JAM-C is an adhesion molecule that is expressed on cells within the vascular compartment and epithelial cells and, to date, has been largely studied in the context of inflammatory events. Using immunolabeling procedures in conjunction with confocal and electron microscopy, we show here that JAM-C is also expressed in peripheral nerves and that this expression is localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. Sciatic nerves from JAM-C–deficient [having the JAM-C gene knocked out (KO)] mice exhibited loss of integrity of the myelin sheath and defective nerve conduction as indicated by morphological and electrophysiological studies, respectively. In addition, behavioral tests showed motor abnormalities in the KO animals. JAM-C was also expressed in human sural nerves with an expression profile similar to that seen in mice. These results demonstrate that JAM-C is a component of the autotypic junctional attachments of Schwann cells and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and function of myelinated peripheral nerves.
Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesion molecule expressed at junctions between adjacent endothelial and epithelial cells and implicated in multiple inflammatory and vascular responses. In addition, we recently reported on the expression of JAM-C in Schwann cells (SCs) and its importance for the integrity and function of peripheral nerves. To investigate the role of JAM-C in neuronal functions further, mice with a specific deletion of JAM-C in SCs (JAM-C SC KO) were generated. Compared to wild-type (WT) controls, JAM-C SC KO mice showed electrophysiological defects, muscular weakness, and hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli. In addressing the underlying cause of these defects, nerves from JAM-C SC KO mice were found to have morphological defects in the paranodal region, exhibiting increased nodal length as compared to WTs. The study also reports on previously undetected expressions of JAM-C, namely on perineural cells, and in line with nociception defects of the JAM-C SC KO animals, on finely myelinated sensory nerve fibers. Collectively, the generation and characterization of JAM-C SC KO mice has provided unequivocal evidence for the involvement of SC JAM-C in the fine organization of peripheral nerves and in modulating multiple neuronal responses.—Colom, B., Poitelon, Y., Huang, W., Woodfin, A., Averill, S., Del Carro, U., Zambroni, D., Brain, S. D., Perretti, M., Ahluwalia, A., Priestley, J. V., Chavakis, T., Imhof, B. A., Feltri, M. L., Nourshargh, S. Schwann cell-specific JAM-C-deficient mice reveal novel expression and functions for JAM-C in peripheral nerves.
adhesion molecules; tight junctions; peripheral nerves
To determine the localization of JAM-C in human RPE and characterize its functions.
Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and PCR was used to identify the localization and expression of JAM-C, ZO-1, N-cadherin, and ezrin in cultures of human fetal RPE (hfRPE) with or without si-RNA mediated JAM-C knockdown and in adult native RPE wholemounts. A transepithelial migration assay was used to study the migration of leukocytes through the hfRPE monolayer.
JAM-C localized at the tight junctions of cultured hfRPE cells and adult native RPE. During initial junction formation JAM-C was recruited to the primordial cell– cell contacts and after JAM-C knockdown, the organization of N-cadherin and ZO-1 at those contacts was disrupted. JAM-C knockdown caused a delay in the hfRPE cell polarization, as shown by reduced apical staining of ezrin. JAM-C inhibition significantly decreased the chemokine-induced transmigration of granulocytes but not monocytes through the hfRPE monolayer.
JAM-C localizes specifically in the tight junctions of hfRPE and adult native RPE. It is important for tight junction formation in hfRPE, possibly by regulating the recruitment of N-cadherin and ZO-1 at the cell– cell contacts, and has a role in the polarization of hfRPE cells. Finally, JAM-C promotes the basal-to-apical transmigration of granulocytes but not monocytes through the hfRPE monolayer.
Neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration is dependent on the leukocyte β2 integrin CD11b/CD18, yet the identity of epithelial counterreceptors remain elusive. Recently, a JAM protein family member termed JAM-C was implicated in leukocyte adhesive interactions; however, its expression in epithelia and role in PMN-epithelial interactions are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that JAM-C is abundantly expressed basolaterally in intestinal epithelia and localizes to desmosomes but not tight junctions. Desmosomal localization of JAM-C was further confirmed by experiments aimed at selective disruption of tight junctions and desmosomes. In assays of PMN transepithelial migration, both JAM-C mAbs and JAM-C/Fc chimeras significantly inhibited the rate of PMN transmigration. Additional experiments revealed specific binding of JAM-C to CD11b/CD18 and provided evidence of other epithelial ligands for CD11b/CD18. These findings represent the first demonstration of direct adhesive interactions between PMN and epithelial intercellular junctions (desmosomes) that regulate PMN transepithelial migration and also suggest that JAM-C may play a role in desmosomal structure/function.
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adhesive protein expressed in various cell types. JAM-A localizes to the tight junctions between contacting endothelial and epithelial cells, where it contributes to cell-cell adhesion and to the control of paracellular permeability.
So far, the expression pattern of JAM-A has not been described in detail for the different cell types of the adult brain. Here we show that a subset of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain express JAM-A. We further clarify that these cells belong to the lineage of NG2-glia cells. Although these mitotic NG2-glia cells express JAM-A, the protein never shows a polarized subcellular distribution. Also non-mitotic NG2-glia cells express JAM-A in a non-polarized pattern on their surface.
Our data show that JAM-A is a novel surface marker for NG2-glia cells of the adult brain.
Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesion molecule expressed by endothelial cells that plays a role in tight junction formation, leukocyte adhesion, and trans-endothelial migration. In the present study, we investigated whether JAM-C is found in soluble form and if soluble JAM-C (sJAM-C) mediates angiogenesis. We found that JAM-C is present in soluble form in normal serum and elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) serum. The concentration of sJAM-C is also elevated locally in RA synovial fluid compared to RA serum or osteoarthritis synovial fluid. sJAM-C was also present in the culture supernatant of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and immortalized human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1s), and its concentration was increased following cytokine stimulation. In addition, sJAM-C cleavage from the cell surface was mediated in part by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17. In functional assays, sJAM-C was both chemotatic and chemokinetic for HMVECs, and induced HMVEC tube formation on Matrigel in vitro. Neutralizing anti-JAM-C antibodies inhibited RA synovial fluid induced HMVEC chemotaxis and sJAM-C induced HMVEC tube formation on Matrigel. sJAM-C also induced angiogenesis in vivo in the Matrigel plug and sponge granuloma models. Moreover, sJAM-C mediated HMVEC chemotaxis was dependent on Src, p38, and PI3K. Our results show that JAM-C exists in soluble form, and suggest that modulation of sJAM-C may provide a novel route for controling pathological angiogenesis.
We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks) on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Wistar rats (n = 64) were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg, iv). Hindlimb motor function was evaluated weekly by assessing sciatic functional indices, and the proximal and distal portions of the sciatic nerve were used for morphometric analysis.
At 13 weeks post-injury, the distal nerve portion of all injured groups and the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group presented altered morphometric parameters such as decreased myelinated fiber diameter (∼7.4±0.3µm vs ∼4.8±0.2µm), axonal diameter (∼5±0.2µm vs ∼3.5±0.1µm) and myelin sheath thickness (∼1.2±0.07µm vs ∼0.65±0.07µm) and an increase in the percentage of area occupied by endoneurium (∼28±3% vs ∼60±3%). In addition, in the non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group the proximal nerve portion showed a decreased myelinated fiber diameter (7.4±0.3µm vs 5.8±0.3µm) and myelin sheath thickness (1.29±0.08µm vs 0.92±0.08µm). The non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups showed normal sciatic functional index from the 4th, 4th, 9th and 7th week post-injury, respectively. Morphometric alterations in the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups were either prevented or reverted to values similar to the non-diabetic group by treadmill training.
Diabetic condition promoted delay in sciatic nerve regeneration. Treadmill training is able to accelerate hindlimb motor function recovery in diabetic injured rats and prevent or revert morphometric alterations in proximal nerve portions in non-diabetic and diabetic injured rats.
Diabetes; Sciatic nerve crush; Motor function; Nerve morphometry; Treadmill training
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane tight junction protein that has been shown to regulate barrier function and cell migration through incompletely understood mechanisms. We have previously demonstrated that JAM-A regulates cell migration by dimerization of the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-like loop and a C-terminal postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens (PDZ) binding motif. Disruption of dimerization resulted in decreased epithelial cell migration secondary to diminished levels of β1 integrin and active Rap1. Here, we report that JAM-A is physically and functionally associated with the PDZ domain-containing molecules Afadin and PDZ-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2, but not zonula occludens (ZO)-1, in epithelial cells, and these interactions mediate outside-in signaling events. Both Afadin and PDZ-GEF2 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with JAM-A. Furthermore, association of PDZ-GEF2 with Afadin was dependent on the expression of JAM-A. Loss of JAM-A, Afadin, or PDZ-GEF2, but not ZO-1 or PDZ-GEF1, similarly decreased cellular levels of activated Rap1, β1 integrin protein, and epithelial cell migration. The functional effects observed were secondary to decreased levels of Rap1A because knockdown of Rap1A, but not Rap1B, resulted in decreased β1 integrin levels and reduced cell migration. These findings suggest that JAM-A dimerization facilitates formation of a complex with Afadin and PDZ-GEF2 that activates Rap1A, which regulates β1 integrin levels and cell migration.
Junctional Adhesion Molecules (JAMs) that are expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells and function in tight junction assembly, also perform important roles in testis where the closely-related JAM-A, JAM-B, and JAM-C are found. Disruption of murine Jam-B and Jam-C has varying effects on sperm development and function, however deletion of Jam-A has not yet been studied. Here we show for the first time that in addition to expression in the Sertoli-Sertoli tight junctions in the seminiferous tubules, the ∼32 kDa murine JAM-A is present in elongated spermatids and in the plasma membrane of the head and flagellum of sperm. Deletion of Jam-A, using the gene trap technology, results in flagellar defects at the ultrastructural level. In Jam-A-deficient mice, which have reduced litter size, both progressive and hyperactived motility are significantly affected (P<0.0001) before and, more severely, after capacitation. The findings show that JAM-A is involved in sperm tail formation and is essential for normal motility, which may occur via its signal transduction and protein phosphorylation properties. Detection of JAM-A in human sperm protein indicates that its role may be conserved in sperm motility and that JAM-A may be a candidate gene for the analysis of idiopathic sperm motility defects resulting in male subfertility in the human population.
spermiogenesis; elongated spermatid; progressive and hyperactivated motility; sperm flagellar defects; sperm membrane protein
Junctional adhesion molecule 2 (Jam2) is a member of the JAM superfamily. JAMs are localized at intercellular contacts and participated in the assembly and maintenance of junctions, and control of cell permeability. Because Jam2 is highly expressed in the luminal epithelium on day 4 of pregnancy, this study was to determine whether Jam2 plays a role in uterine receptivity and blastocyst attachment in mouse uterus.
Jam2 is highly expressed in the uterine luminal epithelium on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy. Progesterone induces Jam2 expression in ovariectomized mice, which is blocked by progesterone antagonist RU486. Jam2 expression on day 4 of pregnancy is also inhibited by RU486 treatment. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) up-regulates Jam2 protein in isolated luminal epithelium from day 4 uterus, which is blocked by S3I-201, a cell-permeable inhibitor for Stat3 phosphorylation. Under adhesion assay, recombinant Jam2 protein increases the rate of blastocyst adhesion. Both soluble recombinant Jam2 and Jam3 can reverse this process.
Jam2 is highly expressed in the luminal epithelium of receptive uterus and up-regulated by progesterone and LIF via tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Jam2 may play a role in the interaction between hatched blastocyst and receptive uterus.
Diverse families of viruses bind immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins located in tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions of epithelium and endothelium. However, little is known about the roles of these receptors in the pathogenesis of viral disease. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an IgSF protein that localizes to TJs and serves as a receptor for mammalian reovirus. We inoculated wild-type (wt) and isogenic JAM-A−/− mice perorally with reovirus and found that JAM-A is dispensable for viral replication in the intestine but required for systemic dissemination. Reovirus replication in the brain and tropism for discrete neural regions are equivalent in wt and JAM-A−/− mice following intracranial inoculation, suggesting a function for JAM-A in reovirus spread to extra-intestinal sites. JAM-A promotes reovirus infection of endothelial cells, providing a conduit for the virus into the bloodstream. These findings indicate that a broadly expressed IgSF viral receptor specifically mediates hematogenous dissemination in the host.
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are a family of adhesion proteins found in intercellular junctions. Evidence suggests that JAM-A is important for the regulation of tight junction assembly and epithelial barrier function. The authors recently reported that JAM-A is expressed in rabbit corneal endothelium and that antibody to JAM-A produces corneal swelling. In the present study, they investigate JAM-A expression in the human corneal endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and examine the effect of a function-blocking antibody to JAM-A on the permeability of cultured RPE cell monolayers.
Expression of JAM-A in human corneal endothelium, human RPE tissue, and cultured ARPE-19 monolayers was assessed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Localization of JAM-A was compared with the tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). To investigate JAM-A function in ARPE-19 cells, ARPE-19 monolayers were subjected to a calcium switch protocol to disrupt cell junctions and treated with a function-blocking antibody to JAM-A or an isotype-matched control. Dextran flux assays were performed to assess the effect of JAM-A antibody on ARPE-19 monolayer permeability.
Expression of JAM-A was observed in human corneal endothelium, and its distribution correlated with the tight junction-associated protein ZO-1. In addition, expression of JAM-A was observed in human RPE and in intercellular junctions of ARPE-19 monolayers. The localization pattern of JAM-A in the RPE and ARPE-19 monolayers was similar to that of ZO-1. ARPE-19 monolayers treated with antibody to JAM-A demonstrated a 33% increase in permeability to 10,000 MWt dextran compared with monolayers treated with control antibody.
Results of this study provide new information about JAM-A expression in tight junctions of the human corneal endothelium and human RPE. The observation that antibodies to JAM-A increase ARPE-19 monolayer permeability is consistent with previous findings of JAM-A function in epithelial tight junctions and suggests JAM-A may have a role in the regulation of RPE barrier function.
To investigate the role of Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc).
Biopsies from proximal and distal arm skin and serum were obtained from patients with SSc and normal (NL) volunteers. To determine the expression of JAM-A on SSc dermal fibroblasts and in SSc skin, cell surface ELISAs and immunohistology were performed. An ELISA was designed to determine the amount of soluble JAM-A (sJAM-A) in serum. Myeloid U937 cell-SSc dermal fibroblast and skin adhesion assays were performed to determine the role of JAM-A in myeloid cell adhesion.
The stratum granulosum and dermal endothelial cells (ECs) from distal arm SSc skin exhibited significantly decreased expression of JAM-A compared to NL. However, sJAM-A was elevated in the serum of patients with SSc compared to NL. Conversely, JAM-A was increased on the surface of SSc compared to NL dermal fibroblasts. JAM-A accounted for a significant portion of U937 binding to SSc dermal fibroblasts. In addition, JAM-A contributed to U937 adhesion to both distal and proximal SSc skin.
JAM-A expression is dysregulated in SSc skin. Decreased expression of JAM-A on SSc ECs may result in a reduced response to proangiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor. While increased JAM-A expression on SSc fibroblasts may serve to retain myeloid cells, which in turn secrete angiogenic factors.
Systemic sclerosis; Scleroderma; JAM-A; Cell adhesion
Transplantation of myelin-forming cells can remyelinate axons, but little is known of the sodium channel organization of axons myelinated by donor cells. Sciatic nerve axons of female wild type mice were transected by a crush injury and Schwann cells (SCs) from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing male mice were transplanted adjacent to the crush site. The male donor cells were identified by GFP fluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Y chromosome. In nerves of GFP-expressing mice, GFP was observed in the axoplasm and in the cytoplasmic compartments of the Schwann cells, but not in the myelin. Following transplantation of GFP-SCs into crushed nerve of wild type mice, immuno-electron microscopic analysis indicated that GFP was observed in the cytoplasmic compartments of engrafted Schwann cells which formed myelin. Nodal and paranodal regions of the axons myelinated by the GFP-SCs were identified by Nav 1.6 sodium channel and Caspr immunostaining, respectively. Nuclear identification of the Y chromosome by FISH confirmed the donor origin of the myelin-forming cells. These results indicate that engrafted GFP-SCs participate in myelination of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers and that Nav 1.6 sodium channel, which is the dominant sodium channel at normal nodes, is reconstituted on the regenerated axons.
Schwann cells; Transplantation; Peripheral nerve
Wallerian degeneration was produced in guinea pig sciatic nerves by a crush injury. At intervals of 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the crush, the nerves were fixed in osmium tetroxide, and blocks from the distal, degenerating segment identified topographically prior to embedding in Araldite or Epon. Phase and electron microscopic study of serial cross- and longitudinal sections reveals a striking, localized accumulation of axonal mitochondria which precedes or accompanies the swelling and fragmentation previously reported by others. These focal accumulations of mitochondria are transient and are most frequently observed in the paranodal axoplasm of large myelinated fibers 24 to 36 hours after crush injury, but are also occasionally identified in small myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. Migration and proliferation of axonal mitochondria are considered as possible explanations of these observations.
At tight junctions (TJs), claudins with four transmembrane domains are incorporated into TJ strands. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is also localized at TJs, but it remains unclear how JAM is integrated into TJs. Immunoreplica electron microscopy revealed that JAM showed an intimate spatial relationship with TJ strands in epithelial cells. In L fibroblasts expressing exogenous JAM, JAM was concentrated at cell–cell adhesion sites, where there were no strand-like structures, but rather characteristic membrane domains free of intramembranous particles were detected. These domains were specifically labeled with anti-JAM polyclonal antibody, suggesting that JAM forms planar aggregates through their lateral self-association. Immunofluorescence microscopy and in vitro binding assays revealed that ZO-1 directly binds to the COOH termini of claudins and JAM at its PDZ1 and PDZ3 domains, respectively. Furthermore, another PDZ-containing polarity-related protein, PAR-3, was directly bound to the COOH terminus of JAM, but not to that of claudins. These findings led to a molecular architectural model for TJs: small aggregates of JAM are tethered to claudin-based strands through ZO-1, and these JAM aggregates recruit PAR-3 to TJs. We also discuss the importance of this model from the perspective of the general molecular mechanisms behind the recruitment of PAR proteins to plasma membranes.
JAM; PAR-3; claudin; ZO-1; tight junction
Peripheral nerve transection or crush induces expression of class 3 semaphorins by epineurial and perineurial cells at the injury site, and of the neuropilins, neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2, by Schwann and perineurial cells in the nerve segment distal to the injury. Neuropilin-dependent class 3 semaphorin signaling guides axons during neural development, but the significance of this signaling system for regeneration of adult peripheral nerves is not known. To test the hypothesis that neuropilin-2 facilitates peripheral nerve axonal regeneration, we crushed sciatic nerves of adult neuropilin-2 deficient and littermate control mice. Axonal regeneration through the crush site and into the distal nerve segment, repression by the regenerating axons of Schwann cell p75 neurotrophin receptor expression, remyelination of the regenerating axons, and recovery of normal gait were all significantly slower in the neuropilin-2 deficient than control mice. Thus, neuropilin-2 facilitates peripheral nerve axonal regeneration.
peripheral nervous system; axons; Schwann cells; semaphorins; sciatic nerve
JAM-C (junctional adhesion molecule C) has been implicated in the regulation of leukocyte migration, cell polarity, spermatogenesis, angiogenesis and nerve conduction. JAM-C has been also reported to concentrate at TJs (tight junctions) and desmosomes, although detailed localization studies remain incomplete.
Monoclonal (LUCA14, MAB1189, Gi11, and PACA4) and polyclonal (40–9000) antibodies were employed to evaluate JAM-C expression/localization in various epithelial cell lines. However, RT–PCR (reverse transcription– PCR) assays revealed no JAM-C mRNA in SK-CO15, HeLa and HPAF-II cells, whereas abundant mRNA was detected in platelets, Caco-2 and ARPE cells. Interestingly, immunofluorescence localization in all cells revealed strong intercellular junctional staining with all of the above antibodies, except PACA4. Given the positive staining results in cells lacking JAM-C mRNA, immunoblot analyses were performed. Western blots revealed a prominent protein band at 52 kDa in all cells tested with all antibodies except PACA4. However, the correct size of JAM-C (37 kDa) was only detected in cells containing JAM-C mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining of JAM-C mRNA-expressing Caco-2 cells using mAb PACA4 revealed co-localization with occludin and ZO-1 (zonula occludens 1) at TJs. Analyses by MS identified the cross-reactive 52 kDa protein band as K8 (keratin 8). Furthermore, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated downregulation of K8 in JAM-C mRNA-negative cells resulted in diminished junctional staining along with a reduction in the intensity of the 52 kDa protein band. Using an antibody specific for K8 phosphorylated at Ser73, the 52 kDa protein was identified as this phosphorylated form of K8.
The results from the present study demonstrate that a majority of available anti-human JAM-C antibodies cross-react with phosphorylated K8 and suggest that cellular localization studies using these reagents should be interpreted with caution. Of the JAM-C antibodies tested, only mAb PACA4 is monospecific for human JAM-C. Analyses using PACA4 reveal that JAM-C expression is variable in different epithelial cell lines with co-localization at TJs.
antibody specificity; epithelial cell; junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C); keratin; tight junction
Junction adhesion molecules-A, -B, and -C (Jams) are cell surface glycoproteins that have been shown to play an important role in the assembly and maintenance of tight junctions and in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. Recent studies reported that Jam-C mRNA was increased threefold in the all-cone retina of the Nrl−/− mouse, suggesting that Jam-C is required for maturation and polarization of cone photoreceptors cells. We examined the expression of Jams in the mouse retina by using confocal immunofluorescence localization. Jam-C was detected in tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and at the outer limiting membrane (OLM) in the specialized adherens junctions between Müller and photoreceptor cells. Additionally, Jam-C labeling was observed in the long apical processes of Müller and RPE cells that extend between the inner segments and outer segments of photoreceptors, respectively. Jam-B was also detected at the OLM. In the developing retina, Jam-B and -C were detected at the apical junctions of embryonic retinal neuroepithelia, suggesting a role for Jams in retinogenesis. In eyes from Jam-C−/− mice, retinal lamination, polarity, and photoreceptor morphology appeared normal. Although Jam-A was not detected at the OLM in wild-type retinas, it was present at the OLM in retinas of Jam-C−/− mice. These findings indicate that up-regulation of Jam-A in the retina compensates for the loss of Jam-C. The nonclassical distribution of Jam-C in the apical membranes of Müller cells and RPE suggests that Jam-C has a novel function in the retina.
Jam-C; Jam-B; retina; cell polarity; adherens junction; outer limiting membrane
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an extracellular protease that is induced in Schwann cells hours after peripheral nerve injury and controls axonal degeneration and macrophage recruitment to the lesion. Here, we report a robust (90-fold) increase in MMP-9 mRNA within 24 h after rat sciatic nerve crush (1 to 60 days time-course). Using direct injection into a normal sciatic nerve, we identify the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β as potent regulators of MMP-9 expression (Taqman qPCR, zymography). Myelinating Schwann cells produced MMP-9 in response to cytokine injection and crush nerve injury. MMP-9 gene deletion reduced unstimulated neuropathic nociceptive behavior after one week post-crush and preserved myelin thickness by protecting myelin basic protein (MBP) from degradation, tested by Western blot and immunofluorescence. These data suggest that MMP-9 expression in peripheral nerve is controlled by key proinflammatory cytokine pathways, and that its removal protects nerve fibers from demyelination and reduces neuropathic pain after injury.
Schwann cell; Matrix metalloproteinase; TNF-α; IL-1β; NGF; Glia; Myelination; MBP; Pain; Neuropathy
Intercellular junctions promote homotypic cell to cell adhesion and transfer intracellular signals which control cell growth and apoptosis. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane immunoglobulin located at tight junctions of normal epithelial cells of mammary ducts and glands. In the present paper we show that JAM-A acts as a survival factor for mammary carcinoma cells. JAM-A null mice expressing Polyoma Middle T under MMTV promoter develop significantly smaller mammary tumors than JAM-A positive mice. Angiogenesis and inflammatory or immune infiltrate were not statistically modified in absence of JAM-A but tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. Tumor cells isolated from JAM-A null mice or 4T1 cells incubated with JAM-A blocking antibodies showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis which paralleled altered junctional architecture and adhesive function. In a breast cancer clinical data set, tissue microarray data show that JAM-A expression correlates with poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis of mouse tumor samples showed a correlation between genes enriched in human G3 tumors and genes over expressed in JAM-A +/+ mammary tumors. Conversely, genes enriched in G1 human tumors correlate with genes overexpressed in JAM-A−/− tumors. We conclude that down regulation of JAM-A reduces tumor aggressive behavior by increasing cell susceptibility to apoptosis. JAM-A may be considered a negative prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target.
The apposed membranes of myelinating Schwann cells are joined by several types of junctional specializations known as autotypic or reflexive junctions. These include tight, gap, and adherens junctions, all of which are found in regions of noncompact myelin: the paranodal loops, incisures of Schmidt-Lanterman, and mesaxons. The molecular components of autotypic tight junctions have not been established. Here we report that two homologues of Discs Lost–multi PDZ domain protein (MUPP)1, and Pals-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), are differentially localized in myelinating Schwann cells and associated with different claudins. PATJ is mainly found at the paranodal loops, where it colocalized with claudin-1. MUPP1 and claudin-5 colocalized in the incisures, and the COOH-terminal region of claudin-5 interacts with MUPP1 in a PSD-95/Disc Large/zona occludens (ZO)-1 (PDZ)-dependent manner. In developing nerves, claudin-5 and MUPP1 appear together in incisures during the first postnatal week, suggesting that they coassemble during myelination. Finally, we show that the incisures also contain four other PDZ proteins that are found in epithelial tight junctions, including three membrane-associated guanylate-kinase proteins (membrane-associated guanylate-kinase inverted-2, ZO-1, and ZO-2) and the adaptor protein Par-3. The presence of these different tight junction proteins in regions of noncompact myelin may be required to maintain the intricate cytoarchitecture of myelinating Schwann cells.
tight junction; MUPP1; PATJ; Schmidt-Lanterman incisures; paranodal loops
The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5) received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip) immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5) received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5), where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI) on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group) had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.
To study the effect of Buflomedil on the morphological repair on crush injury of sciatic nerve and also the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Materials and Methods:
Rat sciatic nerves were crushed by pincers. All of the 400 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into: Sham-operated; saline; saline + VEGF-antibody; Buflomedil; and Buflomedil + VEGF antibody groups. The expression of VEGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), following crush injury to sciatic nerves, was studied by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry. The effects of Buflomedil on expression of VEGF and repair of neural pathology were also evaluated.
VEGF mRNA was significantly increased in Buflomedil and Buflomedil + VEGF-antibody groups, compared with other groups. The number of VEGF-positive neurons was significantly increased in the Buflomedil and the saline groups. Besides, Buflomedil also caused less pathological changes in DRGs.
The vasoactive agent Buflomedil may decrease the pathological lesion and improve the functional rehabilitation of peripheral nerves, which may correlate to upregulation of the expression of VEGF, following crush injury to the peripheral nerves.
Crush injury; dorsal root ganglion; sciatic nerve; vascular endothelium growth factor; vasoactive agent
Recent evidence has linked intestinal permeability to mucosal inflammation, but molecular studies are lacking. Candidate regulatory molecules localized within the tight junction (TJ) include Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM-A), which has been implicated in the regulation of barrier function and leukocyte migration. Thus, we analyzed the intestinal mucosa of JAM-A–deficient (JAM-A−/−) mice for evidence of enhanced permeability and inflammation. Colonic mucosa from JAM-A−/− mice had normal epithelial architecture but increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and large lymphoid aggregates not seen in wild-type controls. Barrier function experiments revealed increased mucosal permeability, as indicated by enhanced dextran flux, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance in JAM-A−/− mice. The in vivo observations were epithelial specific, because monolayers of JAM-A−/− epithelial cells also demonstrated increased permeability. Analyses of other TJ components revealed increased expression of claudin-10 and -15 in the colonic mucosa of JAM-A−/− mice and in JAM-A small interfering RNA–treated epithelial cells. Given the observed increase in colonic inflammation and permeability, we assessed the susceptibility of JAM-A−/− mice to the induction of colitis with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Although DSS-treated JAM-A−/− animals had increased clinical disease compared with controls, colonic mucosa showed less injury and increased epithelial proliferation. These findings demonstrate a complex role of JAM-A in intestinal homeostasis by regulating epithelial permeability, inflammation, and proliferation.