Several proteins are known to bind to a fibrin network and to change clot properties or function. In this study we aimed to get an overview of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins. A plasma clot was formed by adding thrombin, CaCl2 and aprotinin to citrated platelet-poor plasma and unbound proteins were washed away with Tris-buffered saline. Non-covalently bound proteins were extracted, separated with 2D gel electrophoresis and visualized with Sypro Ruby. Excised protein spots were analyzed with mass spectrometry. The identity of the proteins was verified by checking the mass of the protein, and, if necessary, by Western blot analysis. Next to established fibrin-binding proteins we identified several novel fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins, including α2-macroglobulin, carboxypeptidase N, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and the apolipoproteins A-I, E, J, and A-IV. The latter six proteins are associated with high-density lipoprotein particles. In addition we showed that high-density lipoprotein associated proteins were also present in fibrinogen preparations purified from plasma. Most plasma proteins in a fibrin clot can be classified into three groups according to either blood coagulation, protease inhibition or high-density lipoprotein metabolism. The presence of high-density lipoprotein in clots might point to a role in hemostasis.
To identify meningioma-specific proteins, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 4 patients with a meningioma and 4 patients with a non-brain tumorous lesion were analyzed.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed 10 unique spots, containing 11 independent proteins (spot #2 and #4 each contained 2 proteins and spot #3 was not identified) were evident in CSF associated with human meningioma: serum albumin precursor (3 different isoforms), Apolipoprotein E (Apo E), Apolipoprotein J precursor (Apo J), Transthyretin precursor (TTR), Prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (PTGDS), proapolipoprotein, Chain D hemoglobin Ypsilanti, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), and beta-2-microglobulin precursor (β2M).
The contents of Apo E, Apo J and AAT were increased, while PTGDS, TTR and β2M were decreased.
The results observed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis were verified by Western blot analysis. The unique proteins may represent possible candidate biomarkers of meningioma.
meningioma; human cerebrospinal fluid; proteome; biomarker; brain tumor
Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Plasma proteome profiling may have a higher chance to identify protein changes between plasma samples such as normal and breast cancer tissues. Breast cancer cell lines have long been used by researches as model system for identifying protein biomarkers. A comparison of the set of proteins which change in plasma with previously published findings from proteomic analysis of human breast cancer cell lines may identify with a higher confidence a subset of candidate protein biomarker.
In this study, we analyzed a liquid chromatography (LC) coupled tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proteomics dataset from plasma samples of 40 healthy women and 40 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Using a two-sample t-statistics and permutation procedure, we identified 254 statistically significant, differentially expressed proteins, among which 208 are over-expressed and 46 are under-expressed in breast cancer plasma. We validated this result against previously published proteomic results of human breast cancer cell lines and signaling pathways to derive 25 candidate protein biomarkers in a panel. Using the pathway analysis, we observed that the 25 “activated” plasma proteins were present in several cancer pathways, including ‘Complement and coagulation cascades’, ‘Regulation of actin cytoskeleton’, and ‘Focal adhesion’, and match well with previously reported studies. Additional gene ontology analysis of the 25 proteins also showed that cellular metabolic process and response to external stimulus (especially proteolysis and acute inflammatory response) were enriched functional annotations of the proteins identified in the breast cancer plasma samples. By cross-validation using two additional proteomics studies, we obtained 86% and 83% similarities in pathway-protein matrix between the first study and the two testing studies, which is much better than the similarity we measured with proteins.
We presented a ‘systems biology’ method to identify, characterize, analyze and validate panel biomarkers in breast cancer proteomics data, which includes 1) t statistics and permutation process, 2) network, pathway and function annotation analysis, and 3) cross-validation of multiple studies. Our results showed that the systems biology approach is essential to the understanding molecular mechanisms of panel protein biomarkers.
Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E.
We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (α1m), were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p < 0.005) and increased urine α1m levels (p < 0.001) in acute hepatitis E patients, compared to healthy controls. Preliminary results also showed lower urine zinc alpha glycoprotein levels in fulminant hepatitis E compared to acute disease; this remains to be confirmed with more fulminant cases.
Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine α1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease.
Sulfur mustard "bis (2-chlroethyl) sulphide" (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that remains a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to identify protein expression signature or biomarkers that reflect chronic lung damages induced by SM exposure.
Prior to analysis, plasma was fractionated using ethanol precipitation. Using two dimensional SDS-PAGE; fractionated protein profiles of 20 healthy and 20 exposed patients with lung diseases were established. Selected protein spots were successfully identified with MALDI TOF MS/MS.
The results show that α1 haptoglobin isoforms were detected in plasma of the all lung disease patients but none of the healthy controls. Amyloid A1 isoforms was also detected in plasma of the lung disease patients but none of the healthy controls. Moreover, low molecular weight proteins were enriched in ethanol supernatant compared to ethanol precipitate.
Our present results and previous studies suggest that ongoing tissue remodeling is involved in SM exposed lung damage patients. These finding might improve patient care and suitable therapies.
Proteins and protein networks associated with cochlear pathogenesis in the Ames waltzer (av) mouse, a model for deafness in Usher syndrome 1F (USH1F), were identified. Cochlear protein from wild-type and av mice at postnatal day 30, a time point in which cochlear pathology is well established, was analyzed by quantitative 2D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry (MS). The analytic gel resolved 2270 spots; 69 spots showed significant changes in intensity in the av cochlea compared with the control. The cochlin protein was identified in 20 peptide spots, most of which were up-regulated, while a few were down-regulated. Analysis of MS sequence data showed that, in the av cochlea, a set of full-length isoforms of cochlin was up-regulated, while isoforms missing the N-terminal FCH/LCCL domain were down-regulated. Protein interaction network analysis of all differentially expressed proteins was performed with Metacore software. That analysis revealed a number of statistically significant candidate protein networks predicted to be altered in the affected cochlea. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of select candidates from the proteomic and bioinformatic investigations showed up-regulation of Coch mRNA and those of p53, Brn3a and Nrf2, transcription factors linked to stress response and survival. Increased mRNA of Brn3a and Nrf2 has previously been associated with increased expression of cochlin in human glaucomatous trabecular meshwork. Our report strongly suggests that increased level of cochlin is an important etiologic factor leading to the degeneration of cochlear neuroepithelia in the USH1F model.
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantification of highly homologous proteins in complex samples has proven difficult due to subtle sequence variations and the wide dynamic range of protein isoforms present. Herein, we report the use of reductive dimethylation on intact proteins to quantitatively compare protein isoform expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and normal stroma. By coupling fixed-charge MS/MS scanning, high-resolution UPLC FT-MS data-dependent acquisition and MASCOT-based data mining, hydrogen/deuterium-labeled dimethyl-lysine peptides were simultaneously captured allowing the accurate comparison of 123 protein isoforms in parallel LC MS/MS runs. Thirty-four isoforms were identified that had expression levels specific to MSC. Where possible, proteomic analyses were verified by Western blotting and were demonstrated to be divergent from the level of gene transcription detected for certain proteins. Our analysis provides a protein isoform signature specific to MSC and demonstrates the suitability of dimethyl-lysine labeling on intact proteins for quantifying highly homologous proteins on a proteome-wide scale.
Isotopic labeling; Mesenchymal stem cells; MS; Protein isoforms; Protein quantification; Technology
Protein adsorption is fundamental to thrombosis and to the design of biocompatible materials. We report a two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry study to characterize multiple human plasma proteins adsorbed onto four different types of model surfaces: silicon oxide, dextranized silicon, polyurethane and dextranized polyurethane. Dextran was grafted onto the surfaces of silicon and polyurethane to mimic the blood-contacting endothelial cell glycocalyx surface. Surface topography and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity were determined and analyzed using atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that, relative to the unmodified surfaces, dextranization significantly inhibits the adsorption of several human plasma proteins including IGHG1 protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, Apo A-IV, Apo A-I, immunoglobulin, serum retinal-binding protein and truncated serum albumin. We further demonstrate the selectivity of plasma protein adsorbed onto the different functionalized surfaces and the potential to control and manipulate proteins adsorption on the surfaces of medical devices, implants and microfluidic devices. This result shows that adsorption experiments using a single protein or a binary mixture of proteins are consistent with competitive protein adsorption studies. In summary, these studies indicate that coating blood-contacting biomedical applications with dextran is an effective route to reduce thrombo-inflammatory responses and to surface-direct biological activities.
The etiology and pathogenesis of moyamoya disease remain unclear. Furthermore, the definitive diagnostic protein-biomarkers for moyamoya disease are still unknown. The present study analyzed serum proteomes from normal controls and moyamoya patients to identify novel serological biomarkers for diagnosing moyamoya disease.
We compared the two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns of sera from moyamoya disease patients and normal controls and identified the differentially-expressed spots by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
We found and analyzed 22 differently-expressed proteomes. Two proteins were up-regulated. Twenty proteins were down-regulated. Complement C1 inhibitor protein and apolipoprotein C-III showed predominantly changed expressions (complement C1 inhibitor protein averaged a 7.23-fold expression in moyamoya patients as compared to controls, while apolipoprotein C-III averaged a 0.066-fold expression).
Although our study had a small sample size, our proteomic data provide serologic clue proteins for understanding moyamoya disease.
Moyamoya disease; Proteome
Advancements in the field of proteomics have provided great opportunities for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools against human diseases. In this study, we analyzed haptoglobin and amyloid A protein levels of vivax malaria patients with combinations of depletion of the abundant plasma proteins, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), image analysis, and mass spectrometry in the plasma between normal healthy donors and vivax malaria patients. The results showed that the expression level of haptoglobin had become significantly lower or undetectable in the plasma of vivax malaria patients due to proteolytic cleavage when compared to healthy donors on 2-DE gels. Meanwhile, serum amyloid A protein was significantly increased in vivax malaria patient's plasma with high statistical values. These 2 proteins are common acute phase reactants and further large scale evaluation with a larger number of patient's will be necessary to establish the possible clinical meaning of the existential changes of these proteins in vivax malaria patients. However, our proteomic analysis suggests the feasible values of some plasma proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as associating factor candidates for vivax malaria.
Plasmodium vivax; vivax malaria; proteomics; associating factor candidate; haptoglobin; serum amyloid A
Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ranging from 4 to 10 ng/mL is considered a diagnostic gray zone for detecting prostate cancer because biopsies reveal no evidence of cancer in 75% of these subjects. Our goal was to discover a new highly specific biomarker for prostate cancer by analyzing plasma proteins using a proteomic technique. Enriched plasma proteins from 25 prostate cancer patients and 15 healthy controls were analyzed using a label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics platform called 2DICAL (2-dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry) and candidate biomarkers were searched. Among the 40,678 identified mass spectrum (MS) peaks, 117 peaks significantly differed between prostate cancer patients and healthy controls. Ten peaks matched carbonic anhydrase I (CAI) by tandem MS. Independent immunological assays revealed that plasma CAI levels in 54 prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in 60 healthy controls (P = 0.022, Mann-Whitney U test). In the PSA gray-zone group, the discrimination rate of prostate cancer patients increased by considering plasma CAI levels. CAI can potentially serve as a valuable plasma biomarker and the combination of PSA and CAI may have great advantages for diagnosing prostate cancer in patients with gray-zone PSA level.
There is significant interest in characterization of the human plasma proteome due to its potential for providing biomarkers applicable to clinical diagnosis and treatment and for gaining a better understanding of human diseases. We describe here a strategy for the comparative proteome analyses of human plasma, which is applicable to biomarker identifications for various disease states. Multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to make comparative proteome analyses of plasma samples from an individual prior to and 9 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Peptide peak areas and the number of peptide identifications for each protein were used to evaluate the reproducibility of LC-MS/MS and to compare relative changes in protein concentration between the samples following LPS treatment. A total of 804 distinct plasma proteins (not including immunoglobulins) were confidently identified with 32 proteins observed to be significantly increased in concentration following LPS administration, including several known inflammatory response or acute-phase mediators such as C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and A2, LPS-binding protein, LPS-responsive and beige-like anchor protein, hepatocyte growth factor activator, and von Willebrand factor, and thus constituting potential biomarkers for inflammatory response.
human plasma; proteomics; lipopolysaccharide; comparative analysis; LC-MS/MS
With the introduction of increasingly powerful mass spectrometry (MS) techniques for clinical research, several recent large-scale MS proteomics studies have sought to characterize the entire human plasma proteome with a general objective for identifying thousands of proteins leaked from tissues in the circulating blood. Understanding the basic constituents, diversity, and variability of the human plasma proteome is essential to the development of sensitive molecular diagnosis and treatment monitoring solutions for future biomedical applications. Biomedical researchers today, however, do not have an integrated online resource in which they can search for plasma proteins collected from different mass spectrometry platforms, experimental protocols, and search software for healthy individuals. The lack of such a resource for comparisons has made it difficult to interpret proteomics profile changes in patients' plasma and to design protein biomarker discovery experiments.
To aid future protein biomarker studies of disease and health from human plasma, we developed an online database, HIP2 (Healthy Human Individual's Integrated Plasma Proteome). The current version contains 12,787 protein entries linked to 86,831 peptide entries identified using different MS platforms.
This web-based database will be useful to biomedical researchers involved in biomarker discovery research. This database has been developed to be the comprehensive collection of healthy human plasma proteins, and has protein data captured in a relational database schema built to contain mappings of supporting peptide evidence from several high-quality and high-throughput mass-spectrometry (MS) experimental data sets. Users can search for plasma protein/peptide annotations, peptide/protein alignments, and experimental/sample conditions with options for filter-based retrieval to achieve greater analytical power for discovery and validation.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are classified as neurological developmental disorders. Several studies have been carried out to find a candidate biomarker linked to the development of these disorders, but up to date no reliable biomarker is available. Mass spectrometry techniques have been used for protein profiling of blood plasma of children with such disorders in order to identify proteins/peptides that may be used as biomarkers for detection of the disorders. Three differentially expressed peptides with mass–charge (m/z) values of 2020±1, 1864±1 and 1978±1 Da in the heparin plasma of children with ASD that were significantly changed as compared with the peptide pattern of the non-ASD control group are reported here. This novel set of biomarkers allows for a reliable blood-based diagnostic tool that may be used in diagnosis and potentially, in prognosis of ASD.
ASD; autism spectrum disorders; biomarker; blood
Refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1 (RAEB-1) is a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. It represents a heterogeneous group of oncohematological bone marrow diseases, which occur particularly in elderly patients. The aim of this proteomic study was to search for plasma protein alterations in RAEB-1 patients.
A total of 24 plasma samples were depleted of fourteen high-abundant plasma proteins, analyzed with 2D SDS-PAGE, compared, and statistically processed with Progenesis SameSpots software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Retinol-binding protein 4 and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein were relatively quantified using mass spectrometry. 56 significantly differing spots were found; and in 52 spots 50 different proteins were successfully identified. Several plasma proteins that changed either in their level or modification have been described herein. The plasma level of retinol-binding protein 4 was decreased, while leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein was modified in RAEB-1 patients. Changes in the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, altered protein fragmentation, or fragments modifications were observed.
This study describes proteins, which change quantitatively or qualitatively in the plasma of RAEB-1 patients. It is the first report on qualitative changes in the leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein in the RAEB-1 subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. Described changes in the composition or modification of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragments in RAEB-1 are in agreement with those changes observed in previous study of refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, and thus H4 fragments could be a marker specific for myelodysplastic syndrome.
Myelodysplastic syndrome; RAEB-1; Plasma proteome; Refractory anemia
Identify proteins that are differentially expressed between head and neck squamous cell cancer and patient-matched normal adjacent tissue, and validate findings in a separate patient cohort.
Cross-sectional study of surgical specimens.
Tertiary care academic medical center.
Subjects and Methods
Laser capture microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis were used previously to establish proteomic profiles for tumor and normal adjacent tissue from 14 patients. Here, significance analysis of microarray was used to rank candidate biomarkers. Spots meeting statistical and biological criteria of significance were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to obtain protein identifications. The expression pattern of the highest-ranked candidate biomarker (cornulin) was validated in a larger, independent patient cohort (n=68) by immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray.
117/732 spots (15.9%) met criteria for significance. Identities were obtained for 40 spots, representing 19 different proteins. Four proteins were novel in the context of HNSCC: glutathione synthetase, which was upregulated, and cornulin (SEP53), guanylate binding protein 6, and GRP78, which were downregulated. Cornulin functions in the stress response in normal squamous epithelium, and reduced expression has been proposed as a marker of susceptibility to laryngopharyngeal reflux and other stressors. Loss of cornulin expression was confirmed in an independent HNSCC patient cohort (P<.001).
Downregulation of cornulin is a prominent feature of the molecular signature of HNSCC identified by comparative proteomics. Cornulin may represent a link between HNSCC and other pathologies arising in stratified squamous epithelium.
Following bone fracture, a large number of growth factors, cytokines, and their cognate receptors involved in the repair process are active at the fracture site. To determine whether they appear in patients’ blood as candidate biomarkers for following the outcome of healing, we analysed the plasma of 25 patients with an acute bone fracture following affinity plasma purification, SDS gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two hundred and thirteen nonredundant proteins were identified in the in-gel analysis of pooled plasma proteins. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that a majority of detected proteins were of extracellular origin, whereas only a small number were of intracellular (cytosol and nucleus) origin. A significant proportion of detected proteins was involved in the cell growth and proliferation, transport and coagulation. Twelve proteins were potentially related to bone and cartilage metabolism, and several have not been previously identified in the plasma, including: TGF-β induced protein IG-H3, cartilage acidic protein 1, procollagen C proteinase enhancer protein and TGF-β receptor III.
To investigate the altered expression of proteins in the lens of mice with inherited cataracts.
Mice with inherited cataracts caused by a spontaneous mutation of the gene gamma S-crystallin (Crygs) were used as the subjects. Lens proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The spots representing differential proteins were first identified by image analysis, and then further analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS).
2-DE were conducted under high (882 μg) and low dosage (190 μg) of sample. Under each condition, the numbers of protein spots found in cataract lenses were similar to those in normal lenses (p>0.05). Seventeen proteins were identified in normal lenses, including αA- to αB-, βA1- to βA4-, βB1- to βB3-, γA- to γF-, and γS-crystallin, and bead-filament structure protein (BFSP/filensin). Seven differential ones were consistently identified. In the cataract lenses BFSP and γS-crystallin were absent; γF-crystallin was downregulated; and βA1-, βB1-, βB2-, and αB-crystallin were upregulated. Those abnormally upregulated crystallins, when compared to normal ones, had smaller molecular weight, suggesting possible truncation.
The mutant Crygs gene can lead to changes of BFSP/filensin and other crystallins. The changes to these crystallins, together, may secondarily lead to cataract formation.
To utilize proteomic analysis to identify protein biomarkers associated with pro-inflammatory HDL in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to analyze proteins associated with immunoaffinity purified HDL from plasma of two sets of RA patients carrying distinct HDL (anti- or pro-) inflammatory properties. Proteins were fractionated by Offgel electrophoresis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS equipped with a high capacity high performance liquid chromatography chip (HPLC-Chip) incorporating C18 reverse phase trapping and analytical columns. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to validate select HDL-associated proteins in a second RA cohort.
Seventy-eight proteins were identified in the HDL complexes. Twelve proteins were significantly increased in RA patients with pro-inflammatory HDL compared to RA patients with anti-inflammatory HDL. These proteins included acute phase proteins, including apolipoprotein J, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and complement factors (B, C3, C9). Four of the proteins associated with HDL were validated in a second RA cohort.
Pro-inflammatory HDL in patients with RA contains a significantly altered proteome including increased amounts of acute phase proteins and proteins involved in the complement cascade. These findings suggest that HDL is significantly altered in the setting of chronic inflammation from active RA with resultant loss of its anti-inflammatory function. The characterization of the biomarkers reported here may identify novel molecular connections that contribute to the higher risk of CVD in RA patients.
Previous studies suggested that dietary tannin ingestion may induce changes in mouse salivary proteins in addition to the primarily studied proline-rich proteins (PRPs). The aim of the present study was to determine the protein expression changes induced by condensed tannin intake on the fraction of mouse whole salivary proteins that are unable to form insoluble tannin-protein complexes. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein separation was used, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry.
Fifty-seven protein spots were excised from control group gels, and 21 different proteins were identified. With tannin consumption, the expression levels of one α-amylase isoform and one unidentified protein increased, whereas acidic mammalian chitinase and Muc10 decreased. Additionally, two basic spots that stained pink with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 were newly observed, suggesting that some induced PRPs may remain uncomplexed or form soluble complexes with tannins.
This proteomic analysis provides evidence that other salivary proteins, in addition to tannin-precipitating proteins, are affected by tannin ingestion. Changes in the expression levels of the acidic mammalian chitinase precursor and in one of the 14 salivary α-amylase isoforms underscores the need to further investigate their role in tannin ingestion.
This study aimed to discover potential biomarkers for dioxynivalenol (DON) intoxication. B6C3F1 male mice were orally exposed to 0.83, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) DON for 8 days and the differential protein expressions in their blood plasma were determined by SELDI - Time-of-Flight/Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) and the immunoglobulins (Igs) G, A, M and E in the serum were investigated. 11.7 kDa protein was significantly highly expressed according to DON administration and this protein was purified by employing a methyl ceramic HyperD F column with using optimization buffer for adsorption and desorption. The purified protein was identified as a haptoglobin precursor by peptide mapping with using LC/Q-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/MS and this was confirmed by western blotting and ELISA. IgG and IgM in serum were decreased in a dose-dependent manner and IgA was decreased at 7.5 mg/kg bw DON administration, but the IgE level was not changed. To compare the expressions of haptoglobin and the Igs patterns between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and DON intoxications, rats were orally administered with AFB1 1.0, ZEA 240 and DON 7.5 mg/kg bw for 8 days. Haptoglobin was increased only at DON 7.5 mg/kg bw, while it was slightly decreased at ZEA 240 mg/kg bw and it was not detected at all at AFB1 1.0 mg/kg bw. IgG and IgA were decreased by DON, but IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE were all increased by AFB1. No changes were observed by ZEA administration. These results show that plasma haptoglobin could be a diagnostic biomarker for DON intoxication when this is combined with examining the serum Igs.
biomarker; deoxynivalenol; haptoglobin; immunoglobulins; SELDI-TOF/MS
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently contributes to peritoneal damage which cannot be easily identified without invasive techniques, implying the urgent need for biomarkers and revealing mechanisms. Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is one of the leading causes of receiving dialysis treatment. Here, we attempted to analyze the peritoneal dialysate collected from CGN patients when they receive continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment for the first time and after a year to reveal the protein changes that resulted from PD. Proteins were displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Altered gel spots were digested followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for protein identification. Eight proteins were found to have differential expression levels between two groups. Their differential expressions were validated by Western blots in other sets of peritoneal dialysates. Proteins identified with higher levels in the first-time dialysate suggested their dominant appearance in CGN patients, while those that showed higher levels in peritoneal dialysate collected after one year may result from initial peritoneal inflammation or changes in the permeability of the peritoneum to middle-sized proteins. All the identified proteins may provide a perceptiveness of peritoneal changes caused by PD and may function as potential biomarkers or drug targets.
When stimulated strongly, a hair cell's mechanically sensitive hair bundle may consume ATP too rapidly for replenishment by diffusion. To provide a broad view of the bundle's protein complement, including those participating in energy metabolism, we used shotgun mass spectrometry methods to identify proteins of purified chicken vestibular bundles. In addition to cytoskeletal proteins, proteins involved in Ca2+ regulation, and stress-response proteins, many of the most abundant bundle proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry were involved in ATP synthesis. After β -actin, the cytosolic brain isoform of creatine kinase was the second-most abundant bundle protein; at ~0.5 mM, creatine kinase is capable of maintaining high ATP levels despite 1 mM/s ATP consumption by the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Consistent with this critical role in hair-bundle function, the creatine kinase circuit is essential for high-sensitivity hearing, as demonstrated by hearing loss in creatine kinase knockout mice.
Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome is a severe hereditary disease often caused by mutations in the NPHS2 gene. This gene encodes the lipid binding protein podocin which localizes to the slit diaphragm of podocytes and is essential for the maintenance of an intact glomerular filtration barrier. Podocin is a hairpin-like membrane-associated protein that multimerizes to recruit lipids of the plasma membrane. Recent evidence suggested that podocin may exist in a canonical, well-studied large isoform and an ill-defined short isoform. Conclusive proof of the presence of this new podocin protein in the human system is still lacking.
We used database analyses to identify organisms for which an alternative splice variant has been annotated. Mass spectrometry was employed to prove the presence of the shorter isoform of podocin in human kidney lysates. Immunofluorescence, sucrose density gradient fractionation and PNGase-F assays were used to characterize this short isoform of human podocin.
Mass spectrometry revealed the existence of the short isoform of human podocin on protein level. We cloned the coding sequence from a human kidney cDNA library and showed that the expressed short variant was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum while still associating with detergent-resistant membrane fractions in sucrose gradient density centrifugation. The protein is partially N-glycosylated which implies the presence of a transmembranous form of the short isoform.
A second isoform of human podocin is expressed in the kidney. This isoform lacks part of the PHB domain. It can be detected on protein level. Distinct subcellular localization suggests a physiological role for this isoform which may be different from the well-studied canonical variant. Possibly, the short isoform influences lipid and protein composition of the slit diaphragm complex by sequestration of lipid and protein interactors into the endoplasmic reticulum.
Podocin; Isoform; Kidney glomerulus
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers in China. The lower survival rate of ESCC is attributed to late diagnosis and poor therapeutic efficacy; therefore, the identification of tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the discovery of novel targets for therapeutic intervention, seems very important for increasing the survival rate of ESCC. To identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in ESCC, we have analyzed ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The results showed that a total of 104 protein spots with different expression levels were found on 2DE, and 47 proteins were eventually identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Among these identified proteins, 33 proteins including keratin 17 (KRT17), biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB), proteasome activatorsubunit 1 (PSME1), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), high-mobility group box-1(HMGB1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), peroxiredoxin (PRDX1), keratin 13 (KRT13), and so on were overexpressed, and 14 proteins including cystatin B (CSTB), tropomyosin 2 (TPM2), annexin 1 (ANX1), transgelin (TAGLN), keratin 19 (KRT19), stratifin (SFN), and so on were down-expressed in ESCC. Biological functions of these proteins are associated with cell proliferation, cell motility, protein folding, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. In the subsequent study using immunoassay on ESCC serum samples and tissue-array slides, two representative proteins, HSP70 and HMGB1, were selected as examples for the purpose of validation. The results showed that both HSP70 and HMGB1 can induce autoantibody response in ESCC sera and have higher expression in ESCC tissues. Especially, the frequency of antibodies to HSP70 in ESCC sera was significantly higher than that in normal human sera. The preliminary results suggest that some of these identified proteins might contribute to esophageal cell differentiation and carcinogenesis, certain proteins could be used as tumor-associated antigen (TAA) biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, and further studies on these identified proteins should provide more evidence of how these proteins are involved in carcinogenesis of ESCC.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); tumor-associated proteins; biomarkers; proteomic approach; cancer autoantibody; cancer diagnosis