The chromosomal locus pscA (exoC) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4301 has been cloned by complementation of the avirulent and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-deficient mutant LBA4301 pscA. We have also identified a new locus, termed psdA (polysaccharide depression) and located 16 kilobases from pscA in the A. tumefaciens chromosome, that negatively affects EPS production when it is present in more than one copy in A. tumefaciens LBA4301. Subcloning, transposon mutagenesis, and transcriptional analysis have been conducted for both loci and indicate that pscA and psdA are transcribed in the same orientation. Acidic-EPS assays showed that psdA depresses succinoglycan production and that its negative effect increases with the copy number of the gene. Virulence tests of psdA transconjugants on Datura stramonium showed no visible alteration in virulence, while LBA4301 pscA was totally avirulent.
OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify resident and organizational factors associated with the use of advance care plans pre- and post-implementation of the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA), and (2) to identify changes (pre- and post-implementation of the PSDA) in the relationship between these factors and the use of advance care plans. DESIGN: Complex, multistage cluster sampling. SETTING: Ten states were selected for variation in geographic location, Medicaid reimbursement rate, and average staffing patterns. Participants were 4,215 nursing home residents in 268 facilities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in 1990, and 12 resident and organizational factors were associated with their use in 1993. Five factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: activities of daily living (ADL) scores, race, cognitive performance scale (CPS) scores, full-time equivalent (FTE) nurse aides per resident, and bed size. Ten resident and organizational factors were associated with use of do-not-hospitalize (DNH) orders in 1990 and six resident and organizational factors were associated with DNH orders in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: legal guardian, FTE LPNs per resident, Medicaid census, and forprofit ownership. Five resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1990 and seven resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: ADL scores, race, length of stay, and for-profit ownership. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the PSDA may have been successful in increasing the use of advance care plans and in changing the types of residents who use advance care plans. However, they also show that the use of advance care plans is associated with organizational characteristics, indicating that some types of facilities may be more willing and able to address the PSDA mandates.
No randomised, controlled trials have been conducted to date on the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological treatments of pain catastrophising (PC) in patients with fibromyalgia. Our aim in this study was to assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and the recommended pharmacological treatment (RPT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) at the primary care level for the treatment of PC in fibromyalgia patients.
We conducted a six-month, multicenter, randomized, blinded, parallel group, controlled trial in which patients were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: CBT (n = 57), RPT (n = 56) and TAU at the primary care level (n = 56). The major outcome of this study was PC in patients with fibromyalgia. The secondary variables were pain acceptance, depression, anxiety, pain, global function and quality of life.
CBT significantly decreased global PC at the six-month follow-up examination with effect sizes of Cohen's d = 0.73 and 1.01 compared with RPT and TAU, respectively. CBT was also more effective than RPT and TAU at increasing pain acceptance at the six-month follow-up examination (effect sizes of Cohen's d = 0.77 and 0.80, respectively). Compared with RPT and TAU, CBT was more effective at improving global function based on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (six-month effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.44 and 0.53, respectively) and quality of life based on the European Quality of Life Scale (six-month effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.11 and 0.40, respectively). There were no differences among the three treatments with regard to pain and depression.
CBT shows higher efficacy than RPT and TAU not only in key outcomes in FM, such as function and quality of life, but also in relevant mediators of treatment effects, such as pain catastrophising and pain acceptance.
catastrophisation; fibromyalgia; randomised controlled trial; cognitive-behaviour therapy
To evaluate the efficacy of different types of behavioral treatments for geriatric anxiety [cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, CBT with relaxation training (RT), and RT alone].
We compared effect sizes from 19 trials. Analyses were based on uncontrolled outcomes (comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment scores) and effects relative to control conditions on both anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Treatments for older adults with anxiety symptoms were, on average, more effective than active control conditions. Effect sizes were comparable to those reported elsewhere for CBT for anxiety in the general population or for pharmacotherapy in anxious older adults. CBT (alone or augmented with RT) does not appear to add anything beyond RT alone, although a direct comparison is challenging given differences in control conditions. Effects on depressive symptoms were smaller, with no differences among treatment types.
Results suggest that behavioral treatments are effective for older adults with anxiety disorders and symptoms. Results must be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the literature, including differing sample characteristics and control conditions across studies.
Psychotherapy; Geriatric; Anxiety; Relaxation Training; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD.
An open trial where patients (N = 23) received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment.
All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56). At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression.
ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format.
Cognitive behavior therapy; Internet; obsessive compulsive disorder
Advance health care directives and informed consent remain the cornerstones of patients' right to self-determination regarding medical care and preferences at the end-of-life. However, the effectiveness and clinical applicability of advance health care directives to decision-making on the use of life support systems at the end-of-life is questionable. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA) has been revised in 2006 to permit the use of life support systems at or near death for the purpose of maximizing procurement opportunities of organs medically suitable for transplantation. Some states have enacted the Revised UAGA (2006) and a few of those have included amendments while attempting to preserve the uniformity of the revised Act. Other states have introduced the Revised UAGA (2006) for legislation and remaining states are likely to follow soon.
The Revised UAGA (2006) poses challenges to the Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) embodied in advance health care directives and individual expression about the use of life support systems at the end-of-life. The challenges are predicated on the UAGA revising the default choice to presumption of donation intent and the use of life support systems to ensure medical suitability of organs for transplantation. The default choice trumps the expressed intent in an individual's advance health care directive to withhold and/or withdraw life support systems at the end-of-life. The Revised UAGA (2006) overrides advance directives on utilitarian grounds, which is a serious ethical challenge to society. The subtle progression of the Revised UAGA (2006) towards the presumption about how to dispose of one's organs at death can pave the way for an affirmative "duty to donate". There are at least two steps required to resolve these challenges. First, physicians and hospitals must fulfill their responsibilities to educate patients on the new legislations and document their preferences about the use of life support systems for organ donation at the end-of-life. Second, a broad based societal discussion must be initiated to decide if the Revised UAGA (2006) infringes on the PSDA and the individual's right of autonomy. The discussion should also address other ethical concerns raised by the Revised UAGA (2006), including the moral stance on 1) the interpretation of the refusal of life support systems as not applicable to organ donation and 2) the disregarding of the diversity of cultural beliefs about end-of-life in a pluralistic society.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients report poorer quality of life (QoL) and more anxiety and depressive symptoms than controls from the general population. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for anxiety and depression, but questionable in case of co-morbidity with IBD. Therefore, an adapted new CBT specifically designed for IBD patients was developed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of adapted CBT on QoL.
IBD patients with a poor level of mental QoL (score less than or equal to 23 on the mental health scale of SF-36) will be randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 40) or waiting-list control condition (n = 40). The experimental condition will then immediately start CBT. The waiting-list control condition will wait 3,5 months before CBT begins with pre- and post assessments. Both conditions will complete a baseline and follow-up assessment following CBT and a mid-treatment assessment. The primary outcome is IBD-specific QoL (IBDQ). Secondary outcomes are generic QoL (SF-36) and anxiety and depression complaints (HADS, CES-D). Additionally, we will examine the working mechanism of the psychological intervention by investigating the impact of the intervention on illness-related cognitions, attitudes, coping styles and their associations with outcome. Data will be analysed on an intention to treat (ITT) as well as treatment completer basis (greater than or equal to five sessions followed).
If found effective, this IBD-specific CBT is a first step to enhance poor QoL in IBD patients and possibly, other gastroenterological diseases. By enhancing IBD patients’ QoL, we may also improve their mental and physical health, and lower unnecessary health care consumption.
Trial registration number
NTR (TC = 1869)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Cognitive behavioral therapy; Quality of life; Anxiety; Depression
Stroke has a considerable socio-economic impact worldwide and is the leading cause of disabilities in the Western world. Economic studies of stroke focus merely on physical aspects and clinical interventions. To our current knowledge there is no comprehensive economic study investigating the economic impact of stroke including psychological and social aspects. The €-Restore4Stroke project, part of a large comprehensive research programme Restore4Stroke, aims to investigate the total economic impact of stroke in the Netherlands.
Two trial-based economic evaluation studies will be conducted within the €-Restore4Stroke project: one focussing on a self-management intervention and one on an augmented cognitive behavioural therapy intervention. Both include cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-utility analyses as primary research methods. Furthermore, a cost-of-illness study investigating costs after stroke attached to a cohort study and a record linkage study in which four databases are linked to investigate patterns of health care consumption before and after stroke, are embedded in €-Restore4Stroke. All studies will be performed from a societal perspective. The primary outcome measure for the cost-effectiveness analysis is the increase in health status on the primary outcome scales. Within the cost-utility analysis, the primary outcome measure is quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for which an indirect preference-based technique will be used. In the self-management study we will also look at the estimation of health effects on informal caregivers. Cost outcomes in the cost-of-illness study will be computed with a cost questionnaire and linkage of several databases will be used to derive outcomes in the record linkage study,
€-Restore4Stroke will provide new insights and evidence for the economic impact of psychosocial consequences after stroke. Besides being innovative in various ways (i.e. focussing on the chronic phase after stroke and including personal factors as possible determinants of long-term re-integration including quality of life in a prospective longitudinal design), a major strength of €-Restore4Stroke is that we include impact on informal caregivers. The outcomes of this study will provide health care decision makers with valuable and necessary information regarding stroke care related decisions.
NTR3051 (RCT Self-management), NTR2999 (RCT Augmented Cognitive Behavioural Therapy)
A plethora of studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult anxiety disorders. In recent years, several meta-analyses have been conducted to quantitatively review the evidence of CBT for anxiety disorders, each using different inclusion criteria for studies, such as use of control conditions or type of study environment. This review aims to summarize and to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding CBT treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, CBT demonstrates both efficacy in randomized controlled trials and effectiveness in naturalistic settings in the treatment of adult anxiety disorders. However, due to methodological issues, the magnitude of effect is currently difficult to estimate. In conclusion, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but more high-quality studies are needed to better estimate the magnitude of the effect.
cognitive-behavioral therapy; psychotherapy; meta-analysis; anxiety disorder; panic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; acute stress disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder
Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations.
Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT) programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL.
The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0) and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL.
Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of treatment effects, FIT-Stroke will address two key aims. The first aim is to investigate the effects of task-oriented CCT on walking competency and HRQoL compared to usual face-to-face physiotherapy. The second aim is to reveal the cost-effectiveness of task-oriented CCT in the first 6 months post stroke. Both aims were recently recommended as priorities by the American Hearth Association and Stroke Council.
This study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register as NTR1534.
Anxiety disorders and depression are highly prevalent in children and affect their current and future functioning. 'FRIENDS for Life' is a cognitive-behavioural programme teaching children skills to cope more effectively with feelings of anxiety and depression. Although 'FRIENDS for Life' is increasingly being implemented at Dutch schools, its effectiveness as a preventive intervention in Dutch schools has never been investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression.
This study is a controlled trial with one pre-intervention and three post-intervention measurements (directly after, and 6 and 12 months after the end of the programme). The study sample consists of children aged 10-12 years (grades 6, 7 and 8 of Dutch primary schools), who show symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder. Data are collected through self-report, teacher report and peer nomination. A process evaluation is conducted to investigate programme integrity (whether the programme has been executed according to protocol) and to evaluate children's and parents' opinions about 'FRIENDS for Life' using online focus groups and interviews.
The present study will provide insight into the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression.
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2397
Prevention; School-based intervention; Anxiety; Depression; Children; FRIENDS for Life; Cognitive-behavioural therapy
An observational study to examine whether thrombolytic therapy in stroke patients realizes better quality of life outcomes compared to patients without thrombolytic therapy one year after stroke. We also examined whether daily functioning, mental functioning and activities improved after thrombolytic treatment.
A total of 88 stroke patients were interviewed at home one year post-stroke. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the RAND-36, disability with the Barthel Index, depression and anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a questionnaire about patient way of life was completed. People aged under 60, moving to a nursing home or with a haemorrhage were excluded.
The thrombolysis group (TG) had more severe stroke (higher NIHSS) scores and were younger than the group without thrombolytic therapy (WTG). The primary outcome was HRQOL, which was high and nearly identical in both groups, however the TG had significantly better HRQOL for the ‘mental health’ and ‘vitality’ scales. Patients who stopped or reduced their hobbies because of stroke had a significantly worse HRQOL.
One year after stroke, more patients in the TG were totally or severely ADL dependent (12% TG and 0% WTG, p = 0.022). The level of dependence decreased in the TG (p = 0.042) and worsened in the WTG (p < 0.001) after one year. Being more dependent is related to diminishing daily occupations in both groups. In the TG the level of dependence had less impact on visiting family and friends and going on holiday. The prevalence of anxiety disorder and depression was low compared to other studies and there is no significant difference between the two groups.
No major differences in the primary outcome (HRQOL) could be found between the two groups. In addition, no essential difference could be found in mental functioning and participation. We expected that patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy would have worse quality of life because of the greater initial severity of their stroke. Therefore, thrombolytic therapy seems to be of great importance in achieving better quality of life in ischemic stroke patients who respond to this therapy.
Patients with advanced cancer often experience debilitating anxiety symptoms that interfere with quality of life and relate to worse medical outcomes. Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically-validated, first-line treatment for anxiety disorders, clinical trials of CBT for anxiety typically exclude patients with medical comorbidities in general, and those with terminal illnesses, such as advanced cancer, in particular. Moreover, CBT has generally targeted unrealistic fears and worries in otherwise healthy individuals with clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Consequently, traditional CBT does not sufficiently address the cognitive components of anxiety in patients with cancer, especially negative thought patterns that are rational but nonetheless intrusive and distressing, such as concerns about pain, disability and death, as well as management of multiple stressors, changes in functional status and burdensome medical treatments. In this paper, we describe a treatment approach for tailoring CBT to the needs of this population. Three case examples of patients diagnosed with terminal lung cancer are presented to demonstrate the treatment methods along with outcome measures for anxiety and quality of life.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; Anxiety; Cancer; Quality of Life
Major depression is a common mental health problem in the general population, associated with a substantial impact on quality of life and societal costs. However, many depressed patients in primary care do not receive the care they need. Reason for this is that pharmacotherapy is only effective in severely depressed patients and psychological treatments in primary care are scarce and costly. A more feasible treatment in primary care might be computerised cognitive behavioural therapy. This can be a self-help computer program based on the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. Although previous studies suggest that computerised cognitive behavioural therapy is effective, more research is necessary. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of online computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care.
In a randomised trial we will compare (a) computerised cognitive behavioural therapy with (b) treatment as usual by a GP, and (c) computerised cognitive behavioural therapy in combination with usual GP care. Three hundred mild to moderately depressed patients (aged 18–65) will be recruited in the general population by means of a large-scale Internet-based screening (N = 200,000). Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups. Primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is the severity of depression. Other outcomes include psychological distress, social functioning, and dysfunctional beliefs. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective, in which all costs will be related to clinical effectiveness and health-related quality of life. All outcome assessments will take place on the Internet at baseline, two, three, six, nine, and twelve months. Costs are measured on a monthly basis. A time horizon of one year will be used without long-term extrapolation of either costs or quality of life.
Although computerised cognitive behavioural therapy is a promising treatment for depression in primary care, more research is needed. The effectiveness of online computerised cognitive behavioural therapy without support remains to be evaluated as well as the effects of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy in combination with usual GP care. Economic evaluation is also needed. Methodological strengths and weaknesses are discussed.
The study has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register, part of the Dutch Cochrane Centre (ISRCTN47481236).
Several studies have showed that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) have suitable skills to undergo cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Case studies have reported successful use of cognitive behavioural therapy techniques (with adaptations) in people with ID. Modified cognitive behavioural therapy may be a feasible and effective approach for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders in ID. To date, two studies have reported group-based manaulised cognitive behavioural treatment programs for depression in people with mild ID. However, there is no individual manualised programme for anxiety or depression in people with intellectual disabilities. The aims of the study are to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial for CBT in people with ID. The data will inform the power calculation and other aspects of carrying out a definitive randomised controlled trial.
Thirty participants with mild ID will be allocated randomly to either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). The CBT group will receive up to 20 hourly individual CBT over a period of 4 months. TAU is the standard treatment which is available to any adult with an intellectual disability who is referred to the intellectual disability service (including care management, community support, medical, nursing or social support). Beck Youth Inventories (Beck Anxiety Inventory & Beck Depression Inventory) will be administered at baseline; end of treatment (4 months) and at six months to evaluate the changes in depression and anxiety. Client satisfaction, quality of life and the health economics will be secondary outcomes.
The broad outcome of the study will be to produce clear guidance for therapists to apply an established psychological intervention and identify how and whether it works with people with intellectual disabilities.
Several computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) packages are now available to treat mild to moderate depression with or without anxiety. These have been usually been reviewed alongside cCBT for a wide range of psychological problems. Here, we single out the results of these reviews for the most common mental disorder, mild to moderate depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the quality of existing reviews and to enable reliable comparisons of alternative computer packages for the same patient group.
A thorough search and analysis of reviews of efficacy of cCBT published between 1999 and February 2011.
The search yielded twelve systematic reviews from ten studies covering depression. Their methodology is appraised and selected findings are presented here.
The meta-review supports the efficacy of cCBT for treatment of depression; however there is limited information on different approaches, whose relative cost-effectiveness remains to be demonstrated. Suggestions are made for future studies in the field.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is regarded as an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Europe and North America. Individual CBT might be acceptable and effective for patients with SAD even in non-Western cultures; therefore, we conducted a feasibility study of individual CBT for SAD in Japanese clinical settings. We also examined the baseline predictors of outcomes associated with receiving CBT.
This single-arm trial employed a 14-week individual CBT intervention. The primary outcome was the self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, with secondary measurements of other social anxiety and depressive severity. Assessments were conducted at baseline, after a waiting period before CBT, during CBT, and after CBT.
Of the 19 subjects screened, 15 were eligible for the study and completed the outcome measures at all assessment points. Receiving CBT led to significant improvements in primary and secondary SAD severity (ps < .001). The mean total score on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale improved from 91.8 to 51.7 (before CBT to after CBT), and the within-group effect size at the end-point assessment was large (Cohen’s d = 1.71). After CBT, 73% of participants were judged to be treatment responders, and 40% met the criteria for remission. We found no significant baseline predictors of those outcomes.
Despite several limitations, our treatment—which comprises a 14-week, individual CBT program—seems feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes for SAD in Japanese clinical settings. Further controlled trials are required in order to address the limitations of this study.
Cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT; Social anxiety disorder; Social phobia; SAD; Japanese
Telephone helplines are frequently and repeatedly used by individuals with chronic mental health problems and web interventions may be an effective tool for reducing depression in this population.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6 week, web-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention with and without proactive weekly telephone tracking in the reduction of depression in callers to a helpline service.
155 callers to a national helpline service with moderate to high psychological distress were recruited and randomised to receive either Internet CBT plus weekly telephone follow-up; Internet CBT only; weekly telephone follow-up only; or treatment as usual.
Depression was lower in participants in the web intervention conditions both with and without telephone tracking compared to the treatment as usual condition both at post intervention and at 6 month follow-up. Telephone tracking provided by a lay telephone counsellor did not confer any additional advantage in terms of symptom reduction or adherence.
A web-based CBT program is effective both with and without telephone tracking for reducing depression in callers to a national helpline.
Comorbid depression is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, adversely affecting quality of life, diabetes outcomes, and mortality. Depression can be effectively treated with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The Internet is a new and attractive method for delivering CBT intervention on a large scale at relatively low costs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Web-based CBT for depression treatment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, with minimal guidance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Netherlands in 255 adult diabetic patients with elevated depressive symptoms. Primary outcomes were depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes were diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycemic control. Assessments were at baseline, after treatment, and at the 1-month follow-up.
The Web-based CBT was effective in reducing depressive symptoms by intention-to-treat analyses (P = 0.04, d = 0.29; clinical improvement 41% vs. 24% P < 0.001) and by per-protocol analyses (P < 0.001, d = 0.70; clinical improvement, 56% vs. 24% P < 0.001). The intervention reduced diabetes-specific emotional distress (P = 0.03) but had no beneficial effect on glycemic control (P > 0.05).
Web-based CBT depression treatment is effective in reducing depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In addition, the intervention reduces diabetes-specific emotional distress in depressed patients.
Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating problem and Internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) could offer one solution. There are at least 25 controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of iCBT. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT Program in primary care that had been demonstrated to be efficacious in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
Quality assurance data from 359 patients prescribed the Sadness Program in Australia from October 2010 to November 2011 were included.
Intent-to-treat marginal model analyses demonstrated significant reductions in depressive symptoms (PHQ9), distress (K10), and impairment (WHODAS-II) with medium-large effect sizes (Cohen's d = .51–1.13.), even in severe and/or suicidal patients (Cohen's d = .50–1.49.) Secondary analyses on patients who completed all 6 lessons showed levels of clinically significant change as indexed by established criteria for remission, recovery, and reliable change.
The Sadness Program is effective when prescribed by primary care practitioners and is consistent with a cost-effective stepped-care framework.
Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures.
Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be measured for seven days using actigraphy (Actiwatch 7). These measures will be repeated after the four week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme, and at a two month follow-up. The waiting list control group will be assessed at baseline, and two months later. Analysis for the primary outcome will include between group differences of subjective and objective sleep parameters from baseline to follow-up using Independent T-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. The secondary outcomes establishing relationships between the sleep variables and physical and psychological outcome measures will be established using multiple linear regression models.
This pilot study will evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on both subjective and objective measures of sleep in patients with chronic pain and provide guidance for a larger clinical trial.
Current controlled trial ISRCTN: ISRCTN74913595
Despite the high prevalence of subthreshold depression in patients with type 2 diabetes, evidence on cost-effectiveness of different therapy options for these patients is currently lacking.
Within-trial economic evaluation of the diabetes-specific cognitive behaviour therapy for subthreshold depression. Patients with diabetes and subthreshold depression are randomly assigned to either 2 weeks of diabetes-specific cognitive behaviour group therapy (n = 104) or to standard diabetes education programme only (n = 104). Patients are followed for 12 months. During this period data on total health sector costs, patient costs and societal productivity costs are collected in addition to clinical data. Health related quality of life (the SF-36 and the EQ-5D) is measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, at 6 and at 12 months after the intervention. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and cumulative costs will be estimated for each arm of the trial. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes-specific cognitive behaviour group therapy will be analysed from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance and from the societal perspective. To this end, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of cost per QALY gained will be calculated.
Some methodological issues of the described economic evaluation are discussed.
The trial has been registered at the Clinical Trials Register (NCT01009138).
Patients with major depression refractory to repeated pharmacological trials (TRD) may remain symptomatic for many years after their index episode. Augmentation strategies (with lithium or an atypical antipsychotic) or combining an antidepressant with short-term psychotherapy have been used with relative success in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the concomitant administration of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, or placebo, to cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in TRD.
Thirty-one patients who met entrance criteria for unipolar major depression (TRD stage II or greater) underwent 3 weeks of lithium augmentation after which non-responders (N = 22) were randomized to receive either quetiapine or placebo as an adjunct to their 12 weekly CBT sessions (quetiapine/CBT or placebo/CBT groups). Primary efficacy measures were the Hamilton and the Montgomery-Asberg rating scales for depression.
Overall, there was a significant reduction in both primary efficacy measure scores at LOCF for the 11 patients in the quetiapine/CBT group but not in the placebo/CBT treated patients. Patients in the quetiapine/CBT group, compared to those receiving placebo/CBT, showed a significantly greater degree of improvement on one primary and one secondary efficacy measure, were more likely to complete the trial and, completed a greater number of CBT sessions.
Although preliminary, our results suggest that the adjunctive administration of quetiapine to CBT may prove useful in the treatment of stage II TRD.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12638696.
The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based therapy (Interapy) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a German speaking population. Also, the quality of the online therapeutic relationship, its development and its relevance as potential moderator of the treatment effects was investigated.
Ninety-six patients with posttraumatic stress reactions were allocated at random to ten sessions of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) conducted over a 5-week period or a waiting list control group. Severity of PTSD was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome variables were depression, anxiety, dissociation and physical health. Follow-up assessments were conducted at the end of treatment and 3 months after treatment.
From baseline to post-treatment assessment, PTSD severity and other psychopathological symptoms were significantly improved for the treatment group (intent-to-treat group × time interaction effect size d = 1.40). Additionally, patients of the treatment condition showed significantly greater reduction of co-morbid depression and anxiety as compared to the waiting list condition. These effects were sustained during the 3-months follow-up period. High ratings of the therapeutic alliance and low drop-out rates indicated that a positive and stable therapeutic relationship could be established online. Significant improvement of the online working alliance in the course of treatment and a substantial correlation between the quality of the online relationship at the end of treatment and treatment outcome emerged.
Interapy proved to be a viable treatment alternative for PTSD with large effect sizes and sustained treatment effects. A stable and positive online therapeutic relationship can be established through the Internet which improved during the treatment process.
Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000401550
The relation between site of stroke and cognitive deficits, anxiety, depression, and quality of life was done in 40 stroke patients using Blessed Mental Status Test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Manchester short assessment of quality of life scale. Lesion localization was done by CT scan. In a relatively short period after stroke, specificity for any hemisphere or arterial territory of any side (left or right) was not evident for anxiety, depression, cognitive deficits or level of QOL. Considering the arterial territories involved, MCA infarcts were associated with greater cognitive deficits, anxiety and poor QOL. ACA infarcts had least anxiety. PCA infarcts were associated with better QOL and least cognitive deficits.
Stroke; cognitive deficits; anxiety; depression; quality of life