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1.  Laparoscopic treatment of an upper gastrointestinal obstruction due to Bouveret’s syndrome 
Bouveret’s syndrome is an extremely rare type of gallstone-induced ileus with atypical clinical manifestations, such as abdominal distension and pain, nausea and vomiting, fever or even gastrointestinal bleeding, which may easily be misdiagnosed. In the present case, a 55-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal obstructive symptoms but without pain, fever, jaundice or melena. At first, gastrolithiasis and peptic ulcer combined with pyloric obstruction were suspected after gastroscopy revealed a large, hard stone in the duodenal bulb. A revised diagnosis of Bouveret’s syndrome was made following abdominal computed tomography. Subsequently, the patient exhibited a good postoperative recovery after laparoscopic duodenotomy for gallstone removal and subtotal cholecystectomy. The condition of the patient remained stable after being followed up for 6 mo. The successful application of laparoscopic therapy to treat Bouveret’s syndrome has seldom been reported. Laparoscopic enterolithotomy is safe and effective, with good patient tolerability, rapid postoperative recovery and few wound-related complications. The laparoscopic treatment of Bouveret’s syndrome is worth exploring.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i40.6943
PMCID: PMC3812499  PMID: 24187475
Bouveret’s syndrome; Gallstone; Gastric outlet obstruction; Laparoscopic therapy; Cholecystoenteric fistula
2.  Bouveret’s syndrome: should we remove the gall bladder? 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0220113891.
Bouveret’s syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction caused by gallstones and is usually seen in older patients with poor medical status. The surgical treatment for these patients is controversial. The authors present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with coffee ground vomiting. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a big gallstone obstructing the duodenal bulb and a CT scan showed a cholecystoduodenal fistula. The stone could not be removed or crushed endoscopically and a laparotomy was undertaken to relieve the obstruction. The stone was removed by gastrotomy and a delayed cholecystectomy was not offered due to her co-morbid conditions. She presented 18 months later with pancreatitis and has now been offered an elective cholecystectomy.
doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2011.3891
PMCID: PMC3079472  PMID: 22700609
3.  Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser 
BMC Gastroenterology  2002;2:15.
Background
Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk.
Case presentation
We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG) which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula.
Conclusion
We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-2-15
PMCID: PMC117132  PMID: 12086587
4.  Bouveret's syndrome: revisiting gallstone obstruction of the duodenum. 
Bouveret's Syndrome is obstruction of the duodenum secondary to an impacted gallstone, usually without the presence of pneumobilia. With the steadily increasing life expectancy, greater numbers of these cases are being seen. Gallstones enter the gastrointestinal tract following fistula formation between the gallbladder and an adjacent hollow viscus and may cause obstruction at any point along the intestinal tract. Duodenal obstruction is the least common and represents only a very small percentage of cases. The presenting signs of nausea vomiting, abdominal cramping, and the absence of abdominal distension should alert the clinician to pathology in the proximal small bowel. The purpose of this report is to heighten the awareness of the primary care physicians, emergency room doctors, and surgeons to this diagnosis in elderly patients so that it can be included in the differential with the usual causes of gastric outlet obstruction--including ulcer disease; neoplasm; gastric volvulus; and other enteroliths, such as bezoars. Early diagnosis is critical, as these cases require urgent surgical intervention. Early resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment are essential for a successful outcome.
Images
PMCID: PMC2594488  PMID: 14620710
5.  Bouveret's Syndrome: 64-Slice CT Diagnosis and Surgical Management—A Case Report 
Case Reports in Radiology  2012;2012:701216.
Gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a large gallstone migrated through a cholecystoduodenal fistula has been referred to as Bouveret's syndrome. We present a case of gallstone-induced duodenal obstruction in an elderly female patient, diagnosed on a 64-slice MDCT scanner. One-stage surgery, that is, stone removal and cholecystectomy, was performed resulting in relief of obstruction and complete cure. Clinical features, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings, and surgical management are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2012/701216
PMCID: PMC3512245  PMID: 23346445
6.  Bouveret's Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Bouveret's syndrome is defined as gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a large gallstone which passes into the duodenal bulb through a cholecystogastric or cholecystoduodenal fistula. Initial attempts at endoscopic retrieval with or without mechanical or extracorporeal lithotripsy should be performed as first-line treatment, though success rates with endoscopic treatment are variable. We describe a case of Bouveret's Syndrome in an elderly patient that was successfully treated with endoscopic extraction combined with mechanical lithotripsy, and review the literature on this uncommon condition.
doi:10.1155/2009/914951
PMCID: PMC2666152  PMID: 19360112
7.  Gastric outlet obstruction in a patient with Bouveret’s syndrome: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:195.
Background
Gallstone ileus accounts for 1% to 4% of cases of mechanical bowel obstruction, but may be responsible for up to 25% of cases in older age groups. In non-iatrogenic cases, gallstone migration occurs after formation of a biliary-enteric fistula. In fewer than 10% of patients with gallstone ileus, the impacted gallstones are located in the pylorus or duodenum, resulting in gastric outlet obstruction, known as Bouveret’s syndrome.
Case presentation
We report an 86-year-old female who was admitted to hospital with a 10-day history of persistent vomiting and prostration. She was in hypovolemic shock at the time of arrival in the emergency department. Investigations revealed a gallstone in the duodenal bulb and a cholecystoduodenal fistula. She underwent surgical gastrolithotomy. Unfortunately, she died of aspiration pneumonia on the fourth postoperative day.
Conclusion
This case shows the importance of considering Bouveret’s syndrome in the differential diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in the elderly, even in patients with no previous history of gallbladder disease.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-195
PMCID: PMC3660164  PMID: 23663702
Bouveret’s syndrome; Gallstone ileus; Gastric outlet obstruction; Cholecystoduodenal fistula
8.  A possible variant of Bouveret's syndrome presenting as a duodenal stump obstruction by a gallstone after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy: a case report 
Introduction
Bouveret's syndrome is characterized by gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone in the duodenum, usually in association with a cholecystoduodenal fistula.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who developed duodenal stump obstruction due to an impacted gallstone after having previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy.
Conclusions
Duodenal stump obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy is rare, and may be difficult to manage. Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal or pancreatobiliary pathology after previous gastric surgery should be managed in centres with the availability of appropriate endoscopic and surgical experience.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-7301
PMCID: PMC2726511  PMID: 19830173
9.  Bouveret Syndrome—The Rarest Variant of Gallstone Ileus: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:839370.
We present a case report of a patient with Bouveret syndrome with interesting radiological findings and successful surgical treatment after failure of the endoscopic techniques. The report is followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnostic means and proper treatment of this rare entity. Bouveret syndrome refers to the condition of gastric outlet obstruction caused by the impaction of a large gallstone into the duodenum after passage through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Many endoscopic and surgical techniques have been described in the management of this syndrome. This is a case of a 78-year-old patient with severe medical history who presented in bad general condition with an 8-day history of nausea, multiple bilious vomiting episodes, anorexia, discomfort in the right hypochondrium and epigastrium, and fever up to 38,5°C. The diagnosis of Bouveret syndrome was set after performing the proper imaging studies. An initial endoscopic effort to resolve the obstruction was performed without success. Surgical treatment managed to extract the impacted gallstone through an enterotomy after removal into the first part of the jejunum.
doi:10.1155/2013/839370
PMCID: PMC3707284  PMID: 23864977
10.  Gallstone Ileus, Bouveret's Syndrome and Choledocholithiasis in a Patient with Billroth II Gastrectomy – A Case Report of Combined Endoscopic and Surgical Therapy 
Intestinal obstruction due to gallstone is a rare, but quite severe gastrointestinal disorder, which always requires a rapid and correct diagnosis to achieve optimal therapy. Digestive endoscopy is an important method to determine the level of the bowel obstruction and to plan an optimal therapeutic strategy. Our present case demonstrates that in a high-risk patient, a combined endoscopic and surgical therapy is the best choice to solve the obstruction of the colon, of the stomach and of the common bile duct caused by multiple gallstones.
doi:10.1159/000208993
PMCID: PMC2988901  PMID: 21103231
Gallstone disease; Gallstone ileus; Bouveret's syndrome; ERCP; Billroth II gastrectomy; Mechanical lithotripsy
11.  Successful Multimodality Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by an Impacted Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome) 
Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the migration of a gallstone through a choledochoduodenal fistula. Due to the large size of these stones and the difficult location in which they become impacted, endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful and most patients require surgery. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with nausea and hematemesis, and was found on CT scan and endoscopy to have an obstructing gallstone in his duodenal bulb. After several endoscopic sessions and the use of multiple instruments including a Holmium: YAG laser and electrohydraulic lithotripter, fragmentation and endoscopic removal of the stone were successful. We believe this to be the first case of Bouveret's syndrome successfully treated by endoscopy alone in the United States. We describe the difficulties encountered which necessitated varied and innovative therapeutic techniques.
doi:10.1155/2008/471512
PMCID: PMC2239211  PMID: 18493330
12.  Bouveret's syndrome as an unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction: a case report 
An 83 year old caucasian gentleman presented with vomiting and left sided abdominal pain. A subsequent upper GI endoscopy demonstrated a large smooth mass impacted within the duodenum. A cholecysto-duodenal fistula was discovered at laparotomy, with a large gallstone impacted in the duodenum. A diagnosis of Bouveret's syndrome was made. The management of this rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction is discussed.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-73
PMCID: PMC2034582  PMID: 17760995
13.  A challenging case of gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret's syndrome): a case report 
Introduction
Bouveret's syndrome is a clinically distinct form of gallstone ileus caused by the formation of a fistula between the biliary tract and duodenum. This case reinforces the need for early recognition and treatment of Bouveret's syndrome, as it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.
Case presentation
An 82-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of small bowel obstruction. Her laboratory workup showed elevated alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels. Computed tomography of her abdomen revealed pneumobilia, a choledochoduodenal fistula and a gallstone obstructing her distal duodenum. The impacted gallstone could not be extracted endoscopically, so our patient underwent open enterolithotomy successfully. However, the postoperative course was complicated by myocardial infarction, respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. She died 22 days after surgery, secondary to cardiopulmonary arrest.
Conclusion
This case clearly highlights the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with Bouveret's syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-497
PMCID: PMC3204302  PMID: 21970809
14.  Complicated Cholelithiasis: An Unusual Combination of Acute Pancreatitis and Bouveret Syndrome 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(2):459-464.
Bouveret syndrome is a rare form of gallstone ileus. The purpose of the present study was to present the unusual case of a female patient with complicated cholelithiasis manifested as a combination of acute pancreatitis and concomitant Bouveret syndrome. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department complaining of mid-epigastric and right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating band-like in the thoracic region of the back as well as repeated episodes of vomiting over the last 24 h. The initial correct diagnosis of pancreatitis was subsequently combined with the diagnosis of Bouveret syndrome as a computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a gallstone within the duodenum causing luminal obstruction. After failure of endoscopic gallstone removal, a surgical approach was undertaken where gallstone removal was followed by cholecystectomy and restoration of the anatomy by eliminating the fistula. The concomitant pancreatitis complicated the postoperative period and prolonged the length of hospital stay. However, the patient was discharge on the 45th postoperative day. Attempts for endoscopic removal of the impacted stone should be the initial therapeutic step. Surgery should be reserved for cases refractory to endoscopic intervention and when definite treatment is the actual challenge.
doi:10.1159/000341512
PMCID: PMC3398075  PMID: 22855661
Complicated cholelithiasis; Acute pancreatitis; Bouveret syndrome; Duodenal obstruction; Gallstone ileus
15.  Intermittent gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone migrated through a cholecysto-gastric fistula: A new variant of “Bouveret’s syndrome” 
Bouveret’s syndrome, defined as gastric outlet obstruction due to a large gallstone, is still one of the most dramatic biliary gallstone complications. Although new radiological and endoscopic techniques have made pre-surgical diagnosis possible in most cases and the death rate has dropped dramatically, “one-stage surgery” (biliary surgery carried out at the same time as the removal of the gut obstruction) should be still considered as the gold standard for the treatment of gallstone ileus.In this case, partial gastric outlet obstruction resulted in an atypical and insidious clinical presentation that allowed us to perform the conventional one-stage laparatomic procedure that completely solved the problem, thus avoiding any further complications.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.125
PMCID: PMC2673376  PMID: 18176974
Bouveret’s syndrome; Biliary gallstone; Gastric outlet obstruction; Biliary surgery
16.  Bouveret’s syndrome: presentation of two cases with review of the literature and development of a surgical treatment strategy 
BMC Surgery  2013;13:33.
Background
Bouveret’s syndrome causes gastric outlet obstruction when a gallstone is impacted in the duodenum or stomach via a bilioenteric fistula. It is a rare condition that causes significant morbidity and mortality and often occurs in the elderly with significant comorbidities. Individual diagnostic and treatment strategies are required for optimal management and outcome. The purpose of this paper is to develop a surgical strategy for optimized individual treatment of Bouveret’s syndrome based on the available literature and motivated by our own experience.
Case presentation
Two cases of Bouveret’s syndrome are presented with individual management and restrictive surgical approaches tailored to the condition of the patients and intraoperative findings.
Conclusions
Improved diagnostics and restrictive individual surgical approaches have shown to lower the mortality rates of Bouveret’s syndrome. For optimized outcome of the individual patient: The medical and perioperative management and time of surgery are tailored to the condition of the patient. CT-scan is most often required to secure the diagnosis. The surgical approach includes enterolithotomy alone or in combination with simultaneous or subsequent cholecystectomy and fistula repair. Lower overall morbidity and mortality are in favor of restrictive surgical approaches. The surgical strategy is adapted to the intraoperative findings and to the risk for secondary complications vs. the age and comorbidities of the patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-33
PMCID: PMC3766223  PMID: 24006869
17.  Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret syndrome) four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report 
Introduction
Cases of gallstone ileus account for 1% to 4% of all instances of mechanical bowel obstruction. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum. Less than 10% of impacted gallstones are located in the duodenum. A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus (Bouveret syndrome), with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum. Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach. Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone, and intravenous antibiotics. At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination (including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the gallstone ileus our patient had been asymptomatic.
Conclusion
In patients known to have gallstone disease presenting with symptoms of ileus, the differential diagnosis of a gallstone ileus should be considered even in the absence of preceding symptoms related to the gallbladder disease. Gallstones large enough to cause intestinal obstruction usually enter the bowel by a biliary enteral fistula. During the formation of such a fistula, patients can be asymptomatic.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-376
PMCID: PMC2997099  PMID: 21092262
18.  Successful Endoscopic Management of Bouveret's Syndrome in a Patient with Cholecystoduodenocolic Fistulae 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2008;2(3):346-350.
Bouveret's syndrome, first described in 1896 by Léon Bouveret, is rare, limited to approximately 200 published case reports to date [Ariche et al.: Scand J Gastroenterol 2000;35:781–783]. It is a subgroup of gallstone ileus in which a cholecystoduodenal fistula allows the passage of a gallstone that obstructs the duodenum, causing gastric outlet obstruction. This case is unique as it describes Bouveret's syndrome in a patient with combined cholecystoduodenocolic fistulae. Gastric outlet obstruction was successfully managed endoscopically with lithotripsy. Both fistulae were subsequently managed conservatively without any complications.
doi:10.1159/000151581
PMCID: PMC3075195  PMID: 21490867
Bouveret; Gallstone; Cholecystoduodenal; Cholecystocolic
19.  “Bouveret's syndrome” presenting with acute pancreatitis a very rare and challenging variant of gallstone ileus 
INTRODUCTION
Bouveret's syndrome is a rare variant of gallstone ileus and describes gastric outlet obstruction secondary to an impacted stone in the duodenum. Its presentation is vague and clinical diagnosis is often difficult resulting in a delay in diagnosis.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a patient who presented initially with non-specific symptoms and subsequently with features in keeping with acute pancreatitis, but eventually was found to have Bouveret's syndrome.
DISCUSSION
Different treatment strategies are discussed. Although endoscopic treatment combined with many newer modalities like lithotripsy have been tried, surgery remains the definitive management in the vast majority of cases.
CONCLUSION
Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition, can also present as pancreatitis and often difficult to diagnose initially, but with appropriate treatment has a good outcome.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.017
PMCID: PMC3731694  PMID: 23570683
Gallstone ileus; Bouveret's syndrome; Pancreatitis; Bowel obstruction
20.  Another new variant of Bouveret’s syndrome 
Although Bouveret’s syndrome, i.e. gastric outlet obstruction by a large gallstone impacted in the proximal duodenum secondary to a cholecystoduodenal fistula, is rare, its pathogenesis and clinical features are well characterized. However, existence of variant forms of the syndrome are not well known, and as far as we know, only two cases of variant Bouveret’s syndrome have been described in the English-language literature. We present a case of another new variant of Bouveret’s syndrome in a 54-year-old Korean woman.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.378
PMCID: PMC2653336  PMID: 19140242
Duodenal obstruction; Biliary fistula; Gallstones
21.  Carcinoma Gall Bladder with Bouveret’s Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Gastric Outlet Obstruction 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(4):350-351.
We describe a case of bouveret’s syndrome associated with carcinoma gall bladder. This is probably the second reported case of such an association. Computed tomography detected the calculus in the duodenum but endoscopy could not retrieve it. Open gastrojejunostomy and stone retrieval was done.
doi:10.1007/s12262-010-0145-x
PMCID: PMC3002772  PMID: 21938203
Bouveret’s Syndrome; Carcinoma gall bladder; Gastric outlet obstruction
22.  Choledochal-duodenal fistula presenting as an upper GI bleed 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0520114275.
Gallstones are common and largely asymptomatic, but can result in significant morbidity in a small proportion of patients. Choledochal-enteric fistulation is one such complication with an associated mortality of 15–18%. The authors present a case of an 88-year-old man admitted to the general medical ward with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleed. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy found a large gallstone impacted in the pylorus and CT scan revealed a choledochal-duodenal fistula. At laparotomy it was found that a 6.2 cm gallstone had fistulated into D1 and the pylorus and impacted there, causing outflow obstruction – Bouveret’s syndrome. A subtotal cholecystectomy was performed and the stone was removed by a separate gastrostomy. A radiological follow through study on day 14 showed contrast passing freely through the duodenum with no leak and the patient went on to make a slow, but uneventful recovery.
doi:10.1136/bcr.05.2011.4275
PMCID: PMC3229308  PMID: 22674938
23.  Ectopic papilla of Vater in the pylorus 
The major papilla of Vater is usually located in the second portion of the duodenum, to the posterior medial wall. Sometimes the mouth of the biliary duct is located in other areas. Drainage of the common bile duct into the pylorus is extremely rare. A 73-year old man, with a history of duodenal ulcer, was admitted to hospital with the diagnosis of cholangitis. Dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary duct was observed by abdominal ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed. No area suggesting the presence of the papilla of Vater was found within the second duodenal portion. Finally the major papilla was located in the theoretical pyloric duct. Cholangiography was performed and choledocholithiasis was found in the biliary tree. The patient underwent dilatation of the papilla with a balloon tyre and removal of a 7 mm stone using a Dormia basket, which solved the problem without further complications. This anomaly increased the difficulty of performing therapeutic interventions during ERCP. This alteration in anatomy may increase the risk of complications during papillotomy, with a theoretically higher risk of perforation. Dilatation using a balloon was the chosen therapeutic technique both in our case and in the literature, due to its low rate of complications.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5221
PMCID: PMC2773904  PMID: 19891024
Ectopic common bile duct; Endoscopic dilatation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Papilla of Vater; Papillotomy; Pyloric drainage
24.  Active bleeding from a periampullary duodenal diverticulum that was difficult to diagnose but successfully treated using hemostatic forceps: a case report 
Introduction
Although duodenal diverticula are common, periampullary duodenal diverticula are rare. Periampullary duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they may present with massive bleeding, requiring prompt diagnosis.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 71-year-old Asian woman with bleeding from a periampullary duodenal diverticulum. She presented with severe anemia and tarry stools. Two examinations using a forward-viewing endoscope did not identify the source of the bleeding. However, examination using a side-viewing endoscope found an exposed bleeding vessel overlying the bile duct within a periampullary diverticulum of the descending part of the duodenum. The bleeding was successfully controlled by using hemostatic forceps.
Conclusions
Bleeding periampullary duodenal diverticula are rare, and a bleeding point in the mucosa overlying the bile duct within a large periampullary duodenal diverticulum is very rare. Identification of a bleeding point within a duodenal diverticulum often requires repeated examination and may require the use of a side-viewing endoscope. Use of hemostatic forceps to control bleeding from a periampullary duodenal diverticulum is very rare but, for bleeding lesions overlying the bile duct within a periampullary duodenal diverticulum, is the best way to prevent obstructive jaundice.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-367
PMCID: PMC3485119  PMID: 23101939
Bleeding periampullary duodenal diverticulum; Side-viewing endoscopy; Hemostatic forceps; Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding
25.  Mirizzi syndrome type Va: A rare coexistence of double cholecysto-biliary and cholecysto-enteric fistulae 
World Journal of Radiology  2010;2(10):410-413.
Mirizzi syndrome is a rare cause of intermittent obstructive jaundice, where an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann’s pouch mechanically obstructs the common bile duct (CBD). We report a rare case of double cholecysto-biliary and cholecysto-enteric fistulae, in a 75-year-old female patient, presenting with a right upper quadrant abdominal pain and intermittent obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suggested Mirizzi syndrome. Operative findings included erosions of the lateral wall of the CBD and the second portion of the duodenum due to impacted gallstones. The defects were reconstructed primarily and a Kehr tube was inserted. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the 14th postoperative day.
doi:10.4329/wjr.v2.i10.410
PMCID: PMC2999013  PMID: 21161027
Mirizzi syndrome; Obstructive jaundice; Gallstone; Cholecysto-enteric fistula; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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