Carbapenemases are β-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these β-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many β-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D β-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-β-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type β-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-β-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of β-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.
The detection of class A serine-carbapenemases among species of Enterobacteriaceae remains a challenging issue. Methods of identification for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories have not been standardized to date. We developed a novel screening methodology suitable for countries with high basal levels of carbapenem resistance due to non-carbapenemase-mediated mechanisms and standardized several simple confirmatory methods that allow the recognition of bacteria producing class A carbapenemases, including KPC, Sme, IMI, NMC-A, and GES, by using boronic acid (BA) derivatives. A total of 28 genetically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae strains producing several class A carbapenemases were tested. Thirty-eight genetically unrelated negative controls were included. The isolates were tested against imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), and ertapenem (ETP) by MIC and disk diffusion assays in order to select appropriate tools to screen for suspected carbapenemase production. It was possible to differentiate class A carbapenemase-producing bacteria from non-carbapenemase-producing bacteria by using solely the routine IPM susceptibility tests. The modified Hodge test was evaluated and found to be highly sensitive, although false-positive results were documented. Novel BA-based methods (a double-disk synergy test and combined-disk and MIC tests) using IPM, MEM, and ETP, in combination with 3-aminophenylboronic acid as an inhibitor, were designed as confirmatory tools. On the basis of the performance of these methods, a sensitive flow chart for suspicion and confirmation of class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae was designed. By using this methodology, isolates producing KPC, GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of β-lactamases (extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpCs, and metallo-β-lactamases, etc). These methods will rapidly provide useful information needed for targeting antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.
Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs.
Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay.
The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates.
The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase
Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (blaKPC) have been reported, with KPC-2 (blaKPC-2) and KPC-3 (blaKPC-3) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of blaKPC variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described blaKPC variants (blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-11). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each blaKPC variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with blaKPC-3 and blaKPC-2 identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel blaKPC variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.
The aim of this study was the rapid identification of blaKPC gene in 38 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. The modified Hodge Test (MHT) was carried out to phenotypically determine whether resistance to carbapenems was mediated by a carbapenemase. The detection of the blaKPC gene was performed by real-time acid nucleic sequence-based amplification (NASBA™™), specifically designed for the detection of KPC RNA target.
Thirty-two/38 isolates evaluated by MHT showed the production of carbapenemases, while all the strains exhibited the production of KPC by inhibition test with phenylboronic acid (the combined disk test with IPM/IPM plus phenylboronic acid). The detection of blaKPC gene by Nuclisens EasyQ KPC yielded positive results in 38/38 (100%) strains. The presence of blaKPC gene was confirmed in all K. pneumoniae isolates when tested by the gold standard PCR assay.
In consideration of the serious challenge represented by infections due to K. pneumoniae it appears necessary the rapid identification of carbapenemases in clinical settings as it is made possible by the use of NASBA™ assay.
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Carbapenem resistance; blaKPC; NASBA™
A total of 104 carbapenemase (serine- and metallo-β-lactamase [MβL])-producing strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family collected from 2000 to 2005 in medical centers distributed worldwide were tested against tigecycline and 25 comparators by reference broth microdilution methods. The most frequent carbapenemase was KPC-2 or -3 (73 strains), followed by VIM-1 (14), IMP-1 (11), SME-2 (5), and NMC-A (1). All serine carbapenemases were detected in the United States, while MβL-producing strains were isolated in Europe. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed high rates of resistance to most antimicrobial agents tested. The rank order of in vitro activity against these strains was as follows: tigecycline (100.0% susceptible) > polymyxin B (88.1%) > amikacin (73.0%) > imipenem (37.5%). Tigecycline was very active (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) against this significant, contemporary collection of well-characterized strains and appears to be an excellent option compared to the polymyxins for treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) were first reported in the USA in 2001, and since then, this infection has been reported in Europe, Israel, South America, and China. In Korea, the first KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain was detected in 2010. We report the case of a patient with a urinary tract infection caused by KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. This is the second report of a KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae infection in Korea, but the multilocus sequence type was ST258. The KPC-2-producing isolate was resistant to all tested β-lactams (including imipenem and meropenem), amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but was susceptible to gentamicin, colistin, polymyxin B, and tigecycline. The KPC-2-producing isolate was negative to phenotypic extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC detection tests and positive to modified Hodge test and carbapenemase inhibition test with aminophenylboronic acid.
KPC-2; Klebsiella pneumoniae; ST258
Dissemination of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae poses a considerable threat to public health. Carbapenemase gene detection by molecular methods is the gold standard but is available in only a few laboratories. The aim of this study was to test phenotypic methods for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)- or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and associated mechanisms of β-lactam resistance against a panel of 30 genotypically characterized carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae : 9 MBL, 7 KPC, 6 OXA-48, and 8 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or AmpC β-lactamases associated with decreased permeability. We used carbapenemase inhibitor-impregnated agar to test for carbapenem-resistant strains. Differences in the inhibition zone sizes of the meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and doripenem disks were measured between control and inhibitor (EDTA or phenylboronic acid [PBA] with or without cloxacillin)-impregnated Mueller-Hinton agar with a cutoff of 10 mm. All 9 MBL- and 7 KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified from the differences in zone size in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors, regardless of the carbapenem MICs and including isolates with low-level resistance to carbapenems. We also detected their associated β-lactam resistance mechanisms (11 ESBL-type and 5 class A β-lactamase 2b). No differences in zone size were observed for OXA-48-producing strains or other carbapenem resistance mechanisms such as ESBL and decreased permeability. We propose a new strategy to detect carbapenemases (MBL- and KPC-type) and associated mechanisms of β-lactam resistance (ESBL or class A β-lactamase 2b) by the use of inhibitor-impregnated agar. A rapid phenotypic detection of resistance mechanisms is important for epidemiological purposes and for limiting the spread of resistant strains by implementing specific infection control measures.
Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Three hundred and one E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were investigated. All produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) but were susceptible to carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The MHT was performed using the standard inoculum of test organisms recommended by the CLSI. Genes that encoded ESBLs and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 301 clinical isolates, none of the isolates conformed to the criteria for carbapenemase screening recommended by the CLSI. The susceptibility rates for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem all were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 301 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, none produced carbapenemase. The MHT gave a positive result for 3.3% (10/301) of the isolates. False positive results can occur when the MHT is used to detect carbapenemase in ESBL-producing isolates and clinical laboratories must be aware of this fact.
Since November 2006, imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have increased in Kyung Hee University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic basis and molecular epidemiology of outbreak isolates.
Materials and Methods
Forty-nine non-repetitive isolates of the 734 IRAB strains were investigated in order to determine their characteristics. The modified Hodge and the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-disk synergy test were performed for the screening of carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamase production. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed for the detection of genes encoding for OXA-23-like, OXA-24-like, OXA-58-like and OXA-51-like carbapenemase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for strain identification.
All isolates showed 100% resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, 97.9% resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, 93.9% resistance to tobramycin and 57.1% resistance to amikacin. All of the 49 isolates (100%) showed positive results in the modified Hodge test and negative results in the EDTA-disk synergy test. They all (100%) possessed the encoding gene for an intrinsic OXA-51-like carbapenemase and an acquired OXA-23-like carbapenemase in the multiplex PCR assay. PFGE patterns revealed that all isolates were clonally related from A1 to A14.
It is concluded that all of the 49 IRAB isolates acquired resistance to imipenem by producing OXA-23 carbapenemase and they might have originated from a common source.
Imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; outbreak; OXA-23
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) producing bacteria have emerged as a cause of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. KPCs are plasmid-encoded enzymes capable of hydrolysing a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including carbapenems and monobactams, therefore worryingly limiting antimicrobial treatment options. Analysis of circulating bacterial strains and KPC alleles may help understanding the route of KPC dissemination and therefore help containing the infection.
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae dissemination in two 1580- and 300- bed hospitals in Padua, Italy, from initial outbreak in 2009 to late 2011 was analysed. Molecular and clinical epidemiology, including bacterial strains, KPC-encoding plasmid sequences and associated resistance genes, involved hospital wards and relocation of patients were described. Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC of carbapenems on clinical isolates were performed. Detection of resistance genes was obtained by PCR and sequencing. MLST, PFGE and ERIC were used for molecular genotyping. Plasmid analysis was obtained by digestion with restriction enzymes and deep sequencing.
KPC-positive clinical samples were isolated from nearly 200 patients. In the initial outbreak intensive care units were almost exclusively involved, while medical, surgical and long-term wards were successively massively concerned. Analysis of KPC alleles, plasmids and bacterial sequence types (STs) indicated that during the initial outbreak KPC-3 in ST258 and KPC-2 in ST147 were each confined in one of the two surveilled hospitals. While KPC-2 dissemination was effectively contained, KPC-3 in ST258 cross-spreading was observed. The simultaneous presence of two carbapenemases, VIM-1 and KPC-2, in the same isolate was also observed in three patients. Total sequencing of plasmid content of two KPC-3 strains showed novel association of resistance plasmids.
The acquired molecular epidemiology demonstrated that 1) both acquisitions from outward sources and patient relocation within the hospitals were responsible for the observed spreading; 2) KPC-3-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 prevailed over other strains. In addition, the described massive transfer of KPC-mediated resistance to non-intensive care units may anticipate spreading of resistance to the non-hospitalized population. Therefore, genotypic analysis alongside phenotypic identification of carbapenemase producers, also at the carriage state, is advisable to prevent and contain further carbapenemase resistance dissemination.
KPC; Carbapenemase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance; Gram-negative; Nosocomial infections
We developed a novel real-time PCR assay to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and used this assay to screen clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca for the presence of blaKPC genes. The TaqMan real-time PCR assay amplified a 399-bp product from the blaKPC gene. The amplicon was designed so that the genes for isoenzymes KPC-1, -2, and -3 could be easily distinguished by subsequent restriction digestion of the amplicon with the enzymes BstNI and RsaI. The assay was validated with reference strains obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that contained each of the three described isoenzymes and 69 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing clinical isolates (39 K. pneumoniae and 30 K. oxytoca isolates). Subsequently, the blaKPC PCR assay was used to confirm the presence of blaKPC genes in any meropenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. The PCR assay detected blaKPC in all of the reference strains, in 6 of 7 meropenem-resistant isolates, and in 0 of 62 meropenem-susceptible clinical isolates. The PCR assay was then used to confirm the presence of blaKPC in an additional 20 meropenem-resistant isolates from 16 patients. Restriction digestion of the PCR amplicons identified two blaKPC gene variants in our patient population: 9 isolates with C and 17 with T at nucleotide 944, consistent with blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3, respectively. The real-time PCR assay is a rapid and accurate method to detect all KPC isoenzymes and was useful in documenting the presence and dissemination of KPC-producing strains in our patient population.
One of the biggest problems associated with the antibiotic therapy is resistance. Recently published studies have revealed that enterobacteriaceae, like E. coli and Klebsiella, isolated from several Indian centers are resistant to many antibiotics including some highly potent antibiotics like carbapenems. It has been proposed that this resistance is because of a carbapenemase enzyme called NDM- 1 (New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1). This carbapenemase is class B carbapenemase also called metallolactamases as they require zinc at their active site. This enzyme is coded by a gene called bla - NDM -1 or gene NDM -1. NDM -1 containing enterobacteriaceae can be screened in laboratory by few techniques. Metallolactamase production can be detected by disk approximation test or Modified Hodge test and NDM -1 gene can be detected by polymerase chain reaction by the use of specific primer targeting the gene. Infections caused by such bacteria are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Two classes of antibiotics i.e., polymyxins (colistin) and glycylcyclines (tigecyclines), have shown in vitro activity against NDM -1 harboring enterobacteriaceae. The safety profile of both of these antibiotics is questionable. There is a need for active screening of microorganisms for NDM -1 and research should be directed towards the development of safe antibiotics for the treatment of these kinds of infections.
Antibiotics resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; New Delhi Beta metallo lactamase; carbapenemases
Our study was to investigate the prevalence of carbapenemase genes in strains of Enterobacteriaceae species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in our hospital.
The carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae species were confirmed by modified Hodge test (MHT) and EDTA-disc synergy test which indicating the production of class B carbapenemases. PCR and sequencing analysis were used to identify the drug-resistant genes. DNA fingerprinting based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to investigate the homology of Enterobacteriaceae species.
From a collection of 1,472 Enterobacteriaceae species, 18 isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenem treatment were identified and 9 of which were positive by MHT, and 6 of which produced class B carbapenemases. PCR and sequencing analysis of the 18 isolates revealed 4 different carbapenemase genes (blaIMP-8, blaoxa-1, blaIMP-26, and blaoxa-47) in 10 isolates, with the blaIMP-8 and blaoxa-1 genes being the most common (60-70% prevalence). ERIC-PCR showed 5, 2, and 2 unique genotypes for Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Three E. coli strains isolated from different patients from the urologic surgery department exhibited the same DNA banding pattern, suggesting a possible clonal dissemination. Majority (17/18) of the carbapenem-unsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae species isolates was obtained from the surgery department of our hospital.
The main carbapenemase genes of Enterobacteriaceae species in our hospital were blaIMP-8 and blaoxa-1. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance may be existed in surgery department and infection control should be taken for preventing further dissemination of drug-resistant strains.
Enterobacteriaceae species; Carbapenemases; Carbapenems
The spread of carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family (CRE) harboring carbapenemases is an emerging public health threat. As KPC-producing Klebsiella species are endemic in our tertiary care hospital, we aimed to evaluate a PCR-based surveillance test for identification of rectal carriage of KPC-producing CRE. We conducted a surveillance study between May and December 2007. Rectal swabs were collected from patients known to harbor CRE and from contacts of newly discovered patients harboring CRE. Specimens were evaluated by culture and by PCR analysis for blaKPC and were defined as positive if CRE was cultured and blaKPC was identified. Discrepant results between the culture and PCR analysis were resolved by subculturing, repeating the PCR, and performing a hydrolysis assay. Positive CRE cultures prior or subsequent to the time of sampling for the study were also taken into consideration. Sensitivity, specificity, and time to result were calculated. A total of 755 swabs were included. Concordant results were documented for 735 specimens; 51 were positive as determined by both PCR and culture. Discrepancies existed for 20 swabs; 9 were blaKPC negative and CRE culture positive, and 11 were blaKPC positive and CRE culture negative. After repeat testing, a total of 64 samples were classified as blaKPC-positive CRE. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR analysis were 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively, and those of the culture were 87.5% and 99.4%, respectively. Over the last 3 months of the study, the sensitivity of the PCR improved to 96.3%, versus 77.8% for culture. Time to result was 30 h for the PCR and 60 h (negative) and 75 h (positive) for the CRE culture. blaKPC PCR-based testing is a useful method for the surveillance of KPC-producing CRE. Its main advantage over culturing is a shorter time to result, and it may prove to be more sensitive.
Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring the carbapenemase KPC may have carbapenem MICs that remain in the susceptible range, and may therefore go unrecognized. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the variability in carbapenem MICs, 20 clinical isolates, all belonging to either of two clonal groups of KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae endemic to New York City, were examined. Expression of genes encoding KPC, the porins OmpK35 and OmpK36, and the efflux pump AcrAB was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Outer-membrane profiles of selected KPC-producing isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE, and proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The identification of SHV and TEM β-lactamases and the genomic sequences of ompK35 and ompK36 were determined by PCR and DNA sequencing, respectively. For one clonal group, carbapenem MICs increased with decreasing expression of ompK36. A second clonal group also had carbapenem MICs that correlated with ompK36 expression. However, all of the isolates in this latter group continued to produce OmpK36, suggesting that porin configuration may affect entry of carbapenems. For isolates that had the greatest expression of ompK36, carbapenem MICs tended to be lower when determined by the broth microdilution technique, and scattered colonies were seen around the Etest zones of inhibition. All of the KPC-producing isolates were highly resistant to ertapenem, regardless of ompK36 expression. In conclusion, isolates of KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae that express ompK36 tend to have lower MICs to carbapenems and therefore may be more difficult to detect by clinical laboratories. Regardless of ompK36 expression, all of the KPC producers were consistently resistant to ertapenem.
We describe a multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of identifying both the epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 clone and blaKPC carbapenemase genes in a single reaction. The assay displayed excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) for identification of ST258 clone and blaKPC in a collection of 75 K. pneumoniae isolates comprising 41 sequence types. Our results suggest that this assay is an effective tool for surveillance of this clone among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolates.
Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC carbepenemases) have rapidly emerged worldwide and require rapid identification. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array, a new commercial system based on genetic profiling for the direct identification of ESBL producers (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and of KPC producers, was evaluated. Well-characterized Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) expressing various ß-lactamases (KPC-2, SHV, TEM, and CTX-M types) were used as well as wild-type reference strains and isolates harboring ß-lactamase genes not detected by the assay. In addition, phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers isolated in clinical samples over a 3-month period at the Bicetre hospital were analyzed using the Check-Points ESBL/KPC array and by standard PCR. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array allowed fast detection of all TEM, SHV, and CTX-M ESBL genes and of the KPC-2 gene. The assay allowed easy differentiation between non-ESBL TEM and SHV and their ESBL derivatives. None of the other tested ß-lactamase genes were detected, underlining its high specificity. The technique is suited for Enterobacteriaceae but also for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. However, for nonfermenters, especially P. aeruginosa, a 1:10 dilution of the total DNA was necessary to detect KPC-2 and SHV-2a genes reliably. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array is a powerful high-throughput tool for rapid identification of ESBLs and KPC producers in cultures. It provided definitive results within the same working day, allowing rapid implementation of isolation measures and appropriate antibiotic treatment. It showed an interesting potential for routine laboratory testing.
Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of β-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these β-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics.
ChromID extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) culture medium is routinely used for screening ESBL producers. This medium was tested for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a collection of reference strains and compared to the CHROMagar KPC culture medium previously evaluated for detecting KPC-producing isolates. Producers of IMP-, VIM-, and KPC-type carbapenemases with high levels of resistance to cephalosporins and to carbapenems were detected at 1 × 101 CFU/ml. The OXA-48 producers were not detected on ChromID ESBL medium unless coexpressing ESBLs, whereas carbapenemase-producing isolates with MICs of <4 μg/ml were not detected on CHROMagar KPC medium.
KPC-type carbapenemases are emerging in Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Gram-negative pathogens worldwide. Rapid and sensitive detection of these resistance determinants has become relevant to clinical management and infection control. We evaluated the bioMérieux EasyQ real-time PCR assay for blaKPC detection with 300 members of the Enterobacteriaceae, including 29 control strains producing known carbapenemases and 271 nonreplicate clinical isolates. The EasyQ assay correctly detected all of the 111 isolates harboring blaKPC genes, with no false positives, and results were available within 2 h.
Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by β-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 β-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A β-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.
This work is a report on the development of a method of hybridization analysis on DNA microarrays for the simultaneous identification and typing of carbapenemase-encoding genes. These enzymes are produced by the microorganisms that are responsible for causing infectious diseases. The method involves several steps, including DNA extraction from clinical samples and amplification of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR with simultaneous labelling by biotin. Following that, hybridization of the labeled PCR products with oligonucleotide probes immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose-based DNA microarray occurs. The biotin molecules attached to the DNA duplexes are detected by using conjugates of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, which is then quantified by colorimetric detection of the enzyme. We have designed the required oligonucleotide probes and optimized the conditions of the membrane microarray-based hybridization analysis. Our method allows to identify 7 types of carbapenemase genes belonging to the molecular classes A, B, and D, and it also allows additional typing into genetic subgroups. The microarrays have been tested with the control strains producing the carbapenemase genes which have been characterized by sequencing. The developed method of hybridization analysis was employed to investigate clinical strains ofPseudomonasspp. andAcinetobacterspp., which produce carbapenemases of different classes based on phenotypic testing. All strains ofAcinetobacter baumaniiresistant to carbapenems were producers of two carbapenemase OXA-type genes (OXA-51, in combination with OXA-23 (1 strain), OXA-40 (5 strains), or OXA-58 (4 strains)). The metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2 type gene was detected in allPseudomonas aeruginosastrains resistant to carbapenems. Testing of carbapenem-sensitive strains did not detect any carbapenemase genes. The microarray method for the identification of carbapenemase genes is very accurate and highly productive. It can be employed in clinical microbiological laboratories for the identification and study of carbapenemase epidemiology.
DNA microarrays; horseradish peroxidase; colorimetric detection; antibiotic resistance; carbapenemases
The accurate phenotypic detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an increasing necessity worldwide. We evaluated the performance of boronic acid combined-disk tests using as substrate imipenem or meropenem and as inhibitor of KPC production 300 μg aminophenylboronic acid (APBA), 600 μg APBA, or 400 μg phenylboronic acid (PBA). Tests were considered positive when an increase in the growth-inhibitory zone around a carbapenem disk with KPC inhibitor was 5 mm or greater of the growth-inhibitory zone diameter around the disk containing carbapenem alone. The comparison of the combined-disk tests was performed with 112 genotypically confirmed KPC-possessing Enterobacteriaceae isolates. To measure the specificity of the tests, 127 genotypically confirmed KPC-negative Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were nonsusceptible to at least one carbapenem were chosen for testing. Using disks containing imipenem without and with 300 μg APBA, 600 μg APBA, or 400 μg PBA, 72, 92, and 112 of the KPC producers, respectively, gave positive results (sensitivities, 64.3%, 82.1%, and 100%, respectively). Using disks containing meropenem without and with 300 μg APBA, 600 μg APBA, or 400 μg PBA, 87, 108, and 112 of the KPC producers, respectively, gave positive results (sensitivities, 77.7%, 96.4%, and 100%, respectively). Among KPC producers, the disk potentiation tests using meropenem and PBA demonstrated the largest differences in inhibition zones (P < 0.001). All combined-disk tests correctly identified 124 of the 127 non-KPC producers (specificity, 97.6%). This comparative study showed that PBA is the most effective inhibitor of KPC enzymes, and its use in combined-disk tests with meropenem may give the most easily interpreted results.
Four clinical isolates of imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from clinical patient specimens and from samples obtained from hygienic surveillance in our hospital. We examined their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to various types of antibiotics, detected the carbapenemases by a modified Hodge test and analyzed the genotype and homogeneity. The enzyme, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2, was detected in all four isolates and this was the main cause of their imipenem resistance. In addition, these four isolates also contained the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-9 and the cephalosporinase (AmpC) gene blaDHA-1, which resulted in multidrug resistance.
gel electrophoresis in pulsed-field; Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases; Klebsiella pneumoniae