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1.  Biobanking of Human Pancreas Cancer Tissue: Impact of Ex-Vivo Procurement Times on RNA Quality 
Annals of surgical oncology  2010;17(8):10.1245/s10434-010-0959-6.
Background
Tissue banking has become a major initiative at many oncology centers. The influence of warm ex-vivo ischemia times, storage times, and biobanking protocols on RNA integrity and subsequent microarray data is not well documented.
Methods
A prospective institutional review board–approved protocol for the banking of abdominal neoplasms was initiated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 2001. Sixty-four representative pancreas cancer specimens snap-frozen at various ex-vivo procurement times (≤10 min, 11–30 min, 31–60 min, >1 h) and banked during three time periods (2001–2004, 2004–2006, 2006–2008) were processed. RNA integrity was determined by microcapillary electrophoresis using the RNA integrity number (RIN) algorithm and by results of laser-capture microdissection (LCM).
Results
Overall, 42% of human pancreas cancer specimens banked under a dedicated protocol yielded RNA with a RIN of ≥7. Limited warm ex-vivo ischemia times did not negatively impact RNA quality (percentage of tissue with total RNA with RIN of ≥7 for ≤10 min, 42%; 11–30 min, 58%; 31–60 min, 33%; >60 min, 42%), and long-term storage of banked pancreas cancer biospecimens did not negatively influence RNA quality (total RNA with RIN of ≥7 banked 2001–2004, 44%; 2004–2006, 38%; 2006–2008, 50%). RNA retrieved from pancreatic cancer samples with RIN of ≥7 subject to LCM yielded RNA suitable for further downstream applications.
Conclusions
Fresh-frozen pancreas tissue banked within a standardized research protocol yields high-quality RNA in approximately 50% of specimens and can be used for enrichment by LCM. Quality of tissues of the biobank were not adversely impacted by limited variations of warm ischemia times or different storage periods. This study shows the challenges and investments required to initiate and maintain high-quality tissue repositories.
doi:10.1245/s10434-010-0959-6
PMCID: PMC3877690  PMID: 20162455
2.  Biobanking after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: a quality assessment of providing prostate tissue for RNA studies 
Background
RNA quality is believed to decrease with ischaemia time, and therefore open radical prostatectomy has been advantageous in allowing the retrieval of the prostate immediately after its devascularization. In contrast, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RALP) require the completion of several operative steps before the devascularized prostate can be extirpated, casting doubt on the validity of this technique as a source for obtaining prostatic tissue. We seek to establish the integrity of our biobanking process by measuring the RNA quality of specimens derived from robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
Methods
We describe our biobanking process and report the RNA quality of prostate specimens using advanced electrophoretic techniques (RNA Integrity Numbers, RIN). Using multivariate regression analysis we consider the impact of various clinicopathological correlates on RNA integrity.
Results
Our biobanking process has been used to acquire 1709 prostates, and allows us to retain approximately 40% of the prostate specimen, without compromising the histopathological evaluation of patients. We collected 186 samples from 142 biobanked prostates, and demonstrated a mean RIN of 7.25 (standard deviation 1.64) in 139 non-stromal samples, 73% of which had a RIN ≥ 7. Multivariate regression analysis revealed cell type - stromal/epithelial and benign/malignant - and prostate volume to be significant predictors of RIN, with unstandardized coefficients of 0.867(p = 0.001), 1.738(p < 0.001) and -0.690(p = 0.009) respectively. A mean warm ischaemia time of 120 min (standard deviation 30 min) was recorded, but multivariate regression analysis did not demonstrate a relationship with RIN within the timeframe of the RALP procedure.
Conclusions
We demonstrate the robustness of our protocol - representing the concerted efforts of dedicated urology and pathology departments - in generating RNA of sufficient concentration and quality, without compromising the histopathological evaluation and diagnosis of patients. The ischaemia time associated with our prostatectomy technique using a robotic platform does not negatively impact on biobanking for RNA studies.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-9-121
PMCID: PMC3161873  PMID: 21791045
biobanking; prostate collection; ischaemia time; robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy; RNA quality; RIN
3.  Quality assessment and data handling methods for Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST arrays with variable RNA integrity 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:14.
Background
RNA and microarray quality assessment form an integral part of gene expression analysis and, although methods such as the RNA integrity number (RIN) algorithm reliably asses RNA integrity, the relevance of RNA integrity in gene expression analysis as well as analysis methods to accommodate the possible effects of degradation requires further investigation. We investigated the relationship between RNA integrity and array quality on the commonly used Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST array platform using reliable within-array and between-array quality assessment measures. The possibility of a transcript specific bias in the apparent effect of RNA degradation on the measured gene expression signal was evaluated after either excluding quality-flagged arrays or compensation for RNA degradation at different steps in the analysis.
Results
Using probe-level and inter-array quality metrics to assess 34 Gene 1.0 ST array datasets derived from historical, paired tumour and normal primary colorectal cancer samples, 7 arrays (20.6%), with a mean sample RIN of 3.2 (SD = 0.42), were flagged during array quality assessment while 10 arrays from samples with RINs < 7 passed quality assessment, including one sample with a RIN < 3. We detected a transcript length bias in RNA degradation in only 5.8% of annotated transcript clusters (p-value 0.05, FC ≥ |2|), with longer and shorter than average transcripts under- and overrepresented in quality-flagged samples respectively. Applying compensatory measures for RNA degradation performed at least as well as excluding quality-flagged arrays, as judged by hierarchical clustering, gene expression analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; importantly, use of these compensatory measures had the significant benefit of enabling lower quality array data from irreplaceable clinical samples to be retained in downstream analyses.
Conclusions
Here, we demonstrate an effective array-quality assessment strategy, which will allow the user to recognize lower quality arrays that can be included in the analysis once appropriate measures are applied to account for known or unknown sources of variation, such as array quality- and batch- effects, by implementing ComBat or Surrogate Variable Analysis. This approach of quality control and analysis will be especially useful for clinical samples with variable and low RNA qualities, with RIN scores ≥ 2.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-14
PMCID: PMC3557148  PMID: 23324084
Gene expression profiling; Microarray; RNA quality; RNA integrity number; Quality control; ComBat; Surrogate variable analysis; Non-biological experimental variance
4.  RNA quality in frozen breast cancer samples and the influence on gene expression analysis – a comparison of three evaluation methods using microcapillary electrophoresis traces 
Background
Assessing RNA quality is essential for gene expression analysis, as the inclusion of degraded samples may influence the interpretation of expression levels in relation to biological and/or clinical parameters. RNA quality can be analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, UV spectrophotometer, or microcapillary electrophoresis traces, and can furthermore be evaluated using different methods. No generally accepted recommendations exist for which technique or evaluation method is the best choice. The aim of the present study was to use microcapillary electrophoresis traces from the Bioanalyzer to compare three methods for evaluating RNA quality in 24 fresh frozen invasive breast cancer tissues: 1) Manual method = subjective evaluation of the electropherogram, 2) Ratio Method = the ratio between the 28S and 18S peaks, and 3) RNA integrity number (RIN) method = objective evaluation of the electropherogram. The results were also related to gene expression profiling analyses using 27K oligonucleotide microarrays, unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis and ontological mapping.
Results
Comparing the methods pair-wise, Manual vs. Ratio showed concordance (good vs. degraded RNA) in 20/24, Manual vs. RIN in 23/24, and Ratio vs. RIN in 21/24 samples. All three methods were concordant in 20/24 samples. The comparison between RNA quality and gene expression analysis showed that pieces from the same tumor and with good RNA quality clustered together in most cases, whereas those with poor quality often clustered apart. The number of samples clustering in an unexpected manner was lower for the Manual (n = 1) and RIN methods (n = 2) as compared to the Ratio method (n = 5).
Assigning the data into two groups, RIN ≥ 6 or RIN < 6, all but one of the top ten differentially expressed genes showed decreased expression in the latter group; i.e. when the RNA became degraded. Ontological mapping using GoMiner (p ≤ 0.05; ≥ 3 genes changed) revealed deoxyribonuclease activity, collagen, regulation of cell adhesion, cytosolic ribosome, and NADH dehydrogenase activity, to be the five categories most affected by RNA quality.
Conclusion
The results indicate that the Manual and RIN methods are superior to the Ratio method for evaluating RNA quality in fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. The objective measurement when using the RIN method is an advantage. Furthermore, the inclusion of samples with degraded RNA may profoundly affect gene expression levels.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-8-38
PMCID: PMC1891312  PMID: 17519006
5.  Post-Mortem Tissue Biopsies Obtained at Minimally Invasive Autopsy: An RNA-Quality Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115675.
Introduction
Bereaved relatives often refuse to give consent for post-mortem investigation of deceased cancer patients, mainly because of the mutilation due to conventional autopsy (CA). Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) may be a more acceptable alternative and, if implemented in clinical practice, creates an opportunity to more often obtain post-mortem tissue samples of (recurred) primary tumors and metastases for molecular research. As a measure for tissue quality for molecular studies, we hereby present a feasibility study, comparing the RNA quality of MIA and CA samples, and fresh frozen samples as reference.
Materials and methods
Tissue samples of heart, liver and kidney were prospectively collected from 24 MIAs followed by CA, and compared to corresponding archival fresh frozen tissue. After RNA isolation and RT-qPCR, RNA integrity numbers (RIN) and GAPDH expression (six amplicon sizes ranging from 71 to 530 base pairs) were measured. RIN values and GAPDH Cq values were analyzed and compared between all sample groups and post-mortem intervals (PMI).
Results
RIN values in MIA samples were significantly higher than those in CA samples. GAPDH was expressed significantly higher in MIA samples than in CA samples and 530 bp PCR products could be measured in all cases. GAPDH expression was significantly lower in samples with PMI >15 hours. As expected, the samples of the fresh frozen reference standard performed best in all analyses.
Conclusion
MIA samples showed better RNA quality than CA samples, probably due to shorter PMI. Both had lower RNA quality and expression levels than fresh frozen tissue, however, remaining GAPDH RNA was still sufficiently intact. Therefore, other highly expressed genes are most likely also detectable. Gene array analysis should be performed to gain insight into the quality of entire post-mortem genomes. Reducing PMI will further improve the feasibility of demanding molecular research on post-mortem tissues, this is most likely more feasible with MIA than CA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115675
PMCID: PMC4274113  PMID: 25531551
6.  Sequencing Degraded RNA Addressed by 3' Tag Counting 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91851.
RNA sequencing has become widely used in gene expression profiling experiments. Prior to any RNA sequencing experiment the quality of the RNA must be measured to assess whether or not it can be used for further downstream analysis. The RNA integrity number (RIN) is a scale used to measure the quality of RNA that runs from 1 (completely degraded) to 10 (intact). Ideally, samples with high RIN (8) are used in RNA sequencing experiments. RNA, however, is a fragile molecule which is susceptible to degradation and obtaining high quality RNA is often hard, or even impossible when extracting RNA from certain clinical tissues. Thus, occasionally, working with low quality RNA is the only option the researcher has. Here we investigate the effects of RIN on RNA sequencing and suggest a computational method to handle data from samples with low quality RNA which also enables reanalysis of published datasets. Using RNA from a human cell line we generated and sequenced samples with varying RINs and illustrate what effect the RIN has on the basic procedure of RNA sequencing; both quality aspects and differential expression. We show that the RIN has systematic effects on gene coverage, false positives in differential expression and the quantification of duplicate reads. We introduce 3' tag counting (3TC) as a computational approach to reliably estimate differential expression for samples with low RIN. We show that using the 3TC method in differential expression analysis significantly reduces false positives when comparing samples with different RIN, while retaining reasonable sensitivity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091851
PMCID: PMC3954844  PMID: 24632678
7.  A comparison of commercially-available automated and manual extraction kits for the isolation of total RNA from small tissue samples 
BMC Biotechnology  2014;14(1):94.
Background
This study compared the performance of five commercially available kits in extracting total RNA from small eukaryotic tissue samples (<15 mg). Total RNA was isolated from fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) tissues (spleen, blood, kidney, embryo, and larvae) using the Qiagen RNeasy® Plus Mini, Qiagen RNeasy® Plus Universal, Promega Maxwell® 16 LEV simplyRNA, Ambion MagMAX™-96 and Promega SimplyRNA HT kits. Kit performance was evaluated via measures of RNA quantity (e.g., total RNA amount) and quality (e.g., ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, RNA integrity number (RIN), presence of gDNA).
Results
With the exception of embryos, each kit generally extracted ≥5 μg of total RNA from each sample. With regard to RNA quality, the RINs of RNA samples isolated via the Plus Mini and Maxwell® 16 kits were consistently higher than those of samples extracted via the remaining three kits and for all tissues, these kits produced intact RNA with average RIN values ≥7. The Plus Universal and SimplyRNA HT kits produced moderately degraded (RIN values <7, but ≥5), while the RNA recovered via the MagMAX™ kit tended to exhibit a high degree of degradation (RIN values <5).
Conclusions
Each kit was generally capable of extracting the amount of RNA required for most downstream gene expression applications suggesting that RNA yield is unlikely to be a limiting factor for any of the kits evaluated. However, differences in the quality of RNA extracted via each of the kits indicate that these kits may differ in their ability to yield RNA acceptable for some applications. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that there are practical differences between commercially available RNA extraction kits that should be taken into account when selecting extraction methods to be used for isolating RNA designated for gene expression analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12896-014-0094-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12896-014-0094-8
PMCID: PMC4239376  PMID: 25394494
RNA extraction; Gene expression; qPCR; RNA-Seq; Next generation sequencing; Microarray; Small tissues; Fathead minnow
8.  Selection of Reference Gene Expression in a Schizophrenia Brain Cohort 
Objective
To conduct postmortem human brain research into the neuropathological basis of schizophrenia, it is critical to establish cohorts that are well-characterised and well-matched. Our objective was to determine if specimen characteristics, including: diagnosis, age, postmortem interval (PMI), brain acidity (pH), and/or the agonal state of the subject at death related to RNA quality, and to determine the most appropriate reference gene mRNAs.
Methods
We selected a matched cohort of 74 cases (37 schizophrenia / schizoaffective disorder cases and 37 controls cases). Middle frontal gyrus tissue was pulverised, tissue pH was measured, RNA isolated for cDNA from each case, and RNA integrity number (RIN) measurements were assessed. Using RT-PCR, we measured nine housekeeper genes and calculated a geomean in each diagnostic group.
Results
We found that the RINs were very good (mean 7.3) and all nine housekeeper control genes were significantly correlated with RIN. Seven of nine housekeeper genes were also correlated with pH, and two clinical variables, agonal state and duration of illness did have an effect on some control mRNAs. No major impact of PMI or freezer time on housekeeper mRNAs was detected. Our results show that people with schizophrenia had significantly less PPIA, and SDHA and tended to have less GUSB and B2M mRNA suggesting that these control genes may not be good candidates for normalisation.
Conclusions
In our cohort, less than 10% variability in RIN values was detected and the diagnostic groups were well matched overall. Our cohort was adequately powered (0.80–0.90) to detect mRNA differences (25%) due to disease. Our study suggests that multiple factors should be considered in mRNA expression studies of human brain tissues. When schizophrenia cases are adequately matched to control cases subtle differences in gene expression can be reliably detected.
doi:10.3109/00048670903393662
PMCID: PMC2950262  PMID: 20073568
postmortem brain; pH; RIN; PMI; housekeeping genes
9.  Intracavitary prophylactic treatment with interferon alpha 2b of patients with superficial bladder cancer is associated with a systemic T-cell activation. 
British Journal of Cancer  1994;70(6):1247-1251.
The activation and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) are complex processes involving several surface molecules, cell secretion and response to cytokines. This paper investigates the immunomodulatory effect of prophylactic treatment with interferon alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) upon the blastogenic response of PBMNCs from patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma (STCC) of the bladder to mitogenic signals that interact with surface molecules [phytohaemagglutinin, PHA and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies, (MAbs)]. PBMNCs from the patients were studied prior to the transurethral resection (TUR) of the tumour, during the second month of prophylactic intravesical instillation of IFN-alpha 2b and 3 and 6 months after finishing the instillation treatment. The [3H]thymidine uptake of PBMNCs from 17 patients with STCC of the bladder after 5 days of PHA and anti-CD3 MAb stimulus was found to be significantly lower than that of healthy controls (P < 0.05). The addition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) to the culture medium did not correct this defective proliferative response to PHA and the anti-CD3 MAb. There were no significant differences between IL-2 production in PBMNCs from STCC patients after stimulation with PHA and in PBMNCs from healthy controls (P > 0.05). Patients without evidence of recurrence showed a significantly enhanced proliferative response in PBMNC to PHA and anti-CD3 MAb after intravesical prophylactic treatment with interferon-alpha 2b in the follow-up examinations 3 and 6 months after treatment (P < 0.01). However, three patients had evidence of tumour recurrence, and they showed no enhancement of the PBMNC proliferative response to these mitogens in the same examinations. In conclusion, the prophylactic intracavitary treatment of STCC with IFN-alpha 2b may induce a systemic immunomodulatory effect which is associated to the clinical evolution of the disease.
PMCID: PMC2033676  PMID: 7981084
10.  Functional impairment of natural killer cells in active ulcerative colitis: reversion of the defective natural killer activity by interleukin 2. 
Gut  1992;33(2):246-251.
We have studied the functional characteristics and clinical importance of the natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with ulcerative colitis. Normal NK activity was observed in PBMNC from patients with inactive disease, but a pronounced decrease was found in those with active disease. Clinical change from active to inactive disease was associated with enhancement of the depressed NK activity. The impairment of NK cytotoxicity found in patients with active disese could not be ascribed to a deficient number of NK cells as the amounts of HNK-1+, CD16+ (Leu 11), and CD11b (OKM1) cells in PBMNC were within normal ranges. This defective cytotoxic PBMNC activity was normalised by short term (18 hour) incubation with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2). Moreover, long term (5 day) incubation of these effector cells with rIL-2 induced strong cytotoxic activity against NK resistant and NK sensitive target cells in patients with active and inactive disease. We also found that both precursors and effectors of cytotoxic activity promoted by short term and long term incubation with rIL-2 of PBMNC from the patients showed the phenotype of NK cells (CD16+, CD3-). Taken together, these results show that active ulcerative colitis is associated with a defective function of NK cells that is found to be normal in the inactive stage of the disease. The possible pathogenic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1373938  PMID: 1541421
11.  Evaluating Methods for Isolating Total RNA and Predicting the Success of Sequencing Phylogenetically Diverse Plant Transcriptomes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50226.
Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ≥1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050226
PMCID: PMC3504007  PMID: 23185583
12.  Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2011;9(4):389-398.
The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.
doi:10.1089/bio.2011.0034
PMCID: PMC3558729  PMID: 23386926
13.  Long-term storage of blood RNA collected in RNA stabilizing Tempus tubes in a large biobank – evaluation of RNA quality and stability 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):633.
Background
Establishing methods for secure long term storage of RNA is critical to realizing the promise of biobanks in biomedical research. Here, we describe the results of yearly analyses of the same set of umbilical cord and adult whole blood RNA collected in Tempus Blood RNA tubes and stored at -80°C, over a period of up to six years. We systematically investigated the effects of long-term storage of samples (75 Tempus tubes form three adult donors and 30 Tempus tubes from three cord blood donors) on the RNA quality and transcript stability of six selected genes (CDKN1A, FOS, IL1B, IL8, MYC and TP53). This is the first systematic study of both cord and adult blood samples stored for many years.
Findings
The RNA purity and integrity, expressed as RIN-values, were stable up to six years of storage, and there were no storage-related deleterious effects on RNA purity. There were limited intra- and inter-individual variations in RNA yields; however, no consistent trend of decreasing RNA yield was observed with the duration of storage. Some long-term storage effects were found on the relative transcript levels of the six genes when compared to the year 0 samples. However, these changes were within ± 2–fold for both types of blood samples, except for two genes. Our results show that storage of these samples for up to six years did not have significant effects on the RNA quality and transcript stability of the six genes.
Conclusions
Blood RNA is stable in Tempus tubes stored at -80°C over a period of six years. Intact and good-quality RNA suitable for transcript profiling analyses in epidemiological studies was obtained from blood samples stored in Tempus tubes. This suggests that blood samples collected in large biobanks–such as the Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and frozen in suitable collection tubes for total RNA stabilization, can be used for quantitative studies after at least six years of storage.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-633) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-633
PMCID: PMC4168124  PMID: 25214016
Tempus tubes; Cord blood; Long-term storage; Quality control; RNA stabilization; Biobank
14.  RNA-seq: impact of RNA degradation on transcript quantification 
BMC Biology  2014;12:42.
Background
The use of low quality RNA samples in whole-genome gene expression profiling remains controversial. It is unclear if transcript degradation in low quality RNA samples occurs uniformly, in which case the effects of degradation can be corrected via data normalization, or whether different transcripts are degraded at different rates, potentially biasing measurements of expression levels. This concern has rendered the use of low quality RNA samples in whole-genome expression profiling problematic. Yet, low quality samples (for example, samples collected in the course of fieldwork) are at times the sole means of addressing specific questions.
Results
We sought to quantify the impact of variation in RNA quality on estimates of gene expression levels based on RNA-seq data. To do so, we collected expression data from tissue samples that were allowed to decay for varying amounts of time prior to RNA extraction. The RNA samples we collected spanned the entire range of RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values (a metric commonly used to assess RNA quality). We observed widespread effects of RNA quality on measurements of gene expression levels, as well as a slight but significant loss of library complexity in more degraded samples.
Conclusions
While standard normalizations failed to account for the effects of degradation, we found that by explicitly controlling for the effects of RIN using a linear model framework we can correct for the majority of these effects. We conclude that in instances in which RIN and the effect of interest are not associated, this approach can help recover biologically meaningful signals in data from degraded RNA samples.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-12-42
PMCID: PMC4071332  PMID: 24885439
RNA degradation; RIN; degradation; RNA; RNA-seq
15.  Evaluation of gene expression profiles of immature dendritic cells prepared from peripheral blood mononuclear cells 
Transfusion  2008;48(4):647-657.
Objective
Dendritic cells (DCs) generated ex vivo from peripheral blood monocytes or mobilized CD34+ cells and intended for clinical immunotherapy are typically characterized by morphologic, phenotypic, and functional assays. Assay results are highly dependent on conditions used to prepare the cells, so there is no standard assay battery for clinical DC products. This study evaluated gene expression profiling for characterization of immature DCs prepared from monocytes that had been elutriated from normal donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) immediately after collection or after storage at 4°C for 48 hours.
Methods
RNA was isolated from fresh and 48-hour-stored PBMNCs, elutriated monocytes, elutriated lymphocytes and immature DCs from 5 healthy subjects and was analyzed using a cDNA gene expression microarray with 17,500 genes.
Results
Unsupervised hierarchical clustering separated the 40 products into 4 groups: one with all 10 immature DCs, one with all 10 elutriated lymphocytes, one with 7 PBMNCs, and one with 10 elutriated monocytes and 3 PBMNCs. However, within each of the 4 groups, fresh and stored products, or products derived from fresh or stored products, clustered together. Comparison of genes differentially expressed by fresh vs stored products (paired t-tests, p<0.005) found 273 genes that differed between fresh and stored PBMCs, 429 between lymphocytes elutriated from fresh vs stored PBMNCs, 711 between monocytes elutriated from fresh vs stored PBMNCs, and 3 between immature DCs prepared from monocytes elutriated from fresh vs stored PBMCs.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates the potential utility of gene expression profiling for characterization of cell therapy products.
doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01615.x
PMCID: PMC2710576  PMID: 18282241
16.  Hypoxically preconditioned human peripheral blood mononuclear cells improve blood flow in hindlimb ischemia xenograft model 
Transplantation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of hindlimb ischemia. However, insufficient angiogenesis in ischemic hindlimb after cell transplantation reduces the importance and practicality of this approach. Previously, we demonstrated using mouse models that hypoxic preconditioning augmented the cellular functions of rodent PBMNCs, such as increased cell adhesion capacity and accelerated neovascularization in ischemic hindlimb. To test the clinical application of this therapeutic strategy in this study, we investigated whether the protocol of hypoxic preconditioning, which was established in a condition of 2% O2 for 24 h, can be made available for human PBMNCs (hPBMNCs). In addition, we grafted preconditioned hPBMNCs in a hindlimb ischemia mouse model. Hypoxic preconditioning enhanced cell adhesion capacity and oxidative stress resistance in hPBMNCs. We also observed an up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in hPBMNCs by hypoxic preconditioning. Furthermore, preconditioned hPBMNCs significantly recovered limb blood flow in ischemic mice after transplantation. These results indicate that our established preconditioning protocol is available for hPBMNCs to effectively reinforce multiple cellular functions. Taken together with our series of study, we believe that this simple but powerful therapeutic strategy will be helpful in curing patients with severe hindlimb ischemia.
PMCID: PMC4212931  PMID: 25360221
Hindlimb ischemia; cell-based therapy; human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; hypoxic preconditioning; therapeutic angiogenesis
17.  The Gly972→Arg amino acid polymorphism in IRS-1 impairs insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(3):357-364.
Recent studies have identified several polymorphisms in the human insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene. The most prevalent IRS-1 variant, a Gly→Arg change at the codon 972, has been reported to be increased in prevalence among patients with type 2 diabetes. Carriers of the Arg972 substitution are characterized by lower fasting insulin and C-peptide levels compared with non-carriers, suggesting that the Arg972 IRS-1 variant may contribute to impairment of insulin secretion. In this study, we stably overexpressed both wild-type IRS-1 (RIN-WT) and Arg972 IRS-1 variant (RIN-Arg972) in RIN β cells to investigate directly whether the polymorphism in codon 972 of IRS-1 impairs insulin secretion. The Arg972 IRS-1 variant did not affect expression or function of endogenous IRS-2. RIN-WT showed a marked increase in both glucose- and insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 compared with control RIN cells. The Arg972 IRS-1 variant did not alter the extent of either glucose- or insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of recombinant IRS-1. However, RIN-Arg972 showed a significant decrease in binding of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) with IRS-1, compared with RIN-WT. Compared with control RIN cells, insulin content was reduced to the same extent in RIN-WT or RIN-Arg972 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Both glucose- and sulfonylurea-induced insulin secretion was increased in RIN-WT compared with control RIN cells. By contrast, RIN cells expressing Arg972 IRS-1 exhibited a marked decrease in both glucose- and sulfonylurea-stimulated insulin secretion compared with RIN-WT. These data suggest that the insulin signaling pathway involving the IRS-1/PI 3-kinase may play an important role in the insulin secretory process in pancreatic β cells. More importantly, the results suggest that the common Arg972 IRS-1 polymorphism may impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, thus contributing to the relative insulin deficiency observed in carriers of this variant.
PMCID: PMC408413  PMID: 10430617
18.  Vasculogenic Conditioning of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cell Expansion and Phenotype Transition of Anti‐Inflammatory Macrophage and T Lymphocyte to Cells With Regenerative Potential 
Background
Cell‐based therapies involving mononuclear cells (MNCs) have been developed for vascular regeneration to treat ischemic diseases; however, quality control of therapeutic MNCs has not been evaluated. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood (PB) MNCs, operated by recently developed quality and quantity (QQ) culture of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs).
Methods and Results
PBs were collected from healthy volunteers; peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) isolated from these PBs were subjected to QQ culture for 7 days with medium containing stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, Flt‐3 ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin‐6. The resulting cells (QQMNCs) in EPC colony‐forming assay generated significantly more definitive EPC colonies than PBMNCs. In flow cytometry, macrophages and helper T lymphocytes of QQMNCs became phenotypically polarized into angiogenic, anti‐inflammatory, and regenerative subsets: classical M1 to alternative M2; T helper (Th)1 to Th2; angiogenic or regulatory T‐cell expansion. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR) assay revealed the predominant proangiogenic gene expressions in QQMNCs versus PBMNCs. Using murine ischemic hindlimb models, the efficacy of QQMNC intramuscular transplantation (Tx) was compared to that of PBMNCTx, cultured “early EPC” Tx (eEPCTx), and granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor mobilized CD34+ cell Tx (GmCD34Tx). Laser Doppler imaging revealed the blood perfusion recovery in ischemic hindlimbs after QQMNCTx superior to after PBMNCTx and eEPCTx, but also earlier than after GmCD34Tx. Histological evaluations and qRT‐PCR assays in ischemic hindlimbs demonstrated that QQMNCTx, similarly to GmCD34Tx, enhanced angiovasculogenesis and myogenesis, whereas it preponderantly inhibited inflammation and fibrosis versus PBMNCTx and eEPCTx.
Conclusions
QQ culture potentiates the ability of PBMNCs to promote regeneration of injured tissue; considering the feasible cell preparation, QQ culture‐treated PBMNCs may provide a promising therapeutic option for ischemic diseases.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: irb.med.u-tokai.ac.jp/d/2/monthly/2010.html; IRB No.: 10R‐020.
URL: irb.med.u-tokai.ac.jp/d/2/monthly/201312.html; IRB No.: 13R228.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000743
PMCID: PMC4309104  PMID: 24965023
anti‐inflammation; cell‐based therapy; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; serum‐free culture; vascular regeneration
19.  RNA extraction from ten year old formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples: a comparison of column purification and magnetic bead-based technologies 
BMC Molecular Biology  2007;8:118.
Background
The development of protocols for RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples facilitates gene expression studies on archival samples with known clinical outcome. Older samples are particularly valuable because they are associated with longer clinical follow up. RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is problematic due to chemical modifications and continued degradation over time. We compared quantity and quality of RNA extracted by four different protocols from 14 ten year old and 14 recently archived (three to ten months old) FFPE breast cancer tissues. Using three spin column purification-based protocols and one magnetic bead-based protocol, total RNA was extracted in triplicate, generating 336 RNA extraction experiments. RNA fragment size was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the housekeeping gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), testing primer sets designed to target RNA fragment sizes of 67 bp, 151 bp, and 242 bp.
Results
Biologically useful RNA (minimum RNA integrity number, RIN, 1.4) was extracted in at least one of three attempts of each protocol in 86–100% of older and 100% of recently archived ("months old") samples. Short RNA fragments up to 151 bp were assayable by RT-PCR for G6PD in all ten year old and months old tissues tested, but none of the ten year old and only 43% of months old samples showed amplification if the targeted fragment was 242 bp.
Conclusion
All protocols extracted RNA from ten year old FFPE samples with a minimum RIN of 1.4. Gene expression of G6PD could be measured in all samples, old and recent, using RT-PCR primers designed for RNA fragments up to 151 bp. RNA quality from ten year old FFPE samples was similar to that extracted from months old samples, but quantity and success rate were generally higher for the months old group. We preferred the magnetic bead-based protocol because of its speed and higher quantity of extracted RNA, although it produced similar quality RNA to other protocols. If a chosen protocol fails to extract biologically useful RNA from a given sample in a first attempt, another attempt and then another protocol should be tried before excluding the case from molecular analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-8-118
PMCID: PMC2233637  PMID: 18154675
20.  The effects of protein solubility on the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for recombinant Escherichia coli 
High quality, intact messenger RNA (mRNA) is required for DNA microarray and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and is generally obtained from total RNA isolations. The most widely recognized measure of RNA integrity is the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) obtained from the Agilent Bioanalyzer, as it provides sizing, quantification, and quality control measures. This work describes comparisons of the RIN values obtained for recombinant E. coli. Uninduced recombinant E. coli cultures were examined, as well as induced cultures that produced either a soluble or insoluble recombinant protein. The uninduced cultures and the induced cultures producing soluble protein had higher RIN values than the induced cultures producing insoluble protein. These lower RIN values for E. coli producing the insoluble protein indicate that cellular degradation of the ribosomal RNA species is the likely cause of the lower RIN values. As the use of DNA microarrays and other gene expression tools increase in usage in the industrial recombinant protein production community, these results suggest the need for further studies to determine acceptable RIN ranges for gene expression analysis and effects of various culture conditions on RIN values for recombinant E. coli.
doi:10.1016/j.bej.2013.07.011
PMCID: PMC3799817  PMID: 24151430
Aggregation; Protease; Purification; Recombinant DNA; RNA; Inclusion bodies
21.  Optimisation of the RT-PCR detection of immunomagnetically enriched carcinoma cells 
BMC Cancer  2002;2:14.
Background
Immunomagnetic enrichment followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) is an efficient methodology to identify disseminated carcinoma cells in the blood and bone marrow. The RT-PCR assays must be both specific for the tumor cells and sufficiently sensitive to enable detection of single tumor cells. We have developed a method to test RT-PCR assays for any cancer. This has been investigated using a panel of RT-PCR markers suitable for the detection of breast cancer cells.
Methods
In the assay, a single cell line-derived tumor cell is added to 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) after which mRNA is isolated and reverse transcribed for RT-PCR analysis. PBMNCs without added tumor cells are used as specificity controls. The previously studied markers epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mammaglobin 1 (MGB1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM/TACSTD1), mucin 1 (MUC1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were tested. Two new epithelial-specific markers ELF3 and EphB4 were also tested.
Results
MUC1 was unsuitable as strong amplification was detected in 100 cell PBMNC controls. Expression of ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 was found to be both specific for the tumor cell, as demonstrated by the absence of a signal in most 100 cell PBMNC controls, and sensitive enough to detect a single tumor cell in 100 PBMNCs using a single round of RT-PCR.
Conclusions
ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 are appropriate RT-PCR markers for use in a marker panel to detect disseminated breast cancer cells after immunomagnetic enrichment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-2-14
PMCID: PMC115840  PMID: 12031094
22.  Evaluation of a novel approach for the measurement of RNA quality 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:89.
Background
Microarray data interpretation can be affected by sample RNA integrity. The ScreenTape Degradation Value (SDV) is a novel RNA integrity metric specific to the ScreenTape® platform (Lab901). To characterise the performance of the ScreenTape® platform for RNA analysis and determine the robustness of the SDV metric, a panel of intentionally degraded RNA samples was prepared. These samples were used to evaluate the ScreenTape® platform against an alternative approach for measuring RNA integrity (Agilent Bioanalyzer RIN value). The samples were also subjected to microarray analysis and the resulting data correlated to the RNA integrity metrics.
Findings
Measurement of SDV for a panel of intentionally degraded RNA samples ranged from 0 for intact RNA to 37 for degraded RNA, with corresponding RIN values ranging from 10 to 4 for the same set of samples. SDV and RIN scales both demonstrated comparable discrimination between differently treated samples (RIN 10 to 7, SDV 0 to 15), with the SDV exhibiting better discrimination at higher degradation levels. Increasing SDV values correlated with a decrease in microarray sample labelling efficiency and an increase in numbers of differentially expressed genes.
Conclusions
The ScreenTape® platform is comparable to the Bioanalyzer platform in terms of reproducibility and discrimination between different levels of RNA degradation. The robust nature of the SDV metric qualifies it as an alternative metric for RNA sample quality control, and a useful predictor of downstream microarray performance.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-89
PMCID: PMC2907863  PMID: 20359344
23.  Use of monoclonal antibodies to detect disease associated HLA-DRB1 alleles and the shared epitope in rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1997;56(2):135-139.
OBJECTIVE—To use a panel of monoclonal antibodies (Mab) which recognise HLA class II alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis for fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with early and established rheumatoid arthritis and to compare these results against DNA oligotyping of HLA class II molecules in the same patients.
METHODS—27 patients (18 from an early arthritis clinic, nine with established rheumatoid arthritis) were studied using both techniques. PBMNC were stained with Mab which recognise the shared epitope, the HLA-DRB1*04 molecule and its *0401, *0404 subtypes in the presence of bound peptide. Mab stained cells were analysed by FACS. Genomic DNA was prepared from PBMNC and used for DNA oligotyping and sequencing by standard methods.
RESULTS—FACS analysis of Mab stained PBMNC gave identical results to those obtained by DNA oligotyping in 26/27 patients. The antibodies identified the shared epitope in 14/14 cases and the presence of an HLA-DRB1*04 molecule in 12/12 cases. HLA-DRB1*0404 was identified in 4/4 cases. HLA-DRB1*0401 was identified in 5/6 cases. One patient oligotyped as HLA-DRB1*0401, but consistently failed to react with the *0401 Mab. DNA sequencing of the second exon of the HLA-DRB1*0401 allele in this patient confirmed a normal HLA-DRB1*0401 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS—FACS analysis of PBMNC stained with Mab recognising the shared epitope and rheumatoid arthritis associated HLA susceptibility molecules provides a rapid, reliable, and more accessible alternative to DNA oligotyping. The apparent discordance between phenotypic and genetic analysis of HLA-DRB1*0401 in one patient, may reflect variability in HLA-DRB1*0401 gene expression or in class II peptide presentation.


PMCID: PMC1752326  PMID: 9068289
24.  Impact on cell to plasma ratio of miR-92a in patients with acute leukemia: in vivo assessment of cell to plasma ratio of miR-92a 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:347.
Background
Plasma microRNA (miRNA) has become a promising biomarker for detecting cancer; however, it remains uncertain whether miRNA expression levels in plasma reflect those in tumor cells. Our aim was to determine the biological relevance of miR-92a, which has been implicated as an oncomiR in both plasma and leukemia cells in patients with acute leukemia and to evaluate whether it could be a novel biomarker for monitoring these patients.
Results
We quantified the expression level of miR-92a in both cells and plasma by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 91 patients with acute leukemia. We also determined miR-92a expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from normal controls. We compared miR-92a expression in plasma with its expression in leukemia cells. Synthetic anti-miR-92a inhibitor was transfected into Raji and OM9;22 cells, and apoptosis was assessed. For in vivo assessment, 6-week-old female nude mice were injected with U937 cells, and miR-92a expression in plasma and tumors was measured. The level of miR-92a expression in fresh leukemia cells was highly variable compared with PBMNC, but significantly lower compared with CD34-positive cells obtained from healthy volunteers. We also noticed that miR-92a was preferentially expressed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells in comparison with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. More specifically, cellular miR-92a expression was significantly increased in a subset of ALL cells, and ALL patients with overexpressed miR-92a had poor prognoses. The anti-miR-92a inhibitor-treated Raji and OM9;22 cells revealed an increase of apoptotic cells. Notably, the cell to plasma ratio of miR-92a expression was significantly higher in both AML and ALL cells compared with PBMNC from healthy volunteers. In tumor-bearing mice, the plasma miR-92a level was significantly decreased in accordance with tumor growth, while tumor tissue was strongly positive for miR-92a.
Conclusions
The miR-92a expression in leukemia cells could be a prognostic factor in ALL patients. The inverse correlation of miR-92a expression between cells and plasma and the cell to plasma ratio may be important to understanding the clinical and biological relevance of miR-92a in acute leukemia.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-347
PMCID: PMC3022817  PMID: 21182798
25.  Absence of detectable xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1–infected blood donors or individuals in Africa 
Transfusion  2010;51(3):463-468.
BACKGROUND
Since the identification of xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer patients in 2006 and in chronic fatigue syndrome patients in 2009, conflicting findings have been reported regarding its etiologic role in human diseases and prevalence in general populations. In this study, we screened both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) collected in Africa from blood donors and human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals to gain evidence of XMRV infection in this geographic region.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 199 plasma samples, 19 PBMNC samples, and 50 culture supernatants from PBMNCs of blood donors from Cameroon found to be infected with HIV-1 and HIV-1 patients from Uganda were screened for XMRV infection using a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay.
RESULTS
Using highly sensitive nested PCR or RT-PCR and real-time PCR assays capable of detecting at least 10 copies of XMRV plasmid DNA per reaction, none of the 268 samples tested were found to be XMRV DNA or RNA positive.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results failed to demonstrate the presence of XMRV infection in African blood donors or individuals infected with HIV-1. More studies are needed to understand the prevalence, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of XMRV infection worldwide.
doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02932.x
PMCID: PMC3142710  PMID: 21077909

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