Carbapenemases are β-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these β-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many β-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D β-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-β-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type β-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-β-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of β-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.
A study was designed to evaluate the modified Hodge test (MHT), Mastdiscs ID inhibitor combination disks (MDI), Rosco Diagnostica Neo-Sensitabs (RDS), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) Etest, and in-house multiplex PCR for the detection of well-characterized carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. One hundred forty-two nonrepeat clinical isolates of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (including Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter spp.) obtained from the SMART worldwide surveillance program during 2008 to 2009 were included. These included 49 KPC-, 27 NDM-, 19 VIM-, 14 OXA-48-like enzyme-, and 5 IMP-producing isolates and 28 carbapenem-resistant, carbapenemase-negative isolates. The manufacturer's instructions were followed for MDI, RDS, and MBL Etest and CLSI guidelines for MHT. A multiplex PCR was designed to detect KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like carbapenemases. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 93% for MDI, 80% and 93% for RDS, 58% and 93% for MHT, and 55% and 100% for MBL Etest, respectively. The PCR had 100% sensitivity and specificity. MDI and RDS performed well for the detection of KPCs and NDMs but poorly for VIMs, IMPs, and OXA-48-like enzymes. MHT performed well for KPCs and OXA-48-like enzymes but poorly for NDMs, VIMs, and IMPs. MDI and RDS were easy to perform and interpret but lacked sensitivity for OXA-48-like enzymes, VIMs, and IMPs. MHT and MBL Etest were often difficult to interpret. We recommend using molecular tests for the optimal detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
The detection of class A serine-carbapenemases among species of Enterobacteriaceae remains a challenging issue. Methods of identification for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories have not been standardized to date. We developed a novel screening methodology suitable for countries with high basal levels of carbapenem resistance due to non-carbapenemase-mediated mechanisms and standardized several simple confirmatory methods that allow the recognition of bacteria producing class A carbapenemases, including KPC, Sme, IMI, NMC-A, and GES, by using boronic acid (BA) derivatives. A total of 28 genetically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae strains producing several class A carbapenemases were tested. Thirty-eight genetically unrelated negative controls were included. The isolates were tested against imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), and ertapenem (ETP) by MIC and disk diffusion assays in order to select appropriate tools to screen for suspected carbapenemase production. It was possible to differentiate class A carbapenemase-producing bacteria from non-carbapenemase-producing bacteria by using solely the routine IPM susceptibility tests. The modified Hodge test was evaluated and found to be highly sensitive, although false-positive results were documented. Novel BA-based methods (a double-disk synergy test and combined-disk and MIC tests) using IPM, MEM, and ETP, in combination with 3-aminophenylboronic acid as an inhibitor, were designed as confirmatory tools. On the basis of the performance of these methods, a sensitive flow chart for suspicion and confirmation of class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae was designed. By using this methodology, isolates producing KPC, GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of β-lactamases (extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpCs, and metallo-β-lactamases, etc). These methods will rapidly provide useful information needed for targeting antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.
Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs.
Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay.
The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates.
The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase
Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (blaKPC) have been reported, with KPC-2 (blaKPC-2) and KPC-3 (blaKPC-3) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of blaKPC variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described blaKPC variants (blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-11). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each blaKPC variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with blaKPC-3 and blaKPC-2 identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel blaKPC variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.
In the United States, the production of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. Infections with KPC-producing organisms are associated with increased morbidity and mortality; therefore, the rapid detection of KPC-producing pathogens is critical in patient care and infection control. We developed a real-time PCR assay complemented with traditional high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, as well as statistically based genotyping, using the Rotor-Gene ScreenClust HRM software to both detect the presence of blaKPC and differentiate between KPC-2-like and KPC-3-like alleles. A total of 166 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii with various β-lactamase susceptibility patterns were tested in the validation of this assay; 66 of these organisms were known to produce the KPC β-lactamase. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect the presence of blaKPC in all 66 of these clinical isolates (100% sensitivity and specificity). HRM analysis demonstrated that 26 had KPC-2-like melting peak temperatures, while 40 had KPC-3-like melting peak temperatures. Sequencing of 21 amplified products confirmed the melting peak results, with 9 isolates carrying blaKPC-2 and 12 isolates carrying blaKPC-3. This PCR/HRM assay can identify KPC-producing Gram-negative pathogens in as little as 3 h after isolation of pure colonies and does not require post-PCR sample manipulation for HRM analysis, and ScreenClust analysis easily distinguishes blaKPC-2-like and blaKPC-3-like alleles. Therefore, this assay is a rapid method to identify the presence of blaKPC enzymes in Gram-negative pathogens that can be easily integrated into busy clinical microbiology laboratories.
The aim of this study was the rapid identification of blaKPC gene in 38 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. The modified Hodge Test (MHT) was carried out to phenotypically determine whether resistance to carbapenems was mediated by a carbapenemase. The detection of the blaKPC gene was performed by real-time acid nucleic sequence-based amplification (NASBA™™), specifically designed for the detection of KPC RNA target.
Thirty-two/38 isolates evaluated by MHT showed the production of carbapenemases, while all the strains exhibited the production of KPC by inhibition test with phenylboronic acid (the combined disk test with IPM/IPM plus phenylboronic acid). The detection of blaKPC gene by Nuclisens EasyQ KPC yielded positive results in 38/38 (100%) strains. The presence of blaKPC gene was confirmed in all K. pneumoniae isolates when tested by the gold standard PCR assay.
In consideration of the serious challenge represented by infections due to K. pneumoniae it appears necessary the rapid identification of carbapenemases in clinical settings as it is made possible by the use of NASBA™ assay.
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Carbapenem resistance; blaKPC; NASBA™
Background and Objective
Carbapenems are therapeutic choice against infections caused by gram-negative bacilli including strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Resistance to these antibiotics is mediated by efflux pumps, porins, PBPs and ß-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of existence of MBLs, OXAs and GES-1 betalactamase genes among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected from Tehran hospitals.
Material and Methods
Two hundred and three Acinetobacter isolates were collected from patient at Tehran hospitals. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was evaluated by disk diffusion method and MICs of imipenem were determined using Micro broth dilution method (CLSI). PCR was performed for detection of bla
OXA-23 betalactamase genes. Clonal relatedness was estimated by PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI.
Results and Conclusion
Of 100 isolates of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. collected from Tehran hospitals in 2009 and 2010, 6 isolates produced metallo-beta-lactamases and 94 isolates produced OXA-type carbapenemase. The bla
OXA-23 genes were detected by PCR among 6, 2, 94 and 84 isolates of A. baumannii, respectively. The MICs of isolates to imipenem were 8–128 µg/mL. PFGE analysis of 29 bla
OXA-51 and bla
OXA-23-positive A. baumannii isolates gave 6 different patterns. This is the first report of SPM-1 and GES-1 beta-lactamase producing A. baumannii. Production of the OXA-23, OXA-51, GES-1 and SPM-1 enzyme presents an emerging threat of carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii in Iran.
Acinetobacter; betalactamase; metallo beta lactamase; OXA-type
A total of 104 carbapenemase (serine- and metallo-β-lactamase [MβL])-producing strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family collected from 2000 to 2005 in medical centers distributed worldwide were tested against tigecycline and 25 comparators by reference broth microdilution methods. The most frequent carbapenemase was KPC-2 or -3 (73 strains), followed by VIM-1 (14), IMP-1 (11), SME-2 (5), and NMC-A (1). All serine carbapenemases were detected in the United States, while MβL-producing strains were isolated in Europe. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed high rates of resistance to most antimicrobial agents tested. The rank order of in vitro activity against these strains was as follows: tigecycline (100.0% susceptible) > polymyxin B (88.1%) > amikacin (73.0%) > imipenem (37.5%). Tigecycline was very active (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) against this significant, contemporary collection of well-characterized strains and appears to be an excellent option compared to the polymyxins for treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) were first reported in the USA in 2001, and since then, this infection has been reported in Europe, Israel, South America, and China. In Korea, the first KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain was detected in 2010. We report the case of a patient with a urinary tract infection caused by KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. This is the second report of a KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae infection in Korea, but the multilocus sequence type was ST258. The KPC-2-producing isolate was resistant to all tested β-lactams (including imipenem and meropenem), amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but was susceptible to gentamicin, colistin, polymyxin B, and tigecycline. The KPC-2-producing isolate was negative to phenotypic extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC detection tests and positive to modified Hodge test and carbapenemase inhibition test with aminophenylboronic acid.
KPC-2; Klebsiella pneumoniae; ST258
Dissemination of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae poses a considerable threat to public health. Carbapenemase gene detection by molecular methods is the gold standard but is available in only a few laboratories. The aim of this study was to test phenotypic methods for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)- or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and associated mechanisms of β-lactam resistance against a panel of 30 genotypically characterized carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae : 9 MBL, 7 KPC, 6 OXA-48, and 8 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or AmpC β-lactamases associated with decreased permeability. We used carbapenemase inhibitor-impregnated agar to test for carbapenem-resistant strains. Differences in the inhibition zone sizes of the meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and doripenem disks were measured between control and inhibitor (EDTA or phenylboronic acid [PBA] with or without cloxacillin)-impregnated Mueller-Hinton agar with a cutoff of 10 mm. All 9 MBL- and 7 KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified from the differences in zone size in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors, regardless of the carbapenem MICs and including isolates with low-level resistance to carbapenems. We also detected their associated β-lactam resistance mechanisms (11 ESBL-type and 5 class A β-lactamase 2b). No differences in zone size were observed for OXA-48-producing strains or other carbapenem resistance mechanisms such as ESBL and decreased permeability. We propose a new strategy to detect carbapenemases (MBL- and KPC-type) and associated mechanisms of β-lactam resistance (ESBL or class A β-lactamase 2b) by the use of inhibitor-impregnated agar. A rapid phenotypic detection of resistance mechanisms is important for epidemiological purposes and for limiting the spread of resistant strains by implementing specific infection control measures.
Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Three hundred and one E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were investigated. All produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) but were susceptible to carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The MHT was performed using the standard inoculum of test organisms recommended by the CLSI. Genes that encoded ESBLs and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 301 clinical isolates, none of the isolates conformed to the criteria for carbapenemase screening recommended by the CLSI. The susceptibility rates for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem all were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 301 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, none produced carbapenemase. The MHT gave a positive result for 3.3% (10/301) of the isolates. False positive results can occur when the MHT is used to detect carbapenemase in ESBL-producing isolates and clinical laboratories must be aware of this fact.
Since November 2006, imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have increased in Kyung Hee University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic basis and molecular epidemiology of outbreak isolates.
Materials and Methods
Forty-nine non-repetitive isolates of the 734 IRAB strains were investigated in order to determine their characteristics. The modified Hodge and the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-disk synergy test were performed for the screening of carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamase production. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed for the detection of genes encoding for OXA-23-like, OXA-24-like, OXA-58-like and OXA-51-like carbapenemase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for strain identification.
All isolates showed 100% resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, 97.9% resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, 93.9% resistance to tobramycin and 57.1% resistance to amikacin. All of the 49 isolates (100%) showed positive results in the modified Hodge test and negative results in the EDTA-disk synergy test. They all (100%) possessed the encoding gene for an intrinsic OXA-51-like carbapenemase and an acquired OXA-23-like carbapenemase in the multiplex PCR assay. PFGE patterns revealed that all isolates were clonally related from A1 to A14.
It is concluded that all of the 49 IRAB isolates acquired resistance to imipenem by producing OXA-23 carbapenemase and they might have originated from a common source.
Imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; outbreak; OXA-23
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) producing bacteria have emerged as a cause of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. KPCs are plasmid-encoded enzymes capable of hydrolysing a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including carbapenems and monobactams, therefore worryingly limiting antimicrobial treatment options. Analysis of circulating bacterial strains and KPC alleles may help understanding the route of KPC dissemination and therefore help containing the infection.
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae dissemination in two 1580- and 300- bed hospitals in Padua, Italy, from initial outbreak in 2009 to late 2011 was analysed. Molecular and clinical epidemiology, including bacterial strains, KPC-encoding plasmid sequences and associated resistance genes, involved hospital wards and relocation of patients were described. Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC of carbapenems on clinical isolates were performed. Detection of resistance genes was obtained by PCR and sequencing. MLST, PFGE and ERIC were used for molecular genotyping. Plasmid analysis was obtained by digestion with restriction enzymes and deep sequencing.
KPC-positive clinical samples were isolated from nearly 200 patients. In the initial outbreak intensive care units were almost exclusively involved, while medical, surgical and long-term wards were successively massively concerned. Analysis of KPC alleles, plasmids and bacterial sequence types (STs) indicated that during the initial outbreak KPC-3 in ST258 and KPC-2 in ST147 were each confined in one of the two surveilled hospitals. While KPC-2 dissemination was effectively contained, KPC-3 in ST258 cross-spreading was observed. The simultaneous presence of two carbapenemases, VIM-1 and KPC-2, in the same isolate was also observed in three patients. Total sequencing of plasmid content of two KPC-3 strains showed novel association of resistance plasmids.
The acquired molecular epidemiology demonstrated that 1) both acquisitions from outward sources and patient relocation within the hospitals were responsible for the observed spreading; 2) KPC-3-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 prevailed over other strains. In addition, the described massive transfer of KPC-mediated resistance to non-intensive care units may anticipate spreading of resistance to the non-hospitalized population. Therefore, genotypic analysis alongside phenotypic identification of carbapenemase producers, also at the carriage state, is advisable to prevent and contain further carbapenemase resistance dissemination.
KPC; Carbapenemase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance; Gram-negative; Nosocomial infections
Organisms expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) are found in several regions worldwide but are rarely detected in Canada. The first outbreak of KPC-expressing strains of Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Canada is described.
Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were flagged by the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, France) system as possible carbapenemase producers were subjected to the modified Hodge test. Modified Hodge test-positive organisms were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tested for KPC and other beta-lactamase genes by polymerase chain reaction analysis and underwent subsequent nucleic acid sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by Vitek 2 and Etest (bioMérieux, France). A chart review was conducted to establish epidemiological links.
During the study period, 10 unique Enterobacteriaceae isolates expressing KPC were detected from nine ICU patients. Five patients had infections (three pneumonias, one surgical site infection, one urinary tract infection). Isolates included Escherichia coli (5), Klebsiella oxytoca (2), Serratia marcescens (2) and Citrobacter freundii (1). Polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of KPC-3 in all isolates; four also carried TEM, two CTX-M and one CMY-2. The imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations as determined by Etest ranged from 0.75 μg/mL to ≥32 μg/mL. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis clonal patterns and patient location in the ICU revealed presumptive horizontal transmission events.
In the present study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates with KPC are emerging and can result in serious infections. The KPC gene can spread via plasmids to different genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The dissemination of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae and the consequences for treatment and infection control measures warrant a high degree of vigilance among clinicians and microbiologists.
Beta-lactamases KPC; Carbapenemase; Disease outbreaks
We developed a novel real-time PCR assay to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and used this assay to screen clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca for the presence of blaKPC genes. The TaqMan real-time PCR assay amplified a 399-bp product from the blaKPC gene. The amplicon was designed so that the genes for isoenzymes KPC-1, -2, and -3 could be easily distinguished by subsequent restriction digestion of the amplicon with the enzymes BstNI and RsaI. The assay was validated with reference strains obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that contained each of the three described isoenzymes and 69 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing clinical isolates (39 K. pneumoniae and 30 K. oxytoca isolates). Subsequently, the blaKPC PCR assay was used to confirm the presence of blaKPC genes in any meropenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. The PCR assay detected blaKPC in all of the reference strains, in 6 of 7 meropenem-resistant isolates, and in 0 of 62 meropenem-susceptible clinical isolates. The PCR assay was then used to confirm the presence of blaKPC in an additional 20 meropenem-resistant isolates from 16 patients. Restriction digestion of the PCR amplicons identified two blaKPC gene variants in our patient population: 9 isolates with C and 17 with T at nucleotide 944, consistent with blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3, respectively. The real-time PCR assay is a rapid and accurate method to detect all KPC isoenzymes and was useful in documenting the presence and dissemination of KPC-producing strains in our patient population.
One of the biggest problems associated with the antibiotic therapy is resistance. Recently published studies have revealed that enterobacteriaceae, like E. coli and Klebsiella, isolated from several Indian centers are resistant to many antibiotics including some highly potent antibiotics like carbapenems. It has been proposed that this resistance is because of a carbapenemase enzyme called NDM- 1 (New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1). This carbapenemase is class B carbapenemase also called metallolactamases as they require zinc at their active site. This enzyme is coded by a gene called bla - NDM -1 or gene NDM -1. NDM -1 containing enterobacteriaceae can be screened in laboratory by few techniques. Metallolactamase production can be detected by disk approximation test or Modified Hodge test and NDM -1 gene can be detected by polymerase chain reaction by the use of specific primer targeting the gene. Infections caused by such bacteria are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Two classes of antibiotics i.e., polymyxins (colistin) and glycylcyclines (tigecyclines), have shown in vitro activity against NDM -1 harboring enterobacteriaceae. The safety profile of both of these antibiotics is questionable. There is a need for active screening of microorganisms for NDM -1 and research should be directed towards the development of safe antibiotics for the treatment of these kinds of infections.
Antibiotics resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; New Delhi Beta metallo lactamase; carbapenemases
Our study was to investigate the prevalence of carbapenemase genes in strains of Enterobacteriaceae species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in our hospital.
The carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae species were confirmed by modified Hodge test (MHT) and EDTA-disc synergy test which indicating the production of class B carbapenemases. PCR and sequencing analysis were used to identify the drug-resistant genes. DNA fingerprinting based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to investigate the homology of Enterobacteriaceae species.
From a collection of 1,472 Enterobacteriaceae species, 18 isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenem treatment were identified and 9 of which were positive by MHT, and 6 of which produced class B carbapenemases. PCR and sequencing analysis of the 18 isolates revealed 4 different carbapenemase genes (blaIMP-8, blaoxa-1, blaIMP-26, and blaoxa-47) in 10 isolates, with the blaIMP-8 and blaoxa-1 genes being the most common (60-70% prevalence). ERIC-PCR showed 5, 2, and 2 unique genotypes for Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Three E. coli strains isolated from different patients from the urologic surgery department exhibited the same DNA banding pattern, suggesting a possible clonal dissemination. Majority (17/18) of the carbapenem-unsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae species isolates was obtained from the surgery department of our hospital.
The main carbapenemase genes of Enterobacteriaceae species in our hospital were blaIMP-8 and blaoxa-1. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance may be existed in surgery department and infection control should be taken for preventing further dissemination of drug-resistant strains.
Enterobacteriaceae species; Carbapenemases; Carbapenems
The spread of carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family (CRE) harboring carbapenemases is an emerging public health threat. As KPC-producing Klebsiella species are endemic in our tertiary care hospital, we aimed to evaluate a PCR-based surveillance test for identification of rectal carriage of KPC-producing CRE. We conducted a surveillance study between May and December 2007. Rectal swabs were collected from patients known to harbor CRE and from contacts of newly discovered patients harboring CRE. Specimens were evaluated by culture and by PCR analysis for blaKPC and were defined as positive if CRE was cultured and blaKPC was identified. Discrepant results between the culture and PCR analysis were resolved by subculturing, repeating the PCR, and performing a hydrolysis assay. Positive CRE cultures prior or subsequent to the time of sampling for the study were also taken into consideration. Sensitivity, specificity, and time to result were calculated. A total of 755 swabs were included. Concordant results were documented for 735 specimens; 51 were positive as determined by both PCR and culture. Discrepancies existed for 20 swabs; 9 were blaKPC negative and CRE culture positive, and 11 were blaKPC positive and CRE culture negative. After repeat testing, a total of 64 samples were classified as blaKPC-positive CRE. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR analysis were 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively, and those of the culture were 87.5% and 99.4%, respectively. Over the last 3 months of the study, the sensitivity of the PCR improved to 96.3%, versus 77.8% for culture. Time to result was 30 h for the PCR and 60 h (negative) and 75 h (positive) for the CRE culture. blaKPC PCR-based testing is a useful method for the surveillance of KPC-producing CRE. Its main advantage over culturing is a shorter time to result, and it may prove to be more sensitive.
Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring the carbapenemase KPC may have carbapenem MICs that remain in the susceptible range, and may therefore go unrecognized. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the variability in carbapenem MICs, 20 clinical isolates, all belonging to either of two clonal groups of KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae endemic to New York City, were examined. Expression of genes encoding KPC, the porins OmpK35 and OmpK36, and the efflux pump AcrAB was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Outer-membrane profiles of selected KPC-producing isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE, and proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The identification of SHV and TEM β-lactamases and the genomic sequences of ompK35 and ompK36 were determined by PCR and DNA sequencing, respectively. For one clonal group, carbapenem MICs increased with decreasing expression of ompK36. A second clonal group also had carbapenem MICs that correlated with ompK36 expression. However, all of the isolates in this latter group continued to produce OmpK36, suggesting that porin configuration may affect entry of carbapenems. For isolates that had the greatest expression of ompK36, carbapenem MICs tended to be lower when determined by the broth microdilution technique, and scattered colonies were seen around the Etest zones of inhibition. All of the KPC-producing isolates were highly resistant to ertapenem, regardless of ompK36 expression. In conclusion, isolates of KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae that express ompK36 tend to have lower MICs to carbapenems and therefore may be more difficult to detect by clinical laboratories. Regardless of ompK36 expression, all of the KPC producers were consistently resistant to ertapenem.
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are considered a serious threat to antibiotic therapy, as they confer resistance to carbapenems, which are used to treat extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a DNA microarray for the detection and genotyping of KPC genes (blaKPC) within a 5-h period. To test the whole assay procedure (DNA extraction plus a DNA microarray assay) directly from clinical specimens, we compared two commercial DNA extraction kits (the QIAprep Spin miniprep kit [Qiagen] and the urine bacterial DNA isolation kit [Norgen]) for the direct DNA extraction from urine samples (dilution series spiked in human urine). Reliable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing was demonstrated using 1 × 105 CFU/ml urine for Escherichia coli (Qiagen and Norgen) and 80 CFU/ml urine, on average, for K. pneumoniae (Norgen). This study presents, for the first time, the combination of a new KPC microarray with commercial sample preparation for detecting and genotyping microbial pathogens directly from clinical specimens; this paves the way toward tests providing epidemiological and diagnostic data, enabling better antimicrobial stewardship.
We describe a multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of identifying both the epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 clone and blaKPC carbapenemase genes in a single reaction. The assay displayed excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) for identification of ST258 clone and blaKPC in a collection of 75 K. pneumoniae isolates comprising 41 sequence types. Our results suggest that this assay is an effective tool for surveillance of this clone among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolates.
We investigated the occurrence and genetic basis of AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC)-mediated antibiotic resistance, by examining Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates at a university hospital, from 2007 to 2010. The ampC genes were detected by multiplex AmpC PCR, and AmpC-positive strains were subjected to DNA sequencing. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production was assessed using the ESBL disk test based on the utilization of boronic acid. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were further investigated by the modified Hodge test, a carbapenemase inhibition test and SDS-PAGE experiments. AmpC expression was detected in 1.6% of E. coli (39 DHA-1, 45 CMY-2, and 1 CMY-1) isolates, 7.2% of K. pneumoniae (39 DHA-1, 45 CMY-2, and 1 CMY-1) isolates, and 2.5% of P. mirabilis (8 CMY-2 and 1 CMY-1) isolates. Of the 198 acquired AmpC producers, 58 isolates (29.3%) also produced an ESBL enzyme. Among the acquired AmpC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) MIC50/MIC90 values for cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem were >32/>32, 16/>32, 1/16, 0.25/0.5, and <0.125/0.125 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC values for carbapenem were ≥2 µg/mL for 2 K. pneumoniae isolates, both of which carried the blaDHA-1 gene with a loss of OmpK36 expression, but were negative for carbapenemase production. The acquisition of AmpC-mediated resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates increased, as did the proportion of AmpC and ESBL co-producers among the hospital isolates. The accurate identification of isolates producing AmpCs and ESBLs may aid in infection control and will assist physicians in selecting an appropriate antibiotic regimen.
Klebsiella pneumoniae; AmpC β-lactamases; DHA-1; CMY-2
Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC carbepenemases) have rapidly emerged worldwide and require rapid identification. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array, a new commercial system based on genetic profiling for the direct identification of ESBL producers (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and of KPC producers, was evaluated. Well-characterized Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) expressing various ß-lactamases (KPC-2, SHV, TEM, and CTX-M types) were used as well as wild-type reference strains and isolates harboring ß-lactamase genes not detected by the assay. In addition, phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers isolated in clinical samples over a 3-month period at the Bicetre hospital were analyzed using the Check-Points ESBL/KPC array and by standard PCR. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array allowed fast detection of all TEM, SHV, and CTX-M ESBL genes and of the KPC-2 gene. The assay allowed easy differentiation between non-ESBL TEM and SHV and their ESBL derivatives. None of the other tested ß-lactamase genes were detected, underlining its high specificity. The technique is suited for Enterobacteriaceae but also for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. However, for nonfermenters, especially P. aeruginosa, a 1:10 dilution of the total DNA was necessary to detect KPC-2 and SHV-2a genes reliably. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array is a powerful high-throughput tool for rapid identification of ESBLs and KPC producers in cultures. It provided definitive results within the same working day, allowing rapid implementation of isolation measures and appropriate antibiotic treatment. It showed an interesting potential for routine laboratory testing.
Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of β-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these β-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics.