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1.  Activation of mitochondrial u-calpain increases AIF cleavage in cardiac mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion 
Ubiquitous calpains (calpain I & II) are generally recognized as cytosolic proteins. Recently, mitochondrial localized calpain I (μ-calpain) has been identified. Activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a flavoprotein located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, in liver mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria. We first tested if activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves AIF in isolated heart mitochondria. A decrease in AIF content within mitochondria increases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion by augmenting oxidative stress. We hypothesize that the activation of mito-u-calpain by calcium overload during ischemia-reperfusion results in decreased AIF content within mitochondria by cleaving AIF. The u-calpain was present within mouse heart mitochondria, mostly in the intermembrane space. Exogenous calcium treatment induced a calpain-dependent decrease of mitochondrial AIF content in isolated mouse heart mitochondria. This process was blocked by a calpain inhibitor (MDL-28170). The Mitochondrial u-calpain activity was increased by 160% ± 15% during ischemia-reperfusion compared to time control. In contrast, the mitochondrial AIF content was decreased by 52% ± 7% during reperfusion vs. time control in the buffer perfused mouse heart. Inhibition of mito-u-calpain using MDL-28170 decreased cardiac injury by preserving AIF content within mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, activation of mito-u-calpain is required to release AIF from cardiac mitochondria. Inhibition of calpains using MDL-28170 decreases cardiac injury by inhibiting both cytosolic calpains and mito-u-calpain during ischemia-reperfusion.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.10.037
PMCID: PMC3244491  PMID: 22057010
mitochondria; calpastatin; calpain; ischemia-reperfusion; calcium
2.  Ranolazine reduces Ca2+ overload and oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial integrity to protect against ischemia reperfusion injury in isolated hearts 
Ranolazine is a clinically approved drug for treating cardiac ventricular dysrhythmias and angina. Its mechanism(s) of protection is not clearly understood but evidence points to blocking the late Na+ current that arises during ischemia, blocking mitochondrial complex I activity, or modulating mitochondrial metabolism. Here we tested the effect of ranolazine treatment before ischemia at the mitochondrial level in intact isolated hearts and in mitochondria isolated from hearts at different times of reperfusion. Left ventricular (LV) pressure (LVP), coronary flow (CF), and O2 metabolism were measured in guinea pig isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Ringer’s solution; mitochondrial (m) O2•−, Ca2+, NADH/FAD (redox state), and cytosolic (c) Ca2+ were assessed on-line in the LV free wall by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Ranolazine (5 µM), infused for 1 min just before 30 min of global ischemia, itself did not change O2•−, cCa2+, mCa2+ or redox state. During late ischemia and reperfusion (IR) O2•− emission and m[Ca2+] increased less in the ranolazine group vs. the control group. Ranolazine decreased c[Ca2+] only during ischemia while NADH and FAD were not different during IR in the ranolazine vs. control groups. Throughout reperfusion LVP and CF were higher, and ventricular fibrillation was less frequent. Infarct size was smaller in the ranolazine group than the control group. Mitochondria isolated from ranolazine-treated hearts had mild resistance to permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and less cytochrome c release than control hearts. Ranolazine may provide functional protection of the heart during IR injury by reducing cCa2+ and mCa2+ loading secondary to its effect to block the late Na+ current. Subsequently it indirectly reduces O2•− emission, preserves bioenergetics, delays mPTP opening, and restricts loss of cytochrome c, thereby reducing necrosis and apoptosis.
doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.06.018
PMCID: PMC3233383  PMID: 21741479
mitochondrial Ca2+; oxidative stress; permeability transition pore; ranolazine
3.  Acidosis, Oxygen, and Interference with Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Formation in the Early Minutes of Reperfusion Are Critical to Postconditioning's Success 
Basic research in cardiology  2008;103(5):464-471.
Repetitive cycles of reflow/reocclusion in the initial 2 min following release of a prolonged coronary occlusion, i.e., ischemic postconditioning (IPoC), salvages ischemic myocardium. We have proposed that the intermittent ischemia prevents formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) by maintaining an acidic myocardial pH for several minutes until survival kinases can be activated. To determine other requisites of IPoC, isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. During the first 2 min of reperfusion the perfusate was either at pH7.4 following equilibration with 95% O2/5% CO2, pH6.9 following equilibration with 80% N2/20% CO2, or pH7.8 following equilibration with 100% O2. Whereas acidic, oxygenated perfusate for the first 2 min of reperfusion was cardioprotective, protection was lost when acidic perfusate was hypoxic. However, the acidic, hypoxic hearts could be rescued by addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, to the perfusate. Therefore, both low pH and restoration of oxygenation are necessary for protection, and the signaling step requiring combined oxygen and H+ must be upstream of PKC. To gain further insight into the mechanism of IPoC, the latter was effected with 6 cycles of 10-sec reperfusion/10-sec reocclusion. Its protective effect was abrogated by either making the oxygenated perfusate alkaline during the reperfusion phases or making the reperfusion buffer hypoxic. Presumably the repeated coronary occlusions during IPoC keep myocardial pH low while the resupply of oxygen during the intermittent reperfusion provides fuel for the redox signaling that acts to prevent MPTP formation even after restoration of normal myocardial pH. Hearts treated simultaneously with IPoC and alkaline perfusate could not be rescued by addition to the perfusate of either PMA or SB216763 which inhibits GSK-3β, the putative last cytoplasmic signaling step in the signal transduction cascade leading to MPTP inhibition. Yet cyclosporin A which also inhibits MPTP formation does rescue hearts made alkaline during IPoC. In view of prior studies in which the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine aborts IPoC's protection, our data reveal that IPoC's reperfusion periods are needed to support redox signaling rather than improve metabolism. The low pH, on the other hand, is equally necessary and seems to suppress MPTP directly rather than through upstream signaling.
doi:10.1007/s00395-008-0737-9
PMCID: PMC2660166  PMID: 18626679
4.  Insulin-like growth factor-1 protects ischemic murine myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion associated injury 
Critical Care  2003;7(6):R176-R183.
Introduction
Ischemia/reperfusion occurs in myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction during sepsis, cardiac transplantation and coronary artery bypass grafting, and results in injury to the myocardium. Although reperfusion injury is related to the nature and duration of ischemia, it is also a separate entity that may jeopardize viable cells and ultimately may impair cardiac performance once ischemia is resolved and the organ heals.
Method
The present study was conducted in an ex vivo murine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. After 20 min of ischemia, isolated hearts were perfused for up to 2 hours with solution (modified Kreb's) only, solution plus insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, or solution plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Cardiac contractility was monitored continuously during this period of reperfusion.
Results
On the basis of histologic evidence, IGF-1 prevented reperfusion injury as compared with TNF-α; TNF-α increased perivascular interstitial edema and disrupted tissue lattice integrity, whereas IGF-1 maintained myocardial cellular integrity and did not increase edema. Also, there was a significant reduction in detectable creatine phosphokinase in the perfusate from IGF-1 treated hearts. By recording transduced pressures generated during the cardiac cycle, reperfusion with IGF-1 was accompanied by markedly improved cardiac performance as compared with reperfusion with TNF-α or modified Kreb's solution only. The histologic and functional improvement generated by IGF-1 was characterized by maintenance of the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA within heart tissue.
Conclusion
We conclude that IGF-1 protects ischemic myocardium from further reperfusion injury, and that this may involve mitochondria-dependent mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC374373  PMID: 14624693
apoptosis; mitochondrial DNA; myocardium; reperfusion injury; sepsis
5.  Urocortin prevents mitochondrial permeability transition in response to reperfusion injury indirectly, by reducing oxidative stress 
Urocortin (Ucn) protects hearts against ischemia and reperfusion injury whether given prior to ischemia or at reperfusion. Here we investigate the roles of protein kinase C, reactive oxygen species, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in mediating these effects. In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, acute Ucn treatment improved hemodynamic recovery during reperfusion after 30 min global ischemia; this was accompanied by less necrosis (lactate dehydrogenase release) and MPTP opening (mitochondrial entrapment of [3H]-2-deoxyglucose). Ucn pre-treatment protected mitochondria against calcium-induced MPTP opening, but only if the mitochondria had been isolated from hearts after reperfusion. These mitochondria also exhibited less protein carbonylation, suggesting that Ucn decreases levels of oxidative stress. In isolated adult and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, both acute (60 min) and chronic (16 hr) treatment with Ucn reduced cell death following simulated ischemia and re-oxygenation. This was accompanied by less MPTP opening as measured using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester. The level of oxidative stress during reperfusion was reduced in cells which had been pre-treated with Ucn suggesting that this is the mechanism by which Ucn desensitizes the MPTP to reperfusion injury. Despite the fact that we could find no evidence that either PKCε or PKCα translocate to the mitochondria following acute Ucn treatment, inhibition of PKC with chelerythrine eliminated the effect of Ucn on oxidative stress. Our data suggests that acute Ucn treatment protects the heart by inhibiting MPTP opening. However, the mechanism appears to be indirect, involving a PKC-mediated reduction in oxidative stress.
doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01135.2006
PMCID: PMC1950441  PMID: 17483234
reperfusion; mitochondria; oxygen radicals; peptide hormones
6.  High dose folic acid pre-treatment blunts cardiac dysfunction during ischemia coupled to maintenance of high energy phosphates and reduces post-reperfusion injury 
Circulation  2008;117(14):1810-1819.
Background
The B-vitamin folic acid (FA) is important to mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis, is an anti-oxidant, and enhances nitric oxide synthase activity. Here, we tested whether FA reduces myocardial ischemic dysfunction and post-reperfusion injury.
Methods
Wistar rats were pretreated with either FA (10mg/d) or placebo for 1-wk, and then underwent in vivo transient left coronary artery occlusion for 30min with or without 90min reperfusion (total:n=131; sub-groups used for various analyses). FA (4.5•10-6M i.c) pretreatment and global ischemia/reperfusion (30 min/30min), was also performed in vitro (n=28).
Results
After 30min ischemia, global function declined more in controls than FA-pretreated rats (ΔdP/dtmax -878±586 mmHg/s vs. placebo -1956±351 mmHg/s, p=0.03), and regional thickening was better preserved (37.3±5.3% vs. 5.1±0.6%-placebo, p=0.004). Anterior-wall perfusion fell similarly (-78.4±9.3% vs. -71.2±13.8%-placebo at 30 min); yet myocardial high energy phosphates ATP and ADP reduced by ischemia in controls were better preserved by FA-pretreatment (e.g. ATP: control: 2740±58; ischemia: 947±55; ischemia+FA: 1332±101 nmol/g, p=0.02). Basal oxypurines (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and urate) rose with FA-pretreatment, but increased less during ischemia than in controls. Ischemic superoxide generation declined (3124±280 FA vs. 5898±474 placebo, cpm/mg, p=0.001). After reperfusion, FA-treated hearts had smaller infarcts (3.8±1.2% vs 60.3±4.1%-placebo area at risk, p<0.002), less contraction band necrosis, TUNEL-positivity, superoxide, and nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Infarct size declined similarly with 1 mg/d FA as well.
Conclusion
FA-pretreatment blunts myocardial dysfunction during ischemia, and ameliorates post-reperfusion injury. This is coupled to preservation of high energy phosphates, reducing subsequent ROS-generation, eNOS-uncoupling and post-reperfusion cell death.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.725481
PMCID: PMC2474781  PMID: 18362233
Ischemia; Folic acid; High Energy Phosphates; Superoxide; eNOS-uncoupling
7.  Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability 
Executive Summary
In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients undergoing viability assessment. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies that can be used for the assessment of myocardial viability: positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, dobutamine echocardiography, and dobutamine echocardiography with contrast, and single photon emission computed tomography.
A 2005 review conducted by MAS determined that positron emission tomography was more sensitivity than dobutamine echocardiography and single photon emission tomography and dominated the other imaging modalities from a cost-effective standpoint. However, there was inadequate evidence to compare positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, this report focuses on this comparison only. For both technologies, an economic analysis was also completed.
The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html
Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and safety of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of FDG PET viability imaging, the following outcomes are examined:
the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for predicting functional recovery;
the impact of PET viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes); and
the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making and subsequent patient outcomes.
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure
Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD)1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997.
Treatment Options
In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option, revascularization, is used to restore the flow of blood to the heart via coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or through minimally invasive percutaneous coronary interventions (balloon angioplasty and stenting). Both methods, however, are associated with important perioperative risks including mortality, so it is essential to properly select patients for this procedure.
Myocardial Viability
Left ventricular dysfunction may be permanent if a myocardial scar is formed, or it may be reversible after revascularization. Reversible LV dysfunction occurs when the myocardium is viable but dysfunctional (reduced contractility). Since only patients with dysfunctional but viable myocardium benefit from revascularization, the identification and quantification of the extent of myocardial viability is an important part of the work-up of patients with heart failure when determining the most appropriate treatment path. Various non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities can be used to assess patients in whom determination of viability is an important clinical issue, specifically:
dobutamine echocardiography (echo),
stress echo with contrast,
SPECT using either technetium or thallium,
cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI), and
positron emission tomography (PET).
Dobutamine Echocardiography
Stress echocardiography can be used to detect viable myocardium. During the infusion of low dose dobutamine (5 – 10 μg/kg/min), an improvement of contractility in hypokinetic and akentic segments is indicative of the presence of viable myocardium. Alternatively, a low-high dose dobutamine protocol can be used in which a biphasic response characterized by improved contractile function during the low-dose infusion followed by a deterioration in contractility due to stress induced ischemia during the high dose dobutamine infusion (dobutamine dose up to 40 ug/kg/min) represents viable tissue. Newer techniques including echocardiography using contrast agents, harmonic imaging, and power doppler imaging may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic assessment of myocardial viability.
Stress Echocardiography with Contrast
Intravenous contrast agents, which are high molecular weight inert gas microbubbles that act like red blood cells in the vascular space, can be used during echocardiography to assess myocardial viability. These agents allow for the assessment of myocardial blood flow (perfusion) and contractile function (as described above), as well as the simultaneous assessment of perfusion to make it possible to distinguish between stunned and hibernating myocardium.
SPECT
SPECT can be performed using thallium-201 (Tl-201), a potassium analogue, or technetium-99 m labelled tracers. When Tl-201 is injected intravenously into a patient, it is taken up by the myocardial cells through regional perfusion, and Tl-201 is retained in the cell due to sodium/potassium ATPase pumps in the myocyte membrane. The stress-redistribution-reinjection protocol involves three sets of images. The first two image sets (taken immediately after stress and then three to four hours after stress) identify perfusion defects that may represent scar tissue or viable tissue that is severely hypoperfused. The third set of images is taken a few minutes after the re-injection of Tl-201 and after the second set of images is completed. These re-injection images identify viable tissue if the defects exhibit significant fill-in (> 10% increase in tracer uptake) on the re-injection images.
The other common Tl-201 viability imaging protocol, rest-redistribution, involves SPECT imaging performed at rest five minutes after Tl-201 is injected and again three to four hours later. Viable tissue is identified if the delayed images exhibit significant fill-in of defects identified in the initial scans (> 10% increase in uptake) or if defects are fixed but the tracer activity is greater than 50%.
There are two technetium-99 m tracers: sestamibi (MIBI) and tetrofosmin. The uptake and retention of these tracers is dependent on regional perfusion and the integrity of cellular membranes. Viability is assessed using one set of images at rest and is defined by segments with tracer activity greater than 50%.
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) is a non-invasive, x-ray free technique that uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses, and a computer to produce detailed images of the structure and function of the heart. Two types of cardiac MRI are used to assess myocardial viability: dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging (DSMR) and delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI (DE-MRI). DE-MRI, the most commonly used technique in Ontario, uses gadolinium-based contrast agents to define the transmural extent of scar, which can be visualized based on the intensity of the image. Hyper-enhanced regions correspond to irreversibly damaged myocardium. As the extent of hyper-enhancement increases, the amount of scar increases, so there is a lower the likelihood of functional recovery.
Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine technique used to image tissues based on the distinct ways in which normal and abnormal tissues metabolize positron-emitting radionuclides. Radionuclides are radioactive analogs of common physiological substrates such as sugars, amino acids, and free fatty acids that are used by the body. The only licensed radionuclide used in PET imaging for viability assessment is F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).
During a PET scan, the radionuclides are injected into the body and as they decay, they emit positively charged particles (positrons) that travel several millimetres into tissue and collide with orbiting electrons. This collision results in annihilation where the combined mass of the positron and electron is converted into energy in the form of two 511 keV gamma rays, which are then emitted in opposite directions (180 degrees) and captured by an external array of detector elements in the PET gantry. Computer software is then used to convert the radiation emission into images. The system is set up so that it only detects coincident gamma rays that arrive at the detectors within a predefined temporal window, while single photons arriving without a pair or outside the temporal window do not active the detector. This allows for increased spatial and contrast resolution.
Evidence-Based Analysis
Research Questions
What is the diagnostic accuracy of PET for detecting myocardial viability?
What is the prognostic value of PET viability imaging (mortality and other clinical outcomes)?
What is the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making?
What is the safety of PET viability imaging?
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on July 17, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2004 to July 16, 2009. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. In addition, published systematic reviews and health technology assessments were reviewed for relevant studies published before 2004. Reference lists of included studies were also examined for any additional relevant studies not already identified. The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low or very low according to GRADE methodology.
Inclusion Criteria
Criteria applying to diagnostic accuracy studies, prognosis studies, and physician decision-making studies:
English language full-reports
Health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies
Patients with chronic, known CAD
PET imaging using FDG for the purpose of detecting viable myocardium
Criteria applying to diagnostic accuracy studies:
Assessment of functional recovery ≥3 months after revascularization
Raw data available to calculate sensitivity and specificity
Gold standard: prediction of global or regional functional recovery
Criteria applying to prognosis studies:
Mortality studies that compare revascularized patients with non-revascularized patients and patients with viable and non-viable myocardium
Exclusion Criteria
Criteria applying to diagnostic accuracy studies, prognosis studies, and physician decision-making studies:
PET perfusion imaging
< 20 patients
< 18 years of age
Patients with non-ischemic heart disease
Animal or phantom studies
Studies focusing on the technical aspects of PET
Studies conducted exclusively in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI)
Duplicate publications
Criteria applying to diagnostic accuracy studies
Gold standard other than functional recovery (e.g., PET or cardiac MRI)
Assessment of functional recovery occurs before patients are revascularized
Outcomes of Interest
Diagnostic accuracy studies
Sensitivity and specificity
Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV)
Positive and negative likelihood ratios
Diagnostic accuracy
Adverse events
Prognosis studies
Mortality rate
Functional status
Exercise capacity
Quality of Life
Influence on PET viability imaging on physician decision making
Statistical Methods
Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate, binomial generalized linear mixed model. Statistical significance was defined by P values less than 0.05, where “false discovery rate” adjustments were made for multiple hypothesis testing. Using the bivariate model parameters, summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves were produced. The area under the sROC curve was estimated by numerical integration with a cubic spline (default option). Finally, pooled estimates of mortality rates were calculated using weighted means.
Quality of Evidence
The quality of evidence assigned to individual diagnostic studies was determined using the QUADAS tool, a list of 14 questions that address internal and external validity, bias, and generalizibility of diagnostic accuracy studies. Each question is scored as “yes”, “no”, or “unclear”. The quality of the body of evidence was then assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review: one health technology assessment, two systematic reviews, 22 observational diagnostic accuracy studies, and 16 prognosis studies. The available PET viability imaging literature addresses two questions: 1) what is the diagnostic accuracy of PET imaging for the assessment; and 2) what is the prognostic value of PET viability imaging. The diagnostic accuracy studies use regional or global functional recovery as the reference standard to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technology. While regional functional recovery was most commonly used in the studies, global functional recovery is more important clinically. Due to differences in reporting and thresholds, however, it was not possible to pool global functional recovery.
Functional recovery, however, is a surrogate reference standard for viability and consequently, the diagnostic accuracy results may underestimate the specificity of PET viability imaging. For example, regional functional recovery may take up to a year after revascularization depending on whether it is stunned or hibernating tissue, while many of the studies looked at regional functional recovery 3 to 6 months after revascularization. In addition, viable tissue may not recover function after revascularization due to graft patency or re-stenosis. Both issues may lead to false positives and underestimate specificity. Given these limitations, the prognostic value of PET viability imaging provides the most direct and clinically useful information. This body of literature provides evidence on the comparative effectiveness of revascularization and medical therapy in patients with viable myocardium and patients without viable myocardium. In addition, the literature compares the impact of PET-guided treatment decision making with SPECT-guided or standard care treatment decision making on survival and cardiac events (including cardiac mortality, MI, hospital stays, unintended revascularization, etc).
The main findings from the diagnostic accuracy and prognosis evidence are:
Based on the available very low quality evidence, PET is a useful imaging modality for the detection of viable myocardium. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of regional functional recovery as a surrogate for viable myocardium are 91.5% (95% CI, 88.2% – 94.9%) and 67.8% (95% CI, 55.8% – 79.7%), respectively.
Based the available very low quality of evidence, an indirect comparison of pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity showed no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy of PET viability imaging for regional functional recovery using perfusion/metabolism mismatch with FDG PET plus either a PET or SPECT perfusion tracer compared with metabolism imaging with FDG PET alone.
FDG PET + PET perfusion metabolism mismatch: sensitivity, 89.9% (83.5% – 96.4%); specificity, 78.3% (66.3% – 90.2%);
FDG PET + SPECT perfusion metabolism mismatch: sensitivity, 87.2% (78.0% – 96.4%); specificity, 67.1% (48.3% – 85.9%);
FDG PET metabolism: sensitivity, 94.5% (91.0% – 98.0%); specificity, 66.8% (53.2% – 80.3%).
Given these findings, further higher quality studies are required to determine the comparative effectiveness and clinical utility of metabolism and perfusion/metabolism mismatch viability imaging with PET.
Based on very low quality of evidence, patients with viable myocardium who are revascularized have a lower mortality rate than those who are treated with medical therapy. Given the quality of evidence, however, this estimate of effect is uncertain so further higher quality studies in this area should be undertaken to determine the presence and magnitude of the effect.
While revascularization may reduce mortality in patients with viable myocardium, current moderate quality RCT evidence suggests that PET-guided treatment decisions do not result in statistically significant reductions in mortality compared with treatment decisions based on SPECT or standard care protocols. The PARR II trial by Beanlands et al. found a significant reduction in cardiac events (a composite outcome that includes cardiac deaths, MI, or hospital stay for cardiac cause) between the adherence to PET recommendations subgroup and the standard care group (hazard ratio, .62; 95% confidence intervals, 0.42 – 0.93; P = .019); however, this post-hoc sub-group analysis is hypothesis generating and higher quality studies are required to substantiate these findings.
The use of FDG PET plus SPECT to determine perfusion/metabolism mismatch to assess myocardial viability increases the radiation exposure compared with FDG PET imaging alone or FDG PET combined with PET perfusion imaging (total-body effective dose: FDG PET, 7 mSv; FDG PET plus PET perfusion tracer, 7.6 – 7.7 mSV; FDG PET plus SPECT perfusion tracer, 16 – 25 mSv). While the precise risk attributed to this increased exposure is unknown, there is increasing concern regarding lifetime multiple exposures to radiation-based imaging modalities, although the incremental lifetime risk for patients who are older or have a poor prognosis may not be as great as for healthy individuals.
PMCID: PMC3377573  PMID: 23074393
8.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability 
Executive Summary
In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients undergoing viability assessment. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies that can be used for the assessment of myocardial viability: positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, dobutamine echocardiography, and dobutamine echocardiography with contrast, and single photon emission computed tomography.
A 2005 review conducted by MAS determined that positron emission tomography was more sensitivity than dobutamine echocardiography and single photon emission tomography and dominated the other imaging modalities from a cost-effective standpoint. However, there was inadequate evidence to compare positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, this report focuses on this comparison only. For both technologies, an economic analysis was also completed.
A summary decision analytic model was then developed to encapsulate the data from each of these reports (available on the OHTAC and MAS website).
The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html
Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac MRI viability imaging, the following outcomes were examined: the diagnostic accuracy in predicting functional recovery and the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure
Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) 1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997.
Treatment Options
In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option, revascularization, is used to restore the flow of blood to the heart via coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or, in some cases, through minimally invasive percutaneous coronary interventions (balloon angioplasty and stenting). Both methods, however, are associated with important perioperative risks including mortality, so it is essential to properly select patients for this procedure.
Myocardial Viability
Left ventricular dysfunction may be permanent, due to the formation of myocardial scar, or it may be reversible after revascularization. Reversible LV dysfunction occurs when the myocardium is viable but dysfunctional (reduced contractility). Since only patients with dysfunctional but viable myocardium benefit from revascularization, the identification and quantification of the extent of myocardial viability is an important part of the work-up of patients with heart failure when determining the most appropriate treatment path. Various non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities can be used to assess patients in whom determination of viability is an important clinical issue, specifically:
dobutamine echocardiography (echo),
stress echo with contrast,
SPECT using either technetium or thallium,
cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI), and
positron emission tomography (PET).
Dobutamine Echocardiography
Stress echocardiography can be used to detect viable myocardium. During the infusion of low dose dobutamine (5 – 10 µg/kg/min), an improvement of contractility in hypokinetic and akentic segments is indicative of the presence of viable myocardium. Alternatively, a low-high dose dobutamine protocol can be used in which a biphasic response characterized by improved contractile function during the low-dose infusion followed by a deterioration in contractility due to stress induced ischemia during the high dose dobutamine infusion (dobutamine dose up to 40 ug/kg/min) represents viable tissue. Newer techniques including echocardiography using contrast agents, harmonic imaging, and power doppler imaging may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic assessment of myocardial viability.
Stress Echocardiography with Contrast
Intravenous contrast agents, which are high molecular weight inert gas microbubbles that act like red blood cells in the vascular space, can be used during echocardiography to assess myocardial viability. These agents allow for the assessment of myocardial blood flow (perfusion) and contractile function (as described above), as well as the simultaneous assessment of perfusion to make it possible to distinguish between stunned and hibernating myocardium.
SPECT
SPECT can be performed using thallium-201 (Tl-201), a potassium analogue, or technetium-99 m labelled tracers. When Tl-201 is injected intravenously into a patient, it is taken up by the myocardial cells through regional perfusion, and Tl-201 is retained in the cell due to sodium/potassium ATPase pumps in the myocyte membrane. The stress-redistribution-reinjection protocol involves three sets of images. The first two image sets (taken immediately after stress and then three to four hours after stress) identify perfusion defects that may represent scar tissue or viable tissue that is severely hypoperfused. The third set of images is taken a few minutes after the re-injection of Tl-201 and after the second set of images is completed. These re-injection images identify viable tissue if the defects exhibit significant fill-in (> 10% increase in tracer uptake) on the re-injection images.
The other common Tl-201 viability imaging protocol, rest-redistribution, involves SPECT imaging performed at rest five minutes after Tl-201 is injected and again three to four hours later. Viable tissue is identified if the delayed images exhibit significant fill-in of defects identified in the initial scans (> 10% increase in uptake) or if defects are fixed but the tracer activity is greater than 50%.
There are two technetium-99 m tracers: sestamibi (MIBI) and tetrofosmin. The uptake and retention of these tracers is dependent on regional perfusion and the integrity of cellular membranes. Viability is assessed using one set of images at rest and is defined by segments with tracer activity greater than 50%.
Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine technique used to image tissues based on the distinct ways in which normal and abnormal tissues metabolize positron-emitting radionuclides. Radionuclides are radioactive analogs of common physiological substrates such as sugars, amino acids, and free fatty acids that are used by the body. The only licensed radionuclide used in PET imaging for viability assessment is F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).
During a PET scan, the radionuclides are injected into the body and as they decay, they emit positively charged particles (positrons) that travel several millimetres into tissue and collide with orbiting electrons. This collision results in annihilation where the combined mass of the positron and electron is converted into energy in the form of two 511 keV gamma rays, which are then emitted in opposite directions (180 degrees) and captured by an external array of detector elements in the PET gantry. Computer software is then used to convert the radiation emission into images. The system is set up so that it only detects coincident gamma rays that arrive at the detectors within a predefined temporal window, while single photons arriving without a pair or outside the temporal window do not active the detector. This allows for increased spatial and contrast resolution.
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) is a non-invasive, x-ray free technique that uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses, and a computer to produce detailed images of the structure and function of the heart. Two types of cardiac MRI are used to assess myocardial viability: dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging (DSMR) and delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI (DE-MRI). DE-MRI, the most commonly used technique in Ontario, uses gadolinium-based contrast agents to define the transmural extent of scar, which can be visualized based on the intensity of the image. Hyper-enhanced regions correspond to irreversibly damaged myocardium. As the extent of hyper-enhancement increases, the amount of scar increases, so there is a lower the likelihood of functional recovery.
Evidence-Based Analysis
Research Questions
What is the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac MRI for detecting myocardial viability?
What is the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other clinical outcomes)?
How does cardiac MRI compare with cardiac PET imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability?
What is the contribution of cardiac MRI viability imaging to treatment decision making?
Is cardiac MRI cost-effective compared with other cardiac imaging modalities for the assessment of myocardial viability?
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on October 9, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2005 until October 9, 2009. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria full-text articles were obtained. In addition, published systematic reviews and health technology assessments were reviewed for relevant studies published before 2005. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. The quality of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low or very low according to GRADE methodology.
Inclusion Criteria
English language full-reports
Published between January 1, 2005 and October 9, 2009
Health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies
Patients with chronic, known coronary artery disease (CAD)
Used contrast-enhanced MRI
Assessment of functional recovery ≥ 3 months after revascularization
Exclusion Criteria
< 20 patients
< 18 years of age
Patients with non-ischemic heart disease
Studies conducted exclusively in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI)
Studies where TP, TN, FP, FN cannot be determined
Outcomes of Interest
Sensitivity
Specificity
Positive predictive value (PPV)
Negative Predictive value (NPV)
Positive likelihood ratio
Negative likelihood ratio
Diagnostic accuracy
Mortality rate (for prognostic studies)
Adverse events
Summary of Findings
Based on the available very low quality evidence, MRI is a useful imaging modality for the detection of viable myocardium. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of regional functional recovery as a surrogate for viable myocardium are 84.5% (95% CI: 77.5% – 91.6%) and 71.0% (95% CI: 68.8% – 79.2%), respectively.
Subgroup analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the sensitivity of MRI to assess myocardial viability for studies using ≤25% hyperenhancement as a viability threshold versus studies using ≤50% hyperenhancement as their viability threshold [78.7 (95% CI: 69.1% - 88.2%) and 96.2 (95% CI: 91.8 – 100.6); p=0.0044 respectively]. Marked differences in specificity were observed [73.6 (95% CI: 62.6% - 84.6%) and 47.2 (95% CI: 22.2 – 72.3); p=0.2384 respectively]; however, these findings were not statistically significant.
There were no statistically significant differences between the sensitivities or specificities for any other subgroups including mean preoperative LVEF, imaging method for function recovery assessment, and length of follow-up.
There was no evidence available to determine whether patients with viable myocardium who are revascularized have a lower mortality rate than those who are treated with medical therapy.
PMCID: PMC3426228  PMID: 23074392
9.  Damage to mitochondrial complex I during cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury is reduced indirectly by anti-anginal drug ranolazine 
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta  2011;1817(3):419-429.
Ranolazine (Ran), an anti-anginal drug, is a late Na+ channel current blocker that is also believed to attenuate fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiratory complex I activity, especially during ischemia. In this study, we investigated if Ran's protective effect against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is mediated at the mitochondrial level and specifically if respiratory complex I (NADH oxidoreductase) function is protected. We treated isolated and perfused guinea pig hearts with Ran just before 30 min ischemia and then isolated cardiac mitochondria at the end of 30 min ischemia and/or 30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion. We utilized spectrophotometric and histochemical techniques to assay complex I activity, western blot analysis for complex I subunit NDUFA9, electron paramagnetic resonance for activity of complex I Fe-S clusters, ELISA for determination of protein acetylation, native gel histochemical staining for respiratory supercomplex assemblies, and high pressure liquid chromatography for cardiolipin integrity; cardiac function was measured during IR. Ran treated hearts showed higher complex I activity and greater detectable complex I protein levels compared to untreated IR hearts. Ran treatment also led to more normalized electron transfer via Fe-S centers, supercomplex assembly and cardiolipin integrity. These improvements in complex I structure and function with Ran were associated with improved cardiac function after IR. However, these protective effects of Ran are not mediated by a direct action on mitochondria, but rather indirectly via cytosolic mechanisms that lead to less oxidation and better structural integrity of complex I.
doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.11.021
PMCID: PMC3269517  PMID: 22178605
Complex I; mitochondria; IR injury; ranolazine; EPR; heart
10.  Blockade of electron transport before ischemia protects mitochondria and decreases myocardial injury during reperfusion in aged rat hearts 
Myocardial injury is increased in the aged heart following ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) in both humans and experimental models. Hearts from aged 24 mo. old Fischer 344 rats sustain greater cell death and decreased contractile recovery after I-R compared to 6 mo. adult controls. Cardiac mitochondria incur damage during I-R contributing to cell death. Aged rats have a defect in complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) localized to the interfibrillar population of cardiac mitochondria (IFM), situated in the interior of the cardiomyocyte among the myofibrils. The defect involves the quinol oxidation site (Qo) and increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the baseline state. Ischemia further decreases complex III activity via functional inactivation of the iron-sulfur subunit. We studied the contribution of ischemia-induced defects in complex III to the increased cardiac injury in the aged heart. The reversible blockade of the ETC proximal to complex III during ischemia using amobarbital protects mitochondria against ischemic damage, removing the ischemia component of mitochondrial dysfunction. Reperfusion of the aged heart in the absence of ischemic mitochondrial damage decreases net ROS production from mitochondria and reduces cell death. Thus, even despite the persistence of the age-related defects in electron transport, protection against ischemic damage to mitochondria can reduce injury in the aged heart. The direct therapeutic targeting of mitochondria protects against ischemic damage and decreases cardiac injury during reperfusion in the high risk elderly heart.
doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2012.01.024
PMCID: PMC3423471  PMID: 22698829
ischemia; cytochrome c; myocardial infarction; aging; electron transport chain; reactive oxygen species
11.  The Mechanism of Intralipid®-Mediated Cardioprotection Complex IV Inhibition by the Active Metabolite, Palmitoylcarnitine, Generates Reactive Oxygen Species and Activates Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinases 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87205.
Background
Intralipid® administration at reperfusion elicits protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.
Methods
Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion in the absence or presence of Intralipid® 1% administered at the onset of reperfusion. In separate experiments, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine was added either alone or with Intralipid®. Left ventricular work and activation of Akt, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were used to evaluate cardioprotection. ROS production was assessed by measuring the loss of aconitase activity and the release of hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Red. Electron transport chain complex activities and proton leak were measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Titration experiments using the fatty acid intermediates of Intralipid® palmitoyl-, oleoyl- and linoleoylcarnitine served to determine concentration-dependent inhibition of complex IV activity and mitochondrial ROS release.
Results
Intralipid® enhanced postischemic recovery and activated Akt and Erk1/2, effects that were abolished by the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine. Palmitoylcarnitine and linoleoylcarnitine, but not oleoylcarnitine concentration-dependently inhibited complex IV. Only palmitoylcarnitine reached high tissue concentrations during early reperfusion and generated significant ROS by complex IV inhibition. Palmitoylcarnitine (1 µM), administered at reperfusion, also fully mimicked Intralipid®-mediated protection in an N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine -dependent manner.
Conclusions
Our data describe a new mechanism of postconditioning cardioprotection by the clinically available fat emulsion, Intralipid®. Protection is elicited by the fatty acid intermediate palmitoylcarnitine, and involves inhibition of complex IV, an increase in ROS production and activation of the RISK pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087205
PMCID: PMC3907505  PMID: 24498043
12.  Oleanolic Acid: A Novel Cardioprotective Agent That Blunts Hyperglycemia-Induced Contractile Dysfunction 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47322.
Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as potential mediators of this process. Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract) possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic hyperglycemia-mediated pathophysiologic molecular events (oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP, UPS) and thereby improves contractile function in response to ischemia-reperfusion. We employed several experimental systems: 1) H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to 33 mM glucose for 48 hr vs. controls (5 mM glucose); and subsequently treated with two OA doses (20 and 50 µM) for 6 and 24 hr, respectively; 2) Isolated rat hearts were perfused ex vivo with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 33 mM glucose vs. controls (11 mM glucose) for 60 min, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 60 min reperfusion ± OA treatment; 3) In vivo coronary ligations were performed on streptozotocin treated rats ± OA administration during reperfusion; and 4) Effects of long-term OA treatment (2 weeks) on heart function was assessed in streptozotocin-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that OA treatment blunted high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart cells. OA therapy also resulted in cardioprotection, i.e. for ex vivo and in vivo rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion under hyperglycemic conditions. In parallel, we found decreased oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP flux and proteasomal activity following ischemia-reperfusion. Long-term OA treatment also improved heart function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These findings are promising since it may eventually result in novel therapeutic interventions to treat acute hyperglycemia (in non-diabetic patients) and diabetic patients with associated cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047322
PMCID: PMC3473042  PMID: 23091615
13.  Nitrite augments tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury via the modulation of mitochondrial electron transfer 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2007;204(9):2089-2102.
Nitrite (NO2−) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally distinct acute and delayed ischemic preconditioning cytoprotective phenotypes, we report that both acute and delayed (24 h before ischemia) exposure to physiological concentrations of nitrite, given both systemically or orally, potently limits cardiac and hepatic reperfusion injury. This cytoprotection is associated with increases in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Remarkably, isolated mitochondria subjected to 30 min of anoxia followed by reoxygenation were directly protected by nitrite administered both in vitro during anoxia or in vivo 24 h before mitochondrial isolation. Mechanistically, nitrite dose-dependently modifies and inhibits complex I by posttranslational S-nitrosation; this dampens electron transfer and effectively reduces reperfusion reactive oxygen species generation and ameliorates oxidative inactivation of complexes II–IV and aconitase, thus preventing mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and cytochrome c release. These data suggest that nitrite dynamically modulates mitochondrial resilience to reperfusion injury and may represent an effector of the cell-survival program of ischemic preconditioning and the Mediterranean diet.
doi:10.1084/jem.20070198
PMCID: PMC2118713  PMID: 17682069
14.  Protecting Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function during Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest 
Critical Care Clinics  2012;28(2):245-270.
Synopsis
Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest requires reestablishment of aerobic metabolism by reperfusion with oxygenated blood of tissues that have been deprived of oxygen for variables periods of time. However, reperfusion concomitantly activates pathogenic mechanisms known as “reperfusion injury.” At the core of reperfusion injury are mitochondria, playing a critical role as effectors and targets of such injury. Mitochondrial injury compromises oxidative phosphorylation and also prompts release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and bloodstream where it correlates with severity of injury. Main drivers of such injury include Ca2+ overload and oxidative stress. Preclinical work shows that limiting myocardial cytosolic Na+ overload at the time of reperfusion attenuates mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and maintains oxidative phosphorylation yielding functional myocardial benefits that include preservation of left ventricular distensibility. Preservation of left ventricular distensibility enables hemodynamically more effective chest compression. Similar myocardial effect have been reported using erythropoietin hypothesized to protect mitochondrial bioenergetic function presumably through activation of pathways similar to those activated during preconditioning. Incorporation of novel and clinical relevant strategies to protect mitochondrial bioenergetic function are expected to attenuate injury at the time of reperfusion and enhance organ viability ultimately improving resuscitation and survival from cardiac arrest.
doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2012.02.001
PMCID: PMC3310365  PMID: 22433486
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Energy metabolism; Erythropoietin; Ischemia; Mitochondria; Myocardium; Reperfusion injury; Sodium hydrogen antiporter; Ventricular function
15.  Oxygen radicals generated at reflow induce peroxidation of membrane lipids in reperfused hearts. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(6):2056-2066.
To test whether generation of oxygen radicals during postischemic reperfusion might promote peroxidation of cardiac membrane lipids, four groups of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were processed at the end of (a) control perfusion, (b) 30 min of total global ischemia at 37 degrees C without reperfusion, (c) 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion with standard perfusate, (d) 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion with the oxygen radical scavenger human recombinant superoxide dismutase (h-SOD). The left ventricle was homogenized and tissue content of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, was measured on the whole homogenate as well as on various subcellular fractions. Reperfusion was accompanied by a significant increase in MDA content of the whole homogenate and of the fraction enriched in mitochondria and lysosomes. This phenomenon was not observed in hearts subjected to ischemia but not reperfused, and was similarly absent in those hearts which received h-SOD at reflow. Reperfused hearts also had significantly greater levels of conjugated dienes (another marker of lipid peroxidation) in the mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction. Again, this phenomenon did not occur in ischemic hearts or in reperfused hearts treated with h-SOD. Unlike the effect on tissue MDA and conjugated dienes, reperfusion did not significantly stimulate release of MDA in the cardiac effluent. Treatment with h-SOD was also associated with significant improvement in the recovery of cardiac function. In conclusion, these data directly demonstrate that postischemic reperfusion results in enhanced lipid peroxidation of cardiac membranes, which can be blocked by h-SOD, and therefore is most likely secondary to oxygen radical generation at reflow.
Images
PMCID: PMC296962  PMID: 1645750
16.  Cardiac Arrhythmias Induced by Glutathione Oxidation can be Inhibited by Preventing Mitochondrial Depolarization 
We have previously proposed that the heterogeneous collapse of mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm) during ischemia and reperfusion contributes to arrhythmogenesis through the formation of metabolic sinks in the myocardium, wherein clusters of myocytes with uncoupled mitochondria and high KATP current levels alter electrical propagation to promote reentry. Single myocyte studies have also shown that cell-wide ΔΨm depolarization, through a reactive oxygen species (ROS) -induced ROS release mechanism, can be triggered by global depletion of the antioxidant pool with diamide, a glutathione oxidant. Here we examine whether diamide causes mitochondrial depolarization and promotes arrhythmias in normoxic isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. We also investigate whether stabilization of ΔΨm with a ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (4′-chlorodiazepam; 4-ClDzp) prevents the formation of metabolic sinks and, consequently, precludes arrhythmias. Oxidation of the GSH pool was initiated by treatment with 200μM diamide for 35 minutes, followed by washout. This treatment increased GSSG and decreased both total GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio. All hearts receiving diamide transitioned from sinus rhythm into ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation during the diamide exposure: arrhythmia scores were 5.5 ± 0.5; n=6 hearts. These arrhythmias and impaired LV function were significantly inhibited by co-administration of 4-ClDzp (64μM): arrhythmia scores with diamide + 4-ClDzp were 0.4± 0.2 (n=5; P < 0.05 vs. diamide alone). Imaging ΔΨm in intact hearts revealed the heterogeneous collapse of ΔΨm beginning 20 minutes into diamide, paralleling the timeframe for the onset of arrhythmias. Loss of ΔΨm was prevented by 4-ClDzp treatment, as was the increase in myocardial GSSG. These findings show that oxidative stress induced by oxidation of GSH with diamide can cause electromechanical dysfunction under normoxic conditions. Analogous to ischemia-reperfusion injury, the dysfunction depends on the mitochondrial energy state. Targeting the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor can prevent electrical and mechanical dysfunction in both models of oxidative stress.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.11.011
PMCID: PMC2837795  PMID: 19962380
ischemia; reperfusion; glutathione; arrhythmia; mitochondrial ion channels; oxidative stress; anti-oxidant; heart
17.  Pim-1 Kinase Protects Mitochondrial Integrity in Cardiomyocytes 
Circulation research  2010;106(7):1265-1274.
Rationale
Cardioprotective signaling mediates anti-apoptotic actions through multiple mechanisms including maintenance of mitochondrial integrity. Pim-1 kinase is an essential downstream effector of AKT-mediated cardioprotection but the mechanistic basis for maintenance of mitochondrial integrity by Pim-1 remains unexplored. This study details anti-apoptotic actions responsible for enhanced cell survival in cardiomyocytes with elevated Pim-1 activity.
Objective
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the cardioprotective kinase Pim-1 acts to inhibit cell death by preserving mitochondrial integrity in cardiomyocytes.
Methods and Results
A combination of biochemical, molecular, and microscopic analyses demonstrate beneficial effects of Pim-1 upon mitochondrial integrity. Pim-1 protein level increases in the mitochondrial fraction with a corresponding decrease in the cytosolic fraction of myocardial lysates from hearts subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Cardiac-specific overexpression of Pim-1 results in higher levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 compared to samples from normal hearts. In response to oxidative stress challenge Pim-1 preserves the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Ultrastructure of the mitochondria is maintained by Pim-1 activity, which prevents swelling induced by calcium overload. Finally, mitochondria isolated from hearts created with cardiac-specific overexpression of Pim-1 show inhibition of cytochrome c release triggered by a truncated form of pro-apoptotic Bid.
Conclusion
Cardioprotective action of Pim-1 kinase includes preservation of mitochondrial integrity during cardiomyopathic challenge conditions, thereby raising the potential for Pim-1 kinase activation as a therapeutic interventional approach to inhibit cell death by antagonizing pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members that regulate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.212035
PMCID: PMC2864233  PMID: 20203306
Pim-1; mitochondria; cardiomyocyte; apoptosis
18.  A small molecule AMPK activator protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury 
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a stress signaling enzyme that orchestrates the regulation of energy-generating and -consuming pathways. Intrinsic AMPK activation protects the heart against ischemic injury and apoptosis, but whether pharmacologic AMPK stimulation mitigates ischemia-reperfusion damage is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether direct stimulation of AMPK using a small molecule activator, A-769662, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to examine its cardioprotective mechanisms. Isolated mouse hearts pre-treated with A-769662 had better recovery of left ventricular contractile function (55% vs. 29% of baseline rate-pressure product; p=0.03) and less myocardial necrosis (56% reduction in infarct size; p<0.01) during post-ischemic reperfusion compared to control hearts. Pre-treatment with A-769662 in vivo attenuated infarct size in C57Bl/6 mice undergoing left coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion compared to vehicle (36% vs. 18%, p=0.025). Mouse hearts with genetically inactivated AMPK were not protected by A-769662, indicating the specificity of this compound. Pre-treatment with A-769662 increased the phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), preserved energy charge during ischemia, delayed the development of ischemic contracture, and reduced myocardial apoptosis and necrosis. A-769662 also augmented endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation during ischemia, which partially attenuated myocardial stunning, but did not prevent necrosis. AMPK is a therapeutic target that can be stimulated by a direct-acting small molecule in order to prevent injury during ischemia-reperfusion. The use of AMPK activators may represent a novel strategy to protect the heart and other solid organs against ischemia.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.03.003
PMCID: PMC4005884  PMID: 21402077
AMPK; cardioprotection; reperfusion injury; signal transduction; ischemic preconditioning
19.  Novel O-palmitolylated beta-E1 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated during ischemia/reperfusion injury 
Proteome Science  2010;8:38.
Background
During and following myocardial ischemia, glucose oxidation rates are low and fatty acids dominate as a source of oxidative metabolism. This metabolic phenotype is associated with contractile dysfunction during reperfusion. To determine the mechanism of this reliance on fatty acid oxidation as a source of ATP generation, a functional proteomics approach was utilized.
Results
2-D gel electrophoresis of mitochondria from working rat hearts subjected to 25 minutes of global no flow ischemia followed by 40 minutes of aerobic reperfusion identified 32 changes in protein abundance compared to aerobic controls. Of the five proteins with the greatest change in abundance, two were increased (long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (48 ± 1 versus 39 ± 3 arbitrary units, n = 3, P < 0.05) and α subunit of ATP synthase (189 ± 15 versus 113 ± 23 arbitrary units, n = 3, P < 0.05)), while two were decreased (24 kDa subunit of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (94 ± 7 versus 127 ± 9 arbitrary units, n = 3, P < 0.05) and D subunit of ATP synthase (230 ± 11 versus 368 ± 47 arbitrary units, n = 3, P < 05)). Two forms of pyruvate dehydrogenase βE1 subunit, the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation, were also identified. The protein level of the more acidic form of pyruvate dehydrogenase was reduced during reperfusion (37 ± 4 versus 56 ± 7 arbitrary units, n = 3, P < 05), while the more basic form remained unchanged. The more acidic isoform was found to be O-palmitoylated, while both isoforms exhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced phosphorylation. In silico analysis identified the putative kinases as the insulin receptor kinase for the more basic form and protein kinase Cζ or protein kinase A for the more acidic form. These modifications of pyruvate dehydrogenase are associated with a 35% decrease in glucose oxidation during reperfusion.
Conclusions
Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion induces significant changes to a number of metabolic proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, ischemia/reperfusion induced the post-translational modification of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting step of glucose oxidation, which is associated with a 35% decrease in glucose oxidation during reperfusion. Therefore these post-translational modifications may have important implications in the regulation of myocardial energy metabolism.
doi:10.1186/1477-5956-8-38
PMCID: PMC2909933  PMID: 20618950
20.  Xenotransplantation of Mitochondrial Electron Transfer Enzyme, Ndi1, in Myocardial Reperfusion Injury 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16288.
A significant consequence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, leading to energetic deficits and cellular toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mammalian complex I, a NADH-quinone oxidoreductase enzyme, is a multiple subunit enzyme that oxidizes NADH and pumps protons across the inner membrane. Damage to complex I leads to superoxide production which further damages complex I as well as other proteins, lipids and mtDNA. The yeast, S. cerevisiae, expresses internal rotenone insensitive NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1); a single 56kDa polypeptide which, like the multi-subunit mammalian complex I, serves as the entry site of electrons to the respiratory chain, but without proton pumping. Heterologous expression of Ndi1 in mammalian cells results in protein localization to the inner mitochondrial membrane which can function in parallel with endogenous complex I to oxidize NADH and pass electrons to ubiquinone. Expression of Ndi1 in HL-1 cardiomyocytes and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes protected the cells from simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R), accompanied by lower ROS production, and preservation of ATP levels and NAD+/NADH ratios. We next generated a fusion protein of Ndi1 and the 11aa protein transduction domain from HIV TAT. TAT-Ndi1 entered cardiomyocytes and localized to mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, TAT-Ndi1 introduced into Langendorff-perfused rat hearts also localized to mitochondria. Perfusion of TAT-Ndi1 before 30 min no-flow ischemia and up to 2 hr reperfusion suppressed ROS production and preserved ATP stores. Importantly, TAT-Ndi1 infused before ischemia reduced infarct size by 62%; TAT-Ndi1 infused at the onset of reperfusion was equally cardioprotective. These results indicate that restoring NADH oxidation and electron flow at reperfusion can profoundly ameliorate reperfusion injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016288
PMCID: PMC3038860  PMID: 21339825
21.  Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart 
Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart.
Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group).
Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts.
PMCID: PMC3821884  PMID: 24250943
Hemodynamic; Ischemia; L-carnitine; Postconditioning; Preconditioning; Rat; Reperfusion
22.  Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart 
Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart.
Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group).
Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts.
PMCID: PMC3821885  PMID: 24250945
Hemodynamic; Ischemia; L-carnitine; Postconditioning; Preconditioning; Rat; Reperfusion
23.  High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet alters myocardial oxidative stress and impairs recovery of cardiac function following ischemia and reperfusion in obese rats 
Obesity is associated with elevated risk of heart disease. A solid understanding of the safety and potential adverse effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD) similar to that used by humans for weight loss on the heart is crucial. High fat intake is known to promote increases in ROS and mitochondrial damage. We hypothesized that there would be adverse effects of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through enhancing oxidative stress injury and impairing mitochondrial biogenesis in a non-genetic, diet-induced rat model of obesity. To test the hypothesis, 250g male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an obesity-promoting diet for 7 weeks to induce obesity, then switched to HFLCD or a low fat control diet for 2 weeks. Isolated hearts underwent global low flow ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion for 60 min. HFLCD resulted in greater weight gain and lower myocardial glycogen, plasma adiponectin and insulin. Myocardial antioxidant genes transcript and protein expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced in HFLCD, along with increased oxidative gene NADPH oxidase-4 transcript and xanthine oxidase activity, and a 37% increase in nitrated protein (nitrotyrosine) in HFLCD hearts. The cardiac expression of key mitochondrial regulatory factors such as nuclear respiratory factor-1 and transcription factor A-mitochondrial were inhibited and myocardial mitochondrial DNA copy number decreased. The cardiac expression of adiponectin and its receptors were downregulated in HFLCD. HFLCD impaired recovery of left ventricular rate-pressure product after ischemia-reperfusion, and led to 3.5-fold increased injury as measured by LDH release. In conclusion, HFLCD leads to increased ischemic myocardial injury and impaired recovery of function following reperfusion and was associated with attenuation of mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced oxidative stress in obese rats. These findings may have important implications for diet selection in obese patients with ischemic heart disease.
doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.02.005
PMCID: PMC3677561  PMID: 23602249
Diet; Rat; Myocardial ischemia; Obesity; mitochondria; oxidative stress
24.  SERCA1 Expression Enhances the Metabolic Efficiency of Improved Contractility in Post Ischemic Hearts 
Myocardial stunning is characterized by a metabolic uncoupling from function as mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxygen consumption remain normal despite reduced contractility. Overexpression of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) in hearts has recently been reported to reduce dysfunction at reperfusion. In this study we determine whether the metabolic coupling to function improves with SERCA treatment. PBS (control) or adenovirus carrying the cDNA for SERCA1 were delivered via coronary perfusion in vivo to Sprague-Dawley rat hearts. Three days following gene transfer, isolated hearts were perfused with 0.4 mM [2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16-13C8] palmitate and 5 mM glucose, and subjected to 15 min ischemia followed by 40 min reperfusion. Consistent with myocardial stunning, rate-pressure-product (RPP) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were depressed 30-40% (p<0.05) in the PBS group. With SERCA1 overexpression, dP/dt was 20% greater than controls (p<0.05), and LVDP and RPP recovered to preischemic values. From dynamic 13C NMR, TCA cycle flux at reperfusion was similar to preischemic values for both groups. Therefore, the efficiency of coupling between cardiac work and TCA cycle flux was restored with SERCA1 treatment. Oxidative efficiency was also enhanced with SERCA1 as cytosolic NADH transport into the mitochondria was significantly greater compared to the PBS group. In addition, the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) was not compromised with SERCA1 expression, despite enhanced function, and depressed fatty acid oxidation at 40 min reperfusion in the PBS group was not reversed with SERCA1. These data demonstrate metabolic coupling and NADH transport are significantly improved with SERCA1 treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.08.031
PMCID: PMC2818126  PMID: 19744494
SERCA; fatty acid oxidation; reperfusion; metabolism; PCr/ATP
25.  The role of mitochondria in protection of the heart by preconditioning 
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta  2007;1767(8):1007-1031.
A prolonged period of ischaemia followed by reperfusion irreversibly damages the heart. Such reperfusion injury (RI) involves opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) under the conditions of calcium overload and oxidative stress that accompany reperfusion. Protection from MPTP opening and hence RI can be mediated by ischaemic preconditioning (IP) where the prolonged ischaemic period is preceded by one or more brief (2–5 min) cycles of ischaemia and reperfusion. Following a brief overview of the molecular characterisation and regulation of the MPTP, the proposed mechanisms by which IP reduces pore opening are reviewed including the potential roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase cascades, and mitochondrial potassium channels. It is proposed that IP-mediated inhibition of MPTP opening at reperfusion does not involve direct phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, but rather reflects diminished oxidative stress during prolonged ischaemia and reperfusion. This causes less oxidation of critical thiol groups on the MPTP that are known to sensitise pore opening to calcium. The mechanisms by which ROS levels are decreased in the IP hearts during prolonged ischaemia and reperfusion are not known, but appear to require activation of protein kinase Cε, either by receptor-mediated events or through transient increases in ROS during the IP protocol. Other signalling pathways may show cross-talk with this primary mechanism, but we suggest that a role for mitochondrial potassium channels is unlikely. The evidence for their activity in isolated mitochondria and cardiac myocytes is reviewed and the lack of specificity of the pharmacological agents used to implicate them in IP is noted. Some K+ channel openers uncouple mitochondria and others inhibit respiratory chain complexes, and their ability to produce ROS and precondition hearts is mimicked by bona fide uncouplers and respiratory chain inhibitors. IP may also provide continuing protection during reperfusion by preventing a cascade of MPTP-induced ROS production followed by further MPTP opening. This phase of protection may involve survival kinase pathways such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) either increasing ROS removal or reducing mitochondrial ROS production.
doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2007.05.008
PMCID: PMC2212780  PMID: 17631856
5HD, 5-hydroxydecanoate; AMPK, AMP activated protein kinase; ANT, Adenine nucleotide translocase; APD, Action potential duration; BCDH, branched chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase; CrK, creatine kinase; CsA, cyclosporin A; CyP, cyclophilin; Cx43, connexin43; GSK3, glycogen synthase kinase 3; IP, ischaemic preconditioning; KATP, ATP-dependent potassium channels; mitoKATP, mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels; MCT1, monocarboxylate transporter 1; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase; PDK1, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1; PI-3-kinase, phosphatidyl inositol 3 phosphate kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; PKG, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; PPi, pyrophosphate; PPIase, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase; PTEN, Phosphatase and TENsin homolog; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SfA, Sanglifehrin A; SUR, sulphohylurea receptor; VDAC, voltage activated anion channel; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Ischaemia; Reperfusion; ROS; Calcium; PKC; KATP channel

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