Thioredoxins are small, highly conserved oxidoreductases which are required to maintain the redox homeostasis of the cell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (TRX1, TRX2, and TRR1) as well as a complete mitochondrial thioredoxin system, comprising a thioredoxin (TRX3) and a thioredoxin reductase (TRR2). In the present study we have analyzed the functional overlap between the two systems. By constructing mutant strains with deletions of both the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic systems (trr1 trr2 and trx1 trx2 trx3), we show that cells can survive in the absence of both systems. Analysis of the redox state of the cytoplasmic thioredoxins reveals that they are maintained independently of the mitochondrial system. Similarly, analysis of the redox state of Trx3 reveals that it is maintained in the reduced form in wild-type cells and in mutants lacking components of the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (trx1 trx2 or trr1). Surprisingly, the redox state of Trx3 is also unaffected by the loss of the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (trr2) and is largely maintained in the reduced form unless cells are exposed to an oxidative stress. Since glutathione reductase (Glr1) has been shown to colocalize to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, we examined whether loss of GLR1 influences the redox state of Trx3. During normal growth conditions, deletion of TRR2 and GLR1 was found to result in partial oxidation of Trx3, indicating that both Trr2 and Glr1 are required to maintain the redox state of Trx3. The oxidation of Trx3 in this double mutant is even more pronounced during oxidative stress or respiratory growth conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that Glr1 and Trr2 have an overlapping function in the mitochondria.
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in disruption of neovascularization by alterations in thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) expression and its interaction with other proteins after myocardial infarction (MI). We previously showed that Trx1 has angiogenic properties, but the possible therapeutic significance of overexpressing Trx1 in chronic MI has not been elucidated. Therefore, we explored the angiogenic and cardioprotective potential of Trx1 in an in vivo MI model using transgenic mice overexpressing Trx1. Wild type (W) and Trx1 transgenic (Trx1Tg/+) mice were randomized into W Sham (WS), Trx1Tg/+ Sham (TS), WMI and TMI. MI was induced by permanent occlusion of LAD coronary artery. Hearts from mice overexpressing Trx1 exhibited reduced fibrosis and oxidative stress, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis along with increased vessel formation compared to WMI. We found significant inhibition of Trx1 regulating proteins, TXNIP and AKAP 12, and increased p-Akt, p-eNOS and p-GSK-3β, HIF-1α, β-catenin, VEGF, Bcl-2 and survivin expression in TMI compared to WMI. Echocardiography performed 30 days after MI revealed significant improvement in myocardial functions in TMI compared to WMI. Our study identifies a potential role for Trx1 overexpression and its association with its regulatory proteins TXNIP, AKAP12 and subsequent activation of Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin/HIF-1α-mediated VEGF and eNOS expression in inducing angiogenesis and reduced ventricular remodeling. Hence, Trx1 and other proteins identified in our study may prove to be potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.
Apoptosis; Myocardial infarction; Neovascularization; Oxidative stress; Thioredoxin1 and Ventricular remodeling
Oxidative stress is well known to lead to vascular dysfunction. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) catalyzes the reduction of oxidized thioredoxin (Trx). Reduced Trx plays a role in cellular antioxidative defense as well as in decreasing S-nitrosylation. It is not known whether TrxR affects vascular reactivity. We hypothesized that TrxR inhibition decreases vascular relaxation via increased oxidative stress and S-nitrosylation. Aortic rings from C57BL/6 mice were treated with the TrxR inhibitor, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) or auranofin for 30 min. Vascular relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured in the rings contracted with phenylephrine. DNCB and auranofin reduced relaxation compared to vehicle (vehicle Emax = 71 ± 3 %, DNCB Emax = 53 ± 3 %; p<0.05). The antioxidants, apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic) normalized impaired relaxation by DNCB in aorta (DNCB Emax = 53 ± 3 %, DNCB+tempol Emax = 66 ± 3 %; p<0.05). In addition, DNCB reduced sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation. DNCB increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) S-nitrosylation and decreased sGC activity. These data suggest that TrxR regulates vascular relaxation via antioxidant defense and sGC S-nitrosylation. TrxR may be an enzyme to approach for treatment of vascular dysfunction and arterial hypertension.
vascular relaxation; reactive oxygen species; soluble guanylyl cyclase
Cytoplasmic protein reduction via generalized thiol/disulfide exchange reactions and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis is mediated by the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins. Here, we describe the characterization of the thioredoxin system from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whose genome bears the potential to encode three putative thioredoxins from the open reading frames designated trxAMtb, trxBMtb, and trxCMtb. We show that all three thioredoxins, overproduced in Escherichia coli, are able to reduce insulin, a model substrate, in the presence of dithiothreitol. However, we observe that thioredoxin reductase is not capable of reducing TrxAMtb in an NADPH-dependent manner, indicating that only TrxBMtb and TrxCMtb are the biologically active disulfide reductases. The absence of detectable mRNA transcripts of trxAMtb observed when M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv was cultivated under different growth conditions suggests that trxAMtb expression may be cryptic. The measured redox potentials of TrxBMtb and TrxCMtb (−262 ± 2 mV and −269 ± 2 mV, respectively) render these proteins somewhat more oxidizing than E. coli thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). In E. coli strains lacking components of cytoplasmic protein reduction pathways, heterologous expression of the mycobacterial thioredoxins was able to effectively substitute for their function.
We examined the effects of increased levels of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) on resistance to oxidative stress and aging in transgenic mice overexpressing Trx1 [Tg(TRX1)+/0]. The Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice showed significantly higher Trx1 protein levels in all the tissues examined compared with the wild-type littermates. Oxidative damage to proteins and levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly lower in the livers of Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice compared with wild-type littermates. The survival study demonstrated that male Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice significantly extended the earlier part of life span compared with wild-type littermates, but no significant life extension was observed in females. Neither male nor female Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice showed changes in maximum life span. Our findings suggested that the increased levels of Trx1 in the Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice were correlated to increased resistance to oxidative stress, which could be beneficial in the earlier part of life span but not the maximum life span in the C57BL/6 mice.
Thioredoxin; Transgenic mouse; Oxidative stress; Protein carbonylation; Aging
Thioredoxin (TRX) is a powerful disulfide oxido-reductase that catalyzes a wide spectrum of redox reactions in the cell. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the TRX system in the oxidative stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1.
We have identified the trxB1-encoded thioredoxin reductase (TR) as a key enzyme in the oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1.
Overexpression of the trxB1 gene resulted in a 3-fold higher TR activity in comparison to the wild-type strain. Subsequently, higher TR activity was associated with an increased resistance towards oxidative stress. We further determined the global transcriptional response to hydrogen peroxide stress in the trxB1-overexpression and wild-type strains grown in continuous cultures. Hydrogen peroxide stress and overproduction of TR collectively resulted in the up-regulation of 267 genes. Additionally, gene expression profiling showed significant differential expression of 27 genes in the trxB1-overexpression strain. Over expression of trxB1 was found to activate genes associated with DNA repair and stress mechanisms as well as genes associated with the activity of biosynthetic pathways for purine and sulfur-containing amino acids. A total of 16 genes showed a response to both TR overproduction and hydrogen peroxide stress. These genes are involved in the purine metabolism, energy metabolism (gapB) as well as in stress-response (groEL, npr2), and manganese transport (mntH2).
Based on our findings we propose that overproduction of the trxB1-encoded TR in L. plantarum improves tolerance towards oxidative stress. This response coincides with simultaneous induction of a group of 16 transcripts of genes. Within this group of genes, most are associated with oxidative stress response. The obtained crossover between datasets may explain the phenotype of the trxB1-overexpression strain, which appears to be prepared for encountering oxidative stress. This latter property can be used for engineering robustness towards oxidative stress in industrial strains of L. plantarum.
Thioredoxins (Trx's) regulate redox signaling and are localized to various cellular compartments. Specific redox-regulated pathways for adaptation of skeletal muscle to contractions are attenuated during aging, but little is known about the roles of Trx's in regulating these pathways. This study investigated the susceptibility of Trx1 and Trx2 in skeletal muscle to oxidation and reduction in vitro and the effects of aging and contractions on Trx1, Trx2, and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) 1 and 2 contents and nuclear and cytosolic Trx1 and mitochondrial Trx2 redox potentials in vivo. The proportions of cytosolic and nuclear Trx1 and mitochondrial Trx2 in the oxidized or reduced forms were analyzed using redox Western blotting. In myotubes, the mean redox potentials were nuclear Trx1, −251 mV; cytosolic Trx1, −242 mV; mitochondrial Trx2, −346 mV, data supporting the occurrence of differing redox potentials between cell compartments. Exogenous treatment of myoblasts and myotubes with hydrogen peroxide or dithiothreitol modified glutathione redox status and nuclear and cytosolic Trx1, but mitochondrial Trx2 was unchanged. Tibialis anterior muscles from young and old mice were exposed to isometric muscle contractions in vivo. Aging increased muscle contents of Trx1, Trx2, and TrxR2, but neither aging nor endogenous ROS generated during contractions modified Trx redox potentials, although oxidation of glutathione and other thiols occurred. We conclude that glutathione redox couples in skeletal muscle are more susceptible to oxidation than Trx and that Trx proteins are upregulated during aging, but do not appear to modulate redox-regulated adaptations to contractions that fail during aging.
► Muscle Trx1 and Trx2 redox potentials vary between nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. ► Oxidants modified nuclear and cytosolic Trx1 and GSH but not mitochondrial Trx2. ► Aging increased muscle Trx contents, but did not affect Trx redox potentials. ► Contractile activity affected muscle GSH but not Trx content or redox potentials. ► Glutathione in muscle is more susceptible to physiological oxidation than Trx's.
Thioredoxin; Redox Western blotting; Aging; Skeletal muscle; Free radicals
Thioredoxins are oxido-reductase enzymes present in all organisms, catalyzing the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins. By applying a calibrated force to a substrate disulfide, the chemical mechanisms of Trx catalysis can be examined in detail at the single molecule level. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to explore the chemical evolution of Trx catalysis by probing the chemistry of eight different thioredoxin enzymes. While all Trxs show a characteristic Michaelis-Menten mechanism detected when the disulfide bond is stretched at low forces, two different chemical behaviors distinguish bacterial from eukaryotic-origin Trxs at high forces. Eukaryotic-origin Trxs reduce disulfide bonds through a single-electron transfer reaction (SET) whereas bacterial-origin Trxs exhibit both nucleophilic substitution (SN2) and SET reactions. A computational analysis of Trx structures identifies the evolution of the binding groove as an important factor controlling the chemistry of Trx catalysis.
Obesity is often associated with reduced plasma IGF-1 levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-1 on high fat diet-induced oxidative, myocardial, geometric and mitochondrial responses. FVB and cardiomyocyte-specific IGF-1 overexpression transgenic mice were fed a low (10%) or high fat (45%) diet to induce obesity. High fat diet feeding led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma levels of leptin, interleukin-6, insulin and triglyceride as well as reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. Echocardiography revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end systolic and diastolic diameter, increased wall thickness, and cardiac hypertrophy in high fat-fed FVB mice. High fat diet promoted ROS generation, apoptosis, protein and mitochondrial damage, reduced ATP content, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of insulin receptor, post-receptor signaling molecules IRS-1 (tyrosine/serine phosphorylation), Akt, GSK3β, Foxo3a, mTOR, as well as downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and UCP-2. Intriguingly, IGF-1 mitigated high fat diet feeding-induced alterations in ROS, protein and mitochondrial damage, ATP content, apoptosis, myocardial contraction, intracellular Ca2+ handling and insulin signaling, but not whole body glucose intolerance and cardiac hypertrophy. Exogenous IGF-1 treatment also alleviated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our data revealed that IGF-1 alleviates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction despite persistent cardiac remodeling, possibly due to preserved cell survival, mitochondrial function and insulin signaling.
IGF-1; high fat; heart; oxidative stress; insulin signaling; mitochondrial function
Human thioredoxin-1 (TRX) is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration and transgenic overexpression of TRX ameliorate inflammation in various animal models, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not well characterized. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied recombinant human TRX (rhTRX) in a murine irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) induced by croton oil. Topically applied rhTRX was distributed only in the skin tissues under both non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions, and significantly suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and MCP-1. In an in vitro study, rhTRX also significantly inhibited the formation of cytokines and chemokines produced by keratinocytes after exposure to croton oil and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These results indicate that TRX prevents skin inflammation via the inhibition of local formation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. As a promising new approach, local application of TRX may be useful for the treatment of various skin and mucosal inflammatory disorders.
thiroredoxin; topical application; cytokines; keratinocytes; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; cutaneous inflammatory disorders; redox
Thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) regulate the intracellular redox environment by using NADPH to provide reducing equivalents for thioredoxins (Trxs). Here we present the cloning and biochemical characterization of a putative TrxR (Ta0984) and a putative Trx (Ta0866) from Thermoplasma acidophilum. Our data identifies Ta0866 as a Trx through its capacity to reduce insulin, and be reduced by E. coli TrxR in a NADPH dependent manner. Our data also establish Ta0984 as a TrxR due to its ability to reduce T. acidophilum Trx (taTrx), although not in a NADPH or NADH dependent manner. To explore the apparent inability of taTrxR to use NADPH or NADH as a reductant, we carried out a complete electrochemical characterization, which suggests that redox potential is not the source of this non-reactivity (accompanying paper). Turning to crystallographic analysis, a 2.35 Å resolution structure of taTrxR, also presented here, shows that despite the overall structural similarity to the well-characterized TrxR from E. coli (R.M.S.D. 1.30 Å2 for chain A), the “NADPH binding pocket” is not conserved. E. coli TrxR residues implicated in NADPH binding, H175, R176, R177, and R181 have been substituted with E185, M186, Y187, and M191 in the ta protein. Thus, we have identified a Trx and TrxR protein system from T. acidophilum for which the TrxR shares overall structural and redox properties with other TrxRs, but lacks the appropriate binding motif to use the standard NADPH reductant. Our discovery of a TrxR that does not use NADPH provides a new twist in redox regulation.
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a selenocysteine-containing flavoprotein that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized thioredoxin and plays a key role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis. In the present studies we examined the effects of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant, on TrxR in lung epithelial cells. We speculated that vesicant-induced alterations in TrxR contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. Treatment of human lung A549 epithelial cells with CEES resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of TrxR. Using purified rat liver TrxR, we demonstrated that only the reduced enzyme was inhibited and that this inhibition was irreversible. The reaction of TrxR with iodoacetamide, which selectively modifies free thiol or selenol on proteins, was also markedly reduced by CEES, suggesting that CEES induces covalent modification of the reduced selenocysteine-containing active site in the enzyme. This was supported by our findings that recombinant mutant TrxR in which selenocysteine was replaced by cysteine, was marked less sensitive to inhibition by CEES, and that the vesicant preferentially alkylated selenocysteine in the C-terminal redox motif of TrxR. TrxR also catalyzes quinone redox cycling, a process that generates reactive oxygen species. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on thioredoxin reductase activity, CEES was found to stimulate redox cycling. Taken together, these data suggest that sulfur mustard vesicants target TrxR and that this may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and tissue injury.
oxidative stress; 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide; sulfur mustard; lung
In Bacillus subtilis, Spx was recently characterized as a novel type of global regulator whose activity is regulated by the redox status of the cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that inactivation of Spx in the important pathogen Staphylococcus aureus renders the cells hypersensitive to a wide range of stress conditions including high and low temperature, high osmolarity, and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, growth was restricted under nonstress conditions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteome of the spx mutant differs substantially from the proteome of wild-type cells, supporting the finding that Spx is also a global regulator in S. aureus. More specifically, we demonstrated that Spx is required for transcription of trxB, encoding thioredoxin reductase, under all growth conditions examined. As trxB is essential in S. aureus, we speculate that the severely reduced trxB transcription could account for some of the growth defects of the spx mutant. Inactivation of spx also enhanced biofilm formation. S. aureus biofilm formation is associated with the production of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin encoded by the ica operon. Interestingly, our data indicate that the augmented capacity of the spx mutant to form biofilms is due to Spx modulating the expression of icaR, encoding a repressor of the structural ica genes (icaABCD). In summary, we conclude that Spx fulfills an important role for growth, general stress protection, and biofilm formation in S. aureus.
This paper describes the cloning, purification, and characterization of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the structure determination of TrxR from the ionizing radiation-tolerant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1. The genes from D. radiodurans encoding Trx and TrxR were amplified by PCR, inserted into a pET expression vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The overexpressed proteins were purified by metal affinity chromatography, and their activity was demonstrated using well-established assays of insulin precipitation (for Trx), 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) reduction, and insulin reduction (for TrxR). In addition, the crystal structure of oxidized TrxR was determined at 1.9-Å resolution. The overall structure was found to be very similar to that of E. coli TrxR and homodimeric with both NADPH- and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domains containing variants of the canonical nucleotide binding fold, the Rossmann fold. The Km (5.7 μM) of D. radiodurans TrxR for D. radiodurans Trx was determined and is about twofold higher than that of the E. coli thioredoxin system. However, D. radiodurans TrxR has a much lower affinity for E. coli Trx (Km, 44.4 μM). Subtle differences in the surface charge and shape of the Trx binding site on TrxR may account for the differences in recognition. Because it has been suggested that TrxR from D. radiodurans may have dual cofactor specificity (can utilize both NADH and NADPH), D. radiodurans TrxR was tested for its ability to utilize NADH as well. Our results show that D. radiodurans TrxR can utilize only NADPH for activity.
A glutathione reductase null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in a synthetic lethal genetic screen for mutations which confer a requirement for thioredoxin. Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione. The disulfide form of glutathione increases 200-fold and represents 63% of the total glutathione in a glr1 delta mutant compared with only 6% in wild type. High levels of oxidized glutathione are also observed in a trx1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (22% of total), in a glr1 delta, trx1 delta double mutant (71% of total), and in a glr1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (69% of total). Despite the exceptionally high ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, the glr1 delta mutant grows with a normal cell cycle. However, either one of the two thioredoxins is essential for growth. Cells lacking both thioredoxins and glutathione reductase are not viable under aerobic conditions and grow poorly anaerobically. In addition, the glr1 delta mutant shows increased sensitivity to the thiol oxidant diamide. The sensitivity to diamide was suppressed by deletion of the TRX2 gene. The genetic analysis of thioredoxin and glutathione reductase in yeast runs counter to previous studies in Escherichia coli and for the first time links thioredoxin with the redox state of glutathione in vivo.
Oxygen radicals regulate many physiological processes, such as signaling, proliferation, and apoptosis, and thus play a pivotal role in pathophysiology and disease development. There are at least two thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin systems participating in the cellular defense against oxygen radicals. At present, relatively little is known about the contribution of individual enzymes to the redox metabolism in different cell types. To begin to address this question, we generated and characterized mice lacking functional mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2). Ubiquitous Cre-mediated inactivation of TrxR2 is associated with embryonic death at embryonic day 13. TrxR2TrxR2−/−minus;/TrxR2−/−minus; embryos are smaller and severely anemic and show increased apoptosis in the liver. The size of hematopoietic colonies cultured ex vivo is dramatically reduced. TrxR2-deficient embryonic fibroblasts are highly sensitive to endogenous oxygen radicals when glutathione synthesis is inhibited. Besides the defect in hematopoiesis, the ventricular heart wall of TrxR2TrxR2−/−minus;/TrxR2−/−minus; embryos is thinned and proliferation of cardiomyocytes is decreased. Cardiac tissue-restricted ablation of TrxR2 results in fatal dilated cardiomyopathy, a condition reminiscent of that in Keshan disease and Friedreich's ataxia. We conclude that TrxR2 plays a pivotal role in both hematopoiesis and heart function.
Ethanol-induced liver injury is characterized by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in the development of hepatic steatosis, injury and cell death by necrosis and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule with anti-apoptotic properties, protects animals from a number of inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of ethanol on Trx or its role in ethanol-induced liver injury are not known. Female C57BL/6 mice were allowed ad libitum access to a Lieber-deCarli ethanol diet with 5.4% of calories as ethanol for 2 days to acclimate them to the diet, followed by 2 days 32.4% of calories as ethanol or pair-fed control diet. Hepatic Trx-1 was decreased by ethanol feeding; daily supplementation with recombinant human Trx (rhTrx) prevented this ethanol-induced decrease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that administration of rhTrx during ethanol exposure would attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis. Mice were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of either 5 g/kg of rhTrx or phosphate buffered saline (PBS).
Ethanol feeding increased accumulation of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts, expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and resulted in hepatic steatosis and increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In ethanol-fed mice, treatment with rhTrx reduced 4-HNE adduct accumulation, inflammatory cytokine expression, decreased hepatic triglyceride and improved liver enzyme profiles. Ethanol feeding also increased TUNEL positive cells, caspase-3 activity, and cytokeratin-18 staining in the liver. rhTrx treatment prevented these increases. In summary, rhTrx attenuated ethanol-induced increases in markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression, and apoptosis.
alcohol; antioxidant; cytokines; TUNEL; inflammation
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous disulphide reductases that play important roles in the redox regulation of many cellular processes. However, some redox-independent functions, such as chaperone activity, have also been attributed to Trxs in recent years. The focus of our study is on the putative chaperone function of the well-described plastid Trxs f and m. To that end, the cDNA of both Trxs, designated as NtTrxf and NtTrxm, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum plants. It was found that bacterially expressed tobacco Trx f and Trx m, in addition to their disulphide reductase activity, possessed chaperone-like properties. In vitro, Trx f and Trx m could both facilitate the reactivation of the cysteine-free form of chemically denatured glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (foldase chaperone activity) and prevent heat-induced malate dehydrogenase aggregation (holdase chaperone activity). Our results led us to infer that the disulphide reductase and foldase chaperone functions prevail when the proteins occur as monomers and the well-conserved non-active cysteine present in Trx f is critical for both functions. By contrast, the holdase chaperone activity of both Trxs depended on their oligomeric status: the proteins were functional only when they were associated with high molecular mass protein complexes. Because the oligomeric status of both Trxs was induced by salt and temperature, our data suggest that plastid Trxs could operate as molecular holdase chaperones upon oxidative stress, acting as a type of small stress protein.
Chaperone; folding; oligomerization; plastid; thioredoxin; tobacco
Cell culture studies show that the antioxidant thiol protein, thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), translocates to cell nuclei during stress, facilitates DNA binding of transcription factors NF-κB and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and potentiates signaling in immune cells. Excessive proinflammatory signaling in vivo contributes to immune hyper-responsiveness and disease severity, but no studies have addressed whether nuclear Trx1 mediates such responses.
Transgenic mice (Tg) expressing human Trx1 (hTrx1) with added nuclear localization signal (NLS) showed broad tissue expression and nuclear localization. The role of nuclear Trx1 in inflammatory signaling was examined in Tg and wild-type (WT) mice following infection with influenza (H1N1) virus. Results showed that Tg mice had earlier and more extensive NF-κB activation, increased TNF-α and IL-6 expression, greater weight loss, slower recovery and increased mortality compared to WT. Decreased plasma glutathione (GSH) and oxidized plasma GSH/GSSG redox potential (EhGSSG) following infection in Tg mice showed that the increased nuclear thiol antioxidant caused a paradoxical downstream oxidative stress. An independent test of this nuclear reductive stress showed that glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis was increased by NLS-Trx1.
Increased Trx1 in cell nuclei can increase severity of disease responses by potentiation of redox-sensitive transcription factor activation.
Recent studies suggest that decreasing oxidative stress is crucial to achieve successful islet transplantation. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX), which is a multifunctional redox-active protein, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress. Furthermore, it also has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TRX on early graft loss after islet transplantation.
Intraportal islet transplantation was performed for two groups of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a control and a TRX group. In addition, TRX-transgenic (Tg) mice were alternately used as islet donors or recipients.
The changes in blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the TRX group compared with the TRX-Tg donor and control groups (p<0.01). Glucose tolerance and the residual graft mass were considerably better in the TRX group. TRX significantly suppressed the serum levels of interleukin-1β (p<0.05), although neither anti-apoptotic nor anti-chemotactic effects were observed. Notably, no increase in the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine level was observed after islet infusion, irrespective of TRX administration.
The present study demonstrates that overexpression of TRX on the islet grafts is not sufficient to improve engraftment. In contrast, TRX administration to the recipients exerts protective effects on transplanted islet grafts by suppressing the serum levels of interleukin-1β. However, TRX alone appears to be insufficient to completely prevent early graft loss after islet transplantation. We therefore propose that a combination of TRX and other anti-inflammatory treatments represents a promising regimen for improving the efficacy of islet transplantation.
The cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx) redox system comprising Trx-1 and the NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase -1 reductase (TrxR-1) is an important regulator of cell growth and survival. Trx-1 is overexpressed in many human tumors where it is associated with increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and decreased patient survival. We hypothesized that TrxR-1 provides a target to inhibit the activity of overexpressed Trx-1 for the development of novel anticancer agents. We found that the naphthoquinone spiroketal fungal metabolite palmarumycin CP1 is a potent inhibitor of TrxR-1, but attempts to exploit the activity of palmarumycin CP1 analogs as antitumor agents in vivo were hampered by their insolubility. We have therefore developed PX-916, a water soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analog. PX-916 rapidly releases the parent compound at physiological pH and in plasma, but is stable at acid pH allowing its iv administration. PX-916 is a potent inhibitor of purified human TrxR-1 and of TrxR-1 activity in cells and tumor xenografts when administered to mice, and inhibits the down stream targets of Trx-1 signaling, HIF-1α and VEGF, in tumors. PX-916 showed excellent antitumor activity against several animal tumor models with some cures. Thus, the study demonstrates that water soluble inhibitors of TrxR-1 such as PX-916 can block Trx-1 signaling in tumors producing marked inhibition of tumor growth.
palmarumycin analogs; thioredoxin reductase; antitumor
We recently reported that the antineoplastic thiodioxopiperazine natural product chaetocin potently induces cellular oxidative stress, thus selectively killing cancer cells. In pursuit of underlying molecular mechanisms, we now report that chaetocin is a competitive and selective substrate for the oxidative stress mitigation enzyme thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) with lower Km than the TrxR1 native substrate thioredoxin (Trx; chaetocin Km = 4.6 ± 0.6 μM, Trx Km = 104.7 ± 26 μM), thereby attenuating reduction of the critical downstream ROS remediation substrate Trx at achieved intracellular concentrations. Consistent with a role for TrxR1 targeting in the anticancer effects of chaetocin, overexpression of the TrxR1 downstream effector Trx in HeLa cells conferred resistance to chaetocin-induced, but not to doxorubicin-induced, cytotoxicity. As the TrxR/Trx pathway is of central importance in limiting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)—and as chaetocin exerts its selective anticancer effects via ROS imposition—the inhibition of TrxR1 by chaetocin has potential to explain its selective anticancer effects. These observations have important implications not just with regard to the mechanism of action and clinical development of chaetocin and related thiodioxopiperazines, but also with regard to the utility of molecular targets within the thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway in the development of novel candidate antineoplastic agents. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1097–1106.
The anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis is a gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that is highly aerotolerant and can persist in aerobic environments for extended periods. In this study, the six B. fragilis thioredoxins (Trxs) were investigated to determine their role during oxidative stress. Phylogenetic analyses of Trx protein sequences indicated that four of the six Trxs (TrxA, TrxC, TrxD, and TrxF) belong to the M-type Trx class but were associated with two different M-type lineages. TrxE and TrxG were most closely associated to Y-type Trxs found primarily in cyanobacteria. Single and multiple trx gene deletions were generated to determine functional differences between the Trxs. The trxA gene was essential, but no anaerobic growth defects were observed for any other single trx deletion or for the ΔtrxC ΔtrxD::cfxA ΔtrxE ΔtrxF ΔtrxG quintuple mutant. Regulation of the trx genes was linked to the oxidative stress response, and all were induced by aerobic conditions. The ΔtrxC ΔtrxE ΔtrxF ΔtrxG and the ΔtrxC ΔtrxD::cfxA ΔtrxE ΔtrxF ΔtrxG multiple deletion strains were impaired during growth in oxidized media, but single trx gene mutants did not have a phenotype in this assay. TrxD was protective during exposure to the thiol oxidant diamide, and expression of trxD was induced by diamide. Diamide-induced expression of trxC, trxE, and trxF increased significantly in a trxD mutant strain, suggesting that there is some capacity for compensation in this complex Trx system. These data provide insight into the role of individual Trxs in the B. fragilis oxidative stress response.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a potent anti-diabetic agent when used at high doses. However, the direct targets primarily responsible for the beneficial actions of RSV remain unclear. We used a formulation that increases oral bioavailability to assess the mechanisms involved in the glucoregulatory action of RSV in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed diabetic wild type mice. Administration of RSV for 5 weeks reduced the development of glucose intolerance, and increased portal vein concentrations of both Glucagon-like peptid-1 (GLP-1) and insulin, and intestinal content of active GLP-1. This was associated with increased levels of colonic proglucagon mRNA transcripts. RSV-mediated glucoregulation required a functional GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) as neither glucose nor insulin levels were modulated in Glp1r-/- mice. Conversely, levels of active GLP-1 and control of glycemia were further improved when the Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin was co-administered with RSV. In addition, RSV treatment modified gut microbiota and decreased the inflammatory status of mice. Our data suggest that RSV exerts its actions in part through modulation of the enteroendocrine axis in vivo.
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity requires an electron donor, which in bacteria, yeast, and plants is usually either reduced thioredoxin (Trx) or reduced glutaredoxin (Grx). Mice lacking glutathione reductase are viable and, although mice lacking thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) are embryonic-lethal, several studies have shown that mouse cells lacking the txnrd1 gene, encoding TrxR1, can proliferate normally. To better understand the in vivo electron donor requirements for mammalian RNR, we here investigated whether replication of TrxR1-deficient hepatocytes in mouse livers employed either an alternative source of Trx-reducing activity or, instead, solely relied upon the glutathione (GSH) pathway. Neither normal nor genetically TrxR1-deficient livers expressed substantial levels of mRNA splice-forms encoding cytosolic variants of TrxR2, and the TrxR1-deficient livers showed severely diminished total TrxR activity, making it unlikely that any alternative TrxR enzyme activities complemented the genetic TrxR1 deficiency. To test whether the GSH pathway was required for replication, GSH levels were depleted by administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to juvenile mice. In controls not receiving BSO, replicative indexes were similar in hepatocytes having either two, one, or no functional alleles of txnrd1. Following BSO treatment, hepatocytes containing either two or one copies of this gene were also normal. However, hepatocytes completely lacking a functional txnrd1 gene exhibited severely reduced replicative indexes after GSH depletion. We conclude that hepatocyte proliferation in vivo requires either GSH or at least one functional allele of txnrd1, demonstrating that either the GSH- or TrxR1-dependent redox pathway can independently support hepatocyte proliferation during liver growth.
DNA replication; glutathione; thioredoxin reductase; hepatocyte; mouse