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1.  Trichophagia along with trichobezoar in the absence of trichotillomania 
Trichobezoars are rarely described in the absence of trichotillomania. In this report we present a case of trichobezoar associated with trichophagia in the absence of trichotillomania. A 16-year-old girl presented to surgery outpatient with complaints of pain in abdomen and vomiting for the last 6 months. Physical examination revealed a 14 × 16 cm firm, tender, mass with smooth surface, irregular margins, which was mobile with respiration. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a bizarre lesion in the right upper and middle abdomen suggestive of gastric bezoars. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal any abnormality in the esophagus and showed a large mobile mass in the stomach. In view of trichobezoar, psychiatry consultation was sought. Exploration of history revealed that the patient was eating hairs and clay since early childhood. As per patient she would eat hairs thrown by others. She would like the taste of hair and had strong persistent desire to eat hair and would go out searching for the same. At times she would also eat clay. However, she denied of pulling her own hairs. Physical examination of scalp and other body parts did not show any evidence of alopecia or pulling of hair/short hair. She was managed surgically and was counseled about the consequences of eating hairs and clays and was encouraged not to eat hair. To conclude our case suggests that patients can have trichobezoar and trichophagia even in the absence of trichotillomania.
doi:10.4103/0976-3147.145204
PMCID: PMC4271385  PMID: 25540542
Trichophagia; trichotillomania; trichobezoar
2.  Small Intestinal Obstruction Secondary to Jejunal Trichobezoar Removed Per Anum Without an Enterotomy: A Case Report 
Trichobezoars can rarely present with obstruction. This is usually due to collection of a hair ball in the stomach. We encountered an interesting case of small bowel obstruction due to a jejunal trichobezoar. The treatment generally is an enterotomy with removal of the hair ball. We report a case of a 29-year-old post partum female who presented to us with sub acute intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an impacted mass in the distal jejunum which was removed per anum without an enterotomy. Postoperative gastroscopy did not show trichobezoar in the stomach. This case highlights the importance of trichobezoar as a differential diagnosis in young women with small bowel obstruction that can be treated without an enterotomy and avoiding the risks and morbidities associated with it.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/11529.5694
PMCID: PMC4413111  PMID: 25954662
Acute abdominal pain; Bezoars; Rapunzel syndrome
3.  Trichobezoar presenting with the 'comma sign' in Rapunzel Syndrome: a case report and literature review 
Cases Journal  2008;1:286.
Introduction
Rapunzel Syndrome is an uncommon presentation of trichobezoar, involving strands of swallowed hair extending as a tail through the small intestine, beyond the stomach. This was first described in 1968 and until 2003 only thirteen cases have been reported.
Case Presentation
A 55-year old man of East Indian descent presented to the surgical team via the emergency department in Trinidad, West Indies, with an acute abdomen and small bowel obstruction. He had a recent psychiatric history and patchy alopecia as well as a family history of schizophrenia. A supine abdominal radiograph revealed a small bowel obstruction as well as an unusual air shadow in the left hypochondrium in the region of the duodeno-jejunal flexure associated with the stomach bubble, which resembled a 'comma'. At laparotomy, the stomach and third part of the duodenum were distended and contained a large mass of dark, foul-smelling hair that occupied the stomach, crossed the pylorus and extended into the small bowel. A retroperitoneal perforation of the third part of duodenum was found and repaired. The large trichobezoar was removed via a gastro-enterotomy and the patient made a slow, but complete recovery.
Conclusion
We wish to report another case of Rapunzel Syndrome and describe an unusual radiologic sign associated with a retroperitoneal perforation of the third part of duodenum – the comma sign. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a spontaneous retroperitoneal perforation of the third part of duodenum associated with Rapunzel Syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-286
PMCID: PMC2584083  PMID: 18973682
4.  An Unusual Case Report of Rapunzel Syndrome Trichobezoar in a 3-Year-Old Boy 
Rapunzel Syndrome is a rare trichobezoar, involving strands of swallowed hair extending as a tail through the duodenum, beyond the stomach. Trichobezoar usually occur in patients with history of trichotillomania, characterized by compulsive behavioral disorder of pulling own hairs, combined with trichophagia that consists of ingesting that hairs. It typically occurs in stomach and rarely affects the small intestine. Trichobezoars are more common in adolescent females. Common presentation is gastrointestinal tract obstruction with nausea and vomiting, gut perforation, acute pancreatic necrosis, obstructive jaundice, hypochromic anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, weight loss, an abdominal mass, or other serious problems. Intestinal obstruction due to trichobezoar is extremely rare. We are here reporting a large trichobezoar in a 3-year-old male child who presented to the emergency department with thread protruding from mouth with no sign of hair loss on body.
doi:10.4103/0974-7753.90820
PMCID: PMC3250004  PMID: 22223971
Rapunzel; trichobezoar; trichotillomania
5.  Cotton Bezoar- a rare cause of intestinal obstruction: case report 
BMC Surgery  2003;3:5.
Background
Bezoars usually present as a mass in the stomach. The patient often has a preceding history of some psychiatric predisposition. Presentation could be in the form of trichophagy followed by trichobezoar (swallowing of hair leading to formation of bezoar), orphytobezoar (swallowing of vegetable fibres). Rapunzel syndrome is a condition where the parent bezoar is in the stomach and a tail of the fibres or hair extends in to the jejunum. Presentation as intestinal obstruction due to a bezoar in the intestine without a parent bezoar in the stomach is rare, therefore we report it here.
Case report
A 35 year old lady tailor with a previous history of receiving treatment for depression on account of being infertile- years after her marriage, presented to the surgical emergency department with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy revealed a cotton bezoar in the terminal ileum without a parent bezoar in the stomach. She was managed by resection of the affected segment of the ileum and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel. In the postoperative period the patient gave a history of ingesting cotton threads whenever she was depressed.
Conclusion
Presence of cotton bezoar is rare and an intestinal bezoar in the absence of parent bezoar in the stomach is still rarer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-3-5
PMCID: PMC194753  PMID: 12956890
cotton bezoar; ileum
6.  Rapunzel syndrome due to ingested hair extensions: Surgical and psychiatric considerations 
Highlights
•Consuming hair extensions can lead to intestinal obstruction.•Massive gastric trichobezoar extending into the duodenum is termed Rapunzel syndrome.•Rapunzel syndrome often requires surgical intervention.•Patients with Rapunzel syndrome require close psychiatric follow-up.
Introduction
Rapunzel syndrome is a unique clinical manifestation of trichotillomania and trichophagia. The resulting gastric trichobezoar can be massive and necessitate surgical extraction.
Presentation of case
We present a case involving a 15 year-old female with a known history of trichotillomania. The patient possessed symptoms of nausea and early satiety, and admitted that she had recently consumed a large number of hair extensions. Computed tomography imaging revealed a massive gastric bezoar not amenable to endoscopic extraction. The patient underwent surgical laparotomy, and a large gastric trichobezoar was removed through an anterior gastrotomy. The trichobezoar extended past the pylorus into the duodenum, thus confirming a diagnosis of Rapunzel syndrome.
Discussion
Trichobezoars formed from the consumption of hair extensions is a rare cause of Rapunzel syndrome. Surgical extraction is often necessitated due to the sheer size of the gastric bezoar that results from consuming hair extensions. If not previously established, psychiatric consultation should be pursued in the immediate post-operative course as these patients may require pharmacologic management along with behavioral therapy to avoid further episodes of trichotillomania.
Conclusion
This case presents a unique and modern manifestation of Rapunzel syndrome. Surgical treatment most often is required when a patient presents with a massive gastric trichobezoar. Regular post-operative psychiatric follow-up is necessary to prevent recurrent episodes.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.11.009
PMCID: PMC4701859  PMID: 26629852
Trichotillomania; Trichophagia; Trichobezoar; Obstruction; Rapunzel syndrome
7.  Huge trichobezoar causing obstructive jaundice 
BMJ Case Reports  2014;2014:bcr2013201667.
Trichobezoars are composed of hair or hair-like fibres that are commonly observed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and young women with psychiatric illnesses. Presentation of trichobezoars can be diverse. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a large upper abdominal lump. She was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder on psychiatric evaluation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and a large trichobezoar was removed. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was referred to the psychiatric department for further management.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-201667
PMCID: PMC3939418  PMID: 24577172
8.  Huge simultaneous trichobezoars causing gastric and small-bowel obstruction 
Bezoars are concretions of foreign materials that impair gastrointestinal motility or cause intestinal obstruction in the stomach, small intestine or bowel of humans or animals. There are many types of them such as phyto, lacto and trichobezoars. Although bezoars are not rare, multiple giant bezoars which totally fill the stomach lumen and have extension to the small intestine (Rapunzel syndrome) are very rare. This is a case report of a young girl who had a history of trichophagia and presented with partial gastric and intestinal obstructive signs. The patient was healthy, and her physical exam was almost normal and the only positive thing in her past medical history was trichophagia from several years ago. She had a big trapped bobble in her stomach and several air-fluid levels in abdominal radiograph and was investigated with endoscopy which confirmed the diagnosis of a huge gastric trichobezoar.
PMCID: PMC3252776  PMID: 22247733
Bezoars; Gastric Outlet Obstruction
9.  Gastric Trichobezoar with Rapunzel Syndrome: A Case Report 
Bezoars are collections of non-digestible matter that usually accumulates in stomach and can extend to small bowel. Trichobezoars (concretions of hair) are unusual and are usually found in young psychiatric females, who often deny eating their own hair (trichophagy). We are presenting a case of gastric trichobezoar with a long thin tail in a 20 years young female with a history of trichophagia. Patient was managed by exploratory laparotomy and anterior gastrotomy. Postoperatively she recovered well and was discharged in satisfactory condition with advice for psychiatric follow-up.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/17245.7211
PMCID: PMC4800590  PMID: 27042524
Bezoar; Gastrotomy; Trichophagia
10.  Rapunzel Syndrome Causing Appendicitis in an 8-year-old Girl 
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare type of presentation of trichobezoar, an extension of hair fibers into the small bowel and rarely beyond the ileocecal valve. Its clinical presentation is deceptive ranging from abdominal mass to symptoms of obstruction. We report a 8-year-old girl admitted with a history of abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for a period of 1 year. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of subacute intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy, trichobezoar was found in the stomach extending into small bowel and was removed. Appendix was inflammed hence it was also resected. Microscopic evidence of a hair shaft was seen in the appendix indicating appendicitis was due to luminal obstruction by hair concretions.
doi:10.4103/0974-7753.111203
PMCID: PMC3681112  PMID: 23766615
Rapunzel syndrome; trichobezoar; appendicitis
11.  A Giant Trichobezoar Causing Rapunzel Syndrome in a 12-year-old Female 
Bezoar is a tightly packed collection of undigested material that is unable to exit the stomach. Most bezoars are of indigestible organic matter such as hair-trichobezoars; or vegetable and fruit–phytobezoars; or a combination of both. Trichobezoars commonly occur in patients with psychiatric disturbances who chew and swallow their own hair. In very rare cases, the Rapunzel syndrome hair extends through the pylorus into the small bowel causing symptom and sign of partial or complete gastric outlet obstruction. A case report of trichobezoar in the stomach causing Rapunzel syndrome in a 12-year-old female is reported.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.85401
PMCID: PMC3195161  PMID: 22021959
Rapunzel; syndrome; female; giant; trichobezoar
12.  Complicated Rapunzel syndrome mimicking intussusception 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0820103277.
A 5-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of pain and distension of abdomen, bilious vomiting, bleeding per rectum and a hard lump in the left iliac fossa. Intussusception was clinically diagnosed. On exploratory laparotomy, trichobezoar showing cast of the stomach, duodenal C-loop and tail were extracted. The stomach cast was impacted at the distal ileum, while its tail traversed the ileum, ileocecal valve and extended up to the hepatic flexor. At the site of impaction, a large ileal perforation, covered by bezoar was present. Hence, x-ray did not reveal pneumoperitoneum. There was no evidence of trichobezoar in the stomach. Perforation was exteriorised as loop ileostomy. She was of normal intelligence. Psychological evaluation of the child was performed and a behaviour therapy was advocated. Ileostomy closure was done after 2 months. At 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was found.
doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2010.3277
PMCID: PMC3105568  PMID: 22696764
13.  Gastric Trichobezoar Causing Intermittent Small Bowel Obstruction: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:217570.
We report the unusual case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of small bowel obstruction. Initial exploratory lap-roscopy did not reveal an etiology of the obstruction. Subsequent upper endoscopy identified a non-obstructing gastric trichobezoar which could not be removed endoscopically but was not thought to be responsible for the small bowel obstruction given its location. One week postoperatively, the patient experienced recurrence of small bowel obstruction. Repeat endoscopy disclosed that the trichobezoar was no longer located in the stomach and upon repeat laparotomy was extracted from the mid-jejunum. In the following 8 months, the patient had no further episodes of small bowel obstruction. Consequently, gastric bezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent small bowel obstruction.
doi:10.1155/2011/217570
PMCID: PMC3114431  PMID: 21687591
14.  Intussusception caused by dried apricot: A case report 
INTRODUCTION
An unusual cause of intussusception due to small bowel obstruction secondary to dried apricot consumption was encountered. Phytobezoar small bowel obstruction is a rare, but interesting pathology that accounts for 2–4% of small bowel obstructions (18). Even rarer, is an intussusception caused by dried fruit ingestion. We present the case of a 56-year-old female that presented with an intussusception after she ingested a large amount of dried apricots.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The patient is a 56-year-old female with a small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception in the distal ileum. She was taken to the operating room for a celiotomy where an intussusception of the distal small bowel was found. An enterotomy was performed which revealed dried apricots as the lead point. The intussusception was successfully reduced and the apricots removed.
DISCUSSION
Small bowel obstruction due to intussusception can be caused secondary to malignancy, Meckel's Diverticulum, benign neoplasm, and strictures. A less common cause for small bowel obstruction due to intussusception in adults is secondary to mechanical obstruction by bezoars. Risk factors for bezoar formation include previous gastric surgery, diabetes, and mastication problems.
CONCLUSION
Bezoars are an extremely rare cause of intussusception in adults. A high level of suspicion needs to exist in the presence of a history of eating dried fruit, history of gastric surgery, diabetes mellitus, and problems with mastication. Various treatment modalities exist to treat obstructions secondary to bezoars, including open reduction and removal of bezoar via enterotomy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.11.016
PMCID: PMC4276074  PMID: 25437689
Phytobezoar; Small bowel obstruction; Intussusception; Bezoar; Dried apricot
15.  Trichobezoars in baboons 
Journal of medical primatology  2009;38(5):302-309.
Background
There is little information available concerning trichobezoars in the nonhuman primate literature.
Methods
We evaluated 118 cases of trichobezoar in baboons over a 29 year period at the Southwest National Primate Research Center.
Results
The anatomic locations affected in decreasing order were the stomach, small intestine, cecum, esophagus, and colon. The most common clinical history was weight loss. The most frequent associated pathology included gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration, emaciation, peritonitis, intussusception, pneumonia, and aspiration. Trichobezoars were the cause of death in 9 baboons and the reason for euthanasia in 12. Females were 2.14 times more likely than males to be affected. The greater the percentage of group housing time, the more likely the baboon was to develop trichobezoars.
Conclusions
The baboon may present a useful model to evaluate the etiology, genetic predisposition, physiopathology, neurobiology, and treatment response of trichobezoars.
doi:10.1111/j.0047-2565.2009.00355.x
PMCID: PMC2754115  PMID: 19457157
Stomach; hairball; trichophagia; trichotillomania; hair pulling; nonhuman primate; Papio
16.  Rapunzel syndrome: A rare presentation with multiple small intestinal intussusceptions 
Bezoars are usually confined to the stomach which is seen in individuals with psychiatric illness like trichotillomania, trichophagia and gastric dysmotility. Long standing bezoars may extend into the small intestine leading to a condition known as Rapunzel syndrome. Diagnosis can be established by endoscopy, ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. Treatment includes improvement of general condition and removal of bezoar by laparoscopic approach or laparotomy. Psychiatric consultation is necessary to treat and prevent relapse. We report a case of Rapunzel syndrome in a 16-year-old girl with trichotillomania. She presented with history of epigastric mass for three months and recent onset of pain abdomen, vomiting and early satiety. Skiagram of abdomen was showing distended stomach and endoscopy revealed trichobezoar. At laparotomy, stomach was distended with trichobezoar and there were multiple small intestinal intussusceptions. Gastrotomy and manual reduction of intussusceptions with the removal of trichobezoar with its tail was done. Patient recovered completely after the procedure.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v5.i10.282
PMCID: PMC3812444  PMID: 24179628
Rapunzel syndrome; Trichobezoar; Trichotillomania; Intussusception
17.  A Case of Rapunzel Syndrome 
Rapunzel syndrome refers to a very rare condition in which swallowed hair forms a gastric trichobezoar that has a long tail extending into the small bowel. We describe a case of Rapunzel syndrome in an 8-year-old girl who presented with abdominal mass, epigastric pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a markedly dilated stomach filled with coarse heterogeneous materials. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a huge hairy ball with a tail extending through the pylorus. We performed a surgical laparotomy and successfully removed a huge trichobezoar with a long tail extending into the middle portion of jejunum. Psychiatric consultation with review showed her past history of trichotillomania and trichophagia 4 years ago. But her parents denied further psychiatric therapy and she was lost to the follow-up. Rapunzel syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis in children with chronic abdominal pain and trichophagia.
doi:10.5223/pghn.2013.16.2.127
PMCID: PMC3760701  PMID: 24010117
Rapunzel syndrome; Bezoars; Trichotillomania; Trichophagia; Abdominal pain
18.  Endoscopic retrieval of a gastric trichobezoar 
A 9-year-old girl presented with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy (EGD) identified a long and large gastric trichobezoar extending into the duodenum. We attempted endoscopic retrieval after informed consent was obtained from the patient’s mother. Initially, a gasper with 5-prolongs, commonly used for retrieval of endoscopically excised polyps, failed to remove the whole trichobezoar. When a net was used instead, it proved impossible to remove the trichobezoar completely. Therefore, we withdrew the scope from the mouth, leaving the net grasping the tricobezoar firmly in the stomach. Subsequently, we were able to retrieve about 70% of the trichobezoar manually by grasping the snare part of the net directly. A second pass found no deep laceration or perforation endoscopically. The remaining trichobezoar was completely retrieved with the net. The procedure was completed within 15 min. The retrieved specimens were 34 cm in length and 100 g in weight. The patient was discharged uneventfully 5 d thereafter. She was advised to visit a psychiatrist to avoid suffering from a relapse. Follow-up EGD showed no trichobezoar, and the patient’s frontal hair grew back.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v3.i1.20
PMCID: PMC3024478  PMID: 21258603
Gastric bezoar; Trichobezoar; Endoscopic retrieval; Grasper; Retrieval net
19.  A Hairy Tail not a Fairy Tale – Rapunzel Syndrome 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;75(Suppl 1):80-81.
Rapunzel syndrome is an unusual and rare type of trichobezoar. Bezoars can be classified according to the primary constituent, as trichobezoar (hair), phytobezoar (plant material) or miscellaneous (pharmacobezoar, lactobezoar, fungal agglomeration and foreign bodies). When a long tail of hair strands extends from the main mass in the stomach along the small intestine and beyond it is known as Rapunzel syndrome. Here we are reporting a case of Rapunzel syndrome with a very long tail who was managed successfully. And reviewing the literature on the pathophysiology and management of these patients. These patients commonly present with obstructive symptoms and needs a high index of suspicion especially, in young female patients who have alopecia circumscripta and underlying psychiatric disorders. Early diagnosis and treatment is required to prevent complications due to this condition. Currently surgical management of this condition is the treatment of choice.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0369-4
PMCID: PMC3693240  PMID: 24426521
Bezoars/complications; Bezoars/diagnosis; Bezoars/psychology; Bezoars/surgery; Female; Laparotomy
20.  Trichobezoar, Rapunzel Syndrome, Tricho-Plaster Bezoar – A Report of Three Cases 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2015;80:241-246.
Summary
Background
Trichobezoar is an uncommon entity observed mostly in young women. Symptoms in presenting patients are usually due to the large mass of the bezoar or malabsorption of nutrients. Trichobezoar is almost always associated with trichotillomania and trichophagia.
Case Report
Three teenage girls, aged 13, 15, and 16, were diagnosed due to palpable epigastric masses. Additionally the oldest patient presented with symptoms of ileus while the other two patients had weight loss and anaemia. Besides the 15-year-old patient complained of paroxysmal abdominal pains. Patients were subjected to plain radiographic examinations of abdomen which revealed large epigastric tumours, with additional calcifications observed in the youngest girl. Subsequent gastroscopy (the 15-year-old patient) or ultrasonographic examination and computed tomography scans (13- and 16-year-old patients) allowed to establish the diagnosis of giant bezoars: trichobezoars in two older patients and tricho-plaster bezoar in the youngest one. All the tumours were surgically resected and psychiatric treatment was undertaken.
Conclusions
1. Trichobezoar should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of epigastric tumours in children, especially teenage girls. 2. The conventional ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations of the abdomen are insufficient for determination of the nature of the mass. A thorough medical history interview and clinical examination may give directions regarding the further diagnosis.3. Trichotillomania and trichophagia are obsessive-compulsive disorders, and therefore patients with trichobezoars should be under psychiatric care to prevent recurrence of the disease.
doi:10.12659/PJR.893478
PMCID: PMC4428316  PMID: 26000069
Bezoars; Child; Stomach Neoplasms
21.  Unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction: giant gastric trichobezoar: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:399.
Background
Trichobezoars are caused by hair ingestion. The usual presentation of a trichobezoar is with early satiety and malnutrition. Obstructive symptoms and manifestations of gastric outlet obstruction may occur. The diagnosis may be suspected in young females with malnutrition, who have a history of trichophagia.
Case presentation
We report a case of 12-year-old female admitted to the emergency room for abdominal pain. On physical examination, she was cachectic and an epigastric mass was palpated. An exploratory laparotomy was conducted. A giant trichobezoar was palpated in the stomach and was removed through an anterior gastrostomy.
Conclusion
There were no complications postoperatively and the patient was referred to a psychiatrist.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-399
PMCID: PMC2634769  PMID: 19087240
22.  A Rare Case of Small Bowel Obstruction Due to Primary Trichobezoar 
A trichobezoar is a mass of culminated hair within the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach is the common site of occurrence. Intestinal obstruction due to primary trichobezoar is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported so far. We also present a case of 13-year-old girl having primary ileal trichobezoar causing intestinal obstruction.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8145.4151
PMCID: PMC4003628  PMID: 24783123
Trichobezoar; Small intestinal obstruction
23.  'Rapunzel syndrome' trichobezoar in a 7-year-old girl: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:205.
Background
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare type of trichobezoar with an extension of the hair into the small bowel. Clinical presentation is deceptive and vague ranging from abdominal mass to gastrointestinal symptoms.
Case presentation
We present a 7 years old girl with Rapunzel syndrome, where the trichobezoar was not suspected at all especially with negative history of trichophagia. In majority of the cases the diagnosis was made very late in the history of the disease, at a stage where surgery is the only cure for this syndrome.
Conclusion
In the paediatric age group with a long history of gastrointestinal symptom, endoscopy is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic modality and may reduce surgery in trichobezoars.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-205
PMCID: PMC2567304  PMID: 18831761
24.  Trichophagia and Trichobezoar: Case Report 
Objective:
Trichobezoar consists of a compact mass of hair occupying the gastric cavity to a various extent. When the trichobezoar extends past the duodenum it is better referred to as Rapunzel Syndrome. Although trichobezoars are well described in terms of surgical diagnostic and procedure, there are only but very scarce reports on psychiatric literature, usually associated with trichotillomania. The authors present a clinical case of trichobezoar and discuss the most relevant aspects concerning this entity.
Methods:
Presentation of psychiatric and surgical data concerning the case report. Previously reported cases are also mentioned.
Results:
Report of a 27-year-old female patient with a trichobezoar submitted to surgical removal, with a prior intervention 4 years before also due to trichobezoar, and with unknown psychiatric antecedents or follow-up.
Conclusions:
A trichobezoar represents a serious surgical condition. It is important to consider such diagnosis in face of suggestive symptoms, even if signs of trichotillomania are not present. The discrepancies between the prevalence of trichotillomania and trichobezoars due to trichophagia may be due to issues related to self-selection of patients and symptom severity. Such issues may also be important in the study of impulsive-compulsive spectrum models and to their relevance to impulse control disorders.
doi:10.2174/1745017901208010043
PMCID: PMC3367296  PMID: 22675398
Trichobezoar; Rapunzel Syndrome; Trichotillomania; Trichophagia.
25.  Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple 
Highlights
•Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen can be caused by food bezoar such as rehydrated fruits.•Dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h.•The most common site of small bowel obstruction is proximal to ileocecal valve.
Introduction
Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract.
Presentation of case
A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple.
Discussion
Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h.
Conclusion
This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.03.038
PMCID: PMC4430109  PMID: 25841159
Small bowel obstruction; Virgin abdomen; Bezoar; Dried apple

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