In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field.
H-index; Dental research; Anesthesia, dental
This is a 10-year follow-up survey of a 1996 study of all dentists in Illinois holding a permit to administer sedation or general anesthesia. The survey describes the scope of sedation and anesthesia services provided in dental offices in Illinois. A mail survey was sent to 471 dentists who were registered with the department of professional regulation to administer sedation or general anesthesia. Classification by specialty area of practice showed: 63% (84% in 1996) are oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 20% (11% in 1996) general dentists, 6% (5% in 1996) periodontists, 9% (0% in 1996) pediatric dentists, 1% (less than 1% in 1996) dentist anesthesiologists. Advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) training was reported by 90% (85% in 1996) of the respondents. The total number of sedations and general anesthetics administered for the year was 115,940. Two mortalities and two cases of long-term morbidity were reported for the 10-year period. Respondents reported that 30 patients required transfer to a hospital but suffered no long-term morbidity. Other practice characteristics were detailed.
Dental sedation; Dental anesthesia; Morbidity and mortality; Practice parameters
The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate.
Dentists in the state of Illinois who possess a permit to administer sedation or general anesthesia were surveyed. A 71% response rate was achieved. Of the respondents, 86% held permits for deep sedation/general anesthesia and 14% held permits for parenteral conscious sedation. By practice specialty, 84% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 11% were general dentists, 5% were periodontists, and fewer than 1% were dental anesthesiologists. Advanced Cardiac Life Support training was possessed by 85% of the respondents. The most common anesthesia team configuration (82%) was a single operator-anesthetist and two additional assistants. Only 4% reported use of a nurse anesthetist, and 2% used an additional MD or DDS anesthesiologist. The vast majority (97%) of the practitioners do not intubate in the office on a routine basis. Supplemental oxygen was used by 81% of the respondents whenever intravenous agents were used. A total of 151,335 anesthetics were administered during the year. One mortality occurred in a patient with an undisclosed pre-existing cardiac condition. Four other events were reported that required medical intervention or hospital evaluation; however, no permanent injuries were reported. Other practice characteristics were described.
An existing database was used to compare aspects of dental anesthesiology practice of dental anesthesiologists in Canada (n = 32) and the United States (n = 123). Data focusing on percutaneous injuries were obtained through a mailed questionnaire that was returned anonymously. Respondents provided information on the treatment of patients under deep sedation or general anesthesia only. Eighty-one percent of Canadians and 61% of Americans returned the questionnaire. The vast majority (84%) of injuries reported were due to sharps associated with general dentistry compared with those associated with anesthesiology. Canadians were more likely to be operator-anesthetists (P < .01) and to experience a percutaneous injury (P < .01) than US practitioners. American practitioners were more likely to have a greater proportion of the caseload under the age of 20 (P < .02). No other significant differences were observed. These results illustrate a number of unique attributes of the practice of dental anesthesiology in these 2 countries.
The purpose of this study is to explore the use of office-based sedation by board-certified pediatric dentists practicing in the United States. Pediatric dentists have traditionally relied upon self-administered sedation techniques to provide office-based sedation. The use of dentist anesthesiologists to provide office-based sedation is an emerging trend. This study examines and compares these two models of office-based sedations. A survey evaluating office-based sedation of diplomates of the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry (ABPD) based on gender, age, years in practice, practice types, regions, and years as a diplomate of the ABPD was completed by 494 active members. The results were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Relationships of dentist age, gender, and number of years in practice with the use of intravenous (IV) sedation was completed using two-way contingency tables and Mantel-Haenszel tests for ordered categorical data. Relationships of office-based sedation use and the type of one's practice were examined using Pearson chi-square tests. Of the 1917 surveys e-mailed, 494 completed the survey for a response rate of 26%. Over 70% of board-certified US pediatric dentists use some form of sedation in their offices. Less than 20% administer IV sedation, 20 to 40% use a dentist anesthesiologist, and 60 to 70% would use dentist anesthesiologists if one were available.
Office-based; Dentist-anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita impacted a large portion of the medical community in Louisiana. We attempt to determine their impact on the anesthesiology workforce in Louisiana.
In May 2006, a survey was mailed to 368 Louisiana anesthesiologists, collecting demographic data, retirement plans, impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, position vacancies, practice conditions, and the general state of healthcare in their area. All 3 anesthesiology residency programs in the state were contacted regarding their recent graduates. The 2010 RAND survey of the anesthesiology workforce was reviewed with respect to findings relevant to the state and region.
One hundred seventy surveys were returned, yielding a 46.2% response rate. Among the respondents, 13.9% intended to retire within 5 years and another 24% in 5 to 10 years. Since 2005, 63.9% had seen an increase in their daily caseload, 46.9% saw an increase in work hours, and 36.8% stated that their practices were trying to hire new anesthesiologists and were having difficulty filling these positions. Since 2005, the number of anesthesiology residents in Louisiana had declined by almost 50%, and the number of graduates remaining to practice in Louisiana had decreased by 43% from 7 to 4 annually.
Our 2006 survey provided qualitative evidence for a shortage of anesthesiologists in the state of Louisiana after the natural disasters in 2005 that was likely to worsen as residency output plummeted, fewer residents stayed in the state, and projected retirement increased. The regional data from the RAND survey a year later confirmed the impressions from our survey, with an estimate of an anesthesiologist shortage as high as 39% of the workforce. State membership surveys may serve as accurate barometers in the wake of major environmental upheavals affecting regional anesthesiology workforce conditions.
Hurricane Katrina; Hurricane Rita; physician shortages; workforce management
Two hundred and fifty Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology were surveyed concerning their personal preference of anesthetic technique, regional versus general anesthesia, through the use of two scenarios. Those surveyed preferred regional anesthesia as opposed to general anesthesia in both emergency and elective scenarios. These results are consistent with similar studies of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists, although these groups demonstrated an even greater bias toward regional anesthetic techniques.
The aim of this study was to assess the need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia (GA) for dentistry in the Canadian adult population. A national telephone survey of 1101 Canadians found that 9.8% were somewhat afraid of dental treatment, with another 5.5% having a high level of fear. Fear or anxiety was the reason why 7.6% had ever missed, cancelled, or avoided a dental appointment. Of those with high fear, 49.2% had avoided a dental appointment at some point because of fear or anxiety as opposed to only 5.2% from the no or low fear group. Regarding demand, 12.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA for their dentistry and 42.3% were interested depending on cost. Of those with high fear, 31.1% were definitely interested, with 54.1% interested depending on cost. In a hypothetical situation where endodontics was required because of a severe toothache, 12.7% reported high fear. This decreased to 5.4% if sedation or GA were available. For this procedure, 20.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA, and another 46.1% were interested depending on cost. The prevalence of, and preference for, sedation or GA was assessed for specific dental procedures. The proportion of the population with a preference for sedation or GA was 7.2% for cleaning, 18% for fillings or crowns, 54.7% for endodontics, 68.2% for periodontal surgery, and 46.5% for extraction. For each procedure, the proportion expressing a preference for sedation or GA was significantly greater than the proportion having received treatment with sedation or GA (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that there is significant need and demand for sedation and GA in the Canadian adult population.
Sedation; General anesthesia; Canada; Adults; Dental fear; Dental anxiety
Using a stratified random sample, a questionnaire was mailed to 400 practicing dentists and 200 directors of nursing (DONs). Response rates were 58.3% for dentists and 50% for DONs. Dentists were representative of Iowa dentists, with 85% male, mean age 49.1 years, and 22.4 years in practice. All DONs were female, with mean age of 44.9 years. Of the participating dentists, 86% had provided dental care for nursing home residents, but the majority of care was completed in dental offices. Three-quarters of dentists were somewhat/not interested in nursing home dentistry.
Dentists and DONs held common perceptions of the most frequent problems related to care provision at nursing homes: low financial reimbursement, especially for Medicaid patients; no portable dental equipment; no suitable area for dentistry; dentist's preference to treat patients at their dental practice; and transportation of residents to a dental practice. Dentists and DONs had some differing perceptions about oral health care (p<0.01). Minimal dental care was provided on-site at Iowa nursing homes.
nursing homes; access to care; barriers; elderly; geriatrics
An abstract of this study was presented at the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) Dental Anesthesiology Research Group in Honolulu, Hawaii, in March of 2004. This study was conducted to correlate the intraoperative and postoperative morbidity associated with moderate and deep sedation, also known as monitored anesthesia care (MAC), provided in a General Practice Residency (GPR) clinic under the supervision of a dentist anesthesiologist. After internal review board approval was obtained, 100 parenteral moderate and deep sedation cases performed by the same dentist anesthesiologist in collaboration with second year GPR residents were randomly selected and reviewed by 2 independent evaluators. Eleven morbidity criteria were assessed and were correlated with patient age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status Classification (ASAPS), duration of procedure, and anesthetic protocol. A total of 39 males and 61 females were evaluated. Patients' ASAPS were classified as I, II, and III, with the average ASAPS of 1.61 and the standard deviation (STDEV) of 0.584. No ASPS IV or V was noted. Average patient age was 33.8 years (STDEV, 14.57), and the average duration of procedure was 97.5 minutes (STDEV, 42.39). Three incidents of postoperative nausea and vomiting were reported. All 3 incidents involved the ketamine-midazolam-propofol anesthetic combination. All patients were treated and were well controlled with ondansetron. One incident of tongue biting in an autistic child was regarded as an effect of local anesthesia. One patient demonstrated intermittent premature atrial contractions (PACs) intraoperatively but was stable. Moderate and deep sedation, also known as MAC, is safe and beneficial in an outpatient GPR setting with proper personnel and monitoring. This study did not demonstrate a correlation between length of procedure and morbidity. Ketamine was associated with all reported nausea and vomiting incidents because propofol and midazolam are rarely associated with such events.
Dental sedation; Sedation training; Sedation outcomes
The care of patients with HIV is increasingly focused on outpatient chronic disease management. It is not known to what extent internal medicine residents in the US are currently being trained in or encouraged to provide primary care for this population of patients.
To survey internal medicine residency program directors about their attitudes regarding training in outpatient HIV care and current program practices.
Program directors were surveyed first by email. Non-responding programs were mailed up to two copies of the survey.
All internal medicine residency program directors in the US.
Program director attitudes and residency descriptions.
Of the 372 program directors surveyed, 230 responded (61.8 %). Forty-two percent of program directors agreed that it is important to train residents to be primary care providers for patients with HIV. Teaching outpatient-based HIV curricula was a priority for 45.1%, and 56.5% reported that exposing residents to outpatient HIV clinical care was a high priority. Only 46.5% of programs offer a dedicated rotation in outpatient HIV care, and 50.5% of programs have curricula in place to teach about outpatient HIV care. Only 18.8% of program directors believed their graduates had the skills to be primary providers for patients with HIV, and 70.6% reported that residents interested in providing care for patients with HIV pursued ID fellowships. The strongest reasons cited for limited HIV training during residency were beliefs that patients with HIV prefer to be seen and receive better care in ID clinics compared to general medicine clinics.
With a looming HIV workforce shortage, we believe that internal medicine programs should create educational experiences that will provide their residents with the skills and knowledge necessary to meet the healthcare needs of this population.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1398-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
HIV/AIDS; primary care; medical education; residency education; workforce
To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists.
A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors.
Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8), a more positive attitude score (4 points) from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8), and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors.
Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.
Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires programs to educate and evaluate residents in 6 competencies, including systems-based practice. We designed a survey and assessment tool to address the competency as it pertains to anesthetic drug costs in an academic center.
Residents, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and faculty were asked to complete an anesthetic drug-cost survey without relying on reference materials. After a combination of compulsory in-class didactic sessions and web-based education, the participants were asked to design an anesthetic, give example cases, and determine costs. The initial task was repeated 1 year later.
Our preintervention survey revealed that most practitioners knew very little about anesthetic drug costs, regardless of level of training or degree. All residents completed the mandatory online education tool, more than 80% attended the departmental grand rounds program, and 100% met the goal of designing an anesthetic for all cases within the preset price limit. A repeat of the cost estimate produced an improvement in cost estimates with reduction in variability (P < .05, Student unpaired t test), although estimates of volatile anesthetic and reversal agent costs did not achieve significance at the .05 level for any of the 3 cases.
Introducing a formalized teaching and assessment tool has improved our residents' understanding of anesthetic drug costs, and improved our ability to teach and assess the systems-based practice competency.
Several authors have told the John Adriani story, but his proper recognition in developing the specialty of anesthesiology and his place as a pioneer have never been presented as such. The following article outlines his training and experiences in the early days of anesthesiology. The story of the many problems he encountered and how he developed teaching programs that remain in existence today is one to be admired and appreciated. Much of the information is from personal conversations with Dr Adriani. During his tenure as the Director of Anesthesia at Charity Hospital, I was a surgical house officer in the early 1960s and returned as an anesthesiology trainee in the late 1970s. We became close personal friends. He gave me hundreds of his slides, and we had many discussions about the past and current state of the specialty of anesthesiology.
Anesthesiology; Charity Hospital; medical history
The authors conducted a study to describe the general dentists, practices, patients and patient care patterns of the dental practice-based research network (PBRN) Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT).
Northwest PRECEDENT is a dental PBRN of general and pediatric dentists and orthodontists from five U.S. states in the Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah and Washington. The authors collected data from general dentists in Northwest PRECEDENT (n = 101) regarding the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (N = 1,943) visiting their practices. They also obtained demographic data from the general dentists and their patients.
The authors found that 50 percent of the general dentists were 51 to 60 years of age, 14 percent were female and 76 percent were non-Hispanic white. More than one-half (55 percent) of the dentists had practiced dentistry for more than 20 years, 83 percent had private solo practices and 32 percent practiced in rural community settings. The majority (71 percent) of patients visiting the dental practices was in the age range of 18 to 64 years, 55 percent were female and 84 percent were non-Hispanic white. In terms of reasons for seeking dental care, 52 percent of patients overall visited the dentist for oral examinations, checkups, prophylaxis or caries-preventive treatment. In the preceding year, 85 percent of the patients had received prophylaxis, 49 percent restorative treatments, 34 percent caries-preventive treatments and 10 percent endodontic treatments.
Northwest PRECEDENT general dentists are dispersed geographically and are racially and ethnically diverse, owing in part to efforts by network administrators and coordinators to enroll minority dentists and those who practice in rural areas. Estimates of characteristics of dentists and patients in Northwest PRECEDENT will be valuable in planning future studies of oral diseases and treatments.
Dental private practice; dentists; office visits; research
General descriptions or “snapshots” of sedation/general anesthesia practices during dental care are very limited in reviewed literature. The objective of this study was to determine commonalities in dental sedation/anesthesia practices, as well as to accumulate subjective information pertaining to sedation/anesthesia care within the dental profession. This questionnaire-based survey was completed by participating anesthesia providers in the United States. A standardized questionnaire was sent via facsimile, or was delivered by mail, to 1500 anesthesia providers from a randomized list using an online database. Data from the returned questionnaires were entered onto an Excel spreadsheet and were imported into a JMP Statistical Discovery Software program for analyses. Quantitative evaluations were confined to summation of variables, an estimation of means, and a valid percent for identified variables. A total of 717 questionnaires were entered for data analysis (N = 717). Data from this study demonstrate the wide variation that exists in sedation/anesthesia care and those providing its administration during dental treatment in the United States. The demographics of this randomized population show anesthesia providers involved in all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as significant variation in the types of modalities used for sedation/anesthesia care. Data from this study reveal wide variation in sedation/anesthesia care during dental treatment. These distinctions include representation of sedation/anesthesia providers across all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as variations in the techniques used for sedation/anesthesia care.
Anesthesia; Dentistry; Practice characteristics; Techniques
To describe the current roles and responsibilities of program directors of athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) and to address the dilemmas of program directors' credibility with student athletic trainers, tenure and promotion, and clinical involvement in athletics.
Design and Setting:
We sent a survey to all program directors who direct CAAHEP athletic training education programs.
Eighty-three of 113 program directors of undergraduate programs participated in the study—a response rate of 73.4%.
The survey consisted of demographic data: degree, age, major, years of experience as program director, and route to certification and questions concerning title, job responsibilities, expectations, and academic appointment.
Most respondents (72%) indicated that their title was program director, and they had a median of 9 years of experience. Sixty-two percent had been certified as an athletic trainer for a median of 18.5 years. Forty-three percent had doctoral degrees and held the rank of assistant professor. Ninety-six percent indicated teaching was the primary duty and expectation of their program director's position.
The dilemmas of tenure and promotion, decreased clinical involvement, and student athletic trainers' perceptions of program directors remain problematic. The dilemmas still exist as they did 12 years ago and are becoming more involved due to educational reform. Program directors must be able to communicate their roles and responsibilities to their administrators.
curriculum director; CAAHEP; athletic training
The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program is the oldest continuously accredited anesthesiology residency program in the state of Louisiana. As the American College of Graduate Medical Education has developed residency training requirements, so has the Ochsner training program evolved from a structure- and process-based program to an outcomes-based program. The author, associated with the program since 1983, reviewed Program Information Forms from 1971 to the present to track the evolution of the anesthesiology residency training program. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education demanded allocation of resources to residency training and mandated the demonstration of outcomes of training. The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program has kept pace with these demands. The trend for graduate performance on written examinations has been upward. Fifty years ago, graduates practiced locally, but graduates now practice throughout the United States. Many completed fellowship training at increasingly higher profile institutions.
Anesthesiology; medical education; residency education
Mentorship is perceived as important for academic department development. The purpose of this study was to survey physicians in an academic anesthesiology department before and after the initiation of a formal mentorship program to evaluate the impact of the program over a 1-year period.
The effectiveness of establishing a mentorship program to promote career advancement was prospectively and anonymously evaluated by 52 anesthesiologists in an academic, tertiary care facility with a large residency program (>130 residents). We asked these physicians to complete a questionnaire on mentorship 2 weeks prior to and 3 months and 12 months after the establishment of the mentorship program. We used data from 26 (50%) participants who completed all 3 surveys to evaluate the impact of the formal mentorship program.
Baseline survey results revealed that the majority of anesthesiologists (71%) in our academic, tertiary care facility believed that mentoring was important/very important, but only 46% indicated that mentoring had been an important/very important contribution in their careers. Overall, the respondents' ratings of mentorship importance over the 1-year period did not increase despite the establishment of a formal program.
We present the first known study that sequentially followed physician evaluations of mentorship importance after the establishment of a mentorship program within an academic anesthesiology department. Study participants considered allotted, structured time for the mentors and mentees to focus on mentorship activities as necessary to provide the best opportunity for program success according to the general informal consensus of the participants in the study.
Academic medicine; anesthesiology; mentorship
The American Dietetic Association and the American Dental Association share a common interest in improving the health and quality of life of the population. Dental visits present an opportunity to identify nutrition-related issues for both the pediatric and adult population. Traditionally, dental and nutrition students have had little opportunity to learn and work together since little time was spent on nutrition in the dental curriculum. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a new collaborative training experience for dietetic interns and pediatric dentistry residents. The oral health rotation for dietetic interns also has several objectives, including experience interacting with a culturally diverse population and participating in community nutrition education (Head Start). In its first 18 months, the collaborative program has been viewed as a success by the pediatric dentistry faculty and residents and the nutrition faculty and interns.
dietetic interns; pediatric dentistry residents
To assess laparoscopic training curriculums in US Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs.
A list of E-mail addresses was obtained for the accredited Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs in the US from the CREOG Directory of ObstetricGynecologic Residency Programs and Directors. An E-mail survey containing 8 questions regarding laparoscopy training was sent to all residency directors with current E-mail addresses.
Seventy-four residency directors responded to the survey for a response rate of 41%. Residency programs from all sections of the US were included in the study. Results of the survey indicate that 69% of residency programs had implemented a formal laparoscopy training program. At least half of the program directors surveyed stated that lack of faculty time and funds were the main barriers to laparoscopic surgery training. Seventy-two percent of those surveyed thought that in the future the health-care industry would demand proof of competency in laparoscopy as standard of care.
Most US Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs have implemented a formal laparoscopy training curriculum, use more than one method to train their residents, and involve almost half of their faculty on average in training residents to perform laparoscopic surgery.
Laparoscopy; Education; Residency; Surgery
We conducted a national survey of US pediatric program directors to explore the current status, content, and teaching methods of Resident-as-Teacher (RAT) curricula. The purposes of the survey were to (1) determine the level and method of evaluation of such curricula, and (2) assess the need for a national curricular resource in this area.
A survey was sent to US pediatric program directors that asked questions regarding demographics, support, design, development, content, and evaluation of RAT curricula, as well as existing needs and desires for RAT curricular resources.
Sixty-two percent of pediatric program directors completed our survey. Eighty-seven percent have a formal RAT curriculum, but more than 50% allocate 10 hours or less to it during residency. The primary teaching modalities are lectures and workshops. Content areas include feedback, in-patient teaching, communication skills, case-based teaching, role modeling, evaluation, leadership skills, 1-minute preceptors, teaching/learning styles, professionalism, and small-group teaching. Sixty-three percent of programs report evaluating their curricula, but only 27% perceive their program to be very/extremely effective. Nearly all respondents expressed interest in a national RAT curriculum, preferring web-based modules for dissemination.
Despite an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirement for a RAT curriculum, some pediatrics programs still lack one, and some consider their program only moderately effective. A wealth of curricular material exists across programs, which could be shared nationally. Establishing a national RAT curriculum would offer programs resources to meet educational mandates and the ability to tailor programs to best fit their own program needs.
The past decade has seen a proliferation of leadership training programs for physicians that teach skills outside the graduate medical education curriculum.
To determine the perceived value and impact of an experiential leadership training program for pediatric chief residents on the chief residents and on their programs and institutions.
The authors conducted a retrospective study. Surveys were sent to chief residents who completed the Chief Resident Training Program (CRTP) between 1988 and 2003 and to their program directors and department chairs asking about the value of the program, its impact on leadership capabilities, as well as the effect of chief resident training on programs and institutions.
Ninety-four percent of the chief residents and 94% of program directors and department chairs reported that the CRTP was “very” or “somewhat” relevant, and 92% of the chief residents indicated CRTP had a positive impact on their year as chief resident; and 75% responded it had a positive impact beyond residency. Areas of greatest positive impact included awareness of personality characteristics, ability to manage conflict, giving and receiving feedback, and relationships with others. Fifty-six percent of chief residents reported having held a formal leadership position since chief residency, yet only 28% reported having received additional leadership training.
The study demonstrates a perceived positive impact on CRTP participants and their programs and institutions in the short and long term.