, embryogenesis of duplication, and management are discussed.
In a 20-year period at the Los Angeles Children's Hospital, 46 infants and children have had operation for cysts within the abdomen. The age range of patients was from newborn to 13 years. Most of them were under four years old. There were four general groups of these cysts. (1) About one-half were cysts of the ovary, some of them serous and some dermoid. These cysts are attached by a stalk that often twists, causing gangrene or rupture with acute symptoms simulating appendicitis. (2) Next in frequency were cysts arising in the mesentery of the intestine. They usually caused little trouble until by their size (up to a 2-quart capacity) they created pressure and obstruction in the intestine. (3) Enteric cysts were found in four patients. (4) Cysts of the pancreas were present in three of the children.
X-ray examination was helpful in diagnosis. Usually the type of cyst was not determined until operation was done. Transection of the intestinal tract sometimes was necessary for removal of the cyst. Surgical correction was satisfactory in 44 of the 46 cases.
Midgut malrotation is a congenital anomaly presenting mainly in the childhood. Its presentation as an acute intestinal obstruction is extremely rare in adults usually recognized intra-operatively, therefore a high index of suspicion is always required when dealing with any case of acute intestinal obstruction.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of young adults who presented with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction and were diagnosed intra-operatively as cecal volvulus and paraduodenal hernia, respectively, caused by midgut malrotation. Post-operative CT scan confirmed these findings.
Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a product of an aberrant embryology. The presentation of intestinal malrotation in adults is rare (0.2–0.5%). Contrast enhanced CT can show the abnormal anatomic location of a right sided small bowel, a left-sided colon and an abnormal relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) situated to the left of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) instead of to the right.
Anomalies like midgut malrotation can present as an operative surprise and awareness regarding these anomalies can help surgeons deal with these conditions.
Midgut malrotation; Acute intestinal obstruction; Cecal volvulus; Paraduodenal hernia
Lipoma within jejunal duplication presenting as abdominal bloating and partial intestinal obstruction is an exceptional clinical entity. We report a case of 68-year-old man complaining of abdominal bloating for 10 d due to multiple lipomas arising from jejunal duplication cysts. Only a few cases of a single lipoma within a Meckel’s diverticulum giving rise to this clinical scenario have been reported in the English language literature. However, no case of multiple lipomas within jejunal duplication cysts has been reported. We present a case in which double-balloon endoscopy revealed a small intestinal structure changed into Meckel’s diverticulum-like cavities containing several lipomas. This case highlights intestinal lipoma as an uncommon cause of adult intussusceptions, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction and appropriate examinations should be chosen.
Duplication cyst; Lipoma; Double-balloon endoscopy; Jejunum; Intestinal obstruction
Duodenal duplication cyst is a rare anomaly, totaling only 4% to 12% of gastrointestinal duplications, and is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Most are commonly located posterior to the first or second portion of the duodenum. Presenting signs and symptoms include vomiting, decreased oral intake, periumbilical tenderness, abdominal distention, obstructive jaundice, acute pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The traditional treatment of a duodenal duplication cyst has been complete surgical resection, but very few cases of endoscopic treatment have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of duodenal duplication cyst that was manifested by a duodenal polyp.
Duodenum; Duplication cyst; Endoscopic resection
Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for only 5% of all intussusceptions and causes approximately 1% of all adult intestinal obstructions. Unlike paediatric intussusceptions which are usually idiopathic, there is usually a lead point pathology which might be malignant in up to 50% cases. We present an unusual case of adult intussusception which was not diagnosed on any investigation including computerized tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was a case of ileo-ileo-cecal intussusception caused by a large lipoma 38 mm × 43 mm × 61 mm. It was treated by emergency laparotomy for acute intestinal obstruction. A conservative resection with ileostomy was performed with good postoperative recovery.
An unusual case of cecal volvulus arising from a strangulating fallopian tube is presented. The etiology, diagnosis, and management guidelines of this infrequent cause of large bowel obstruction are reviewed. Computed tomography images are included, which demonstrate key features that are pathognomonic for this condition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gynecologic adnexa giving rise to cecal volvulus.
Cecal volvulus; Gynecologic and general surgery; Intestinal obstruction
Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Mesenteric cysts are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected during physical or radiological examination. Although uncommon, complications such as infection, bleeding, torsion, rupture and intestinal obstruction cause an acute abdomen. Spontaneous infection is a very rare complication. We present a case of infected mesenteric cysts in the ascending colon, which caused an acute abdomen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute abdominal pain. She had a painful mass in the right abdomen on physical examination. Abdominal computed tomography showed a hypodense cystic mass with septation at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. A laparotomy revealed two cystic tumors at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. She underwent a right hemicolectomy. The two cysts were filled with a yellowish turbid fluid. The walls of both two cysts were lined with a thin fibrotic membrane without any epithelial cell. They were diagnosed as psuedocysts with E. coli infection. Mesenferic cysts may cause life-threatening complications. Mesenteric cyst, even if it is asymptomatic and was diagnosed incidentally, should be removed completely.
Mesenteric cyst; Infection; Abdomen, acute
Intestinal duplication in an adult is an uncommon congenital abnormality because only minority of cases present in adulthood. More than 80% of cases occur before the age of two years as an acute abdomen, bowel obstruction or other complications associated with it. Duplication has two types, either cystic or tubular. Here, we report a case of an adult who was diagnosed preoperatively on CT scan as tubular intestinal duplication. CT images showed change in the morphology of the cystic mass after one week of antibiotics administration. On histopathological analysis, the resected duplicated segment had esophageal epithelium in addition to the intestinal gland. So far, we found no report describing CT findings of dynamic change of ileal duplication in the English literatures.
Duplication of alimentary tract is one of the rare congenital anomalies. A case of duplication cyst of the cecum, presented in the 3rd month of life, as intestinal obstruction. Excision of the cyst along with cecum and appendix was done. The child had an uneventful postoperative recovery following ileoascending anastomosis.
Caecal duplication cyst; Intestinal obstruction
Gastrointestinal duplications are an uncommon congenital abnormality that manifest before the age of two in 80% of cases. Ileal duplication is the most common while colonic duplication, either cystic or tubular, occurs in 10%-15% of cases and remains asymptomatic and undiagnosed in most cases. Mostly occurring in pediatric patients, colonic duplication is encountered in adults in only a few cases. The most common clinical manifestations are abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction. Rarely, duplications present with signs of acute abdomen or acute bleeding. This study reports a case of colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation. Complete diagnostic workup was made on several occasions during the previous eight year period, but no pathology was found and chronic constipation was attributed to hypothyroidism caused by long standing Hashimoto thyroiditis. Multislice CT, performed because of abdominal distension, defined colonic pathology but the definite diagnosis of duplication of the transversal colon was made at operation. The cystic duplication and the adjacent part of the ascending and transversal colon were excised en-block. This study implies that colonic duplication, though uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation even when precipitating factors for constipation, such as hypothyroidism are present.
Colonic duplication; Constipation; Abdominal distension; Hypothyroidism
Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group.
We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years.
Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results.
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults.
Congenital anomalies; Duodenal duplication cyst; Pancreatitis; Recurrent
A duodenal duplication cyst is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Duodenal duplication cysts generally appear on the first or second portion of the duodenum and may cause duodenal obstruction, hemorrhage or pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of a duodenal duplication cyst on the second and third portion of the duodenum in an old aged man with obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis, which was treated successfully by a surgical excision.
Abnormalities; Duplication Cyst; Duodenum; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing; Jaundice, Obstructive
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a rare disease characterized by presence of multilocular cysts in the gastrointestinal wall. Rarely, patients may experience symptoms secondary to the cysts. The pathogenesis of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is still unclear and many theories have been advocated to explain the exact origin. Complications occur in about 3% of cases and include obstruction, intussusception, volvulus, haemorrhage and intestinal perforation.
The author reported a male patient aged 56 years presented to the emergency department with acute upper abdominal pain. Widespread variable sized serosal intestinal air cysts were seen at the first look involving long segment of jejunum and ileum. Perforated duodenal ulcer, as the cause of generalized peritonitis, was repaired with direct closure and omental patch. A second laparotomy, was done and exploration was systematically performed and denoted hugely distended stomach with cicatrisation at the site of previous closure of perforated duodenal ulcer and the whole length of small gut was completely free from the already described pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis.
The pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a rare disease and suspicion of this disease process should be based on imaging and clinical finding. The therapy can be conservative or surgical in restricted situations.
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental abnormalities that may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility of a malignant change occurring in these duplications is very low. We present a case of adenocarcinoma arising in a duplication of the cecum. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted because of a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 6-cm, peripheral wall-enhanced, round, cystic mass in the cecal area. Excision of the mesenteric mass and a right hemicolectomy was performed. Upon histologic examination, the patient was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma arising in a duplication of the cecum.
Adenocarcinoma; Cecum; Congenital abnormalities
Colonic intussusception is a rare congenital abnormality, mostly manifesting before the age of two with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction with or without bleeding. In adults it may occur idiopathically or due to an intraluminal tumor mass.
A 25-year-old man presented with an acute abdomen and severe crampy abdominal pain. The clinical picture mimicked acute appendicitis. Transabdominal ultrasound examination revealed a 5 cm circular mass in the right upper abdomen. The ensuing computed tomography suggested an intussusception in the ascending colon. Intraoperatively, no full thickness invagination was detected. Due to a hard, intraluminal tumor a standard right hemicolectomy with ileotransversostomy was performed. The histopathological analysis revealed a cystic colon duplication leading to mucosal invagination and obstruction.
In adults, colon intussusception is a rare event causing approximately 1% of all acute intestinal obstructions. Unlike its preferentially nonsurgical management in children, a bowel intussusception in adults should be operated because an organic, often malignant lesion is present in most cases.
In 3 infants, severe airways obstruction was caused by mediastinal lesions which were not evident on the antero-posterior chest radiograph. Their presence was demonstrated by barium swallow examination. Each infant had thoracotomy carried out urgently. Duplication cysts (without associated cervicodorsal vertebral anomalies) were present in 2 patients and neuroblastoma in the third.
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental anomalies that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal duplication cysts account for approximately 4% of all duplication cysts. They usually present in childhood with symptoms of mass effect, local infection or more rarely with rectal bleeding from ectopic gastric mucosa.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 26 year old male presented with a history of bright red blood per rectum. On examination a mucosal defect with an associated cavity adjacent to the rectum was identified. This was confirmed with rigid proctoscopy and CT scan imaging. A complete transanal excision was performed.
Rectal duplication cysts are more common in pediatric patients. They more frequently present with symptoms of mass effect or local infection than with rectal bleeding. In adult patients they are a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Definitive treatment is with surgical excision. A transanal, transcoccygeal, posterior sagittal or a combined abdominoperineal approach may be used depending on anatomic characteristics of the duplication cyst.
We present a rare case of a rectal duplication cyst presenting in adulthood with rectal bleeding, managed with transanal excision.
Rectal duplication cyst; Adult; Rectal bleeding
Teratomas of the ovary are of the mature or immature type. The mature variety is called dermoid cysts, which is the most frequent benign germ cell tumour of the ovary in the reproductive age group. They are usually asymptomatic until they reach a significant dimension.1 Pressure effect, torsion and rupture of an ovarian cyst may present as an acute abdomen. A case is presented where an elderly lady presented with small bowel obstruction due to a very large, non-adherent to the intestine, dermoid cyst.
Ovarian teratoma; Dermoid cyst; Mature cystic teratoma; Bowel obstruction
The authors presented a 75-year-old female patient at high risk, suspected of a cecal cancer (CC) due to discomfort in the inguinal fossa, microcytic anemia (although she was postmenopausal), liquid stools and a positive faecal occult blood test. A standard examination of the large intestine was undertaken. Conventional colonoscopy was not completed and the results of barium enema were questionable. Therefore, virtual colonoscopy (VC) was performed, which helped to localize an accurate operation site. As a result, the patient underwent right hemicolectomy. Postoperative histopathological assessment confirmed an advanced cecal cancer. Traditionally, double-contrast barium enema is used to evaluate the colon in patients after incomplete colonoscopy. However, the accuracy of this test is lower in comparison to endoscopy or VC. An incomplete colonoscopy examination may occur in up to 10% of patients. Tortuous course of the colon, diverticulosis, strictures, obstructing mass and fixation of colonic loops due to adhesions after surgery are the most common causes of incomplete examinations. To sum up, VC can be an alternative method of evaluation of the large bowel in patients after an incomplete colonoscopy examination, as follows from the presented case and the available literature.
cecal cancer; incomplete colonoscopy; virtual colonoscopy
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities which are more commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, these lesions can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. The combination of duplication cyst and pancreas divisum is extremely rare and both conditions have been linked with acute recurrent pancreatitis. We present the case of a 37 years-old patient who presented with repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. By means of magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography we discovered a duplication cyst whose cavity received drainage from the dorsal pancreas. After opening the cyst cavity to the duodenal lumen with a needle knife the patient presented no further episodes in the clinical follow-up. Comparable literature findings and therapeutic options for these abnormalities are discussed with regard to the presented case.
Duplication cyst; Pancreas divisum; Acute recurrent pancreatitis; Endoscopic ultrasonography
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations. Most symptomatic cases are diagnosed in children and usually present with obstructive findings or bleeding symptoms. Treatment traditionally involves surgical resection, which can be often difficult because of the close proximity of the cysts to the papilla and bilopancreatic confluence. Endoscopic therapy has been used as an alternative to open surgery in a few selected cases. We report a case with a duodenal duplication cyst containing a brown pigmented stone within the cystic lumen. He was visited because of sudden right upper quadrant abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography revealed the presence of a cyst with a stone, which was finally removed by endoscopic resection.
Duodenal duplication cyst; Brown pigmented stone; Endoscopic therapy
Pancreatic cancer is often locally and distally aggressive, but initial presentation as cecal perforation is uncommon.
We describe a patient presenting with pneumoperitoneum, found at initial exploration to have a cecal perforation believed to be secondary to a large cecal adenoma, after palpation of the remainder of the colon revealed hard stool but no distal obstruction. Postoperatively, however, the patient progressed to large bowel obstruction and upon reexploration, a mass could now be delineated, encompassing the splenic flexure, splenic hilum, and distal pancreas. Histological evaluation determined this was locally invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and therefore the true etiology of the original cecal perforation.
Any perforation localized to the cecum must be highly suspicious for a distal obstruction, as dictated by the law of LaPlace.
Growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice were estimated by quantitative hybridization with rRNA target probes and by epifluorescence microscopy. The ribosomal contents in bacteria isolated from the cecal mucus, cecal contents, and feces were measured and correlated with the ribosomal contents of bacteria growing in vitro at defined rates. The data suggest that E. coli BJ4 grows at an overall high rate in the intestine. However, when taking into account the total intestinal volume and numbers of bacteria present in cecal mucus, cecal contents, and feces, we suggest that E. coli BJ4 in the intestine consists of two populations, one in the mucus which has an apparent generation time of 40 to 80 min and one in the luminal contents which is static.