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1.  A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena 
Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3801321  PMID: 24151370
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Duodenum; Duplication
2.  Sudden Unexpected Death Associated with Ileocecal Duplication Cyst and Clinical Review 
Duplications of the alimentary tract are very rare. A one-month-old female presented with symptoms of anorexia, vomiting and continuous watery diarrhea. The plain abdominal radiograph showed thickened intestinal wall and signs of small bowel obstruction. The fevers, vomiting, and continuous wartery diarrhea persisted despite antibiotics, and worsened. The patient failed to respond to medical managements, 27 hours after admission, the patient died due to multiple organ failures. The autopsy was performed, small bowel obstruction due to an ileocecal duplication cyst (3 × 3 cm) was recognized. The ileocecal duplication cyst was attached to the ileum which was changed edematous and necrotic. This potential diagnosis should be borne in mind for a patient who complains of abdominal symptoms with an unknown cause, and duplication cyst should be recognized as a fatal cause in infant.
PMCID: PMC3667037  PMID: 23761993
sudden unexpected death; small bowel obstruction; ileocecal duplication cyst
3.  Enteric duplications in children--an analysis of 6 cases. 
This is an analysis of 6 patients with enteric duplications seen over an 8 year period at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dongsan Medical Center. They were all males but one. All duplications were cystic, and single except one. Locations of duplications were in the duodenum in one patient, in the jejunum in one, and in the terminal ileum in four. Five of the 6 patients were seen within 1 year of life. Three were newborn infants who had symptoms of intestinal obstruction with palpable mass since birth. Duplication cyst acted as a leading point of intussusception in 4 month and 8 month old infants respectively. One jejunal duplication was found in an 11-year-old boy who had malrotation of the midgut with Ladd's bands. Clinical presentation, embryogenesis of duplication, and management are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3053871  PMID: 8179838
4.  Cecal Volvulus 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;74(6):476-479.
A twisted loop of the bowel and its mesentery on a fixed point is known as volvulus and it may arise more frequently in the sigmoid colon and cecum. Cecal volvulus as an uncommon cause of acute intestinal obstruction is axial twist of the cecum, ascending colon and terminal ileum around their mesenteric pedicles. Although there are many different etiologic and predisposing factors for cecal volvulus, exact etiology is most likely multifactorial in presence of mobile cecum. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, ranging from intermittent episodes of abdominal pain to abdominal catastrophe depending on pattern, severity and duration of cecal volvulus causing intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific presentation, preoperative diagnosis is rarely achieved in most cases. Abdominal radiographs as an initial diagnostic test are usually abnormal and can detect cecal volvulus in half of cases. Nowadays, computerized tomography is used for more accurate diagnosis and differentiation from other acute emergent conditions. Resection with right hemicolectomy and primary ileocolic anastomosis has been recommended for surgical treatment of cecal volvulus.
PMCID: PMC3537995  PMID: 24293902
Intestinal obstruction; Intestinal volvulus; Cecum; Diagnosis; Surgery
5.  Intraluminal cecal hydatid cyst presented as chronic intestinal obstruction 
Tropical Parasitology  2013;3(2):158-160.
A 70-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain was clinically diagnosed to have chronic intestinal obstruction due to lesion in ileo-cecal junction based on barium meal follow through. He underwent right hemicolectomy and the lesion was ascertained to be an intraluminal hydatid cyst in the caecum. Intraluminal cecal hydatid cysts can mimic malignancy on radiological investigations. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with intestinal obstruction in endemic regions for hydatid disease.
PMCID: PMC3889096  PMID: 24471004
Chronic intestinal obstruction; hydatid cyst; intraluminal caecal hydatid cyst
California Medicine  1954;81(2):84-86.
In a 20-year period at the Los Angeles Children's Hospital, 46 infants and children have had operation for cysts within the abdomen. The age range of patients was from newborn to 13 years. Most of them were under four years old. There were four general groups of these cysts. (1) About one-half were cysts of the ovary, some of them serous and some dermoid. These cysts are attached by a stalk that often twists, causing gangrene or rupture with acute symptoms simulating appendicitis. (2) Next in frequency were cysts arising in the mesentery of the intestine. They usually caused little trouble until by their size (up to a 2-quart capacity) they created pressure and obstruction in the intestine. (3) Enteric cysts were found in four patients. (4) Cysts of the pancreas were present in three of the children.
X-ray examination was helpful in diagnosis. Usually the type of cyst was not determined until operation was done. Transection of the intestinal tract sometimes was necessary for removal of the cyst. Surgical correction was satisfactory in 44 of the 46 cases.
PMCID: PMC1532287  PMID: 13182628
7.  A rare presentation of midgut malrotation as an acute intestinal obstruction in an adult: Two case reports and literature review 
Midgut malrotation is a congenital anomaly presenting mainly in the childhood. Its presentation as an acute intestinal obstruction is extremely rare in adults usually recognized intra-operatively, therefore a high index of suspicion is always required when dealing with any case of acute intestinal obstruction.
We report two cases of young adults who presented with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction and were diagnosed intra-operatively as cecal volvulus and paraduodenal hernia, respectively, caused by midgut malrotation. Post-operative CT scan confirmed these findings.
Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a product of an aberrant embryology. The presentation of intestinal malrotation in adults is rare (0.2–0.5%). Contrast enhanced CT can show the abnormal anatomic location of a right sided small bowel, a left-sided colon and an abnormal relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) situated to the left of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) instead of to the right.
Anomalies like midgut malrotation can present as an operative surprise and awareness regarding these anomalies can help surgeons deal with these conditions.
PMCID: PMC3537961  PMID: 23123419
Midgut malrotation; Acute intestinal obstruction; Cecal volvulus; Paraduodenal hernia
8.  Partial intestinal obstruction secondary to multiple lipomas within jejunal duplication cyst: A case report 
Lipoma within jejunal duplication presenting as abdominal bloating and partial intestinal obstruction is an exceptional clinical entity. We report a case of 68-year-old man complaining of abdominal bloating for 10 d due to multiple lipomas arising from jejunal duplication cysts. Only a few cases of a single lipoma within a Meckel’s diverticulum giving rise to this clinical scenario have been reported in the English language literature. However, no case of multiple lipomas within jejunal duplication cysts has been reported. We present a case in which double-balloon endoscopy revealed a small intestinal structure changed into Meckel’s diverticulum-like cavities containing several lipomas. This case highlights intestinal lipoma as an uncommon cause of adult intussusceptions, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction and appropriate examinations should be chosen.
PMCID: PMC2864848  PMID: 20440863
Duplication cyst; Lipoma; Double-balloon endoscopy; Jejunum; Intestinal obstruction
9.  A Case of Duodenal Duplication Cyst Manifested by Duodenal Polyp 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(4):425-427.
Duodenal duplication cyst is a rare anomaly, totaling only 4% to 12% of gastrointestinal duplications, and is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Most are commonly located posterior to the first or second portion of the duodenum. Presenting signs and symptoms include vomiting, decreased oral intake, periumbilical tenderness, abdominal distention, obstructive jaundice, acute pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The traditional treatment of a duodenal duplication cyst has been complete surgical resection, but very few cases of endoscopic treatment have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of duodenal duplication cyst that was manifested by a duodenal polyp.
PMCID: PMC3521947  PMID: 23251893
Duodenum; Duplication cyst; Endoscopic resection
10.  Adult Ileo-Ileo-Caecal Intussusception: Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:789378.
Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for only 5% of all intussusceptions and causes approximately 1% of all adult intestinal obstructions. Unlike paediatric intussusceptions which are usually idiopathic, there is usually a lead point pathology which might be malignant in up to 50% cases. We present an unusual case of adult intussusception which was not diagnosed on any investigation including computerized tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was a case of ileo-ileo-cecal intussusception caused by a large lipoma 38 mm × 43 mm × 61 mm. It was treated by emergency laparotomy for acute intestinal obstruction. A conservative resection with ileostomy was performed with good postoperative recovery.
PMCID: PMC3533629  PMID: 23346450
11.  Dynamic Change of Intestinal Duplication in an Adult Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:297585.
Intestinal duplication in an adult is an uncommon congenital abnormality because only minority of cases present in adulthood. More than 80% of cases occur before the age of two years as an acute abdomen, bowel obstruction or other complications associated with it. Duplication has two types, either cystic or tubular. Here, we report a case of an adult who was diagnosed preoperatively on CT scan as tubular intestinal duplication. CT images showed change in the morphology of the cystic mass after one week of antibiotics administration. On histopathological analysis, the resected duplicated segment had esophageal epithelium in addition to the intestinal gland. So far, we found no report describing CT findings of dynamic change of ileal duplication in the English literatures.
PMCID: PMC3388337  PMID: 22778749
12.  Duplication cyst of the antrum: a case report 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1998;41(3):248-250.
Gastrointestinal duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Although it usually presents within the first few years of life, it may appear much later as described in this report of a 19-year-old man who had symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. He was found to have a noncommunicating antral duplication cyst. The cyst was managed by antrectomy with excision of the cyst and several centimetres of duodenum. Microscopically the duplication cyst contained a mucosa, submucosa and muscularis. There was no evidence of ulceration or malignant cells. His recovery was smooth. The etiology, presentation and management of antral duplication cysts causing gastric outlet obstruction are discusssed.
PMCID: PMC3950172  PMID: 9627554
13.  Colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation attributed to hypothyroidism 
Gastrointestinal duplications are an uncommon congenital abnormality that manifest before the age of two in 80% of cases. Ileal duplication is the most common while colonic duplication, either cystic or tubular, occurs in 10%-15% of cases and remains asymptomatic and undiagnosed in most cases. Mostly occurring in pediatric patients, colonic duplication is encountered in adults in only a few cases. The most common clinical manifestations are abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction. Rarely, duplications present with signs of acute abdomen or acute bleeding. This study reports a case of colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation. Complete diagnostic workup was made on several occasions during the previous eight year period, but no pathology was found and chronic constipation was attributed to hypothyroidism caused by long standing Hashimoto thyroiditis. Multislice CT, performed because of abdominal distension, defined colonic pathology but the definite diagnosis of duplication of the transversal colon was made at operation. The cystic duplication and the adjacent part of the ascending and transversal colon were excised en-block. This study implies that colonic duplication, though uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation even when precipitating factors for constipation, such as hypothyroidism are present.
PMCID: PMC2681163  PMID: 18203304
Colonic duplication; Constipation; Abdominal distension; Hypothyroidism
14.  Images of Cecal Volvulus From a Strangulating Fallopian Tube: A Case Report 
An unusual case of cecal volvulus arising from a strangulating fallopian tube is presented. The etiology, diagnosis, and management guidelines of this infrequent cause of large bowel obstruction are reviewed. Computed tomography images are included, which demonstrate key features that are pathognomonic for this condition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gynecologic adnexa giving rise to cecal volvulus.
Cecal volvulus; Gynecologic and general surgery; Intestinal obstruction
PMCID: PMC3279488  PMID: 22383914
15.  Duplication cyst of the cecum: A case report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(3):271-272.
Duplication of alimentary tract is one of the rare congenital anomalies. A case of duplication cyst of the cecum, presented in the 3rd month of life, as intestinal obstruction. Excision of the cyst along with cecum and appendix was done. The child had an uneventful postoperative recovery following ileoascending anastomosis.
PMCID: PMC3452656  PMID: 23133265
Caecal duplication cyst; Intestinal obstruction
16.  Acute Abdomen Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in the Ascending Colon: A Case Report 
Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Mesenteric cysts are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected during physical or radiological examination. Although uncommon, complications such as infection, bleeding, torsion, rupture and intestinal obstruction cause an acute abdomen. Spontaneous infection is a very rare complication. We present a case of infected mesenteric cysts in the ascending colon, which caused an acute abdomen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute abdominal pain. She had a painful mass in the right abdomen on physical examination. Abdominal computed tomography showed a hypodense cystic mass with septation at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. A laparotomy revealed two cystic tumors at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. She underwent a right hemicolectomy. The two cysts were filled with a yellowish turbid fluid. The walls of both two cysts were lined with a thin fibrotic membrane without any epithelial cell. They were diagnosed as psuedocysts with E. coli infection. Mesenferic cysts may cause life-threatening complications. Mesenteric cyst, even if it is asymptomatic and was diagnosed incidentally, should be removed completely.
PMCID: PMC3145887  PMID: 21829771
Mesenteric cyst; Infection; Abdomen, acute
17.  Cecal Lipoma Presenting as Acute Intestinal Obstruction in an Elderly Woman: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:926514.
Colonic lipomas are rare nonepithelial tumors that are usually detected incidentally during surgery or colonoscopy. Although lipomas generally remain asymptomatic, when they exceed 2 cm of diameter they may cause abdominal pain, obstruction, or intussusception. Here we present a case of an elderly woman referred by her general practitioner to a general hospital of Crete because of acute abdominal pain along with signs of intestinal obstruction and a positive history of appetite loss. Abdominal computed tomography was performed. To marginalise the risk of malignancy, a right hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of cecal lipoma.
PMCID: PMC3705742  PMID: 23864978
18.  The Association of Neonatal Dacryocystoceles and Infantile Dacryocystitis with Nasolacrimal Duct Cysts (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis) 
To investigate whether neonatal dacryocystoceles and dacryocystitis are associated with nasolacrimal duct cysts, and to report the outcomes of treatment of these disorders.
This was a retrospective medical record review of two groups of infants with nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction. The first group had dacryocystoceles with or without dacryocystitis. The second group had NLD obstruction with symptoms severe enough to require early NLD probing. All of the patients underwent NLD probing and nasal endoscopy. When present, NLD cysts were removed.
In the first group, 33 infants had dacryocystoceles. Acute dacryocystitis was present in 16 patients, 12 had noninfected dacryocystoceles that did not resolve, and 5 had dacryocystoceles that resolved but severe symptoms persisted. All of the patients had NLD cysts that were surgically removed. The symptoms resolved after surgery in 31 patients (94%). In the second group, 27 infants less than 6 months old without dacryocystoceles underwent early NLD probing and endoscopy due to severity of symptoms. Twelve (44%) of these patients had NLD cysts. The symptoms resolved in 11 (92%) of 12 patients following NLD probing and cyst removal.
Neonatal dacryocystoceles are almost always associated with NLD cysts. The success rate of NLD probing and endoscopic cyst removal in these patients is excellent. Nasolacrimal duct cysts also are present in many young infants with severe symptoms of NLD obstruction. Nasal endoscopy is an important adjunct to the management of these infants.
PMCID: PMC3671363  PMID: 23818736
19.  Appendiceal duplication with simultaneous acute appendicitis and appendicular perforation causing small bowel obstruction 
Acute appendicitis, as well as intestinal obstruction, is a common surgical emergencies. Both the conditions can present as an acute abdomen, however the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be overlooked when it presents as a small bowel obstruction. Difficulties in correctly identifying the cause of pain can be hazardous to the patient and care needs to be taken in obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis enabling the most appropriate management. Appendiceal duplication although rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, should be checked while operating for appendicular pathology in order to avoid serious clinical and medicolegal implications.
We hereby report a case of appendiceal duplication presenting as small bowel obstruction with one appendix having acute appendicitis and the other one perforated in the middle third.
PMCID: PMC3649207
20.  Recurrent acute pancreatitis secondary to a duodenal duplication cyst in an adult. A case report and literature review 
Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults.
PMCID: PMC2777087  PMID: 19893770
Congenital anomalies; Duodenal duplication cyst; Pancreatitis; Recurrent
21.  Duodenal Duplicated Cyst Manifested by Acute Pancreatitis and Obstructive Jaundice in an Elderly Man 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;19(4):604-607.
A duodenal duplication cyst is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Duodenal duplication cysts generally appear on the first or second portion of the duodenum and may cause duodenal obstruction, hemorrhage or pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of a duodenal duplication cyst on the second and third portion of the duodenum in an old aged man with obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis, which was treated successfully by a surgical excision.
PMCID: PMC2816899  PMID: 15308856
Abnormalities; Duplication Cyst; Duodenum; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing; Jaundice, Obstructive
22.  Cecal Bascule After Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair 
This report describes the occurrence of a cecal bascule (cecal volvulus) following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and notes that the consequences of this complication can be serious.
We present a case of a cecal bascule, a rare type of cecal volvulus, as a complication of a laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.
Case Description:
A 73-y-old male with a ventral hernia underwent an uneventful elective laparoscopic repair. He developed an acute abdomen on postoperative day 6, and imaging demonstrated a cecal bascule. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a cecal bascule with an ischemic and perforated cecum, and a right hemicolectomy was performed.
Laparoscopic tension-free ventral hernia repairs have become more common, especially for obese patients. We discuss some risk factors that can predispose a patient to having a cecal volvulus postoperatively. Although cecal volvulus is a very rare complication after laparoscopic surgery, it can result in serious complications.
PMCID: PMC3771775  PMID: 24018093
Cecal bascule; Cecal volvulus; Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair
23.  Adenocarcinoma Arising in a Duplication of the Cecum 
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental abnormalities that may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility of a malignant change occurring in these duplications is very low. We present a case of adenocarcinoma arising in a duplication of the cecum. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted because of a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 6-cm, peripheral wall-enhanced, round, cystic mass in the cecal area. Excision of the mesenteric mass and a right hemicolectomy was performed. Upon histologic examination, the patient was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma arising in a duplication of the cecum.
PMCID: PMC3295976  PMID: 22403508
Adenocarcinoma; Cecum; Congenital abnormalities
24.  Pediatric chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst - a separate entity from cystic lymphangioma: a case series 
Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group.
Case presentation
We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years.
Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results.
PMCID: PMC2783052  PMID: 19946589
25.  Chylolymphatic cyst of the greater omentum presenting as abdominoscrotal swelling in a child 
Omental cyst are rare abdominal lesions and are difficult to diagnose. They are detected incidentally during imaging studies performed for unrelated reasons. In children, it may present as an acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction or painless abdominal swelling. Imaging is helpful in excluding other causes of lump abdomen. We encountered a case of giant omental cyst presenting with abdominoscrotal swelling in a child. The patient underwent laparotomy and the diagnosis of omental cyst was established by intraoperative findings. Thus complete excision of the cyst was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination.
PMCID: PMC3783711  PMID: 24082452
Abdominal swelling; abdominoscrotal swelling; child; chylolymphatic cyst; omental cyst

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