Background and Hypothesis
Klotho is a recently discovered anti-aging gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate if klotho gene transfer attenuates superoxide production and oxidative stress in rat aorta smooth muscle (RASM) cells.
Methods and Results
RASM cells were transfected with AAV plasmids carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (mKL) or LacZ as a control. Klotho gene transfer increased klotho expression in RASM cells. Notably, klotho gene expression decreased Nox2 NADPH oxidase protein expression but did not affect Nox2 mRNA expression, suggesting that the inhibition may occur at the post-transcriptional level. Klotho gene transfer decreased intracellular superoxide production and oxidative stress in RASM cells. Klotho gene expression also significantly attenuated the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced superoxide production, oxidative damage, and apoptosis. Interestingly, klotho gene delivery dose-dependently increased the intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity in RASM cells. Rp-cAMP, a competitive inhibitor of cAMP, abolished the klotho-induced increase in PKA activity, indicating that klotho activated PKA via cAMP. Notably, inhibition of cAMP-dependent PKA activity by RP-cAMP abolished klotho-induced inhibition of Nox2 protein expression, suggesting an important role of the cAMP-dependent PKA in this process.
The present finding revealed a previously unidentified role of klotho in regulating Nox2 protein expression in RASM cells. Klotho not only downregulated Nox2 protein expression and intracellular superoxide production but also attenuated AngII-induced superoxide production, oxidative damage, and apoptosis. The klotho-induced suppression of Nox2 protein expression may be mediated by the cAMP PKA pathway.
klotho; Nox2; NADPH oxidase; superoxide; cAMP; PKA; smooth muscle cell
The klotho gene is expressed in a limited number of tissues, most notably in distal convoluted tubules in the kidney and choroid plexus in the brain. A previous study suggested that Klotho increases resistance to oxidative stress. However, changes of Klotho expression in high glucose-induced oxidative stress remain unclear. In the present study, we used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats) to examine the effects of insulin, phloridzin or antioxidant, tiron on diabetic nephropathy. Both insulin and phloridzin reversed the lower Klotho expression levels in kidneys of STZ rats by the correction of hyperglycemia. Also, renal functions were improved by these treatments. In addition to the improvement of renal functions, the decrease of Klotho expression in kidney of STZ rats was also reversed by tiron without changing blood glucose levels. The reduction of oxidative stress induced by high glucose can be considered for this action of tiron. This view was further confirmed in vitro using high glucose-exposed Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Thus, we suggest that decrease of oxidative stress is not only responsible for the improvement of renal function but also for the recovery of Klotho expression in kidney of STZ rats.
Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein that exerts its biological functions through multiple modes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as coreceptor for the major phosphatonin fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), while soluble Klotho functions as an endocrine substance. In addition to in the distal nephron where it is abundantly expressed, Klotho is present in the proximal tubule lumen where it inhibits renal Pi excretion by modulating Na-coupled Pi transporters via enzymatic glycan modification of the transporter proteins – an effect completely independent of its role as the FGF23 coreceptor. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are states of systemic Klotho deficiency, making Klotho a very sensitive biomarker of impaired renal function. In addition to its role as a marker, Klotho also plays pathogenic roles in renal disease. Klotho deficiency exacerbates decreases in, while Klotho repletion or excess preserves, glomerular filtration rate in both AKI and CKD. Soft tissue calcification, and especially vascular calcification, is a dire complication in CKD, associated with high mortality. Klotho protects against soft tissue calcification via at least 3 mechanisms: phosphaturia, preservation of renal function and a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting phosphate uptake and dedifferentiation. In summary, Klotho is a critical molecule in a wide variety of renal diseases and bears great potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as for therapeutic replacement therapy.
Acute kidney injury; Chronic kidney disease; Klotho; Phosphaturia; Vascular calcification
We have previously shown that myelin abnormalities and loss characterize the normal aging process of the brain and that an age-associated reduction in Klotho is conserved across species. Predominantly generated in brain and kidney, Klotho overexpression extends life span, whereas loss of Klotho accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes. While the function of Klotho in brain is unknown, loss of Klotho expression leads to cognitive deficits. In the present study, we found significant effects of Klotho on oligodendrocyte functions including induced maturation of rat primary oligodendrocytic progenitor cells (OPCs) in vitro and myelination. Phosphoprotein Western analysis indicated Klotho's downstream effects involve Akt and ERK signal pathways. Klotho increased OPCs maturation, and inhibition of Akt or ERK function blocked this effect on OPCs. In vivo studies of Klotho knockout mice and their control littermates revealed that knockout mice have a significant reduction in major myelin protein and gene expression. By immunohistochemistry, the number of total and mature oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in Klotho knockout mice. Strikingly, at the ultrastructural level, Klotho knockout mice exhibited significantly impaired myelination of the optic nerve and corpus callosum. These mice also displayed severe abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier. In order to decipher the mechanisms by which Klotho affects oligodendrocytes, we used luciferase pathway reporters to identify the transcription factors involved. Taken together, these studies provide novel evidence for Klotho as a key player in myelin biology, which may thus be a useful therapeutic target in efforts to protect brain myelin against age-dependent changes.
Klotho is highly expressed in the kidney and a soluble form of Klotho functions as an endocrine substance that exerts multiple actions including the modulation of renal solute transport and the protection of the kidney from a variety of insults in experimental models. At present, the Klotho database is still largely preclinical, but the anticipated forthcoming impact on clinical nephrology can be immense. This manuscript puts these potentials into perspective for the clinician. There is renal and systemic Klotho deficiency in both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Klotho plummets very early and severely in AKI and represents a pathogenic factor that exacerbates acute kidney damage. In CKD, Klotho deficiency exerts a significant impact on progression of renal disease and extra renal complications. In AKI, soluble Klotho levels in plasma and/or urine may serve as an early biomarker for kidney parenchymal injury. Restoration by exogenous supplementation or stimulation of endogenous Klotho may prevent and/or ameliorate kidney injury and mitigate CKD development. In CKD, Klotho levels may be an indicator of early disease and predict the rate of progression, and presence and severity of soft tissue calcification. The correction of Klotho deficiency may delay progression and forestall development of extra renal complications in CKD. Rarely does one find a molecule with such broad potential applications in nephrology. Klotho can possibly emerge on the horizon as a candidate for an unprecedented sole biomarker and intervention. Nephrologists should monitor the progress of the preclinical studies and the imminently emerging human database.
acute kidney injury; biomarker; cardiac hypertrophy; chronic kidney disease; FGF23; Klotho; prognosis; secondary hyperparathyroidism
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as renal H2O2 production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H2O2 production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22phox in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22phox and the increases in renal H2O2 levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H2O2.
aging; oxidative stress; kidney; hydrogen peroxide; NADPH oxidase; antioxidant enzymes; Wistar Kyoto rat
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics.
To determine whether the age-regulating protein klotho was expressed in the retina and determine whether the absence of klotho affected retinal function.
Immunohistochemistry and qPCR of klotho knockout and wild-type mice were used to detect klotho expression in retina. Immunohistochemistry was used to probe for differences in expression of proteins important in synaptic function, retinal structure, and ionic flux. Electroretinography (ERG) was conducted on animals across lifespan to determine whether decreased klotho expression affects retinal function.
Klotho mRNA and protein were detected in the wild-type mouse retina, with protein present in all nuclear layers. Over the short lifespan of the knockout mouse (∼8 weeks), no overt photoreceptor cell loss was observed, however, function was progressively impaired. At 3 weeks of age neither protein expression levels (synaptophysin and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD67]) nor retinal function were distinguishable from wild-type controls. However, by 7 weeks of age expression of synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily member 1 (TRPM1) decreased while GAD67, post synaptic density 95 (PSD95), and wheat germ agglutinin staining, representative of glycoprotein sialic acid residues, were increased relative to wild-type mice. Accompanying these changes, profound functional deficits were observed as both ERG a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared with wild-type controls.
Klotho is expressed in the retina and is important for healthy retinal function. Although the mechanisms for the observed abnormalities are not known, they are consistent with the accelerating aging phenotype seen in other tissues.
The absence of age-regulating protein klotho does not cause overt retinal cell loss; however, retinal function and protein expression are dramatically altered.
aging; protein expression; knockout
Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in the kidney and is known to act as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23. The extracellular domain can be produced independently or shed from membrane-bound Klotho and functions as an endocrine substance with multiple functions including antioxidation, modulation of ion transport, suppression of fibrosis, and preservation of stem cells. Emerging evidence has revealed that Klotho deficiency is an early event in acute kidney injury (AKI), and a pathogenic factor that exacerbates acute kidney damage and contributes to long-term consequences. Restoration by exogenous supplementation or stimulation of endogenous Klotho might prevent and ameliorate injury, promote recovery, and suppress fibrosis to mitigate development of chronic kidney disease. Although data are still emerging, in this Perspectives article we discuss why this renal-derived protein is a highly promising candidate as both an early biomarker and therapeutic agent for AKI.
Diabetes is associated with a high incidence of macrovascular disease (MVD), including peripheral and coronary artery disease. Circulating soluble-Klotho (sKlotho) is produced in the kidney and is a putative anti-aging and vasculoprotective hormone. Reduced Klotho levels may therefore increase cardiovascular risk in diabetes. We investigated if sKlotho levels are decreased in type 2 diabetes and associate with MVD in the absence of diabetic nephropathy, and whether hyperglycemia affects renal Klotho production in vitro and in vivo.
sKlotho levels were determined with ELISA in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with and without MVD, and healthy control subjects. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) were isolated and exposed to high glucose levels (15 and 30 mM) in vitro and Klotho levels were measured with qPCR and quantitative immunofluorescence. Klotho mRNA expression was quantified in kidneys obtained from long term (3 and 8 months) diabetic Ins2Akita mice and normoglycemic control mice.
No significant differences in sKlotho levels were observed between diabetic patients with and without MVD (527 (433–704) pg/mL, n = 35), non-diabetic MVD patients (517 (349–571) pg/mL, n = 27), and healthy control subjects (435 (346–663) pg/mL, n = 15). High glucose (15 and 30 mM) did not alter Klotho expression in TECs. Long-term hyperglycemia in diabetic Ins2Akita mice (characterized by increased HbA1c levels [12.9 ± 0.3% (3 months) and 11.3 ± 2.0% (8 months)], p < 0.05 vs. non-diabetic mice) did not affect renal Klotho mRNA expression.
These data indicate that sKlotho levels are not affected in type 2 diabetes patients with and without MVD. Furthermore, hyperglycemia per se does not affect renal Klotho production. As type 2 diabetes does not alter sKlotho levels, sKlotho does not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of MVD in type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery disease; Klotho; Macrovascular disease; Peripheral artery disease; Type 2 diabetes
Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein highly expressed in the kidney. Membrane Klotho protein acts as co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor-23. Its extracellular domain is shed from cell surface and functions as an endocrine substance that exerts multiple renal and extra-renal functions. An exhaustive review is beyond the scope and length of this manuscript; thus only effects with pertinence to mineral metabolism and renoprotection will be highlighted here. Klotho participates in mineral homeostasis via interplay with other “calciophosphoregulatory” hormones (PTH, FGF23, and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3) in kidney, bone, intestine, and parathyroid gland. Klotho may also be involved in acute and chronic kidney diseases development and progression. Acute kidney injury is a temporary and reversible state of Klotho deficiency and chronic kidney disease is a sustained state of systemic Klotho deficiency. Klotho deficiency renders the kidney more susceptible to acute insults, delays kidney regeneration, and promotes renal fibrosis. In addition to direct renal effects, Klotho deficiency also triggers and aggravates deranged mineral metabolism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Although studies examining the therapeutic effect of Klotho replacement were performed in animal models, it is quite conceivable that supplementation of exogenous Klotho and/or up-regulation of endogenous Klotho production may be a viable therapeutic strategy for patients with acute or chronic kidney diseases.
Acute kidney injury; Cardiac hypertrophy; Chronic kidney disease; Hyperparathyroidism; Klotho
The molecular interaction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho is essential for physiologic regulation of phosphate balance. In the absence of klotho, the FGF23 protein cannot exert its physiologic functions, as demonstrated by in vivo mouse genetic studies. Bioactive FGF23 protein loses its phosphate lowering effects in genetically modified mice with no klotho activity. The FGF23–klotho system not only affects phosphate homeostasis but can also influence parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D activities. Dysregulation of the FGF23–klotho system is noted in a number of human acquired and genetic diseases, including chronic kidney disease. Vitamin D is a strong inducer of both FGF23 and klotho expression, while FGF23 can suppress the renal expression of 1α(OH)ase to reduce 1,25(OH)2D activity. An understanding of the complex interactions of phosphate, vitamin D and PTH with the FGF23–klotho system has paved the way to explore the therapeutic benefits of modulating the FGF23–klotho system in diseases associated with abnormal mineral ion balance. The patent (WO2009095372) under discussion proposes using fusion polypeptides to manipulate the FGF23–klotho system.
Klotho is an antiaging hormone present in the kidney that extends the lifespan, regulates kidney function, and modulates cellular responses to oxidative stress. We investigated whether Klotho levels and signaling modulate inflammation in diabetic kidneys.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Renal Klotho expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis. Primary mouse tubular epithelial cells were treated with methylglyoxalated albumin, and Klotho expression and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was assessed by treating human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and HK-2 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the presence or absence of Klotho, followed by immunoblot analysis to evaluate inhibitor of κB (IκB)α degradation, IκB kinase (IKK) and p38 activation, RelA nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to analyze the effects of Klotho signaling on interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promoter recruitment of RelA and RelA serine (Ser)536.
Renal Klotho mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in db/db mice, and a similar decline was observed in the primary cultures of mouse tubule epithelial cells treated with methylglyoxal-modified albumin. The exogenous addition of soluble Klotho or overexpression of membranous Klotho in tissue culture suppressed NF-κB activation and subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines in response to TNF-α stimulation. Klotho specifically inhibited RelA Ser536 phosphorylation as well as promoter DNA binding of this phosphorylated form of RelA without affecting IKK-mediated IκBα degradation, total RelA nuclear translocation, and total RelA DNA binding.
These findings suggest that Klotho serves as an anti-inflammatory modulator, negatively regulating the production of NF-κB–linked inflammatory proteins via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Ser536 in the transactivation domain of RelA.
The expression of the renoprotective antiaging gene Klotho is decreased in uremia. Recent studies suggest that Klotho may be a tumor suppressor, and its expression may be repressed by DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells. Here we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated during uremia in uninephrectomized B-6 mice given the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate. Cultured human renal tubular HK2 cells treated with these toxins were used as an in vitro model. Injections of indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate increased their serum concentrations, kidney fibrosis, CpG hypermethylation of the Klotho gene, and decreased Klotho expression in renal tubules of these mice. The expression of DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b isoforms in HK2 cells treated with indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate was significantly increased. Specific inhibition of DNA methyltransferase isoform 1 by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine caused demethylation of the Klotho gene and increased Klotho expression in vitro. Thus, inhibition of Klotho gene expression by uremic toxins correlates with gene hypermethylation, suggesting that epigenetic modification of specific genes by uremic toxins may be an important pathological mechanism of disease.
DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferase; Klotho; uremic toxin
Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that klotho gene delivery attenuates the progression of spontaneous hypertension and renal damage in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). An adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (AAV.mKL) was constructed for in vivo expression of klotho. Four groups of male SHRs and 1 group of sex- and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (5 rats per group) were used. Blood pressure was measured twice in all of the animals before gene delivery. Four groups of SHRs received an IV injection of AAV.mKL, AAV.LacZ, AAV.GFP, and PBS, respectively. The Wistar-Kyoto group received PBS and served as a control. AAV.mKL stopped the further increase in blood pressure in SHRs, whereas blood pressures continued to increase in other SHR groups. One single dose of AAV.mKL prevented the progression of spontaneous hypertension for at least 12 weeks (length of the study). Klotho expression and production were suppressed in SHRs, which were reverted by AAV.mKL. AAV.mKL increased plasma interleukin 10 levels but decreased Nox2 expression, NADPH oxidase activity, and superoxide production in kidneys and aortas in SHRs. AAV.mKL abolished renal tubular atrophy and dilation, tubular deposition of proteinaceous material, glomerular collapse, and collagen deposition seen in SHRs, indicating that klotho gene delivery attenuated renal damage. Therefore, the suppressed klotho expression may play a role in the progression of spontaneous hypertension and renal damage in SHRs. AAV delivery of klotho may offer a new approach for the long-term control of hypertension and for renoprotection.
klotho; Nox2; blood pressure; adeno-associated virus; renoprotection
Although the role of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor (EpoR) in erythropoiesis has been known for decades, its role in non-hematopoietic tissues is still not well defined. Klotho has been shown and Epo has been suggested to protect against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in the kidney. Here we found in rat kidney and in a rat renal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK cells) EpoR transcript and antigen, and EpoR activity signified as Epo-induced phosphorylation of Jak2, ErK, Akt, and Stat5 indicating the presence of functional EpoR. Transgenic overexpression of Klotho or addition of exogenous recombinant Klotho increased kidney EpoR protein and transcript. In NRK cells, Klotho increased EpoR protein, enhanced Epo-triggered phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat5, the nuclear translocation of phospho-Stat5, and protected NRK cells from hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity. Knock-down of endogenous EpoR rendered NRK cells more vulnerable, and overexpression of EpoR more resistant to peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that EpoR mitigates oxidative damage. Knock-down of EpoR by siRNA abolished Epo-induced Jak2, and Stat5 phosphorylation, and blunted the protective effect of Klotho against peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. Thus in the kidney, EpoR and its activity are downstream effectors of Klotho enabling it to function as cytoprotective protein against oxidative injury.
Cytotoxicity; Erythropoietin; Erythropoietin receptor; Kidney cell line; Klotho; Oxidative stress; Jak2; NRK cell; Stat5
Changes in the expression of klotho, a β-glucuronidase, contribute to the development of features that resemble those of premature aging, as well as chronic renal failure. Klotho knockout mice have increased expression of the sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2a) and 1α-hydroxylase in their kidneys, along with increased serum levels of phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These changes are associated with widespread soft-tissue calcifications, generalized tissue atrophy, and a shorter lifespan in the knockout mice. To determine the role of the increased vitamin D activities in klotho knockout animals, we generated klotho and 1α-hydroxylase double-knockout mice. These double mutants regained body weight and developed hypophosphatemia with a complete elimination of the soft-tissue and vascular calcifications that were routinely found in klotho knockout mice. The markedly increased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and the abnormally low serum parathyroid hormone levels, typical of klotho knockout mice, were significantly reversed in the double-knockout animals. These in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D has a pathologic role in regulating abnormal mineral ion metabolism and soft-tissue anomalies of klotho-deficient mice.
FGF23; phosphate; PTH
Aging is characterized by a gradual functional decrease of all systems including the kidneys. Growing evidence links altered lipid protein redox-homeostasis with renal dysfunction. The effect of sexual dimorphism on the lipid protein redox-homeostasis mechanisms in the aging kidney is obscure. In the current study, we aimed to investigate redox homeostasis as it related to sexual dimorphism on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation parameters, as protein carbonyl (PCO), total thiol (T-SH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as potential aging biomarkers, which may contribute to an analysis of the free radical theory of aging.
Materials and methods
The study was carried out with 16 naturally aged rats (24 months old; eight males and eight females) and their corresponding young rat groups as controls (6 months old; eight males and eight females). All of the aforementioned parameters (PCO, T-SH, AOPP, MDA, GSH, SOD) were measured manually instead of automated devices or ELISA kits.
PCO, AOPP, and malondialdehyde levels in aged rats were significantly higher in the older rat group than in the younger rat group, whereas SOD activities were significantly lower in old rats. T-SH levels were not significantly different in male groups; however, T-SH levels were lower in the aged female group than in the young female control group. In addition, GSH levels were significantly different between the aged rat group and the corresponding young control group for both genders.
With respect to PCO and AOPP, impaired redox homeostasis is substantially more prominent in males than females. The decrease of G-SH levels in male groups could be attributed to stabilizing the redox status of protein thiol groups by the depletion of the GSH groups. Considering the results, the renal tissue proteins and lipids in different genders may have different susceptibilities to oxidative damage.
lipid peroxidation; protein oxidation; radicals; renal aging
Background. The Klotho gene plays a role in suppressing ageing-related disorders. It is suggested that activation of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or oxidative stress suppresses Klotho in the kidney. This study evaluated the association between Klotho expression and RAS in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury.
Methods. Chronic CsA nephropathy was induced by administering CsA (30 mg/kg) to mice on a low-salt diet (LSD) for 4 weeks. A normal-salt diet (NSD) was used as the control. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed for Klotho and intrarenal RAS activity was measured using immunohistochemistry for angiotensinogen and renin. Oxidative stress was measured with urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG).
Results. CsA treatment decreased Klotho mRNA and protein in mouse kidney in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, but a concurrent treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, reversed the decrease in Klotho expression with histological improvement. This finding was more marked in the LSD than the NSD. Klotho expression was correlated with angiotensinogen and renin expression, tubulointerstitial fibrosis score and urinary 8-OHdG excretion.
Conclusions. Angiotensin II may play a pivotal role in regulating Klotho expression in CsA-induced renal injury. AT1 receptor blocker may inhibit the ageing process by decreasing oxidative stress caused by CsA.
cyclosporine; kidney transplantation; nephrotoxicity; renin–angiotensin system; senescence
Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.
Appropriate levels of phosphate in the body are maintained by the coordinated regulation of the bone-derived growth factor FGF23 and the membrane-bound protein Klotho. The endocrine actions of FGF23, in association with parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, mobilize sodium–phosphate cotransporters that control renal phosphate transport in proximal tubular epithelial cells. The availability of an adequate amount of Klotho is essential for FGF23 to exert its phosphaturic effects in the kidney. In the presence of Klotho, FGF23 activates downstream signaling components that influence the homeostasis of phosphate, whereas in the absence of this membrane protein, it is unable to exert such regulatory effects, as demonstrated convincingly in animal models. Several factors, including phosphate and vitamin D, can regulate the production of both FGF23 and Klotho and influence their functions. In various acquired and genetic human diseases, dysregulation of FGF23 and Klotho is associated with vascular and skeletal anomalies owing to altered phosphate turnover. In this Review, I summarize how the endocrine effects of bone-derived FGF23, in coordination with Klotho, can regulate systemic phosphate homeostasis, and how an inadequate balance of these molecules can lead to complications that are caused by abnormal mineral ion metabolism.
Klotho knockout mice (klotho-/-) have increased renal expression of sodium/phosphate co-transporters (NaPi2a), associated with severe hyperphosphatemia. Such serum biochemical changes in klotho-/-mice lead to extensive soft tissue anomalies and vascular calcification. To determine the significance of increased renal expression of the NaPi2a protein and concomitant hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification in klotho-/-mice, we generated klotho and NaPi2a double knockout (klotho-/-/NaPi2a-/-) mice.
Methods and Results
Genetic inactivation of NaPi2a activity from klotho-/-mice reversed the severe hyperphosphatemia to mild hypophosphatemia or normophosphatemia. Importantly, despite significantly higher serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in klotho-/-/NaPi2a-/- mice, the vascular and soft tissue calcifications were reduced,. Extensive soft tissue anomalies and cardiovascular calcification were consistently noted in klotho-/-mice by 6 weeks of age; however, these vascular and soft tissue abnormalities were absent even in 12-week-old double knockout mice. Klotho-/-/NaPi2a-/- mice also regained body weight and did not develop the generalized tissue atrophy often noted in klotho-/-single knockout mice.
Our in vivo genetic manipulation studies have provided compelling evidence for a pathologic role of increased NaPi2a activities in regulating abnormal mineral ion metabolism and soft tissue anomalies in klotho-/- mice. Notably, our results suggest that serum phosphate levels are the important in vivo determinant of calcification, and that lowering serum phosphate levels can reduce or eliminate soft tissue and vascular calcification, even in presence of extremely high serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. These in vivo observations have significant clinical importance and therapeutic implications for chronic kidney disease patients with cardiovascular calcification.
Klotho; Vitamin-D; NaPi2a; Calcification
Klotho exerts anti-aging properties in mammals in two different ways. While membrane-bound Klotho, which is primarily expressed in the kidney, acts as an obligate co-receptor of FGF23 to regulate phosphate homeostasis, secreted Klotho, resulting from the shedding of the KL1-KL2 ectodomain into the bloodstream, inhibits Insulin/IGF1 signalling. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of Klotho inCaenorhabditis elegans.
Two redundant homologues of the klotho gene exist in C. elegans and encode predicted proteins homologous to the β glucosidase-like KL1 domain of mammalian Klotho. We have used a genetic approach to investigate the functional activity of Klotho in C. elegans. Here, we report that whereas Klotho requires EGL-15 (FGFR) and EGL-17 to promote longevity and oxidative stress resistance, it is not involved in the regulation of fluid homeostasis, controlled by LET-756. Besides revealing a new post-developmental role for EGL-17, our data suggest that the KL1 form of Klotho is involved in FGF23-independent FGF signalling. We also report a genetic interaction between Klotho and the DAF-2 (Ins/IGF1R)/DAF-16 (FOXO) pathway. While the regulation of longevity requires functional DAF-2/DAF-16 signalling, the control of oxidative stress resistance involves a DAF-2- independent, DAF-16-dependent pathway, suggesting that Klotho may target either DAF-2 or DAF-16, depending of environmental conditions. Thus, the predictive KL1 form of Klotho appears to crosstalk with both FGF and Insulin/IGF1/FOXO pathways to exert anti-aging properties in C. elegans.
C. elegans; Klotho; FGF signalling; insulin/Igf-like signalling; aging; stress resistance
Mechanistic understanding of secondary hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, and regulation of phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has advanced significantly in the past five decades. In 1960, Bricker developed the ‘intact nephron hypothesis', opening the door for hundreds of investigations. He emphasized that ‘as the number of functioning nephrons decreases, each remaining nephron must perform a greater fraction of total renal excretion'. Phosphate per se, independent of Ca2+ and calcitriol, directly affects the development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vitamin D receptor, Ca2+ sensing receptor, and Klotho–fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-1 complex are all significantly decreased in the parathyroid glands of patients with CKD. Duodenal instillation of phosphate rapidly decreases parathyroid hormone release without changes in calcium or calcitriol. The same procedure also rapidly increases renal phosphate excretion independently of FGF-23, suggesting the possibility of an ‘intestinal phosphatonin'. These observations suggest a possible ‘phosphate sensor' in the parathyroid glands and gastrointestinal tract, although as yet there is no proof for the existence of such a sensor. Evidence shows that phosphate has a key role in parathyroid hyperplasia by activating the transforming growth factor-α–epidermal growth factor receptor complex. Thus, control of serum phosphorus early in the course of CKD will significantly ameliorate the pathological manifestations observed during progressive deterioration of renal function.
fractional excretion; intact nephron hypothesis; intestinal phosphatonin; phosphate
Recent studies support a role for FGF23 and its co-receptor Klotho in cardiovascular pathology, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Herein, we analyzed the expression of Klotho in mouse arteries and generated a novel mouse model harboring a vascular smooth muscle cell specific deletion of Klotho (Sm22-KL−/−). Arterial Klotho expression was detected at very low levels with quantitative real-time PCR; Klotho protein levels were undetectable by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. There was no difference in arterial Klotho between Sm22-KL−/− and wild-type mice, as well as no changes in serum markers of mineral metabolism. Intravenous delivery of FGF23 elicited a rise in renal (0.005; p<0.01) but not arterial Egr-1 expression, a marker of Klotho-dependent FGF23 signaling. Further, the impact of FGF23 on vascular calcification and endothelial response was evaluated in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (bVSMC) and in a murine ex vivo model of endothelial function, respectively. FGF23 treatment (0.125–2 ng/mL) did not modify calcification in bVSMCs or dilatory, contractile and structural properties in mice arterial specimen ex vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that FGF23-Klotho signaling is absent in mouse arteries and that the vascular response was unaffected by FGF23 treatment. Thus, our data do not support Klotho-mediated FGF23 effects in the vasculature although confirmative studies in humans are warranted.