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1.  Chronic Resveratrol Treatment Protects Pancreatic Islets against Oxidative Stress in db/db Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50412.
Resveratrol (RSV) has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions which may contribute to its cardiovascular protective effects. We examined whether RSV has any beneficial effects on pancreatic islets in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The db/db and db/dm mice (non-diabetic control) were treated with (db-RSV) or without RSV (db-control) (20 mg/kg daily) for 12 weeks. After performing an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test, mice were sacrificed, the pancreas was weighed, pancreatic β-cell mass was quantified by point count method, and the amount of islet fibrosis was determined. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, was determined in 24 h urine and pancreatic islets. RSV treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance at 2 hrs in db/db mice (P = 0.036), but not in db/dm mice (P = 0.623). This was associated with a significant increase in both pancreas weight (P = 0.011) and β-cell mass (P = 0.016). Islet fibrosis was much less in RSV-treated mice (P = 0.048). RSV treatment also decreased urinary 8-OHdG levels (P = 0.03) and the percentage of islet nuclei that were positive for 8-OHdG immunostaining (P = 0.019). We conclude that RSV treatment improves glucose tolerance, attenuates β-cell loss, and reduces oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest that RSV may have a therapeutic implication in the prevention and management of diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050412
PMCID: PMC3511555  PMID: 23226280
2.  Resveratrol Improves Oxidative Stress and Protects Against Diabetic Nephropathy Through Normalization of Mn-SOD Dysfunction in AMPK/SIRT1-Independent Pathway 
Diabetes  2011;60(2):634-643.
OBJECTIVE
Despite the beneficial effects of resveratrol (RSV) on cardiovascular disease and life span, its effects on type 2 diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. This study examined the renoprotective effects of RSV in db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
db/db mice were treated with RSV (0.3% mixed in chow) for 8 weeks. We measured urinary albumin excretion (UAE), histological changes (including mesangial expansion, fibronectin accumulation, and macrophage infiltration), oxidative stress markers (urinary excretion and mitochondrial content of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], nitrotyrosine expression), and manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity together with its tyrosine-nitrated modification and mitochondrial biogenesis in the kidney. Blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and plasma lipid profiles were also measured. The phosphorylation of 5′-AMP–activated kinase (AMPK) and expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the kidney were assessed by immunoblotting.
RESULTS
RSV significantly reduced UAE and attenuated renal pathological changes in db/db mice. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis were enhanced in db/db mice; however, Mn-SOD activity was reduced through increased tyrosine-nitrated modification. RSV ameliorated such alterations and partially improved blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and abnormal lipid profile in db/db mice. Activation of AMPK was decreased in the kidney of db/db mice compared with db/m mice. RSV neither modified AMPK activation nor SIRT1 expression in the kidney.
CONCLUSIONS
RSV ameliorates renal injury and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis with Mn-SOD dysfunction in the kidney of db/db mice, through improvement of oxidative stress via normalization of Mn-SOD function and glucose-lipid metabolism. RSV has antioxidative activities via AMPK/SIRT1-independent pathway.
doi:10.2337/db10-0386
PMCID: PMC3028365  PMID: 21270273
3.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Mechanisms of Redox Control and Novel Therapeutic Opportunities 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2013;18(2):186-217.
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Although the mechanisms of RSV-induced airway disease remain incompletely defined, the lung inflammatory response is thought to play a central pathogenetic role. In the past few years, we and others have provided increasing evidence of a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as important regulators of RSV-induced cellular signaling leading to the expression of key proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. In addition, RSV-induced oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between ROS production and airway antioxidant defenses, due to a widespread inhibition of antioxidant enzyme expression, is likely to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of RSV-associated lung inflammatory disease, as demonstrated by a significant increase in markers of oxidative injury, which correlate with the severity of clinical illness, in children with RSV infection. Modulation of ROS production and oxidative stress therefore represents a potential novel pharmacological approach to ameliorate RSV-induced lung inflammation and its long-term consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 186–217.
I. Introduction
II. Redox-Sensitive Transcription Factors in RSV Infection
A. Nuclear factor-IL6
B. Nuclear factor-kappa B
C. Activator protein-1
D. Interferon regulatory factor
E. Signal transducers and activators of transcription
F. Hypoxia-inducible factor
III. ROS in RSV-Induced Cellular Signaling and Oxidative Stress
A. ROS generation in RSV infection
B. ROS as mediators of cellular signaling in RSV infection
1. NF-κB/NF-IL6/AP-1 activation
2. IRF/STAT activation
C. RSV and oxidative stress
D. Potential regulatory mechanisms of AOE gene expression in RSV infection
IV. Role of Reactive Nitrogen Species in RSV Infection
A. NO production and iNOS expression in RSV infection
B. Effect of NO on RSV replication, cellular signaling, and lung disease
V. Potential Therapeutic Approaches
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin D
C. Melatonin
D. Thiols
E. Polyphenols
F. SOD and SOD mimetics
G. Nrf2-inducing agents
1. Triterpenoids
2. Sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates
3. Polyphenols
4. Other classes of Nrf2 inducers
VI. Conclusions
doi:10.1089/ars.2011.4307
PMCID: PMC3513983  PMID: 22799599
4.  Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles to Assess Pathogenesis and Disease Severity in Infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(11):e1001549.
In this study, Mejias and colleagues found that specific blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allowed for specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and better assessment of disease severity.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune response to acute RSV LRTI in infants, to characterize its specificity compared with influenza and human rhinovirus (HRV) LRTI, and to identify biomarkers that can objectively assess RSV disease severity.
Methods and Findings
This was a prospective observational study over six respiratory seasons including a cohort of infants hospitalized with RSV (n = 135), HRV (n = 30), and influenza (n = 16) LRTI, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39). A specific RSV transcriptional profile was identified in whole blood (training cohort, n = 45 infants; Dallas, Texas, US) and validated in three different cohorts (test cohort, n = 46, Dallas, Texas, US; validation cohort A, n = 16, Turku, Finland; validation cohort B, n = 28, Columbus, Ohio, US) with high sensitivity (94% [95% CI 87%–98%]) and specificity (98% [95% CI 88%–99%]). It classified infants with RSV LRTI versus HRV or influenza LRTI with 95% accuracy. The immune dysregulation induced by RSV (overexpression of neutrophil, inflammation, and interferon genes, and suppression of T and B cell genes) persisted beyond the acute disease, and immune dysregulation was greatly impaired in younger infants (<6 mo). We identified a genomic score that significantly correlated with outcomes of care including a clinical disease severity score and, more importantly, length of hospitalization and duration of supplemental O2.
Conclusions
Blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allow specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and assessment of disease severity. This study opens new avenues for biomarker discovery and identification of potential therapeutic or preventive targets, and demonstrates that large microarray datasets can be translated into a biologically meaningful context and applied to the clinical setting.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs)—bacterial and viral infections of the lungs and airways (the tubes that take oxygen-rich air to the lungs)—are major causes of illness and death in children worldwide. Pneumonia (infection of the lungs) alone is responsible for 14% of all child deaths. The leading cause of viral LTRIs in children is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is readily transmitted from person to person by direct contact with nasal fluids or airborne droplets. Almost all children have an RSV infection before their second birthday, but most have only minor symptoms similar to those of a common cold and are cared for at home. Unfortunately, some children develop more serious conditions when they become infected with RSV, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis (swelling and mucus build-up in the bronchioles, the smallest air passages in the lungs). These children have to be admitted to the hospital for supportive care—there is no specific treatment for RSV infection—such as the provision of supplemental oxygen.
Why Was This Study Done?
The lack of a treatment (and of a vaccine) for RSV is largely due to our incomplete understanding of the cellular events and reactions, including the host immune response, that occur during the development of an RSV infection (disease pathogenesis). Moreover, based on physical examination and available diagnostic tools, it is impossible to predict which children infected with RSV will develop a serious condition that requires hospitalization and which ones can be safely nursed at home. Here, the researchers use microarrays to analyze the global host response to acute RSV LTRI in infants, to define gene expression patterns that are specific to RSV infection rather than infection with other common respiratory viruses, and to identify biomarkers that indicate the severity of RSV infection. “Microarray” analysis allows researchers to examine gene expression patterns (“RNA transcriptional profiles”) in, for example, whole blood; a biomarker is a molecule whose level in bodily fluids or tissues indicates how a disease might develop and helps with patient classification.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared the RNA transcriptional profile in whole blood taken from children less than two years old hospitalized with RSV, human rhinovirus, or influenza virus infection (rhinovirus and influenza are two additional viral causes of LRTI), and from healthy infants. Using “statistical group comparisons,” they identified more than 2,000 transcripts that were differentially expressed in blood from 45 infants with RSV infection and from 14 healthy matched controls. Genes related to interferon function (interferons are released by host cells in response to the presence of disease-causing organisms) and neutrophil function (neutrophils are immune system cells that, like interferons, are involved in the innate immune response, the body's first line of defense against infection) were among the most overexpressed genes in infants infected with RSV. Genes regulating T and B cells (components of the adaptive immune response, the body's second-line of defense against infection) were among the most underexpressed genes. This specific transcriptional profile, which was validated in three additional groups of infants, accurately distinguished between infants infected with RSV and those infected with human rhinovirus or influenza virus. Finally, a “molecular distance to health” score (a numerical score that quantifies the transcriptional perturbation associated with an illness) was correlated with the clinical disease severity score of the study participants, with how long they needed supplemental oxygen, and with their duration of hospitalization.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that it might be possible to use whole blood RNA transcriptional profiles to distinguish between infants infected with RSV and those with other viruses that commonly cause LRTI. Moreover, if these findings can be replicated in more patients (including non-hospitalized children), gene expression profiling might provide a strategy for triaging patients with RSV infections when they first present to an emergency department and for monitoring clinical changes during the course of the infection, particularly given the development of molecular tools that might soon enable the “real time” acquisition of transcriptional profiles in the clinical setting. Finally, although certain aspects of the study design limit the accuracy and generalizability of the study's findings, these data provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RSV infection and open new avenues for the discovery of biomarkers for RSV infection and for the identification of therapeutic and preventative targets.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001549.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Peter Openshaw
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information about RSV infection
The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides information about the respiratory system and about RSV infections
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about bronchiolitis
The British Lung Foundation also provides information on RSV and on bronchiolitis
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about RSV infections and about pneumonia (in English and Spanish); the MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on bronchiolitis (in English and Spanish)
PATH is an international non-profit organization investigating new RSV vaccines
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001549
PMCID: PMC3825655  PMID: 24265599
5.  Exposure of neonates to Respiratory Syncytial Virus is critical in determining subsequent airway response in adults 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):107.
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of subsequent wheeze and asthma development. However, the mechanism by which RSV contributes to asthma is complex and remains largely unknown. A recent study indicates that the age of initial RSV infection is a key factor in determining airway response to RSV rechallenge. We hypothesized that severe RSV infection during neonatal development significantly alters lung structure and the pulmonary immune micro-environment; and thus, neonatal RSV infection is crucial in the development of or predisposition to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma.
Methods
To investigate this hypothesis the present study was conducted in a neonatal mouse model of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction. Seven-day-old mice were infected with RSV (2 × 105 TCID50/g body weight) and allowed to mature to adulthood. To determine if neonatal RSV infection predisposed adult animals to enhanced pathophysiological responses to allergens, these mice were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Various endpoints including lung function, histopathology, cytokine production, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage were examined.
Results
RSV infection in neonates alone led to inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, and subepithelial fibrosis in adults. If early RSV infection was followed by allergen exposure, this pulmonary phenotype was exacerbated. The initial response to neonatal RSV infection resulted in increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, increased levels of IL-13 and mucus hyperproduction were observed almost three months after the initial infection with RSV.
Conclusion
Neonatal RSV exposure results in long term pulmonary inflammation and exacerbates allergic airways disease. The early increase in TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage implicates this inflammatory cytokine in orchestrating these events. Finally, the data presented emphasize IL-13 and TNF-α as potential therapeutic targets for treating RSV induced-asthma.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-107
PMCID: PMC1563465  PMID: 16893457
6.  Pulmonary histopathology induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice is abrogated by depletion of CD4+ T cells. 
Journal of Virology  1992;66(12):7444-7451.
In previous studies, it was observed that children immunized with a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (FI-RSV) developed severe pulmonary disease with greater frequency during subsequent natural RSV infection than did controls. During earlier efforts to develop an animal model of this phenomenon, enhanced pulmonary histopathology was observed after intranasal RSV challenge of FI-RSV-immunized cotton rats. Progress in understanding the immunologic basis for these observations has been hampered by the lack of reagents useful in manipulating the immune response of the cotton rat. This problem prompted us to reinvestigate the characteristics of immunity to RSV in the mouse. In the present studies, extensive pulmonary histopathology was observed in FI-RSV-immunized or RSV-infected BALB/c mice upon RSV challenge, and studies to determine the relative contributions of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells to this process were undertaken. Mice previously immunized with FI-RSV or infected with RSV were depleted of CD4+, CD8+, or both T-cell subsets immediately prior to RSV challenge, and the magnitude of inflammatory cell infiltration around bronchioles and pulmonary blood vessels and into alveolar spaces was quantified. The magnitude of infiltration at each anatomic site in previously FI-RSV-immunized or RSV-infected, nondepleted animals was similar, indicating that this is not a relevant model for enhanced disease. However, the effect of T-cell subset depletion on pulmonary histopathology following RSV challenge was very different between the two groups. Depletion of CD4+ T cells completely abrogated pulmonary histopathology in FI-RSV-immunized mice, whereas it had a much smaller effect on mice previously infected with RSV. FI-RSV-immunized or RSV-infected animals depleted of CD8+ T cells had only a modest reduction of pulmonary histopathology. In addition, RSV infection induced high levels of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cytotoxic T-cell activity, whereas FI-RSV immunization induced a low level. These data indicate that immunization with FI-RSV induces a cellular immune response different from that induced by RSV infection, which likely played a role in enhanced disease observed in infants and children.
PMCID: PMC240452  PMID: 1433525
7.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection in Elderly Mice Results in Altered Antiviral Gene Expression and Enhanced Pathology 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88764.
Elderly persons are more susceptible to RSV-induced pneumonia than young people, but the molecular mechanism underlying this susceptibility is not well understood. In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. Young (2–3 months) and aged (19–21 months) mice were intranasally infected with mucogenic or non-mucogenic RSV strains, lung histology was examined, and gene expression was analyzed. Upon infection with mucogenic strains of RSV, leukocyte infiltration in the airways was elevated and prolonged in aged mice compared to young mice. Minitab factorial analysis identified several antiviral genes that are influenced by age, infection, and a combination of both factors. The expression of five antiviral genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and osteopontin (OPN), was altered by both age and infection, while age was associated with the expression of 15 antiviral genes. Both kinetics and magnitude of antiviral gene expression were diminished as a result of older age. In addition to delays in cytokine signaling and pattern recognition receptor induction, we found TLR7/8 signaling to be impaired in alveolar macrophages in aged mice. In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. In conclusion, this study demonstrates inherent differences in response to RSV infection in young vs. aged mice, accompanied by delayed antiviral gene induction and cytokine signaling.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088764
PMCID: PMC3928298  PMID: 24558422
8.  A systems-based approach to analyse the host response in murine lung macrophages challenged with respiratory syncytial virus 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:190.
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. The degree of disease severity is determined by the host response to infection. Lung macrophages play an important early role in the host response to infection and we have used a systems-based approach to examine the host response in RSV-infected lung-derived macrophage cells.
Results
Lung macrophage cells could be efficiently infected (>95%) with RSV in vitro, and the expression of several virus structural proteins could be detected. Although we failed to detect significant levels of virus particle production, virus antigen could be detected up until 96 hours post-infection (hpi). Microarray analysis indicated that 20,086 annotated genes were expressed in the macrophage cells, and RSV infection induced an 8.9% and 11.3% change in the global gene transcriptome at 4 hpi and 24 hpi respectively. Genes showing up-regulated expression were more numerous and exhibited higher changes in expression compared to genes showing down-regulated expression. Based on gene ontology, genes with cytokine, antiviral, cell death, and signal transduction functions showed the highest increases in expression, while signalling transduction, RNA binding and protein kinase genes showed the greatest reduction in expression levels. Analysis of the global gene expression profile using pathway enrichment analysis confirmed that up-regulated expression of pathways related to pathogen recognition, interferon signalling and antigen presentation occurred in the lung macrophage cells challenged with RSV.
Conclusion
Our data provided a comprehensive analysis of RSV-induced gene expression changes in lung macrophages. Although virus gene expression was detected, our data was consistent with an abortive infection and this correlated with the activation of several antivirus signalling pathways such as interferon type I signalling and cell death signalling. RSV infection induced a relatively large increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, however the maintenance of this pro-inflammatory response was not dependent on the production of infectious virus particles. The sustained pro-inflammatory response even in the absence of a productive infection suggests that drugs that control the pro-inflammatory response may be useful in the treatment of patients with severe RSV infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-190
PMCID: PMC3618260  PMID: 23506210
Respiratory syncytial virus; Macrophage transcriptome; Host response; Interferon; Cytokine induction
9.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Glycoprotein Is Not Necessary for Vaccine-Enhanced Disease Induced by Immunization with Formalin-Inactivated RSV 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(11):6024-6032.
Following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge, mice immunized with RSV G or with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) exhibit severe disease associated with type 2 cytokine production and pulmonary eosinophilia. This has led to the proposal that the presence of RSV G is the factor in FI-RSV that induces disease-enhancing T-cell responses. Therefore, we evaluated the role of RSV G and its immunodominant region in the induction of aberrant immune responses during FI-RSV immunization. BALB/c mice were immunized with FI preparations of wild-type (wt) RSV or recombinant RSV (rRSV) containing deletions of (i) the entire G gene, (ii) the region of the G gene encoding amino acids 187 to 197 of the immunodominant region, or (iii) the entire SH gene. After challenge, illness, RSV titers, cytokine levels, and pulmonary eosinophilia were measured. Peak RSV titers postchallenge were significantly greater in mice immunized with FI preparations of the deletion viruses than in those immunized with FI-rRSV wt, suggesting that the absence of G or SH in FI-RSV reduced its protective efficacy. Deletion of G or its epitope did not reduce illness, cytokine production, or eosinophilia relative to that in mice immunized with FI-rRSV wt. While cytokine levels and eosinophilia were similar, illness was reduced in mice immunized with SH-deleted FI-RSV. These data suggest that G-specific immune responses may be important for vaccine-induced protection and are not solely the basis for FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced illness. These data suggest that the method of RSV antigen delivery, rather than the protein composition, influences the phenotype of the induced immune responses and that RSV G should not necessarily be excluded from potential vaccine strategies.
doi:10.1128/JVI.78.11.6024-6032.2004
PMCID: PMC415805  PMID: 15141000
10.  Respiratory synctial virus infection in BALB/c mice previously immunized with formalin-inactivated virus induces enhanced pulmonary inflammatory response with a predominant Th2-like cytokine pattern. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(5):2852-2860.
Vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) caused excessive disease in infants upon subsequent natural infection with RSV. Recent studies with BALB/c mice have suggested that T cells are important contributors to lung immunopathology during RSV infection. In this study, we investigated vaccine-induced enhanced disease by immunizing BALB/c mice with live RSV intranasally or with FI-RSV intramuscularly. The mice were challenged with RSV 6 weeks later, and the pulmonary inflammatory response was studied by analyzing cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage 4 and 8 days after challenge. FI-RSV-immunized mice had an increased number of total cells, granulocytes, eosinophils, and CD4+ cells but a decreased number of CD8+ cells. The immunized mice also had a marked increase in the expression of mRNA for the Th2-type cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 as well as some increase in the expression of IL-10 (a Th2-type cytokine) mRNA and some decrease in the expression of IL-12 (a Th1-type cytokine) mRNA. The clear difference in the pulmonary inflammatory response to RSV between FI-RSV- and live-RSV-immunized mice suggests that this model can be used to evaluate the disease-enhancing potential of candidate RSV vaccines and better understand enhanced disease.
PMCID: PMC190142  PMID: 8627759
11.  Resveratrol Inhibits the TRIF-Dependent Pathway by Upregulating Sterile Alpha and Armadillo Motif Protein, Contributing to Anti-Inflammatory Effects after Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(8):4229-4236.
ABSTRACT
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children and the leading cause of infant hospitalization worldwide. Uncontrolled response to RSV is mediated by a toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune response. Resveratrol possesses anti-RSV activity and is an inhibitor of the TRIF/TBK1/IRF-3 complex. We hypothesize that resveratrol inhibits the TRIF-dependent pathway through upregulation of SARM post-RSV infection. BALB/c mice were infected with RSV and were injected with resveratrol 1 h postinoculation. SARM short interfering RNA was administered to RSV-infected and resveratrol-treated mice. Lung function was measured by whole-body plethysmography, lung histopathology was examined, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified. SARM and TRIF protein expression were detected in the lung by Western blot analyses. The expression of gamma interferon in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SARM expression was reduced and TRIF expression was increased after infection with RSV. Resveratrol increased SARM expression and decreased TRIF expression after RSV infection. SARM knockdown in resveratrol-treated mice enhanced gamma interferon production, RSV-induced airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Resveratrol decreased TRIF expression and prevented the RSV-mediated reduction of SARM expression. Resveratrol-mediated inhibition of the TRIF-dependent pathway may be dependent on SARM expression.
IMPORTANCE Our study provides insights into the regulation of innate immunity in response to RSV infection. The results suggest that resveratrol-mediated alterations in SARM have therapeutic potential against RSV immunopathology caused by deregulation of the TLR-mediated immune response. Ultimately, improved insight into the complex interplay between TLR adaptor proteins and the occurrence of severe RSV infection might lead to novel therapeutic treatment strategies, such as TLR adjuvants.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03637-13
PMCID: PMC3993725  PMID: 24478430
12.  Differential response of BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ myeloid dendritic cells to respiratory syncytial virus infection 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):71.
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Severe infection is associated with short- and long-term morbidity including pneumonia, recurrent wheezing, and abnormal pulmonary function, and several lines of evidence indicate that impaired adaptive immune responses during infection are critical in the pathophysiology of RSV-mediated disease. Myeloid Dendritic cells (mDCs) play a pivotal role in shaping antiviral immune responses in the respiratory tract; however, few studies have examined the interactions between RSV and individual mDC subsets. In this study, we examined the effect of RSV on the functional response of primary mDC subsets (BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+) isolated from peripheral blood.
Methods
BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy adults using FACS sorting. Donor-matched BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs were infected with RSV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5 for 40 hours. After infection, cells were analyzed for the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD86, CD80, and PD-L1), cytokine production, and the ability to stimulate allogenic CD4+ T cell proliferation.
Results
Both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs were susceptible to infection with RSV and demonstrated enhanced expression of CD86, and the inhibitory costimulatory molecules CD80 and PD-L1. Compared to BDCA-3+ mDCs, RSV-infected BDCA-1+ mDC produced a profile of cytokines and chemokines predominantly associated with pro-inflammatory responses (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, MIP-1α, and TNF-α), and both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs were found to produce IL-10. Compared to uninfected mDCs, RSV-infected BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs demonstrated a reduced capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation.
Conclusions
RSV infection induces a distinct pattern of costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production by BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs, and impairs their ability to stimulate T cell proliferation.
The differential expression of CD86 and pro-inflammatory cytokines by highly purified mDC subsets in response to RSV provides further evidence that BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ mDCs have distinct roles in coordinating the host immune response during RSV infection. Findings of differential expression of PD-L1 and IL-10 by infected mDCs, suggests possible mechanisms by which RSV is able to impair adaptive immune responses.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-71
PMCID: PMC3708742  PMID: 23829893
RSV; Myeloid dendritic cells; BDCA-1+ mDCs; BDCA-3+ mDCs; Primary DCs; Immune response; Costimulatory molecules; CD80; CD86; PD-L1; Cytokine profiles
13.  Differential Histopathology and Chemokine Gene Expression in Lung Tissues following Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Challenge of Formalin-Inactivated RSV- or BBG2Na-Immunized Mice 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(24):12421-12430.
A BALB/c mouse model of enhanced pulmonary pathology following vaccination with formalin-inactivated alum-adsorbed respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) and live RSV challenge was used to determine the type and kinetics of histopathologic lesions induced and chemokine gene expression profiles in lung tissues. These data were compared and contrasted with data generated following primary and/or secondary RSV infection or RSV challenge following vaccination with a promising subunit vaccine, BBG2Na. Severe peribronchiolitis and perivascularitis coupled with alveolitis and interstitial inflammation were the hallmarks of lesions in the lungs of FI-RSV-primed mice, with peak histopathology evident on days 5 and 9. In contrast, primary RSV infection resulted in no discernible lesions, while challenge of RSV-primed mice resulted in rare but mild peribronchiolitis and perivascularitis, with no evidence of alveolitis or interstitial inflammation. Importantly, mice vaccinated with a broad dose range (20 to 0.02 μg) of a clinical formulation of BBG2Na in aluminium phosphate demonstrated histopathology similar to that observed in secondary RSV infection. At the molecular level, FI-RSV priming was characterized by a rapid and strong up-regulation of eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) relative gene expression (potent lymphocyte and eosinophil chemoattractants) that was sustained through late time points, early but intermittent up-regulation of GRO/melanoma growth stimulatory activity gene and inducible protein 10 gene expression, while macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and especially MCP-1 were up-regulated only at late time points. By comparison, primary RSV infection or BBG2Na priming resulted in considerably lower eotaxin and MCP-3 gene expression increases postchallenge, while expression of lymphocyte or monocyte chemoattractant chemokine genes (MIP-1β, MCP-1, and MIP-2) were of higher magnitude and kinetics at early, but not late, time points. Our combined histopathologic and chemokine gene expression data provide a basis for differentiating between aberrant FI-RSV-induced immune responses and normal responses associated with RSV infection in the mouse model. Consequently, our data suggest that BBG2Na may constitute a safe RSV subunit vaccine for use in seronegative infants.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.24.12421-12430.2001
PMCID: PMC116138  PMID: 11711632
14.  Enhanced pulmonary histopathology induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice is abrogated by depletion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(8):5321-5325.
In previous studies, children immunized with a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (FI-RSV) developed severe pulmonary disease with greater frequency than did controls during subsequent natural RSV infection. In earlier efforts to develop an animal model for this phenomenon, extensive pulmonary histopathology developed in FI-RSV-immunized cotton rats and mice subsequently challenged with RSV. In mice, depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of RSV challenge completely abrogated this histopathology. Furthermore, the predominant cytokine mRNA present in lungs of FI-RSV-immunized mice during subsequent infection with RSV was that characteristically secreted by Th2 T cells, namely interleukin-4 (IL-4). In the present studies, we sought to determine the relative contributions of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 to the lymphocytic infiltration into the lungs observed following RSV challenge of mice previously immunized with FI-RSV. Mice previously immunized with FI-RSV or infected with RSV were depleted of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, or IL-10 immediately before RSV challenge, and the magnitude of inflammatory cell infiltration around bronchioles and pulmonary blood vessels was quantified. The phenomenon of pulmonary-histopathology potentiation by FI-RSV was reproduced in the present study, thereby allowing us to investigate the effect of cytokine depletion on the process. Simultaneous depletion of both IL-4 and IL-10 completely abrogated pulmonary histopathology in FI-RSV-immunized mice. Depletion of IL-4 alone significantly reduced bronchiolar, though not perivascular, histopathology. Depletion of IL-10 alone had no effect. Depletion of IFN-gamma, IL-2, or both together had no effect on the observed histopathology. These data indicate that FI-RSV immunization primes for a Th2-, IL-4-, and IL-10-dependent inflammatory response to subsequent RSV infection. It is possible that this process played a role in enhanced disease observed in infants and children immunized with FI-RSV.
PMCID: PMC236482  PMID: 8035532
15.  Antioxidant Treatment Ameliorates Respiratory Syncytial Virus–induced Disease and Lung Inflammation 
Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. No treatment has been shown to significantly improve the clinical outcome of patients with this infection. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung inflammatory diseases. We do not known whether RSV induces pulmonary oxidative stress and whether antioxidant treatment can modulate RSV-induced lung disease.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of antioxidant administration on RSV-induced lung inflammation, clinical disease, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR).
Methods: BALB/c mice were infected with 107 plaque-forming units of RSV, in the presence or absence of orally administered butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), an antioxidant. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal were measured in bronchoalveoar lavage (BAL) by colorimetric assay. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in BAL by Bio-Plex and leukotrienes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHR to methacholine challenge was measured by whole-body plethysmography.
Results: BHA treatment significantly attenuated RSV-induced lung oxidative stress, as indicated by the decrease of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal content in BAL of RSV-infected mice. RSV-induced clinical illness and body weight loss were also reduced by BHA treatment, which inhibited neutrophil recruitment to the lung and significantly reduced pulmonary cytokine and chemokine production after RSV infection. Similarly, antioxidant treatment attenuated RSV-induced AHR.
Conclusion: Modulation of oxidative stress represents a potential novel pharmacologic approach to ameliorate RSV-induced acute lung inflammation and potentially prevent long-term consequences associated with RSV infection, such as bronchial asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200603-319OC
PMCID: PMC2648297  PMID: 17008643
antioxidant; chemokines; lung inflammation; oxidative stress; respiratory syncytial virus
16.  Genetic replacement of surfactant protein-C reduces respiratory syncytial virus induced lung injury 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):19.
Background
Individuals with deficiencies of pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) develop interstitial lung disease (ILD) that is exacerbated by viral infections including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). SP-C gene targeted mice (Sftpc -/-) lack SP-C, develop an ILD-like disease and are susceptible to infection with RSV.
Methods
In order to determine requirements for correction of RSV induced injury we have generated compound transgenic mice where SP-C expression can be induced on the Sftpc -/- background (SP-C/Sftpc -/-) by the administration of doxycycline (dox). The pattern of induced SP-C expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and processing by Western blot analysis. Tissue and cellular inflammation was measured following RSV infection and the RSV-induced cytokine response of isolated Sftpc +/+ and -/- type II cells determined.
Results
After 5 days of dox administration transgene SP-C mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in the lungs of two independent lines of bitransgenic SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice (lines 55.3 and 54.2). ProSP-C was expressed in the lung, and mature SP-C was detected by Western blot analysis of the lavage fluid from both lines of SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice. Induced SP-C expression was localized to alveolar type II cells by immunostaining with an antibody to proSP-C. Line 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice were maintained on or off dox for 7 days and infected with 2.6x107 RSV pfu. On day 3 post RSV infection total inflammatory cell counts were reduced in the lavage of dox treated 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice (p = 0.004). The percentage of neutrophils was reduced (p = 0.05). The viral titers of lung homogenates from dox treated 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice were decreased relative to 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice without dox (p = 0.01). The cytokine response of Sftpc -/- type II cells to RSV was increased over that of Sftpc +/+ cells.
Conclusions
Transgenic restoration of SP-C reduced inflammation and improved viral clearance in the lungs of SP-C deficient mice. The loss of SP-C in alveolar type II cells compromises their response to infection. These findings show that the restoration of SP-C in Sftpc -/- mice in response to RSV infection is a useful model to determine parameters for therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-19
PMCID: PMC3598668  PMID: 23399055
Surfactant protein-C; Respiratory syncytial virus; Type II cells; Lung inflammation; Interstitial lung disease; Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)
17.  Resveratrol protects against polychlorinated biphenyl-mediated impairment of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes 
Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant polyphenol that exhibits several favorable effects on glucose homeostasis in adipocytes. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) impair glucose homeostasis in mice. PCB-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis was associated with augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, a site for accumulation of lipophilic PCBs. This study determined if RSV protects against PCB-77 induced impairment of glucose disposal in vitro and in vivo, and if these beneficial effects are associated with enhanced nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in adipose tissue. PCB-77 increased oxidative stress and abolished insulin stimulated 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These effects were restored by RSV, which resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), the downstream target of Nrf2 signaling. We quantified glucose and insulin tolerance and components of Nrf2 and insulin signaling cascades in adipose tissue of male C57BL/6 mice administered vehicle or PCB-77 (50 mg/kg) and fed a diet with or without resVida® (0.1%, or 160 mg/kg/day). PCB-77 impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, and these effects were reversed by RSV. PCB-77 induced reductions in insulin signaling in adipose tissue were also abolished by RSV, which increased NQO1 expression. These results demonstrate that coplanar PCB-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis in mice can be prevented by RSV, potentially through stimulation of Nrf2 signaling and enhanced insulin stimulated glucose disposal in adipose tissue.
doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.08.009
PMCID: PMC4066417  PMID: 24231106
Resveratrol; adipocyte; polychlorinated biphenyl; diabetes; Nrf2
18.  Respiratory syncytial virus infection is associated with an altered innate immunity and a heightened pro-inflammatory response in the lungs of preterm lambs 
Respiratory Research  2011;12(1):106.
Introduction
Factors explaining the greater susceptibility of preterm infants to severe lower respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remain poorly understood. Fetal/newborn lambs are increasingly appreciated as a model to study key elements of RSV infection in newborn infants due to similarities in lung alveolar development, immune response, and susceptibility to RSV. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that preterm lambs had elevated viral antigen and developed more severe lesions compared to full-term lambs at seven days post-infection. Here, we compared the pathogenesis and immunological response to RSV infection in lungs of preterm and full-term lambs.
Methods
Lambs were delivered preterm by Caesarian section or full-term by natural birth, then inoculated with bovine RSV (bRSV) via the intratracheal route. Seven days post-infection, lungs were collected for evaluation of cytokine production, histopathology and cellular infiltration.
Results
Compared to full-term lambs, lungs of preterm lambs had a heightened pro-inflammatory response after infection, with significantly increased MCP-1, MIP-1α, IFN-γ, TNF-α and PD-L1 mRNA. RSV infection in the preterm lung was characterized by increased epithelial thickening and periodic acid-Schiff staining, indicative of glycogen retention. Nitric oxide levels were decreased in lungs of infected preterm lambs compared to full-term lambs, indicating alternative macrophage activation. Although infection induced significant neutrophil recruitment into the lungs of preterm lambs, neutrophils produced less myeloperoxidase than those of full-term lambs, suggesting decreased functional activation.
Conclusions
Taken together, our data suggest that increased RSV load and inadequate immune response may contribute to the enhanced disease severity observed in the lungs of preterm lambs.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-12-106
PMCID: PMC3170232  PMID: 21827668
Lung; neonate; premature infant; immune response; RSV; lamb
19.  Virus-specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes Downregulate T Helper Cell Type 2 Cytokine Secretion and Pulmonary Eosinophilia during Experimental Murine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  
T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in the immune response during viral infections. In a murine model of experimental respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, mice sensitized to either of the two major glycoproteins of RSV develop distinct patterns of cytokine secretion and lung inflammation upon subsequent RSV infection. Mice sensitized to RSV-G (attachment) glycoprotein exhibit a strong interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 response and develop pulmonary eosinophilia, whereas mice sensitized to RSV-F (fusion) glycoprotein develop a predominantly T helper cell (Th)1 response and pulmonary inflammation characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration. In this study, we examined the potential role of virus-specific CD8+ T cytolytic T cells on the differentiation and activation of functionally distinct CD4+ T cells specific to these viral glycoproteins. Mice primed with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing RSV-F glycoprotein mounted a strong RSV-specific, MHC class I–restricted cytolytic response, whereas priming with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing RSV-G glycoprotein failed to elicit any detectable cytolytic response. Priming for a RSV-specific CD8+ T cell response, either with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing RSV-G glycoprotein in which a strong CD8+ T cell epitope from RSV-M2 (matrix) protein has been inserted or with a combination of vaccinia virus expressing the matrix protein and the RSV-G glycoprotein, suppressed the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs of these mice upon subsequent challenge with RSV. This reduction in pulmonary eosinophilia correlated with the suppression of Th2 type cytokine production. The importance of CD8+ T cells in this process was further supported by the results in CD8+ T cell deficient, β2 microglobulin KO mice. In these mice, priming to RSV-F glycoprotein (which in normal mice primed for a strong cytolytic response and a pulmonary infiltrate consisting primarily of mononuclear cells on RSV challenge) resulted in the development of marked pulmonary eosinophilia that was not seen in mice with an intact CD8+ T cell compartment. These results indicate that CD8+ T cells may play an important role in the regulation of the differentiation and activation of Th2 CD4+ T cells as well as the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs during RSV infection.
PMCID: PMC2198992  PMID: 9236194
20.  Stilbenes and resveratrol metabolites improve mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects in human fibroblasts 
Background
Inborn enzyme defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) form a large group of genetic disorders associated to variable clinical presentations ranging from life-threatening pediatric manifestations up to milder late onset phenotypes, including myopathy. Very few candidate drugs have been identified in this group of disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, recently shown to have beneficial metabolic properties in mice models. Our study explores its possible effects on FAO and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human cells, which are still very little documented.
Methods
Using cells from controls and from patients with Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 2 (CPT2) or Very Long Chain AcylCoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency we characterized the metabolic effects of RSV, RSV metabolites, and other stilbenes. We also focused on analysis of RSV uptake, and on the effects of low RSV concentrations, considering the limited bioavailability of RSV in vivo.
Results
Time course of RSV accumulation in fibroblasts over 48 h of treatment were consistent with the resulting stimulation or correction of FAO capacities. At 48 h, half maximal and maximal FAO stimulations were respectively achieved for 37,5 microM (EC50) and 75 microM RSV, but we found that serum content of culture medium negatively modulated RSV uptake and FAO induction. Indeed, decreasing serum from 12% to 3% led to shift EC50 from 37,5 to 13 microM, and a 2.6-3.6-fold FAO stimulation was reached with 20 microM RSV at 3% serum, that was absent at 12% serum. Two other stilbenes often found associated with RSV, i.e. cis- RSV and piceid, also triggered significant FAO up-regulation. Resveratrol glucuro- or sulfo- conjugates had modest or no effects. In contrast, dihydro-RSV, one of the most abundant circulating RSV metabolites in human significantly stimulated FAO (1.3-2.3-fold).
Conclusions
This study provides the first compared data on mitochondrial effects of resveratrol, its metabolites, and other natural compounds of the stilbene family in human cells. The results clearly indicate that several of these compounds can improve mitochondrial FAO capacities in human FAO-deficient cells.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-9-79
PMCID: PMC4051957  PMID: 24898617
Mitochondrial FAO defects; Resveratrol; Pharmacological therapy; Patient fibroblasts
21.  Leukemia inhibitory factor protects the lung during respiratory syncytial viral infection 
BMC Immunology  2014;15(1):41.
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the host cytokine response to RSV infection, the regulation of host cytokines and the impact of neutralizing an RSV-inducible cytokine during infection were undertaken in this study.
Methods
A549, primary human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells and wild-type, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (Trif) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (Mavs) knockout (KO) mice were infected with RSV and cytokine responses were investigated by ELISA, multiplex analysis and qPCR. Neutralizing anti-leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) IgG or control IgG was administered to a group of wild-type animals prior to RSV infection.
Results and discussion
RSV-infected A549 and SAE cells release a network of cytokines, including newly identified RSV-inducible cytokines LIF, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), stem cell factor (SCF), CCL27, CXCL12 and stem cell growth factor beta (SCGF-β). These RSV-inducible cytokines were also observed in the airways of mice during an infection. To identify the regulation of RSV inducible cytokines, Mavs and Trif deficient animals were infected with RSV. In vivo induction of airway IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(p40), IFN-γ, CCL2, CCL5, CCL3, CXCL1, IP-10/CXCL10, IL-22, MIG/CXCL9 and MIF were dependent on Mavs expression in mice. Loss of Trif expression in mice altered the RSV induction of IL-1β, IL-5, CXCL12, MIF, LIF, CXCL12 and IFN-γ. Silencing of retinoic acid–inducible gene-1 (RIG-I) expression in A549 cells had a greater impact on RSV-inducible cytokines than melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), and Trif expression. To evaluate the role of LIF in the airways during RSV infection, animals were treated with neutralizing anti-LIF IgG, which enhanced RSV pathology observed with increased airspace protein content, apoptosis and airway hyperresponsiveness compared to control IgG treatment.
Conclusions
RSV infection in the epithelium induces a network of immune factors to counter infection, primarily in a RIG-I dependent manner. Expression of LIF protects the lung from lung injury and enhanced pathology during RSV infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0041-4
PMCID: PMC4189665  PMID: 25277705
Respiratory syncytial virus; Immune response; Pathogen recognition receptors; Gene expression
22.  Targeting CD137 Enhances Vaccine-Elicited Anti-RSV CD8+ T Cell Responses in Aged Mice 
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in children and the elderly. There are no vaccines for RSV in use. Due to immunosenescence, the immunologic requirements for a successful RSV vaccine in the elderly might differ from a RSV vaccine for young children. Using an aged mouse model of RSV pathogenesis, we found that aged mice had impaired antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and delayed RSV clearance compared to young mice. In order to study vaccine-elicited RSV-specific CD8+ T cells in aged mice, we used a peptide vaccine approach. TriVax is a co-mixture of a peptide representing immunodominant RSV CD8+ T cell epitope M282–90, a Toll-like receptor agonist (polyI:C), and a costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody. TriVax vaccination generated robust, polyfunctional, and protective CD8+ T cell responses in young BALB/c mice but not in 18 month old (aged) BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that treatment of aged mice with agonistic anti (α)-CD137 (41BB) monoclonal antibody will partially restore T cell responses and TriVax efficacy in aged mice. We immunized 18-month old BALB/c mice twice with TriVax + α-41BB mAb or TriVax + isotype control Ab. Co-administration of α-41BB mAb with TriVax enhanced RSV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and TriVax efficacy in challenge experiments. Triggering the 41BB costimulatory pathway may be a strategy for enhancing T cell responses to vaccines in the elderly.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300453
PMCID: PMC3926103  PMID: 24285837
23.  Refining the Balance of Attenuation and Immunogenicity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Targeted Codon Deoptimization of Virulence Genes 
mBio  2014;5(5):e01704-14.
ABSTRACT
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen for lower respiratory tract illness in children for which there is no licensed vaccine. Live-attenuated RSV vaccines are the most clinically advanced in children, but achieving an optimal balance of attenuation and immunogenicity is challenging. One way to potentially retain or enhance immunogenicity of attenuated virus is to mutate virulence genes that suppress host immune responses. The NS1 and NS2 virulence genes of the RSV A2 strain were codon deoptimized according to either human or virus codon usage bias, and the resulting recombinant viruses (dNSh and dNSv, respectively) were rescued by reverse genetics. RSV dNSh exhibited the desired phenotype of reduced NS1 and NS2 expression. RSV dNSh was attenuated in BEAS-2B and primary differentiated airway epithelial cells but not in HEp-2 or Vero cells. In BALB/c mice, RSV dNSh exhibited a lower viral load than did A2, and yet it induced slightly higher levels of RSV-neutralizing antibodies than did A2. RSV A2 and RSV dNSh induced equivalent protection against challenge strains A/1997/12-35 and A2-line19F. RSV dNSh caused less STAT2 degradation and less NF-κB activation than did A2 in vitro. Serial passage of RSV dNSh in BEAS-2B cells did not result in mutations in the deoptimized sequences. Taken together, RSV dNSh was moderately attenuated, more immunogenic, and equally protective compared to wild-type RSV and genetically stable.
IMPORTANCE
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of infant viral death in the United States and worldwide, and no vaccine is available. Live-attenuated RSV vaccines are the most studied in children but have suffered from genetic instability and low immunogenicity. In order to address both obstacles, we selectively changed the codon usage of the RSV nonstructural (NS) virulence genes NS1 and NS2 to the least-used codons in the human genome (deoptimization). Compared to parental RSV, the codon-deoptimized NS1/NS2 RSV was attenuated in vitro and in mice but induced higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and equivalent protection against challenge. We identified a new attenuating module that retains immunogenicity and is genetically stable, achieved through specific targeting of nonessential virulence genes by codon usage deoptimization.
doi:10.1128/mBio.01704-14
PMCID: PMC4173764  PMID: 25249281
24.  Resveratrol promotes myogenesis and hypertrophy in murine myoblasts 
Background
Nutrigenomics elucidate the ability of bioactive food components to influence gene expression, protein synthesis, degradation and post-translational modifications.
Resveratrol (RSV), natural polyphenol found in grapes and in other fruits, has a plethora of health benefits in a variety of human diseases: cardio- and neuroprotection, immune regulation, cancer chemoprevention, DNA repair, prevention of mitochondrial disorder, avoidance of obesity-related diseases. In skeletal muscle, RSV acts on protein catabolism and muscle function, conferring resistance against oxidative stress, injury and cell death, but its action mechanisms and protein targets in myogenesis process are not completely known. Myogenesis is a dynamic multistep process regulated by Myogenic Regulator Factors (MRFs), responsible of the commitment of myogenic cell into skeletal muscle: mononucleated undifferentiated myoblasts break free from cell cycle, elongate and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be defined as a result of an increase in the size of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers accompanied by increased protein synthesis, mainly regulated by Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways.
Aim of this work was the study of RSV effects on proliferation, differentiation process and hypertrophy in C2C12 murine cells.
Methods
To study proliferative phase, cells were incubated in growth medium with/without RSV (0.1 or 25 μM) until reaching sub confluence condition (24, 48, 72 h). To examine differentiation, at 70% confluence, cells were transferred in differentiation medium both with/without RSV (0.1 or 25 μM) for 24, 48, 72, 96 hours. After 72 hours of differentiation, the genesis of hypertrophy in neo-formed myotubes was analyzed.
Results
Data showed that RSV regulates cell cycle exit and induces C2C12 muscle differentiation. Furthermore, RSV might control MRFs and muscle-specific proteins synthesis. In late differentiation, RSV has positive effects on hypertrophy: RSV stimulates IGF-1 signaling pathway, in particular AKT and ERK 1/2 protein activation, AMPK protein level and induces hypertrophic morphological changes in neo-formed myotubes modulating cytoskeletal proteins expression.
Conclusions
RSV might control cell cycle promoting myogenesis and hypertrophy in vitro, opening a novel field of application of RSV in clinical conditions characterized by chronic functional and morphological muscle impairment.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-310
PMCID: PMC3867424  PMID: 24330398
Resveratrol; Proliferation; Myoblast; Differentiation; Myocyte; Myogenic Regulatory Factors; Myotube; Hypertrophy
25.  In vitro and in vivo Functional Characterization of Gutless Recombinant SV40-derived CFTR Vectors 
Gene therapy  2009;17(2):227-237.
In cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory failure caused by progressive airway obstruction and tissue damage is primarily a result of the aberrant inflammatory responses to lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite considerable improvement in patient survival, conventional therapies are mainly supportive. Recent progress towards gene therapy for CF has been encouraging; however, several factors such as immune response and transduced cell turnover remain as potential limitations to CF gene therapy. As alternative gene therapy vectors for CF we examined the feasibility of using SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) which may circumvent some of these obstacles. To accommodate the large CFTR cDNA, we removed not only SV40 Tag genes, but also all capsid genes. We therefore tested whether “gutless” rSV40s could be packaged and were able to express a functional human CFTR cDNA. Results from our in vitro analysis determined that rSV40-CFTR was able to successfully result in the expression of CFTR protein which localized to the plasma membrane and restored channel function to CFTR deficient cells. Similarly in vivo experiments delivering rSV40-CFTR to the lungs of Cftr−/− mice resulted in a reduction of the pathology associated with intra-tracheal pseudomona aeruginosa challenge. rSV40-CFTR treated mice had had less weight loss when compared to control treated mice as well as demonstrably reduced lung inflammation as evidence by histology and reduced inflammatory cytokines in the BAL. The reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels led to an evident decrease in neutrophil influx to the airways. These results indicate that further study of the application of rSV40-CFTR to CF gene therapy is warranted.
doi:10.1038/gt.2009.137
PMCID: PMC2820588  PMID: 19890354
SV40; CFTR; Cystic Fibrosis; Gene Therapy; pseudomonas; gutless viral vectors

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