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1.  A novel nasal powder formulation of glucagon: toxicology studies in animal models 
Glucagon nasal powder (GNP), a novel intranasal formulation of glucagon being developed to treat insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia, contains synthetic glucagon (10 % w/w), beta-cyclodextrin, and dodecylphosphocholine. The safety of this formulation was evaluated in four studies in animal models.
The first study evaluated 28-day sub-chronic toxicology in rats treated intranasally with 1 and 2 mg of GNP/day (0.1 and 0.2 mg glucagon/rat/day). The second study evaluated 28-day sub-chronic toxicology in dogs administered 20 and 40 mg of formulation/dog/day (2 and 4 mg glucagon/dog/day) intranasally. A pulmonary insufflation study assessed acute toxicology following intra-tracheal administration of 0.5 mg of GNP (0.05 mg glucagon) to rats. Local tolerance to 30 mg of GNP (equivalent to 3 mg glucagon, the final dose for humans) was tested through direct administration into the eyes of rabbits.
There were no test article-related adverse effects on body weight and/or food consumption, ophthalmology, electrocardiography, hematology, coagulation parameters, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, or organ weights, and no macroscopic findings at necropsy in any study. In rats, direct intra-tracheal insufflation at a dose of 0.5 mg of GNP/rat (0.05 mg glucagon/rat) did not result in adverse clinical, macroscopic, or microscopic effects. In dogs, the only adverse findings following sub-chronic use were transient (<30 s) salivation and sneezing immediately post-treatment and mild to moderate reversible histological changes to the nasal mucosa. Daily dosing over 28 days in rats resulted in mild to moderate, unilateral or bilateral erosion/ulceration of the olfactory epithelium, frequently with minimal to mild, acute to sub-acute inflammation of the lamina propria at the dorsal turbinates of the nasal cavity in 2/10 males and 3/10 females in the high-dose group (0.2 mg glucagon/day). These lesions resolved completely over 14 days. Histological examination of tissues from both sub-chronic studies in dogs and rats revealed no microscopic findings. In rabbits, clinical observations noted in the GNP-treated eye and/or surrounding areas included ≥1 of the following: clear discharge, red conjunctiva, partial closure, and swelling of the peri-orbital area, which correlated with erythema and edema noted during ocular observations and grading.
The studies reported here revealed no safety concerns associated with GNP in animal models. Studies published earlier have highlighted the local safety profile of intranasally administered cyclodextrins (a component of GNP). The choline group, the phosphate group, and the saturated 12-carbon aliphatic chain that are present in the dodecylphosphocholine excipient used in GNP are all present in the phospholipids and lecithins seen ubiquitously in mammalian cell membranes and are unlikely to pose safety concerns; this notion is supported by several studies conducted by the authors that revealed no safety concerns. Taken together, these results suggest that intranasal delivery of GNP holds promise as a future rescue medication for use by caregivers to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
This novel drug product is well tolerated in animal models.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40360-015-0026-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4621930  PMID: 26502880
Diabetes; Glucagon; Hypoglycemia; Insulin; Intranasal; Peptide hormones
2.  Borrelia burgdorferi migrates into joint capsules and causes an up-regulation of interleukin-8 in synovial membranes of dogs experimentally infected with ticks. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(4):1273-1285.
Twenty 6-week-old specific-pathogen-free beagles were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick challenge, and five uninfected dogs served as controls. During the study, all dogs were monitored for infection, clinical signs, and antibody response against B. burgdorferi. During episodes of lameness or postmortem, synovial fluids from each dog were examined for volume, cell number, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) content, cell viability, and chemotactic activity. Twenty-five tissues collected postmortem from each dog were tested for interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA, presence of live spirochetes, and histopathological changes. Thirteen infected dogs (group A), which seroconverted rapidly (maximum titers within 50 to 90 days), developed acute and severe mono- or oligoarthritis almost exclusively in the limb closest to the tick bite (median incubation period, 66 days). Synovial fluids of the arthritic joints collected during episodes of lameness had significantly elevated volume, cell count, PMN proportion, cell viability, and chemotactic activity for PMNs. The remaining joints of the same animals contained synovial fluids with elevated chemotactic activity and cell viability. Twelve dogs tested positive for IL-8 mRNA in multiple tissues (synovia, pericardium, and peritoneum), and 10 dogs expressed TNF-alpha mRNA, but only in the tributary lymph nodes of the inflamed joints. Histological examinations revealed severe poly- or oligoarthritis and moderate to severe cortical hyperplasia in draining lymph nodes of the inflamed joints in all 13 dogs. Seven infected dogs with mild or no clinical signs (group B) seroconverted slowly (peak titers after 90 days), and only some joint fluids showed chemotactic activity, which on average was lower than that in inflamed and noninflamed joints from dogs in group A. Four dogs expressed IL-8 mRNA (in the synovia and pericardium), and three dogs had TNF-alpha mRNA in tributary lymph nodes. Histologically, nonsuppurative arthritis was found in multiple joints, and mild to moderate cortical hyperplasia was found in draining lymph nodes. Five uninfected dogs without lameness (group C) had normal synovial fluids and tissues. In all infected dogs, live spirochetes were demonstrated more frequently in tissues of the somatic quadrant closest to the tick bite than in tissues further from the site of infection, suggesting that dissemination of B. burgdorferi occurs more by migration than by blood-borne spread. From these studies employing a canine model of B. burgdorferi infection, we conclude that IL-8 is involved in the pathogenesis of acute Lyme arthritis.
PMCID: PMC175128  PMID: 9119462
Experimental eye research  2016;146:341-353.
The effect of acute exposure to various intensities of white light on visual behavior and retinal structure was evaluated in the T4R RHO dog, a naturally-occurring model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to a mutation in the Rhodopsin gene. A total of 14 dogs (ages: 4–5.5 months) were used in this study: 3 homozygous mutant RHOT4R/T4R, 8 heterozygous mutant RHOT4R/+, and 3 normal wild-type (WT) dogs. Following overnight dark adaptation, the left eyes were acutely exposed to bright white light with a monocular Ganzfeld dome, while the contralateral right eye was shielded. Each of the 3 homozygous (RHOT4R/T4R) mutant dogs had a single unilateral light exposure (LE) to a different (low, moderate, and high) dose of white light (corneal irradiance/illuminance: 0.1 mW/cm2, 170 lux; 0.5 mW/cm2, 820 lux; or 1 mW/cm2, 1590 lux) for 1min. All 8 heterozygous (RHOT4R/+) mutant dogs were exposed once to the same moderate dose of light. The 3 WT dogs had their left eyes exposed 1, 2, or 3 times to the same highest dose of light. Visual function prior to LE and at 2 weeks and 33 weeks after exposure was objectively assessed in the RHOT4R/T4R and WT dogs by using an obstacle-avoidance course. Transit time through the obstacle course was measured under different scotopic to photopic ambient illuminations. Morphological retinal changes were evaluated by non-invasive in vivo cSLO/sdOCT imaging and histology before and at several time-points (2–36 weeks) after light exposure. The analysis of the transit time through the obstacle course showed that no differences were observed in any of mutant or WT dogs at 2 weeks and 33 weeks post LE. The RHOT4R/T4R retina exposed to the lowest dose of white light showed no obvious changes in ONL thickness at 2 weeks, but mild decrease was noted 36 weeks after LE. The RHOT4R/T4R retina that received a moderate dose (showed an obvious decrease in ONL thickness along the superior and temporal meridians at 2 weeks post LE with more severe damage at 36 weeks post LE in all four meridians. The RHOT4R/T4R retina exposed to the high dose showed at 2 weeks after LE extensive ONL damage in all four meridians. This light intensity did not cause any retinal damage in WT dogs even after repeated (up to 3) LE. Analysis of ONL thickness in heterozygous mutant dogs exposed to the moderate dose of light confirmed the increased sensitivity to light damage of the superior/tapetal retina, and the occurrence of an ongoing cell death process several weeks after the acute LE. In conclusion, a short single exposure to a dose of white light that is not retinotoxic in WT dogs causes in the T4R RHO retina an acute loss of ONL in the central to mid peripheral region that keeps progressing over the course of several weeks. However, this severe retinal damage does not affect visual behavior presumably because of islands of surviving photoreceptors found in the area centralis including the newly discovered canine fovea-like area, and the lack of damage to peripheral photoreceptors.
PMCID: PMC5004782  PMID: 27085210
Rhodopsin; ADRP; light damage; retinal degeneration; vision; canine model
Experiments to determine the effect of furnishing an ample supply of sodium chloride on the toxemia of pyloric and intestinal obstruction are reported. A fall in chlorides is the first and seemingly most significant change to take place in the blood after pyloric and intestinal obstruction. The chloride is apparently utilized by the body as a protective measure against the primary toxic substance. Two dogs with pyloric obstruction were given 50 cc. of 10 per cent NaCl subcutaneously daily. One lived 3 days, the other 4. The blood showed little change, except a marked terminal rise in chlorides. Animals given a like amount of distilled water or 25 per cent glucose showed the changes typical of untreated animals. The obstruction of the pylorus was released in six dogs 48 to 72 hours after the initial operation. Two died within 24 hours after the second operation with a high non-protein nitrogen in the blood. Two survived but showed a high level of non-protein nitrogen in the blood and a high nitrogen excretion in the urine, low blood chlorides, and a marked alkalosis. One dog in such a state died on the 13th day from peritonitis, arising in a wound infection. The other showed a marked fall in non-protein nitrogen in the blood following the administration of 10 gm. of sodium chloride by mouth, but died following the intravenous injection of 25 per cent sodium chloride. Two animals were given 50 cc. of 10 per cent NaCl subcutaneously, at the time of the second operation. The blood rapidly returned to normal and complete recovery followed. Two dogs with the duodenum obstructed by section and inversion of the cut ends were treated with 10 per cent sodium chloride after the obstruction had existed for 48 hours and the characteristic blood changes had developed. The non-protein nitrogen returned to normal within 48 hours after treatment was begun. One dog died following a lateral anastomosis for relief of the obstruction. A second operation was not attempted in the other animal. Two dogs in which the duodenum was obstructed by section and inversion of the cut ends were given 500 cc. of 0.85 per cent NaCl subcutaneously on the day of operation and each day thereafter until death. One dog lived 21 days, the other 28. Both dogs showed a marked alkalosis, but never any rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood. The animals at autopsy showed intussusception of the ileum with extensive ulceration. In one there was a perforation and terminal peritonitis. The operation wounds healed normally. Three dogs with section of the duodenum were given 500 cc. of distilled water every day. One died in 24 hours, one in 48 hours, and the third in 72 hours. Autopsy showed no cause for death other than toxemia. One dog with section of the duodenum was given 500 cc. of 2 per cent glucose every day. The blood showed a rapid rise in non-protein nitrogen and carbon dioxide-combining power, and a fall in chlorides. The animal died 72 hours after operation. Three dogs with section of the duodenum were given 500 cc. of 1 per cent sodium bicarbonate every day. One dog died in 72 hours, one lived 7 days, and the third lived 9 days. All developed a high non-protein nitrogen in the blood and two showed marked clinical symptoms of an alkalosis. These results demonstrate that solutions of sodium chloride have a marked effect in preventing and controlling the toxemia of pyloric and intestinal obstruction as shown in clinical symptoms and in chemical changes in the blood. Dogs given an abundant supply of distilled water died more quickly than untreated control animals. Solutions of glucose have no specific value, and sodium bicarbonate solutions prolong life only a short while. Good therapeutic results have been obtained with very concentrated sodium chloride solutions, and with dry sodium chloride given by mouth. It seems evident that sodium chloride has a specific action in preventing and possibly in controlling the changes produced by the toxic body. Sodium chloride is a valuable therapeutic agent in pyloric and high intestinal obstruction.
PMCID: PMC2128422  PMID: 19868771
5.  The beagle dog MicroRNA tissue atlas: identifying translatable biomarkers of organ toxicity 
BMC Genomics  2016;17:649.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are varied in length, under 25 nucleotides, single-stranded noncoding RNA that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression via translational repression or mRNA degradation. Elevated levels of miRNAs can be detected in systemic circulation after tissue injury, suggesting that miRNAs are released following cellular damage. Because of their remarkable stability, ease of detection in biofluids, and tissue specific expression patterns, miRNAs have the potential to be specific biomarkers of organ injury. The identification of miRNA biomarkers requires a systematic approach: 1) determine the miRNA tissue expression profiles within a mammalian species via next generation sequencing; 2) identify enriched and/or specific miRNA expression within organs of toxicologic interest, and 3) in vivo validation with tissue-specific toxicants. While miRNA tissue expression has been reported in rodents and humans, little data exists on miRNA tissue expression in the dog, a relevant toxicology species. The generation and evaluation of the first dog miRNA tissue atlas is described here.
Analysis of 16 tissues from five male beagle dogs identified 106 tissue enriched miRNAs, 60 of which were highly enriched in a single organ, and thus may serve as biomarkers of organ injury. A proof of concept study in dogs dosed with hepatotoxicants evaluated a qPCR panel of 15 tissue enriched miRNAs specific to liver, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, testes, and brain. Dogs with elevated serum levels of miR-122 and miR-885 had a correlative increase of alanine aminotransferase, and microscopic analysis confirmed liver damage. Other non-liver enriched miRNAs included in the screening panel were unaffected. Eli Lilly authors created a complimentary Sprague Dawely rat miRNA tissue atlas and demonstrated increased pancreas enriched miRNA levels in circulation, following caerulein administration in rat and dog.
The dog miRNA tissue atlas provides a resource for biomarker discovery and can be further mined with refinement of dog genome annotation. The 60 highly enriched tissue miRNAs identified within the dog miRNA tissue atlas could serve as diagnostic biomarkers and will require further validation by in vivo correlation to histopathology. Once validated, these tissue enriched miRNAs could be combined into a powerful qPCR screening panel to identify organ toxicity during early drug development.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-2958-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4989286  PMID: 27535741
6.  Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0124174.
Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure related periventricular loss of white matter tissue, as occurs in internal hydrocephalus.
PMCID: PMC4418575  PMID: 25938575
7.  “Alas poor Yorick”: What retrospective analysis of canine skulls can tell us about the impact of environmental factors on health 
Necropsies and extensive histological evaluation for clinical and sub-clinical disease of approximately three hundred Portuguese Water dogs are available as part of an ongoing study to assess their state of health at end of life. Throughout life these dogs enjoyed a variety of lifestyles and environments. Here we carry out retrospective quantitative assessments of life-time dietary input and physical activity for each dog. To do this, collagens from skull vault bone and from dentine have been analyzed for ratios of stable isotopes to determine differences in diet that individual dogs experienced during late or early life respectively. Robustness of skull bone (weight/unit of skull size) was used as a relative indicator of the amount of physical activity experienced during a dog’s lifetime. These environmental parameters were correlated with the frequency and severity of specific disease processes determined at necropsy. Both measures were shown to exert significant low-level (r < 25%) differential effects on specific diseases. The value of retrospective analysis of environmental influences is discussed.
PMCID: PMC3891401  PMID: 24436781
Portuguese Water Dog; Necropsy; Histopathology; Exercise; Nutrition; Stable Isotope; Skull; Dentine; Collagen
8.  Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs 
Virology Journal  2015;12:44.
Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies.
The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011–2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs’ serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured.
Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions.
Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to cardiogenic lesions.
PMCID: PMC4374540  PMID: 25889104
Canine; Pseudorabies virus; Pathogenesis; Cardiac injury; Hemorrhage; Ganglioneuritis
9.  Prevalence and varieties of Helicobacter species in dogs from random sources and pet dogs: animal and public health implications. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(12):3165-3170.
Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs.
PMCID: PMC229476  PMID: 8940465
10.  Myocarditis in dogs: etiology, clinical and histopathological features (11 cases: 2007–2013) 
Irish Veterinary Journal  2014;67(1):28.
Myocarditis is a disease caused by numerous etiological factors and characterized by a non-specific course. The only method allowing for precise characterization of inflammatory changes is the histopathological examination of heart muscle specimens. The study was conducted on heart muscle preparations from 11 dogs with ante-mortem diagnosis of cardiac disease. Animals presented with a poor response to an applied treatment or had suspected sudden cardiac death. The heart specimens were taken post-mortem, preserved and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Subsequently, the presence and intensity of changes, i.e. inflammatory infiltration, the amount of connective tissue and features of cardiomyocyte degeneration were estimated. The specimens from dogs suspected of having a myocarditis of bacteriological etiology underwent additional bacteriological and immunohistochemical examination.
The examination revealed an inflammatory infiltration of variable intensity combined with the degenerative changes in all dogs. There were vegetative and abnormal cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in 6 dogs. A Staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed in one dog and an acute coronary syndrome with neutrophil infiltration was revealed in another one.
Although the clinical pattern in patients with myocarditis is diverse, the definitive morphological diagnosis is made based on the histopathological examination. This examination can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of myocarditis combined with the presence of spore forms of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the heart specimens of dogs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13620-014-0028-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4311452  PMID: 25642323
Myocarditis; Heart; Borrelia burgdorferi; Dog
11.  On dogs, people, and a rabies epidemic: results from a sociocultural study in Bali, Indonesia 
Previously free of rabies, Bali experienced an outbreak in 2008, which has since caused a large number of human fatalities. In response, both mass dog culling and vaccination have been implemented. In order to assess potential community-driven interventions for optimizing rabies control, we conducted a study exploring the relationship between dogs, rabies, and the Balinese community. The objectives of this study were to: i) understand the human-dog relationship in Bali; ii) explore local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) relating to rabies; and iii) assess potential community-driven activities to optimize rabies control and surveillance.
Conducted between February and June 2011, the study combined a questionnaire (n = 300; CI = 95 %; error margin = 5 %) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in 10 villages in the Denpasar, Gianyar, and Karangasem regencies. The questionnaire included a Likert scale to assess community knowledge and attitudes. For the knowledge assessment, three points were given for a correct answer, while wrong answers and uncertain answers were given zero points. For the attitudes assessment, three points were given for a positive answer, two points for a neutral answer, and one point for a negative answer. Respondent knowledge was categorized as good (score >40), fair (score 20–40), or poor (score <20), based on a maximum total score 60. Respondent attitudes were categorized as positive (score >26), neutral (score 13–26), or negative (score <13), based on a maximum total score of 39. Mixed-gender FGDs in each sub-village (banjar) were conducted, each involving 7–15 participants to complement the questionnaire results. On a follow-up research trip in mid-2013, the data analysis was triangulated and validated using semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire data were analyzed descriptively using SPSS 17.0, while qualitative data from interviews and FGDs were analyzed manually according to accepted methods of coding and memo writing. The chi-square test was then used to analyze the statistical relationships between knowledge and attitudes of the respondents.
Out of the total 300 respondents, most were predominantly male (82 %), Hindu (99 %), married (96 %), older than 30 years of age (92 %), and owned dogs (72 %). Dog ownership was motivated by culture, personal taste, and function, with dogs was being used as guards (85 %) and companion animals (27 %), and was sometimes related to religious or traditional obligations (2 %). Relating to their culture and local beliefs, and eventually becoming their way of life, 79 % of respondents kept free-roaming dogs. With the rabies outbreak in Bali and Western breeds becoming more popular, more responsible dog ownership (leashing, confining, regular feeding) became more acceptable and changed community perceptions on keeping dogs, even though the sustainability of this practice cannot be gauged. In addition, the economic situation posed major problems in rural areas. The level of community knowledge about rabies and its associated control programs were generally fair and community attitudes were positive. However, community KAPs still need to be improved. A total of 74 % respondents reported to have vaccinated their dogs in 2011, but only few were found to report rabid animals to livestock officers (12 %) and a significant number believed that washing a bite wound was not important (62 %). Moreover, free-roaming dog practices and discarding of unwanted female puppies still continue and possibly create difficulties for rabies elimination as these practices potentially increase the stray dog population. We identified three major sociocultural aspects with potential for community-driven interventions to optimize current rabies elimination efforts: integrating local notions of ahimsa (non-violence) into education campaigns, engaging communities through the local banjar sociopolitical system, and working with traditional legal structures to increase local compliance with rabies control.
The human-dog relationship in Bali is multifaceted. Due to the uniqueness of the culture and the local beliefs, and encouraged by a socioeconomic aspect, a number of local practices were found to be constituting risk factors for continued rabies spread. Community knowledge and attitudes, which can consequently result in behavioral changes, needs to be improved across different genders, ages, educational backgrounds, and roles in the community, regardless of the individual village’s experiences with rabies. Furthermore, community-driven activities based on sociocultural conditioning and community capacity at the banjar and village levels, such as public awareness activities, vaccination, dog registration, dog population management, and rapid response to dog bites, were identified as being able to complement the rabies control program in Bali. The program also needs recognition or acknowledgement from governments, especially local government as well as regular mentoring to improve and sustain community participation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40249-015-0061-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4486702  PMID: 26137295
Bali; Rabies; Sociocultural; KAPs; Community-driven activities
12.  Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting 
Simple Summary
Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition.
When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.
PMCID: PMC5126774  PMID: 27854270
dogfighting; dog; aggression; veterinary; behavior; forensic; scar; wound; animal cruelty
A few findings which seem to be of importance may be pointed out:— Table I shows the analytical figures of serum-albumin, serum-globulin, and fibrin of the normal dog. The main difference between albumin and globulin appears in the relation of the precipitable to the non-precipitable total nitrogen and amino-nitrogen. Precipitable total nitrogen as well as amino-nitrogen is considerably larger in the albumin than in the globulin. In the cases of uranium nitrate nephritis (table II), the important figures approximate very closely those of normal serum-albumin. The samples from dog 3, that had been poisoned at the same time with phosphorous oil and uranium nitrate, show relatively large variations as compared with the figures from specimens from the other dogs, chiefly as regards the amino-nitrogen distribution: i. e., in dog 3, (1) the amount of amino-nitrogen to the total nitrogen in the solution before precipitation is higher; (2) the percentage of precipitable amino-nitrogen is larger; and (3) the ratio of precipitable amino-nitrogen to precipitable total nitrogen exceeds that of the other cases. All these changes, together with the fact that the total precipitable nitrogen did not undergo any quantitative variation, suggest that in the case of dog 3 the analyzed material contained a higher amount of lysin or cystin. It may further be mentioned that the analytical figures in this case differ also from those of the normal serum-albumin and still more from those of the serum-globulin. These changes, however, were not found in the case of dog 4, although this animal was treated in the same manner as the preceding dog. In the cases of nephritis in man (table III), striking differences were met with in the case of acute scarlet fever nephritis (No. 1a) and in the case (No. 2) of a patient with chronic nephritis and Pott's disease. This patient died a few weeks after the specimen for analysis was collected. The autopsy showed a general amyloidosis. The variations in both cases consist in a lowering of the ratio of amino-nitrogen to total nitrogen in the solution before precipitation, and corresponding to this, a fall of the same ratio in the filterable nitrogen. Such a change points to a relatively larger amount of prolin and oxyprolin or tryptophan in these cases. As a whole, one may conclude that Van Slyke's method, carefully applied and sufficiently controlled, may also be used for the study of urinary albumin. The results already obtained indicate that definite differences in the composition of urinary "albumin" may be detected. As yet it is premature to establish a definite relationship between the chemical composition of the "albumin" and the clinical or pathological conditions under which it appears, but it seems hopeful that further work may lead to the finding of such a relationship.
PMCID: PMC2124773  PMID: 19867474
14.  Post mortem computed tomography and core needle biopsy in comparison to autopsy in eleven bernese mountain dogs with histiocytic sarcoma 
BMC Veterinary Research  2015;11:229.
Bernese mountain dogs are reported to have a shorter life expectancy than other breeds. A major reason for this has been assigned to a high tumour prevalence, especially of histiocytic sarcoma. The efforts made by the breeding clubs to improve the longevity with the help of genetic tests and breeding value estimations are impeded by insufficiently reliable diagnoses regarding the cause of death. The current standard for post mortem examination in animals is performance of an autopsy. In human forensic medicine, imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are used with increasing frequency as a complement to autopsy. The present study investigates, whether post mortem computed tomography in combination with core needle biopsy is able to provide a definitive diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma. For this purpose we have analysed the results of post mortem computed tomography and core needle biopsy in eleven Bernese mountain dogs. In the subsequent autopsy, every dog had a definitive diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma, based on immunohistochemistry.
Computed tomography revealed space-occupying lesions in all dogs. Lesion detection by post mortem computed tomography was similar to lesion detection in autopsy for lung tissue (9 cases in computed tomography / 8 cases in autopsy), thoracic lymph nodes (9/8), spleen (6/7), kidney (2/2) and bone (3/3). Hepatic nodules, however, were difficult to detect with our scanning protocol (2/7). Histology of the core needle biopsies provided definitive diagnoses of histiocytic sarcoma in ten dogs, including confirmation by immunohistochemistry in six dogs. The biopsy samples of the remaining dog did not contain any identifiable neoplastic cells. Autolysis was the main reason for uncertain histological diagnoses.
Post mortem computed tomography is a fast and effective method for the detection of lesions suspicious for histiocytic sarcoma in pulmonary, thoracic lymphatic, splenic, osseous and renal tissue. Optimization of the procedure regarding the scanning protocol and tissue sample size and number will improve the accuracy of the method.
PMCID: PMC4556196  PMID: 26329821
Post mortem computed tomography; Core needle biopsy; Bernese mountain dog; Histiocytic sarcoma; Autopsy
15.  Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Dog 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(9):2368-2378.
In six adult pedigreed dogs the effects of high-cholesterol diets or bile diversion on the sizes of body cholesterol pools were studied at autopsy. Total body cholesterol was determined by measuring the cholesterol content of discrete organs and of the eviscerated carcass: neither cholesterol feeding nor bile diversion had altered total body cholesterol or the cholesterol content of individual organs and tissues. These results validated the conclusion based on sterol balance data obtained during life, that high-cholesterol feeding did not lead to substantial expansion of tissue cholesterol pools.
The total amount of exchangeable cholesterol in the animals with an intact enterohepatic circulation, when estimated from isotopic data, was essentially the same as that measured chemically: this indicated that there was little or no nonexchangeable cholesterol in these dogs, except in skin and nervous tissue, regardless of the cholesterol content of the diet. This correspondence of estimates was not obtained in the bile-diverted dogs: we propose that the defect in the isotopic estimates was due to the accelerated rate of cholesterol synthesis in these animals.
Gross and microscopic morphology of all organs and tissues was examined. Abnormal findings were limited to the biliary tract and the urinary collecting system of the two bile-diverted dogs: multiple bilirubinate gallstones were found, and mild pyelitis and ureteritis were present on the side of the bilio-renal shunt, but the urinary bladder was normal. Histologic evidence of moderate degree of cholangitis was found in one of the two bile-shunted dogs, but in neither dog was there evidence of impedance of bile flow.
PMCID: PMC333041  PMID: 4727465
16.  Concentrations of cardiac Troponin I before and after ovariohysterectomy in 46 female dogs with pyometra 
Canine pyometra is a common disease in countries where routine spaying of young dogs is not common practice. This disease is known to lead to systemic inflammation potentially affecting multiple organs in the body, including the heart. Cardiac-specific Troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive marker of myocardial cell damage, which can result from ischemia, trauma, toxins or inflammation. Dogs with pyometra are also exposed to anaesthesia which can potentially result in myocardial cell damage. The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the occurrence of myocardial cell damage as indicated by increased serum concentrations of cTnI in dogs with pyometra and relate these to presence of systemic inflammation and 2) to evaluate the change in cTnI-concentrations after anaesthesia and surgery.
Serum cTnI concentration was measured preoperatively and one day after surgery in 46 female dogs with pyometra and 15 female dogs that underwent surgery for other reasons (ovariohysterectomy and mammary tumours).
Forty-six female dogs of different breeds diagnosed with pyometra were included. The dogs had a median age of 8.5 years (IQR 7.5–10) and a median weight of 29 kg (IQR 9–32). Of the 46 dogs, 37 (80%) fulfilled the chosen criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at inclusion. Thirteen (28%) of the dogs had increased cTnI concentrations (> 0.2 μg/l) before surgery and 18 (39%) had increased cTnI-concentrations the day after surgery. The cTnI concentrations in the 13 dogs with increased preoperative cTnI concentrations decreased in 8 dogs, increased in 4 dogs, and was unchanged in one dog. Seven dogs with nondetectable preoperative cTnI concentrations had increased postoperative concentrations. The only significant association between the studied laboratory or clinical variables (including SIRS) and cTnI concentration was preoperative percentage band neutrophils (PBN) and postoperative cTnI concentration (P = 0.016). In total, 20 dogs (43%) had increased pre- or postoperative cTnI concentrations. Seven dogs (15%) had pre-or postoperative concentrations of cTnI of 1.0 μg/l or higher.
Mild to moderate increases in cTnI appears to be common in dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, but the clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. None of the studied clinical variables were found to reliably predict increased preoperative cTnI concentrations. Because of the pre- and postoperative variation in cTnI concentrations, it was not possible to identify a negative effect of anaesthesia and surgery on myocardial cell integrity.
PMCID: PMC2546406  PMID: 18786242
17.  Correlation of renal histopathology with renal echogenicity in dogs and cats: an ex-vivo quantitative study 
Increased cortical or cortical and medullary echogenicity is one of the most common signs of chronic or acute kidney disease in dogs and cats. Subjective evaluation of the echogenicity is reported to be unreliable. Patient and technical-related factors affect in-vivo quantitative evaluation of the echogenicity of parenchymal organs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between histopathology and ex-vivo renal cortical echogenicity in dogs and cats devoid of any patient and technical-related biases.
Kidney samples were collected from 68 dog and 32 cat cadavers donated by the owners to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Padua and standardized ultrasonographic images of each sample were collected. The echogenicity of the renal cortex was quantitatively assessed by means of mean gray value (MGV), and then histopathological analysis was performed. Statistical analysis to evaluate the influence of histological lesions on MGV was performed. The differentiation efficiency of MGV to detect pathological changes in the kidneys was calculated for dogs and cats. Statistical analysis revealed that only glomerulosclerosis was an independent determinant of echogenicity in dogs whereas interstitial nephritis, interstitial necrosis and fibrosis were independent determinants of echogenicity in cats. The global influence of histological lesions on renal echogenicity was higher in cats (23%) than in dogs (12%).
Different histopathological lesions influence the echogenicity of the kidneys in dogs and cats. Moreover, MGV is a poor test for distinguishing between normal and pathological kidneys in the dog with a sensitivity of 58.3% and specificity of 59.8%. Instead, it seems to perform globally better in the cat, resulting in a fair test, with a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 56%.
PMCID: PMC4413530  PMID: 25909709
Kidney; Echogenicity; Mean Gray Value; Histopathology
18.  Genetic regulation of canine skeletal traits: trade-offs between the hind limbs and forelimbs in the fox and dog 
Genetic variation in functionally integrated skeletal traits can be maintained over 10 million years despite bottlenecks and stringent selection. Here, we describe an analysis of the genetic architecture of the canid axial skeleton using populations of the Portuguese Water Dog Canis familiaris) and silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). Twenty-one skeletal metrics taken from radiographs of the forelimbs and hind limbs of the fox and dog were used to construct separate anatomical principal component (PC) matrices of the two species. In both species, 15 of the 21 PCs exhibited significant heritability, ranging from 25% to 70%. The second PC, in both species, represents a trade-off in which limb-bone width is inversely correlated with limb-bone length. PC2 accounts for approximately 15% of the observed skeletal variation, ~30% of the variation in shape. Many of the other significant PCs affect very small amounts of variation (e.g., 0.2–2%) along trade-off axes that partition function between the forelimbs and hind limbs. These PCs represent shape axes in which an increase in size of an element of the forelimb is associated with a decrease in size of an element of the hind limb and vice versa. In most cases, these trade-offs are heritable in both species and genetic loci have been identified in the Portuguese Water Dog for many of these. These PCs, present in both the dog and the fox, include ones that affect lengths of the forelimb versus the hind limb, length of the forefoot versus that of the hind foot, muscle moment (i.e., lever) arms of the forelimb versus hind limb, and cortical thickness of the bones of the forelimb versus hind limb. These inverse relationships suggest that genetic regulation of the axial skeleton results, in part, from the action of genes that influence suites of functionally integrated traits. Their presence in both dogs and foxes suggests that the genes controlling the regulation of these PCs of the forelimb versus hind limb may be found in other tetrapod taxa.
PMCID: PMC2367254  PMID: 18458753
19.  Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem histologic evaluation of tooth germs: an observational, transversal study 
Head & Face Medicine  2015;11:18.
Hypodontia is the most frequent developmental anomaly of the orofacial complex, and its detection in prenatal ultrasound may indicate the presence of congenital malformations, genetic syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities.
To date, only a few studies have evaluated the histological relationship of human tooth germs identified by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography. In order to analyze whether two-dimensional ultrasonography of tooth germs may be successfully used for identifying genetic syndromes, prenatal ultrasound images of fetal tooth germs obtained from a Portuguese population sample were compared with histological images obtained from fetal autopsies.
Observational, descriptive, transversal study. The study protocol followed the ethical principles outlined by the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Dental Medicine, University of Porto (FMDUP, Porto, Portugal) and of the Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho (CHVNG/EPE, Porto, Portugal) as well as by the CGC Genetics Embryofetal Pathology Laboratory. Eighty-five fetuses examined by prenatal ultrasound screening from May 2011 to August 2012 had an indication for autopsy following spontaneous fetal death or medical termination of pregnancy. Of the 85 fetuses, 37 (43.5%) were randomly selected for tooth germ evaluation by routine histopathological analysis. Fetuses who were up to 30 weeks of gestation, and whose histological pieces were not representative of all maxillary tooth germs was excluded. Twenty four fetus between the 13th and 30th weeks of gestation fulfilled the parameters to autopsy.
Twenty four fetuses were submitted to histological evaluation and were determined the exact number, morphology, and mineralization of their tooth germs. All tooth germs were identifiable with ultrasonography as early as the 13th week of gestation. Of the fetuses autopsied, 41.7% had hypodontia (29.1% maxillary hypodontia and 20.9% mandibular hypodontia).
This results indicate that prenatal ultrasound is a reliable method for detecting of hypodontia an early gestational ages. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these results.
PMCID: PMC4440249  PMID: 25962445
Tooth germ; Tooth buds; Ultrasound; Prenatal; Diagnosis; Histology
20.  Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog 
Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed.
The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (± 0.16); there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49). Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus.
The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs.
PMCID: PMC1481556  PMID: 16670022
21.  The association between dog walking, physical activity and owner’s perceptions of safety: cross-sectional evidence from the US and Australia 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:1010.
We examined the relationship between dog walking and physical activity within and between four US cities and Australia and investigated if dog walking is associated with higher perceived safety in US and Australian cities.
Dog owners (n = 1113) in the Pet Connections Study completed a cross-sectional survey. Data were collected across four study sites; three in the US (San Diego, Nashville, Portland) and a fourth in Australia (Perth). Physical activity, local walking, dog walking, and individual and community perceptions of safety were analysed for dog walkers and non-dog walkers for each study site. Between-city comparisons were examined for dog walkers.
Across all study sites, dog walkers walked with their dog 5–6 times/week for a total of 93–109 min/week and achieved ≥30mins of physical activity on more days/week and walked in their neighbourhood more often/week, compared with non-dog walkers (all p ≤ 0.01). Compared with Perth, significantly fewer dog walkers walked in their local park in the three US study sites. San Diego dog walkers walked more often in their neighborhood/week compared with Perth dog walkers (all p ≤ 0.05).
In Portland, dog walkers perceived significantly more neighborhood problems and in Nashville dog walkers perceived a significantly higher level of neighborhood natural surveillance (i.e., ‘eyes on the street’), compared with non-dog walkers (both p ≤ 0.05). Among dog walkers, females were more likely than males to feel safer walking with their dog in their neighborhood (OR = 2.49; 95 % CI = 1.76, 3.53). Compared with dog walkers in Perth, dog walkers from each of the US study sites felt safer in their neighborhood and perceived there was more neighborhood surveillance (all p ≤ 0.001).
This multi-site international study provides further support for the potential for dog walking to increase levels of daily physical activity. Walking with a dog may be a mechanism for increasing perceptions of neighborhood safety and getting to know the neighborhood, however significant between-country differences exist. Further international research is required to understand the drivers for these between-country differences. Community based programs and policies aimed at improving safety and social connectedness should consider the wider community benefits of dog walking and include strategies for supporting more dog walking.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3659-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC5034524  PMID: 27658384
Dog; Physical activity; Walking; International; Neighborhood; Safety; Community
22.  Presence and significance of Helicobacter spp. in the gastric mucosa of Portuguese dogs 
Gut Pathogens  2015;7:12.
Non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) are also able to cause disease in humans. Dogs are a natural reservoir for many of these species. Close and intense human contact with animals has been identified as a risk factor and therefore, an important zoonotic significance has been attributed to NHPH.
To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter species and the gastric histopathological changes associated, gastric mucosa samples of 69 dogs were evaluated.
Only one dog presented a normal histopathological mucosa with absence of spiral-shaped organisms. A normal gastric mucosa and the presence of spiral-shaped bacteria was observed in two dogs. All remaining animals presented histopathological changes representative of gastritis. Helicobacter species were detected in 60 dogs (87.0%) by at least one detection method. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluations revealed that Helicobacter spp. were present in 45 (65.2%), 52 (75.4%) and 57 (82.6%) dogs, respectively. Spiral-shaped bacteria were detected by qPCR analysis in 33 (47.8%) dogs. H. heilmannii-like organisms were identified in 22 animals (66.7%) and predominantly in the antral gastric region. H. salomonis was the second most prevalent species (51.5%) although it was mainly found in association with other Helicobacter spp. and in the body gastric region. H. bizzozeronii and H. felis were less frequently detected.
It was concluded that, despite the high incidence and worldwide distribution of gastric NHPH in dogs, the presence of specific Helicobacter species may vary between geographic regions. NHPH infections were significantly accompanied by mild to moderate intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration and mild to moderate gastric epithelial injury, but a clear relationship between gastritis and Helicobacter infection could not be established.
PMCID: PMC4404211  PMID: 25897328
Canine gastric mucosa; Dogs; Non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH); Histochemistry; Immunohistochemistry (IHC); Polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Stomach
Pathological observations on hereditary achondroplasia in the rabbit have been described. At autopsy, the chief features of interest are: reduced size with disproportionately shortened extremities and large head, cutaneous and subcutaneous edema of variable degree and distribution, small shortened bones with a cartilaginous appearance and texture, immature teeth, and cleft palate in one-fourth the cases; blood-stained fluid in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; a comparatively small heart pointing to the right of the midline, a very large firm thymus, a large pale soft spleen, a large swollen liver with red mottling, and a stomach distended with thin greenish mucus but no milk. The mean relative weights of all organs in terms of the net body weight were larger than those of normal new-born litter mates. The mean actual weights of the kidneys, the brain, and especially the spleen and the thymus were also larger than their respective normal values, those of the heart, liver, and adrenals were slightly smaller, while that of the pituitary was the same. Histologically, all endochondral cartilages show marked abnormalities of differentiation with pronounced deficiency of ossification. Calcification of membranous bones is likewise deficient. The histological abnormalities of the long bones are very similar to, if not identical with, those characteristic of human fetal chondrodystrophy, the creeper fowl condition, the "bull-dog" calf, and achondroplasia of the dog. No histological evidence was found in any organ which would suggest a basis for a responsible causal agent of the abnormality. Minor to marked vascular dilatation and congestion and edema is a variable feature but is fairly widely distributed. The changes in the thyroid indicate an active gland. The cellular pattern of the pituitary is characterized by some increase in basophilic cells. The lymphoid elements of the spleen are more or less depleted. The hemopoietic tissue in the spleen and liver is reduced in amount. In blood obtained from the heart, there is a reduction in the numbers of red and white cells and platelets and in the hemoglobin content as well; immature cells and particularly normoblasts are comparatively numerous.
PMCID: PMC2135556  PMID: 19871499
24.  Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux using calcium hydroxyl apatite in dogs 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:14.
Injection of biomaterial to suburetral region, using minimally invasive procedure, has become an interesting topic for urologists to treat vesicoureteral reflux. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injecting newly introduced calcium hydroxyl apatite to suburetral region, for treating an experimentally induced vesicoureteral reflux in dogs.
Bilateral vesicoureteral refluxed (VUR) mixed breed dogs (n = 12; 10-15 kg live weight, 3-6 months of age) were selected for this study. The presence and grade of the reflux were determined using cystography. Accordingly, 6 dogs displayed grade 1 & 2 and the other 6 showed grade 3 & 4 bilateral VUR. Every single dog, with bilateral VUR, underwent endoscopic treatment and received an injection of calcium hydroxyl apatite (an Iranian made product) into the left (treated side) and an injection of the similar volume of normal saline in to the right (control side) subureteric space. One week, 3 and 6 months after treatment, cystography was performed. On each occasion, 4 dogs were euthanized by gas inhalation and biopsy samples were collected for histopathological study from ureter, bladder, kidney, lung and spleen in order to investigate the biomaterial migration into different organs. Data were analyzed using Chi-squared test. In control sides, radiographs confirmed the same grade of VUR, found at the initiation of the study. VUR was resolved in 100% (6/6) of Grade 1 & 2 and 83.33% (5/6) of Grade 3 & 4 in treated side. Therefore, the total success rate of this study was 91.67% (11/12). Macroscopic examination of the vesicouretral region of the treated side revealed a firm and consistent biomaterial mass at the site of injection. Histological findings confirmed inflammation at treated side. In contrast, there was no tissue reaction on control side. There was no evidence for biomaterial migration in macroscopic and microscopic observations in this study.
In the present study, a new biocompatible material produced a firm, consist and sustainable biomaterial mass in the suburetral region for treating vesicouretral reflux without any evidence of biomaterial migration.
PMCID: PMC3037325  PMID: 21255445
25.  Parasitic zoonoses associated with dogs and cats: a survey of Portuguese pet owners’ awareness and deworming practices 
Parasites & Vectors  2016;9:245.
Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control.
Seventy hundred and fifty multiple-choice questionnaires designed to obtain data knowledge about the meaning of zoonosis, knowledge about parasitic diseases and perception regarding their zoonotic potential, as well as the drugs, frequency and reason for deworming their animals were delivered to dog and/or cat owners from non-rural (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and rural parishes who attended veterinary medical centres from continental Portugal.
A total of 536 (71.5 %) questionnaires were retrieved. Two hundred and ninety five (56.5 %) responders had heard of zoonosis/zoonoses, but only 184 (35.2 %) knew their meaning. Tick fever, mange, leishmaniosis and ascaridiosis/roundworms were the parasitic diseases from pets most frequently identified. The number of owners who recognized the different parasitoses, who stated to have heard about zoonoses and who were aware of the potential transmission of parasites from animals to humans was significantly higher in those with intermediate (i.e. ≥9 and ≤ 12 years of schooling) and/or higher academic degree (i.e. licentiate, master’s and/or doctorate degrees). The combinations of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel (23.5 %) and milbemycin-praziquantel (34.5 %) were the most widely endoparasitic drugs used in dogs and in cats, respectively. The most common ectoparasiticide used in dogs was a combination of imidacloprid-permethrin (33.4 %), while in cats it was imidacloprid (26.3 %) followed by fipronil (25.4 %). The most used treatment schedule against internal and external parasites in dogs and cats was an administration every three months and the main reason to do it was as a prophylactic purpose.
The majority of Portuguese owners that attended veterinarian clinics use endoparasiticides and ectoparasiticides in/on their pets as a prophylactic measure, although in many cases not in the correct schedule of treatment. In addition, most of them are not aware of the possible transmission of parasites from their dogs and cats to themselves, a fact which highlights the important role of veterinarians in the continuous implementation of effective control measures to reduce the risk of parasitic infections in both humans and companion animals.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1533-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4862121  PMID: 27160667
Owner awareness; Dogs; Cats; Endoparasites; Ectoparasites; Zoonoses; Portugal

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