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1.  Laparoscopic Management of Delayed Recurrent Intussusception in an Older Child 
Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in infants and children. Although early recurrence is not uncommon, recurrence years later is rare.
A 13-year-old male with a history of recurrent intussusception at ages 2 and 5 presented with recurrent intussusception 8 years later. The diagnosis was made using computed tomography, and the patient underwent a laparoscopic ileocecectomy with an uneventful postoperative course.
The specimen was remarkable for findings of multiple enlarged lymph nodes over the serosal surface of the ileum and the terminal ileum with focal edema, prominent lymphoid hyperplasia and large hemorrhagic areas.
This case highlights the fact that in a child with a delayed recurrence of intussusception, the presence of a lead point should be suspected, and operative therapy should be strongly considered over hydrostatic reduction. The current management of recurrent intussusception is reviewed and applied to this case.
PMCID: PMC3015812  PMID: 17651568
2.  Adult Intussusception 
The Permanente Journal  2015;19(1):79-81.
This report presents the case of a 37-year-old man with multiple Emergency Department visits for abdominal pain and with negative results for prior imaging studies, who was eventually diagnosed with intussusception after 5 years of recurrent symptoms. The case is followed by a review of the literature.
Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and challenging presenting chief complaint in the Emergency Department. Intussusception in adults, although rare, is an important etiology to consider. The diagnosis can often be delayed because of the nonspecific and intermittent nature of symptoms in adults. This report presents the case of a 37-year-old man with multiple Emergency Department visits for abdominal pain and with negative results for prior imaging studies, who was eventually diagnosed with intussusception after 5 years of recurrent symptoms. The case study is followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults.
PMCID: PMC4315384  PMID: 25663210
3.  Adult intussusception with cecal adenocarcinoma: Successful treatment by laparoscopy-assisted surgery following preoperative reduction 
We report a case of adult intussusception caused by cecal adenocarcinoma that was treated by laparoscopy-assisted ileocecal resection following reduction by contrast enema and preoperative colonoscopy. A 68-year-old male with cecal cancer was admitted to our hospital because of colicky abdominal pain after taking a laxative. His abdomen was distended, and a mass was palpable in the right upper quadrant, which appeared as a target- or sausage-shaped lesion by ultrasonograhpy and computed tomography. A contrast enema using water-soluble material showed a cup-shaped filling defect characterized by intussusception in the ascending colon. This round defect with a clear margin was pushed gradually back into the cecum by the enema pressure. Re-occurrence of the intussusception is easily released by colonoscopy. We performed laparoscopy-assisted ileocecal resection of a protruding tumor measuring 6.5 cm × 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm from the cecum, with D3 lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma that had invaded the serosa without permeating the lymphatic or venous capillaries, as well as lymph node metastasis. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has been well without evidence of disease recurrence for 5 years following the operation. Preliminary reduction of adult colonic intussusception before surgical resection is therefore an option in cases of an early and correct diagnosis of intussusception.
PMCID: PMC3364339  PMID: 22655128
Adult intussusception; Cecal cancer; Enema reduction; Colonoscopy; Laparoscopy-assisted surgery
4.  US Features of Transient Small Bowel Intussusception in Pediatric Patients 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(3):178-184.
To describe the sonographic (US) and clinical features of spontaneously reduced small bowel intussusception, and to discuss the management options for small bowel intussusception based on US findings with clinical correlation.
Materials and Methods
During a five years of period, 34 small bowel intussusceptions were diagnosed on US in 32 infants and children. The clinical presentations and imaging findings of the patients were reviewed.
The clinical presentations included abdominal pain or irritability (n = 25), vomiting (n = 5), diarrhea (n = 3), bloody stool (n = 1), and abdominal distension (n = 1), in combination or alone. US showed multi-layered round masses of small (mean, 1.5±0.3 cm) diameters and with thin (mean, 3.5±1 mm) outer rims along the course of the small bowel. The mean length was 1.8±0.5 cm and peristalsis was seen on the video records. There were no visible lead points. The vascular flow signal appeared on color Doppler images in all 21 patients examined. Spontaneous reduction was confirmed by combinations of US (n = 28), small bowel series (n = 6), CT scan (n = 3), and surgical exploration (n = 2). All patients discharged with improved condition.
Typical US findings of the transient small bowel intussusception included 1) small size without wall swelling, 2) short segment, 3) preserved wall motion, and 4) absence of the lead point. Conservative management with US monitoring rather than an immediate operation is recommended for those patient with typical transient small bowel intussusceptions. Atypical US findings or clinical deterioration of the patient with persistent intussusception warrant surgical exploration.
PMCID: PMC2698160  PMID: 15467415
Children, gastrointestinal tract; Intussusception; Intestine, US
5.  Adult intussusception secondary to an ileum hamartoma 
Intussusception is a rare condition in the adult population. However, in contrast to its presentation in children, an identifiable etiology is found in the majority of cases. Clinical manifestations of adult intussusception are non-specific and patients may present with acute, intermittent or chronic symptoms, predominantly those of intestinal obstruction. A 27-year-old male patient with recurrent abdominal pain secondary to intussusception is herein reported. The clinical presentation and ultrasonographic findings led to the diagnosis. At laparotomy, an ileal hamartoma was found as the lead point of the intussusception. Surgical management and histopathologic studies are described. A recurrent intestinal obstruction and classic ultrasound findings may lead to the diagnosis of intussusception but surgical exploration remains essential. The principle of resection without reduction is well established.
PMCID: PMC3124634  PMID: 21731910
Adult intussusception; Ileum hamartoma; Intestinal obstruction
6.  Adult intussusception: A retrospective review of 41 cases 
AIM: To optimize the preoperative diagnosis and surgical management of adult intussusception (AI).
METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathology 41 adult patients with postoperative diagnoses of intussusception was conducted.
RESULTS: Forty-one patients with 44 intussusceptions were operated on, 24.4% had acute symptoms, 24.4% had subacute symptoms, and 51.2% had chronic symptoms. 70.7% of the patients presented with intestinal obstruction. There were 20 enteric, 15 ileocolic, eight colocolonic and one sigmoidorectal intussusceptions. 65.9% of intussusceptions were diagnosed preoperatively using a computed tomography (CT) scan (90.5% accurate) and ultrasonography (60.0% accurate, rising to 91.7% for patients who had a palpable abdominal mass). Coloscopy located the occupying lesions of the lead point of ileocolic, colocolonic and sigmoidorectal intussusceptions. Four intussusceptions in three patients were simply reduced. Twenty-one patients underwent resection after primary reduction. There was no mortality and anastomosis leakage perioperatively. Except for one patient with multiple small bowel adenomas, which recurred 5 mo after surgery, no patients were recurrent within 6 mo. Pathologically, 54.5% of the intussusceptions had a tumor, of which 27.3% were malignant. 9.1% comprised nontumorous polyps. Four intussusceptions had a gastrojejunostomy with intestinal intubation, and four intussusceptions had no organic lesion.
CONCLUSION: CT is the most effective and accurate diagnostic technique. Colonoscopy can detect most lead point lesions of non-enteric intussusceptions. Intestinal intubation should be avoided.
PMCID: PMC2710788  PMID: 19598308
Adult intussusception; Diagnosis; Management; Computed tomography scan; Intestinal intubation
7.  Comparison of Different Modalities for Reducing Childhood Intussusception 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2011;8(2):83-87.
Idiopathic intussusception is an important abdominal emergency in infancy and childhood. Non operative management for treatment is firstly considered due to less invasiveness, less complications and cost effectiveness compared to surgical treatment. This study summarizes our experience in the management of intussusception in children who were referred to a children hospital.
Patients and Methods
A total of 102 children who were diagnosed as having intussusception were referred to one children hospital in Tehran during a period of 10 years, from 1997 to 2007. Reductions were performed upon 57 cases by a radiologist or radiology residents, if there was no medical contraindication. We used chi-square test for analysis.
The success rate of reduction was eight out of 13 (61.5%) with barium, nine out of 17 (53.5%) with air and 22 out of 27 (81.5%) with saline (p value=0.116). One patient had recurrence with air reduction. Another case was complicated by peritonitis using barium enema.
There was no significant relationship between the success rate of reduction and the type of reduction.
PMCID: PMC3522312  PMID: 23329922
Children; Intussusception; Invagination
8.  Laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection for treatment of adult small bowel intussusception: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:432.
Intussuception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the variable and sometimes episodic nature of symptoms. Surgery is the recommended treatment option in adults if the diagnosis is proven.
Case presentation
We present a case of a 33 year old Caucasian female admitted with a small bowel obstruction and no history of previous abdominal surgery. Patient did not improve with medical management consisting of bowel rest and nasogastric tube decompression. Surgery was consulted and patient was taken to the operating room for a laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection for a small bowel intussusception caused by a submucosal fibroma.
Our case highlights the feasibility and potential benefits of laparoscopy in assisting the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel obstructions.
PMCID: PMC2621137  PMID: 19117512
9.  Recurrent adult jejuno-jejunal intussusception due to inflammatory fibroid polyp – Vanek’s tumour: a case report 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:127.
Adult intussusception is a rare but challenging condition. Preoperative diagnosis is frequently missed or delayed because of nonspecific or sub-acute symptoms.
Case presentation
We present the case of a sixty-two year old gentleman who initially presented with pseudo-obstruction. Computerised tomography displayed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception, which was treated by primary laparoscopic reduction. The patient re-presented with acute small bowel obstruction two weeks later. He underwent a laparotomy showing recurrent intussusception and required a small bowel resection with primary anastomosis. Histological examination of the specimen revealed that the intussusception lead point was due to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (Vanek’s tumour) causing double invagination.
Adult intussusception presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Although computed tomography is useful in confirming an anatomical abnormality, final diagnosis requires histopathological analysis. Vanek’s tumours arising within the small bowel rarely present with obstruction or intussusception. The optimal surgical management of adult small bowel intussusception varies between reduction and resection. Reduction can be attempted in small bowel intussusceptions provided that the segment involved is viable and malignancy is not suspected.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC4094443  PMID: 24968941
Vanek’s tumour; Intussusception
10.  Childhood deaths from intussusception in England and Wales, 1984-9. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;304(6829):737-739.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of potentially avoidable factors contributing to death of children with intussusception. DESIGN--Review of children who died with intussusception in England and Wales between 1984 and 1989 from data of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, case notes, coroners' records, and necropsy reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Unambiguous objective criteria such as failure to diagnose intussusception within 24 hours of admission. RESULTS--33 children died of acute intussusception in England and Wales between 1984 and 1989 compared with 67 in the previous six years. Their median age was 7 months (range 2 months to 12 years), and two thirds were boys. Half of the deaths occurred at home or soon after arrival at hospital but 15 patients had surgery. Potentially avoidable factors contributing to death were identified in 20 (61%) children, all but three of whom had ileocolic intussusception. These factors were excessive delay in diagnosis, inadequate intravenous fluid and antibiotic therapy, delay in recognising recurrent or residual intussusception after hydrostatic reduction, and surgical complications. Of the 13 patients in whom no avoidable factors were identified, there were nine of 11 children with isolated small bowel intussusception, who tended to have atypical presentations. CONCLUSION--Although the mortality from intussusception has declined, there remains ample opportunity for improved management.
PMCID: PMC1881600  PMID: 1571677
11.  Adenomyoma of the small intestine a rare pathological lead point for intussusception in an infant 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:616.
Intussusception is a typical abdominal emergency in early childhood.
Case description
We report a case of an infant in the typically affected age group with an intussusception triggered by a rare benign intramural intestinal adenomyoma as a pathological lead point. The infant had the typical symptoms of a recurrent idiopathic ileocolic intussusception.
Discussion and evaluation
Idiopathic intussusception is frequent in the infant age group. Contrary to that, reports on pathological lead points for intussusceptions are sparse in the toddler age.
That case illustrates that even in intussusceptions in the typically affected age group, it is important to be aware of pathological lead points, especially if the intussusceptions are recurrent.
PMCID: PMC4210458  PMID: 25392787
Intussusception; Intestinal adenomyoma; Pathological lead point
12.  Small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma 15 years after complete excision of the primary tumor 
•Gastrointestinal tract recurrences from cutaneous melanoma are not uncommon.•Patients may present with anemia and/or melena or with obstructive symptoms.•Surgical resection provides effective palliation and, potentially, improves survival.
Primary intestinal melanoma is a rare entity, however the gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the small bowel, is a common site of recurrence from cutaneous melanoma.
PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 48 year old woman with small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic cutaneous melanoma, 15 years after excision of the primary tumor. The patient underwent an emergency small bowel resection with negative margins on final pathology.
Surgical resection is a palliative, yet necessary, procedure in the setting of small bowel obstruction due to intussusception secondary to intestinal metastatic melanoma. In case of bowel metastasis, presenting symptoms are nonspecific and do not provide significant clues to the differential diagnosis of the underlying disease. In some patients, complete surgical resection of early diagnosed bowel metastases is associated with prolonged survival. Systemic chemotherapy in these patients does not provide survival benefit.
The occurrence of bowel relapse after very long disease free interval, while highly unlikely in most tumors, should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with previous history of cutaneous malignant melanoma presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4334886  PMID: 25506846
Intussusception; Melanoma metastasis
13.  Recurrent acute retrograde intragastric intussusception 
Gut  1970;11(10):840-842.
A case of recurrent acute retrograde jejunogastric intussusception is described in a 45-year-old man who five years previously had had an antecolic gastrojejunostomy.
Two previous haematemases imply that this complication was recurrent and self reducing an unusual and fortuitous outcome.
Awareness of the possibility of acute intussusception following gastroenterostomy or partial gastrectomy is stressed.
PMCID: PMC1553151  PMID: 5485834
14.  Intussusception in dogs and cats: A review of 36 cases 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1992;33(10):660-664.
Intussusception is recognized as a common cause of bowel obstruction in small animals. This study documents the clinical and surgical findings in nine cats and 27 dogs diagnosed as having intussusception. The main purposes of the study were to define the predisposing causes and clinical signs of intussusception and to evaluate various surgical techniques commonly employed in its treatment. No common predisposing cause could be established. Diagnosis of intussusception was based most often on clinical signs of bowel obstruction in association with the palpable abdominal mass. The majority of the intussusceptions involved the enterocolic junction. Formation of adhesions was more frequent in cats. Surgical treatments included simple reduction, manual reduction with plication, intestinal resection/anastomosis, and intestinal resection/anastamosis with plication. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the recurrence rate of the intussusceptions when the various surgical techniques were compared. Recurrence of an intussusception was not related to either the bowel segment involved or whether a simple reduction, bowel resection, or intestinal plication was performed at the initial surgery.
PMCID: PMC1481402  PMID: 17424091
15.  Multiple bowel intussusceptions from metastatic localized malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report 
Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare occurrence, and gastrointestinal intra-luminal metastases have not previously been reported. Herein, we report a patient with LMPM who presented with a local recurrence 10 mo after initial en bloc surgical resection. Abdominal computed tomography was performed for intractable, vague abdominal pain with episodic vomiting, which showed a “target sign” over the left lower quadrant. Laparotomy revealed several intra-luminal metastatic tumors in the small intestine and colon and a segmental resection of metastatic lesions was performed. Unfortunately, the patient died of sepsis despite successful surgical intervention. Though local recurrence is more frequent in LMPM, the possibility of distant metastasis should not be ignored in patients with non-specific abdominal pain.
PMCID: PMC2923775  PMID: 20712062
Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma; Intussusception; Distant metastasis
16.  Adult Intussusception Caused by Descending Colon Cancer during Chemotherapy of Stomach Cancer Recurrence 
Intussusception in adults is uncommon, and it is rare in the descending colon because of its fixation to the retroperitoneum. We herein describe a case of intussusception caused by descending colon cancer. A 74-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of vomiting and abdominal pain. He had undergone chemotherapy for lymph node recurrence of stomach cancer for about 4 years. Computed tomography revealed a ‘target mass’ with a tumor in the descending colon. We diagnosed his illness as intussusception of a descending colon tumor and performed emergency laparotomy. Conservative resection was performed following anastomosis after reduction of the intussusception. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intussusception caused by descending colon cancer incidentally diagnosed during chemotherapy for stomach cancer recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3304074  PMID: 22423245
Intussusception; Descending colon cancer; Stomach cancer recurrence; Chemotherapy
17.  Intussusception after Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery: An Underrecognized Complication 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2012;2012:464853.
Introduction. Intussusception after bariatric surgery is an uncommon complication that is now being frequently reported. Most people consider dysmotility to be the causative mechanism in the absence of obvious etiology. Material and Methods. A worldwide search identified literature describing intussusception after bariatric surgery. We also included our own patients and analyzed information regarding demographic profile, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, and post treatment course. Results. Seventy one patients were identified between 1991 and 2011. Majority of the affected patients were females (n = 70, 98.6%); median time to presentation after gastric bypass surgery was 36 months. Most patients presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, but without obvious peritonitis. Sixty eight patients (96%) required surgery; 48 (70.6%) underwent revision of anastomosis, 16 (23.5%) had reduction without resection, while 4 patients (5.9%) had plication only. Amongst these, most patients (n = 51, 75%) were found to have retrograde intussusception. Post-operatively, 9 patients presented with recurrence (range, 0.5–32 months). Five patients, who had earlier been treated without resection, eventually required revision of the anastomosis. There was no mortality noted. Conclusion. Intussusception after bariatric surgery is uncommon and its diagnosis is based on a combination of physicial, radiological and operative findings. An early surgical intervention reduces morbidity and prevents recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3444049  PMID: 22991661
18.  Post operative recurrent acute jejuno-jejunal intussusception 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(3):147-148.
A case of recurrent acute jejuno-jejunal intussusception presenting in the post operative period of the surgery for acute ileocolic intussusception is presented. Post operative intussusception is defined as intussusception occurring within 30 days of the primary surgery [1]. This is a rare entity. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception is also rare. Recurrent intussusception is uncommon. The present case is a combination of all these rarities.
PMCID: PMC3452453  PMID: 23133045
Recurrent intussusception; Jejuno-jejunal intussusception; Post operative intussusception
19.  Laparoscopic Reduction of Intussusception in Children: Role in Primary and Revisional Reduction after Failed Non-Surgical Therapies 
Background and objective:
With the advent of laparoscopy into pediatric surgical filed and with experience gaining, as well as, improvement in instrumentation, it has been used in management of different conditions, including intussusception. However, there is no universal acceptance regarding its role in reduction of intussusception. This is due to the early reports of high conversion rate and the concern of missing a lead point. The aim of this article is to review the literatures about safety and efficacy of laparoscopy in intussusception management and the limitations as well as formulating a working algorithm for management of intussusceptions in pediatric age group up to 18 years. Up to my knowledge this is the first review article in this subject.
A comprehensive review of the English literature in Pub Med searching engine was conducted with key words laparoscopy, intussusception, management of intussusception, minimal invasive surgery and intussusception, laparoscopic reduction of intussusception, between 1996 and2009 .The results yielded were further explored for citation regarding the role of laparoscopy in reduction of intussusception.
The success rate increased from 57% in 1997 to 91% in 2009 while the conversion rate decreased from 43% in 1997 to 9% in 2009.The presence of a lead point and/or ischemic bowel were the main reasons for conversion in the initial reports.
Laparoscopy is a safe and efficient method for reduction of intussusception. The presence of a lead point or necrotic bowel is no more indication for conversion to open surgery. Laparoscopy should be an integral tool in the management algorithm of intussusception.
PMCID: PMC3312771  PMID: 22489232
intussusception reduction; laparoscopy in children; role of laparoscopy in intussusception
20.  A case of an intussuscepted neuroendocrine carcinoma of the appendix 
We have described a previously unreported entity of an intussuscepted neuroendocrine carcinoma of the appendix. Our patient was a 70-year-old man whose only complaint was insipient weight loss. Colonoscopy showed a malignant cecal “polyp”, and an extended right hemicolectomy was performed. We have reviewed the literature on the causes of appendiceal intussusception and their appropriate treatment options, and clarified the classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC4066167  PMID: 16521230
Neuroendocrine carcinoma; Appendix; Intussusception
21.  A rare case of jejuno-ileal intussusception secondary to a gastrointestinal stromal tumour 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2015;2015(1):rju142.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare tumours, making up 0.2–1% of gastrointestinal malignancies [Zakaria and Daradkeh (Jejunojejunal intussusception induced by a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Case Rep Surg 2012;2022:173680)]. Their relative rarity combined with non-specific presentation results in tumours often remaining undiagnosed until surgery or histological examination [Martis et al. (A rare case of jejunojejunal intussusception in an adult. Indian J Surg 2013;75(Suppl 1):18–20)]. Presentation as a lead point for intussusception is particularly rare. We present the first case of GIST leading to intussusception at the jejuno-ileal junction in an otherwise well patient prior to presentation. Provisional diagnosis was made during emergency laparotomy, and confirmed through histological analysis. A typical immunohistochemical profile was identified, after which the patient was commenced on adjuvant imatinib therapy. We discuss classical presentation of intussusception and GIST. Further considerations of the investigation and treatment options of GISTs are also presented.
PMCID: PMC4287926  PMID: 25576166
22.  Transient small bowel intussusception in an adult: case report with intraoperative video and literature review 
BMC Surgery  2015;15:36.
The term intussusception refers to invagination of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract into the lumen of an adjacent segment. This is a rare entity and it is more prevalent in children and less common in adults. The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is difficult as a result of the nonspecific signs and symptoms. As there are many common causes of acute abdomen, intussusception should be considered when more frequent etiologies have been ruled out. The laparoscopic approach offers both a diagnostic option and a therapeutic one for intussusception in adults.
Case presentation
We report a forty-one year old male patient, who presented to our Emergency Department complaining of peri-umbilical pain associated with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Diagnosed with transient small bowel intussusception without any obvious underlying pathology. This report is the first to present an intra-operative video showing the small bowel intussuscepting and reducing spontaneously. Furthermore, the authors present a review about this rare condition, including previously reported similar cases in literature.
Transient intussusception is extremely rare and is a challenging condition. Imaging techniques, especially CT scan, are helpful in the diagnosis of intussusception. However, laparoscopy offers the advantage of distinguishing transient intussusception from persistent intussusception.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12893-015-0020-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4416349  PMID: 25881028
Intussusception; Adult intussusception; Transient intussusception
23.  Synchronous multiple small bowel intussusceptions in an adult with blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: Report of a case and review of literature 
Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS), is an uncommon condition characterised by cavernous haemangiomas of skin and gastrointestinal tract. The most common complication of this syndrome is gastrointestinal bleeding. Intussusception of bowel, although a known complication, has rarely been reported.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with multiple intussusceptions of small bowel. He required an urgent laparotomy and bowel resections. He suffered from BRBNS. This is the first reported case of multiple synchronous intussusceptions affecting both jejunum and ileum, secondary to haemangiomas occurring in an adult with BRBNS. The underlying conditions of acute abdomen in patients with BRBNS may include intramural haemorrhage, infarction, volvulus or intussusception of bowel. Treatment options include pharmacological manipulation, bowel resection, and interventions such as sclerotherapy, angiographic embolisation, endoscopic ligation, electrocautery and laser photocoagulation for visceral lesions.
A high index of suspicion is required whilst dealing with acute abdomen in patients with BRBNS. Clinical trials may provide some answers as to the preference of treatment in individual cases, as the current level of evidence does not offer a clear choice of optimal treatment.
PMCID: PMC2259327  PMID: 18205939
24.  Mantle cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting with multiple intussusceptions – case report and review of literature 
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from small to medium sized lymphocytes located in the mantle zone of the lymph node. Extra nodal involvement is present in the majority of cases, with a peculiar tendency to invade the gastro-intestinal tract in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis. MCL can be accurately diagnosed with the use of the highly specific marker Cyclin D1. Few cases of mantle cell lymphoma presenting with intussuception have been reported. Here we present a rare case of multiple intussusceptions caused by mantle cell lymphoma and review the literature of this disease.
Case presentation
A 68-year-old male presented with pain, tenderness in the right lower abdomen, associated with nausea and non-bilious vomiting. CT scan of abdomen revealed ileo-colic intussusception. Laparoscopy confirmed multiple intussusceptions involving ileo-colic and ileo-ileal segments of gastrointestinal tract. A laparoscopically assisted right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The histology and immuno-histochemistry of the excised small and large bowel revealed mantle cell lymphoma with multiple lymphomatous polyposis and positivity to Cyclin D1 marker. The patient was successfully treated with Rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy and remains in complete remission at one-year follow-up.
This is a rare case of intestinal lymphomatous polyposis due to mantle cell lymphoma presenting with multiple small bowel intussusceptions. Our case highlights laparoscopic-assisted bowel resection as a potential and feasible option in the multi-disciplinary treatment of mantle cell lymphoma.
PMCID: PMC2732623  PMID: 19646237
25.  Laparoscopic Reduction of Intussusception: an Evolving Therapeutic Option 
Intussusception (IS) is a common cause of bowel obstruction in the pediatric population. Traditionally, unsuccessful hydrostatic reduction has been followed by laparotomy. With the advent of minimally invasive surgery, centers have adopted laparoscopic reduction as a surgical option. We reviewed our experience with IS and investigated whether there were any advantages to performing laparoscopy over conventional laparotomy in unsuccessful air enema reduction (AE).
All the records of patients admitted from January 2001 to August 2004 with a diagnosis of IS (diagnosis code 560.0) were reviewed. Parameters investigated included age, sex, weight, radiological intervention, operative procedure, length of stay (LOS), and days to oral intake (PO). Statistical analysis was performed with the 2-tailed t test to compare outcomes and Fisher's exact test to assess differences in nominal frequencies.
Seventeen males and 9 females diagnosed with IS were identified. The mean age was 2.5 years (range, 1 month to 14 years), and the average weight was 5.65 kg (range, 4.65 to 95). Twenty-three of the 26 patients (88.5%) underwent AE reduction, with success in 13 (57%). One recurred after initial successful AE, 9 failed multiple attempts at AE, and 2 attempted reductions were complicated by perforations. Fifteen patients underwent surgical reduction for unsuccessful AE or to address a pathological lead point. The success rate of laparoscopic reduction was 85%. The average time to resumption of PO intake for patients with successful AE was 0.5 days, and after laparoscopic reduction, the average time to PO intake was 1.5 days, while it was 4 days after laparotomy (P=0.05). After laparoscopic reduction, the average LOS was 6 days, but LOS was 7 days after laparotomy (P=0.66)
Many children who present with IS can be treated by AE. In patients who fail AE, laparoscopy offers a safe, effective alternative to laparotomy.
PMCID: PMC3015722  PMID: 17761087
Laparoscopy; Laparotomy; Intussusception; Air enema reduction

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