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1.  The impact of chronic disease self-management programs: healthcare savings through a community-based intervention 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1141.
Background
Among the most studied evidence-based programs, the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been shown to help participants improve their health behaviors, health outcomes, and reduce healthcare utilization. However, there is a lack of information on how CDSMP, when nationally disseminated, impacts healthcare utilization and averts healthcare costs. The purposes of this study were to: 1) document reductions in healthcare utilization among national CDSMP participants; 2) calculate potential cost savings associated with emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalizations; and 3) extrapolate the cost savings estimation to the American adults.
Methods
The national study of CDSMP surveyed 1,170 community-dwelling CDSMP participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months from 22 organizations in 17 states. The procedure used to estimate potential cost savings included: 1) examining the pattern of healthcare utilization among CDSMP participants from self-reported healthcare utilization assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months; 2) calculating age-adjusted average costs for persons using the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey; 3) calculating costs saved from reductions in healthcare utilization; 4) estimating per participant program costs; 5) computing potential cost savings by deducting program costs from estimated healthcare savings; and 6) extrapolating savings to national populations using Census data combined with national health statistics.
Results
Findings from analyses showed significant reductions in ER visits (5%) at both the 6-month and 12-month assessments as well as hospitalizations (3%) at 6 months among national CDSMP participants. This equates to potential net savings of $364 per participant and a national savings of $3.3 billion if 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions were reached.
Conclusions
Findings emphasize the value of public health tertiary prevention interventions and the need for policies to support widespread adoption of CDSMP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1141
PMCID: PMC3878965  PMID: 24314032
Chronic disease self-management program; Healthcare utilization; Healthcare cost savings
2.  Self-Management Support Interventions for Persons With Chronic Disease 
Background
Self-management support interventions such as the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) are becoming more widespread in attempt to help individuals better self-manage chronic disease.
Objective
To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness of self-management support interventions for persons with chronic diseases.
Data Sources
A literature search was performed on January 15, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published between January 1, 2000, and January 15, 2012. A January 1, 2000, start date was used because the concept of non-disease-specific/general chronic disease self-management was first published only in 1999. Reference lists were examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Review Methods
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing self-management support interventions for general chronic disease against usual care were included for analysis. Results of RCTs were pooled using a random-effects model with standardized mean difference as the summary statistic.
Results
Ten primary RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n = 6,074). Nine of these evaluated the Stanford CDSMP across various populations; results, therefore, focus on the CDSMP.
Health status outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across most health status measures, including pain, disability, fatigue, depression, health distress, and self-rated health (GRADE quality low). There was no significant difference between modalities for dyspnea (GRADE quality very low). There was significant improvement in health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol 5-D in favour of CDSMP, but inconsistent findings across other quality-of-life measures.
Healthy behaviour outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across all healthy behaviours, including aerobic exercise, cognitive symptom management, and communication with health care professionals (GRADE quality low).
Self-efficacy: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in self-efficacy in favour of CDSMP (GRADE quality low).
Health care utilization outcomes: There were no statistically significant differences between modalities with respect to visits with general practitioners, visits to the emergency department, days in hospital, or hospitalizations (GRADE quality very low).
All results were measured over the short term (median 6 months of follow-up).
Limitations
Trials generally did not appropriately report data according to intention-to-treat principles. Results therefore reflect “available case analyses,” including only those participants whose outcome status was recorded. For this reason, there is high uncertainty around point estimates.
Conclusions
The Stanford CDSMP led to statistically significant, albeit clinically minimal, short-term improvements across a number of health status measures (including some measures of health-related quality of life), healthy behaviours, and self-efficacy compared to usual care. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the CDSMP improved health care utilization. More research is needed to explore longer-term outcomes, the impact of self-management on clinical outcomes, and to better identify responders and non-responders.
Plain Language Summary
Self-management support interventions are becoming more common as a structured way of helping patients learn to better manage their chronic disease. To assess the effects of these support interventions, we looked at the results of 10 studies involving a total of 6,074 people with various chronic diseases, such as arthritis and chronic pain, chronic respiratory diseases, depression, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Most trials focused on a program called the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). When compared to usual care, the CDSMP led to modest, short-term improvements in pain, disability, fatigue, depression, health distress, self-rated health, and health-related quality of life, but it is not possible to say whether these changes were clinically important. The CDSMP also increased how often people undertook aerobic exercise, how often they practiced stress/pain reduction techniques, and how often they communicated with their health care practitioners. The CDSMP did not reduce the number of primary care doctor visits, emergency department visits, the number of days in hospital, or the number of times people were hospitalized. In general, there was high uncertainty around the quality of the evidence, and more research is needed to better understand the effect of self-management support on long-term outcomes and on important clinical outcomes, as well as to better identify who could benefit most from self-management support interventions like the CDSMP.
PMCID: PMC3814807  PMID: 24194800
3.  Increasing Access to Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs in Rural and Remote Communities Using Telehealth 
Telemedicine Journal and e-Health  2013;19(6):467-473.
Abstract
Objective: This study examined whether a telehealth chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) would lead to improvements in self-efficacy, health behaviors, and health status for chronically ill adults living in Northern Ontario, Canada. Two telehealth models were used: (1) single site, groups formed by participants at one telehealth site; and (2) multi-site, participants linked from multiple sites to form one telehealth group, as a strategy to increase access to the intervention for individuals living in rural and remote communities. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred thirteen participants diagnosed with heart disease, stroke, lung disease, or arthritis attended the CDSMP at a preexisting Ontario Telemedicine Network studio from September 2007 to June 2008. The program includes six weekly, peer-facilitated sessions designed to help participants develop important self-management skills to improve their health and quality of life. Baseline and 4-month follow-up surveys were administered to assess self-efficacy beliefs, health behaviors, and health status information. Results were compared between single- and multi-site delivery models. Results: Statistically significant improvements from baseline to 4-month follow-up were found for self-efficacy (6.6±1.8 to 7.0±1.8; p<0.001), exercise behavior, cognitive symptom management, communication with physicians, role function, psychological well-being, energy, health distress, and self-rated health. There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes between single- and multi-site groups. Conclusions: Improvements in self-efficacy, health status, and health behaviors were equally effective in single- and multi-site groups. Access to self-management programs could be greatly increased with telehealth using single- and multi-site groups in rural and remote communities.
doi:10.1089/tmj.2012.0197
PMCID: PMC3696947  PMID: 23570277
telehealth; policy; cardiology/cardiovascular disease; self-care
4.  A Meta-Analysis of Health Status, Health Behaviors, and Health Care Utilization Outcomes of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program 
Introduction
The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is a community-based self-management education program designed to help participants gain confidence (self-efficacy) and skills to better manage their chronic conditions; it has been implemented worldwide. The objective of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively synthesize the results of CDSMP studies conducted in English-speaking countries to determine the program’s effects on health behaviors, physical and psychological health status, and health care utilization at 4 to 6 months and 9 to 12 months after baseline.
Methods
We searched 8 electronic databases to identify CDSMP-relevant literature published from January 1, 1999, through September 30, 2009; experts identified additional unpublished studies. We combined the results of all eligible studies to calculate pooled effect sizes. We included 23 studies. Eighteen studies presented data on small English-speaking groups; we conducted 1 meta-analysis on these studies and a separate analysis on results by other delivery modes.
Results
Among health behaviors for small English-speaking groups, aerobic exercise, cognitive symptom management, and communication with physician improved significantly at 4- to 6-month follow-up; aerobic exercise and cognitive symptom management remained significantly improved at 9 to 12 months. Stretching/strengthening exercise improved significantly at 9 to 12 months. All measures of psychological health improved significantly at 4 to 6 months and 9 to 12 months. Energy, fatigue, and self-rated health showed small but significant improvements at 4 to 6 months but not at 9 to 12 months. The only significant change in health care utilization was a small improvement in the number of hospitalization days or nights at 4 to 6 months
Conclusion
Small to moderate improvements in psychological health and selected health behaviors that remain after 12 months suggest that CDSMP delivered in small English-speaking groups produces health benefits for participants and would be a valuable part of comprehensive chronic disease management strategy.
doi:10.5888/pcd10.120112
PMCID: PMC3547675  PMID: 23327828
5.  Promotion of self-management in vulnerable older people: a narrative literature review of outcomes of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) 
European Journal of Ageing  2009;6(4):303-314.
With ageing, older people can become frail, and this has been shown to be associated with a decrease in well-being. Observational studies provide evidence of a positive effect of coping resources on well-being. The question is: can coping resources be improved in vulnerable older people? The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is a target group-specific intervention which aims to promote the self-management of older people who are confronted with deteriorating health. The aim of this study was to review intervention studies focusing on the CDSMP and to draw conclusions on the benefits of the program. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and PsychINFO to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the CDSMP. Nine RCTs focusing on relatively young older adults, 75% of whom with an average age between 49 and 65 years, were included. We found that the CDSMP was consistently beneficial for Health behaviour, especially with regard to the variables of exercise and self-care. For Health status, the majority of studies only showed improvement in the domain of health distress. Most of the studies that investigated Self-efficacy showed convincing improvement in self-efficacy, cognitive symptom management and mental stress management. In Health care utilization, there was no significant decrease. On the whole, the studies showed that CDSMP led to an increase in physical exercise, a decrease in health distress, an improvement in self-care, and it had a beneficial effect on self-efficacy.
doi:10.1007/s10433-009-0131-y
PMCID: PMC2776941  PMID: 19920862
Review; Chronic disease management program; Health; Coping; Intervention
6.  Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:353.
Background
Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic somatic disease cope with these problems at work. The objective of this article is to present the systematic development and content of this programme.
Methods
The method of intervention mapping (Bartholomew 2006) was used to tailor the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. This paper describes the process of adjusting the CDSMP for this target group. A needs assessment has been carried out by a literature review and qualitative focus groups with employees with a chronic disease and involved health professionals. On the basis of the needs assessment, the relevant determinants of self-management behaviour at work have been identified for the target population and the objectives of the training have been formulated. Furthermore, techniques have been chosen to influence self-management and the determinants of behaviour and a programme plan has been developed.
Results
The intervention was designed to address general personal factors such as lifestyle, disease-related factors (for example coping with the disease) and work-related personal factors (such as self-efficacy at work). The course consists of six sessions of each two and a half hour and intents to increase the self management and empowerment of employees with a chronic somatic disease.
Conclusion
Intervention mapping has been found to be a useful tool for tailoring in a systematic way the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. It might be valuable to use IM for the development or adjusting of interventions in occupational health care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-353
PMCID: PMC2908090  PMID: 20565925
7.  Evaluation of a self-management programme for congestive heart failure patients: design of a randomised controlled trial 
Background
Congestive heart failure (CHF) has a substantial impact on care utilisation and quality of life. It is crucial for patients to cope with CHF adequately, if they are to live an acceptable life. Self-management may play an important role in this regard. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of the 'Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' (CDSMP), a group-based cognitive behavioural programme for patients with various chronic conditions. However, the programme's effectiveness has not yet been studied specifically among CHF patients. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of the CDSMP on psychosocial attributes, health behaviour, quality of life, and health care utilisation of CHF patients.
Methods/Design
The programme is being evaluated in a two-group randomised controlled trial. Patients were eligible if they had been diagnosed with CHF and experienced slight to marked limitation of physical activity. They were selected from the Heart Failure and/or Cardiology Outpatient Clinics of six hospitals. Eligible patients underwent a baseline assessment and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Patients allocated to the intervention group were invited to attend the self-management programme consisting of six weekly sessions, led by a CHF nurse specialist and a CHF patient. Those allocated to the control group received care as usual. Follow-up measurements are being carried out immediately after the intervention period, and six and twelve months after the start of the intervention.
An effect evaluation and a process evaluation are being conducted. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are self-efficacy expectancies, perceived control, and cognitive symptom management. The secondary outcome measures are smoking and drinking behaviour, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity level, self-care behaviour, health-related quality of life, perceived autonomy, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and health care utilisation. The programme's feasibility is assessed by measuring compliance with the protocol, patients' attendance and adherence, and the opinions about the programme.
Discussion
A total number of 318 patients were included in the trial. At present, follow-up data are being collected. The results of the trial become clear after completion of the data collection in January 2007.
Trial Registration
Trialregister () ISRCTN88363287.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-91
PMCID: PMC1569834  PMID: 16857049
8.  The Health and Recovery Peer (HARP) Program: A Peer-Led Intervention to Improve Medical Self-Management for Persons with Serious Mental Illness 
Schizophrenia research  2010;118(1-3):264-270.
Objectives
Persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have elevated rates of comorbid medical conditions, but may also face challenges in effectively managing those conditions.
Methods
The study team developed and pilot-tested the Health and Recovery Program (HARP), an adaptation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) for mental health consumers. A manualized, six-session intervention, delivered by mental health peer leaders, helps participants become more effective managers of their chronic illnesses. A pilot trial randomized 80 consumers with one or more chronic medical illness to either the HARP program or usual care.
Results
At six month follow-up, participants in the HARP program had a significantly greater improvement in patient activation than those in usual care (7.7% relative improvement vs. 5.7% decline, p=0.03 for group*time interaction), and in rates of having one or more primary care visit (68.4% vs. 51.9% with one or more visit, p=0.046 for group*time interaction). Intervention advantages were observed for physical health related quality of life (HRQOL), physical activity, medication adherence, and, and though not statistically significant, had similar effect sizes as those seen for the CDSMP in general medical populations. Improvements in HRQOL were largest among medically and socially vulnerable subpopulations.
Conclusions
This peer-led, medical self-management program was feasible and showed promise for improving a range of health outcomes among mental health consumers with chronic medical comorbidities. The HARP intervention may provide a vehicle for the mental health peer workforce to actively engage in efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality among mental health consumers.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.01.026
PMCID: PMC2856811  PMID: 20185272
serious mental illness; chronic disease; wellness; recovery; self management
9.  Self-management for osteoarthritis of the knee: Does mode of delivery influence outcome? 
Background
Self-management has become increasingly popular in the management of chronic diseases. There are many different self-management models. Meta analyses of arthritis self-management have concluded that it is difficult to recommend any one program in preference to another due to inconsistencies in the study designs used to evaluate different programs.
The Stanford Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP), most commonly delivered by trained lay leaders, is a generic program widely used for people with rheumatological disorders. We have developed a more specific program expressly for people with osteoarthritis of the knee (OAKP). It includes information designed to be delivered by health professionals and results in improvements in pain, function and quality of life.
Aim: To determine whether, for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, the OAKP implemented in a primary health care setting can achieve and maintain clinically meaningful improvements in more participants than ASMP delivered in the same environment.
Methods/Design
The effectiveness of the programs will be compared in a single-blind randomized study.
Participants: 146 participants with established OA knee will be recruited. Volunteers with coexistent inflammatory joint disease or serious co-morbidities will be excluded.
Interventions: Participants will be randomised into either OAKP or ASMP groups and followed for 6 months.
Measurements: Assessments will be immediately before and after the intervention and at 6 months. Primary outcome measures will be WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires and a VAS for pain. Secondary outcomes will include balance, tested using a timed single leg balance test and a timed step test and self-efficacy. Data will be analysed using repeated measures ANOVA.
Discussion
With an aging population the health care costs for people with arthritis are ever increasing. Although cost analysis is beyond the scope of this study, it is reasonable to expect that costs will be greater when health professionals deliver self-management programs as opposed to lay leaders. Consequently it is critical to examine the relative effectiveness of the primary care management strategies available for OA.
Trial Registration
This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: 12607000031460
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-56
PMCID: PMC2850876  PMID: 20334688
10.  Randomised controlled trial of a lay-led self-management programme for Bangladeshi patients with chronic disease 
Background
Reducing the impact of chronic disease in minority ethnic groups is an important public health challenge. Lay-led education may overcome cultural and language barriers that limit the effectiveness of professionally–led programmes. We report the first randomised trial of a lay-led self-management programme — the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) (Expert Patient Programme) — in a south Asian group.
Aim
To determine the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted lay–led self-management programme for Bangladeshi adults with chronic disease.
Design of study
Randomised controlled trial.
Setting
Tower Hamlets, east London.
Method
We recruited Bangladeshi adults with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease or arthritis from general practices and randomised them to the CDSMP or waiting-list control. Self-efficacy (primary outcome), self-management behaviour, communication with clinician, depression scores, and healthcare use were assessed by blinded interviewer-administered questionnaires in Sylheti before randomisation and 4 months later.
Results
Of the 1363 people invited, 476 (34%) agreed to take part and 92% (439/476) of participants were followed up. The programme improved self-efficacy (difference: 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08 to 1.25) and self-management behaviour (0.53; 95% CI = 0.01 to 1.06). In the 51% (121/238) of intervention participants attending three or more of the 6-weekly education sessions the programme led to greater improvements in self-efficacy (1.47; 95% CI = 0.50 to 1.82) and self-management behaviour (1.16; 95% CI = 0.50 to 1.82), and reduced HADS depression scores (0.64; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.22). Communication and healthcare use were not significantly different between groups. The programme cost £123 (€181) per participant.
Conclusion
A culturally-adapted CDSMP improves self-efficacy and self-care behaviour in Bangladeshi patients with chronic disease. Effects on health status were marginal. Benefits were limited by moderate uptake and attendance.
PMCID: PMC1570787  PMID: 16281998
chronic disease; ethnic groups; self care
11.  Case management and self-management support for frequent users with chronic disease in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial 
Background
Chronic diseases represent a major challenge for health care and social services. A number of people with chronic diseases require more services due to characteristics that increase their vulnerability. Given the burden of increasingly vulnerable patients on primary care, a pragmatic intervention in four Family Medicine Groups (primary care practices in Quebec, Canada) has been proposed for individuals with chronic diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and/or chronic pain) who are frequent users of hospital services. The intervention combines case management by a nurse with group support meetings encouraging self-management based on the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The goals of this study are to: (1) analyze the implementation of the intervention in the participating practices in order to determine how the various contexts have influenced the implementation and the observed effects; (2) evaluate the proximal (self-efficacy, self-management, health habits, activation and psychological distress) and intermediate (empowerment, quality of life and health care use) effects of the intervention on patients; (3) conduct an economic analysis of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.
Methods/Design
The analysis of the implementation will be conducted using realistic evaluation and participatory approaches within four categories of stakeholders (Family Medicine Group and health centre management, Family Medicine Group practitioners, patients and their families, health centre or community partners). The data will be obtained through individual and group interviews, project documentation reviews and by documenting the intervention. Evaluation of the effects on patients will be based on a pragmatic randomized before-after experimental design with a delayed intervention control group (six months). Economic analysis will include cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis.
Discussion
The integration of a case management intervention delivered by nurses and self-management group support into primary care practices has the potential to positively impact patient empowerment and quality of life and hopefully reduce the burden on health care. Decision-makers, managers and health care professionals will be aware of the factors to consider in promoting the implementation of this intervention into other primary care practices in the region and elsewhere.
Trial Registration
NCT01719991
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-49
PMCID: PMC3601974  PMID: 23391214
Chronic diseases; Primary care; Family Medicine Group; Frequent users; Case management; Self-management; Primary care nursing; Services integration
12.  Intermediate Outcomes of a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for Spanish-Speaking Older Adults in South Florida, 2008–2010 
Introduction
The prevalence and negative health effects of chronic diseases are disproportionately high among Hispanics, the largest minority group in the United States. Self-management of chronic conditions by older adults is a public health priority. The objective of this study was to examine 6-week differences in self-efficacy, time spent performing physical activity, and perceived social and role activities limitations for participants in a chronic disease self-management program for Spanish-speaking older adults, Tomando Control de su Salud (TCDS).
Methods
Through the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative, 8 area agencies delivered 82 workshops in 62 locations throughout South Florida. Spanish-speaking participants who attended workshops from October 1, 2008, through December 31, 2010, were aged 55 years or older, had at least 1 chronic condition, and completed baseline and post-test surveys were included in analysis (N = 682). Workshops consisted of six, 2.5-hour sessions offered once per week for 6 weeks. A self-report survey was administered at baseline and again at the end of program instruction. To assess differences in outcomes, a repeated measures general linear model was used, controlling for agency and baseline general health.
Results
All outcomes showed improvement at 6 weeks. Outcomes that improved significantly were self-efficacy to manage disease, perceived social and role activities limitations, time spent walking, and time spent performing other aerobic activities.
Conclusion
Implementation of TCDS significantly improved 4 of 8 health promotion skills and behaviors of Spanish-speaking older adults in South Florida. A community-based implementation of TCDS has the potential to improve health outcomes for a diverse, Spanish-speaking, older adult population.
doi:10.5888/pcd10.130016
PMCID: PMC3760083  PMID: 23987252
13.  Can a disease-specific education program augment self-management skills and improve Health-Related Quality of Life in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis? 
Background
Patient education and self-management programs are offered in many countries to people with chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA). The most well-known is the disease-specific Stanford Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP). While Australian and international clinical guidelines promote the concept of self-management for OA, there is currently little evidence to support the use of the ASMP. Several meta-analyses have reported that arthritis self-management programs had minimal or no effect on reducing pain and disability. However, previous studies have had methodological shortcomings including the use of outcome measures which do not accurately reflect program goals. Additionally, limited cost-effectiveness analyses have been undertaken and the cost-utility of the program has not been explored.
Methods/design
This study is a randomised controlled trial to determine the efficacy (in terms of Health-Related Quality of Life and self-management skills) and cost-utility of a 6-week group-based Stanford ASMP for people with hip or knee OA.
Six hundred participants referred to an orthopaedic surgeon or rheumatologist for hip or knee OA will be recruited from outpatient clinics at 2 public hospitals and community-based private practices within 2 private hospital settings in Victoria, Australia. Participants must be 18 years or over, fluent in English and able to attend ASMP sessions. Exclusion criteria include cognitive dysfunction, previous participation in self-management programs and placement on a waiting list for joint replacement surgery or scheduled joint replacement.
Eligible, consenting participants will be randomised to an intervention group (who receive the ASMP and an arthritis self-management book) or a control group (who receive the book only). Follow-up will be at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months using standardised self-report measures. The primary outcome is Health-Related Quality of Life at 12 months, measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life instrument. Secondary outcome measures include the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (pain subscale and total scores), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Hip and Knee Multi-Attribute Priority Tool. Cost-utility analyses will be undertaken using administrative records and self-report data. A subgroup of 100 participants will undergo qualitative interviews to explore the broader potential impacts of the ASMP.
Discussion
Using an innovative design combining both quantitative and qualitative components, this project will provide high quality data to facilitate evidence-based recommendations regarding the ASMP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-90
PMCID: PMC1693560  PMID: 17134516
14.  Nurse- and peer-led self-management programme for patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator; a feasibility study 
BMC Nursing  2007;6:6.
Background
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Improved treatment options increase survival after an acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac arrest, although patients often have difficulty adjusting and regaining control in daily life. In particular, patients who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experience physical and psychological problems. Interventions to enhance perceived control and acceptance of the device are therefore necessary. This paper describes a small-scale study to explore the feasibility and the possible benefits of a structured nurse- and peer-led self-management programme ('Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' – CDSMP) among ICD patients.
Methods
Ten male ICD patients (mean age = 65.5 years) participated in a group programme, consisting of six sessions, led by a team consisting of a nurse specialist and a patient with cardiovascular disease. Programme feasibility was evaluated among patients and leaders by measuring performance of the intervention according to protocol, attendance and adherence of the participating ICD patients, and patients' and leaders' opinions about the programme. In addition, before and directly after attending the intervention, programme benefits (e.g. perceived control, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life) were assessed.
Results
The programme was conducted largely according to protocol. Eight patients attended at least four sessions, and adherence ranged from good to very good. On average, the patients reported to have benefited very much from the programme, which they gave an overall report mark of 8.4. The leaders considered the programme feasible as well. Furthermore, improvements were identified for general self-efficacy expectancies, symptoms of anxiety, physical functioning, social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain.
Conclusion
This study suggests that a self-management programme led by a team consisting of a nurse specialist and a patient with cardiovascular disease seems feasible according to both patients and leaders. The programme may improve general self-efficacy expectancies, symptoms of anxiety, and quality of life (physical functioning, social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain) as well. Further investigation of the programme's effectiveness among a larger sample of ICD patients or other patient groups with cardiovascular disease, is recommended.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-6-6
PMCID: PMC2096621  PMID: 17880674
15.  Workshops to disseminate the Canadian Thoracic Society guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to health care professionals in Ontario: Impact on knowledge, perceived health care practices and participant satisfaction 
BACKGROUND:
The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) has developed a clinical practice guideline (CPG) regarding the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Implementation of this CPG in the primary care setting requires an effective dissemination strategy.
OBJECTIVES:
To examine the change in knowledge, participant satisfaction and perceived changes in clinical practice among health care professionals working in the primary care setting following attendance at a workshop to disseminate the CTS CPG for COPD.
METHODS:
A 2.5 h workshop was conducted in three community health sites within Ontario. Each workshop comprised a didactic presentation and interactive case study discussions. Before, and one month following the workshop, a structured knowledge assessment questionnaire was administered. A structured satisfaction questionnaire and evaluative form that examined the impact of the workshop on the clinical management of COPD patients were administered immediately and three months following completion of the workshop, respectively.
RESULTS:
Sixty-nine participants attended the workshop. The mean score for the structured knowledge assessment questionnaire increased from 8.5±2.7 to 10.6±2.0 following the workshop (P=0.008). Eighty-nine per cent and 96% of participants indicated that they would recommend the workshop to a colleague and had greater confidence in their management of COPD patients, respectively. Following attendance of the workshop, 73%, 69% and 46% described increased patient education, patient monitoring and the use of objective testing in clinical practice, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
Workshop attendance was associated with high levels of satisfaction and important self-reported changes in clinical practice, which may reflect improved knowledge of the CTS CPG for COPD.
PMCID: PMC2706674  PMID: 19557214
Clinical practice guideline; COPD; Dissemination
16.  “Because Somebody Cared about Me. That's How It Changed Things”: Homeless, Chronically Ill Patients’ Perspectives on Case Management 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45980.
Background
Case management programs for chronically ill, homeless people improve health and resource utilization by linking patients with case managers focused on improving management of medical and psychosocial problems. Little is known about participants’ perspectives on case management interventions.
Methods
This qualitative study used in-depth, one-on-one interviews to understand the impact of a case management program from the perspective of participants. A standardized interview guide with open-ended questions explored experiences with the case management program and feelings about readiness to leave the program.
Results
Four recurrent themes emerged: (1) Participants described profound social isolation prior to case management program enrollment; (2) Participants perceived that caring personal relationships with case managers were key to the program; (3) Participants valued assistance with navigating medical and social systems; and (4) Participants perceived that their health improved through both the interpersonal and the practical aspects of case management.
Conclusions
Chronically ill, homeless people enrolled in a case management program perceived that social support from case managers resulted in improved health. Programs for this population should consider explicitly including comprehensive social support interventions. Further research on case management should explore the impact of different types of social support on outcomes for homeless chronically ill patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045980
PMCID: PMC3461032  PMID: 23029350
17.  Does self-management for return to work increase the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation for chronic compensated musculoskeletal disorders? - Protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Background
Musculoskeletal disorders are common and costly disorders to workers compensation and motor accident insurance systems and are a leading contributor to the burden of ill-health. In Australia, vocational rehabilitation is provided to workers to assist them to stay in, or return to work. Self-management training may be an innovative addition to improve health and employment outcomes from vocational rehabilitation.
Methods/Design
The research plan contains mixed methodology consisting of a single blind randomised controlled trial, an economic evaluation and qualitative research. Participants (n = 366) are volunteers with compensated musculoskeletal disorders of 3 months to 3 years in duration who were working at the time of the injury/onset of the chronic disorder. The trial tests the effectiveness of usual vocational rehabilitation plus the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) to which two additional and newly-developed modules have been added, against vocational rehabilitation alone (control) The modules added to the CDSMP focus on how to navigate through compensation systems and manage the return to work process, and aim to be relevant to those in a vocational rehabilitation setting.
The primary outcome of this study is readiness for return to work which will be evaluated using the Readiness for Return-to-Work scale. Secondary outcomes include return to work status, health efficacy (heiQ™ questionnaire) and general health status (SF-12v2® Health Survey). Measures will be taken at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 6- and 12- months post-intervention by an independent assessor. An economic evaluation will compare the costs and outcomes between the intervention and control groups in terms of cost-effectiveness and a partial cost-benefit or cost analysis. The impact of the intervention will also be evaluated qualitatively, in terms of its acceptability to stakeholders.
Discussion
This article describes the protocol for a single blind randomised controlled trial with a one year follow-up. The results will provide evidence for the addition or not of self-management training within vocational rehabilitation for chronic compensated musculoskeletal disorders.
Trial Registration
Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000843257
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-115
PMCID: PMC2893451  PMID: 20534168
18.  A single group follow-up study of non-surgical patients seen by physiotherapists working in expanded roles in orthopaedic departments: recall of recommendations, change in exercise and self-efficacy 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:669.
Background
Specially trained physiotherapists (advanced practice physiotherapists (APP)) are working in orthopaedic clinics to improve access to orthopaedic services and support chronic disease management. Little attention has been paid to the impact APPs may have on non-surgical patients. In non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis consulting an APP in an orthopaedic clinic, the objectives were to: 1) describe patients’ recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies, and barriers to management six weeks following consultation; and, 2) compare exercise behaviour and self-efficacy at baseline and six weeks.
Findings
This was a single group pre-and post-intervention study of patients who saw an APP when consulting the orthopaedic departments of two hospitals. At baseline and six weeks participants completed the adapted Stanford Exercise Behaviour Scale (response options: none, < 60 minutes/week, 1–3 hours/week or > 3 hours/week), and the Chronic Disease Self-efficacy Scale (range 1–10; higher scores indicate higher self-efficacy). At follow-up participants completed questions on recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies and barriers to management. Seventy three non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis participated, a response rate of 89% at follow-up. Seventy one percent of patients reported that the APP recommended exercise, of whom 83% reported exercising to manage their arthritis since the visit. Almost 50% reported an increase in time spent stretching; over 40% reported an increase in time spent walking or doing strengthening exercises at follow-up. Common barriers to arthritis management were time, cost and other health problems. Mean chronic disease self-efficacy scores significantly improved from 6.3 to 7.2 (p < 0.001). The mean difference was 0.95 (95% CI 0.43, 1.62); the effect size was 0.51.
Conclusions
This pilot study of an APP intervention for non-surgical patients referred for orthopaedic consultation showed promising results, particularly for enhancing use of conservative management strategies such as exercise.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-669
PMCID: PMC3538671  PMID: 23206311
Arthritis; Physiotherapists; Advanced practice; Non-surgical; Self-management behaviours; Orthopaedics
19.  Impact of a provincial asthma guidelines continuing medical education project: The Ontario Asthma Plan of Action’s Provider Education in Asthma Care Project 
BACKGROUND:
The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded the Ontario Lung Association to develop and implement a continuing medical education program to promote implementation of the Canadian asthma guidelines in primary care.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine baseline knowledge, preferred learning format, satisfaction with the program and reported impact on practice patterns.
METHODS:
A 3 h workshop was developed that combined didactic presentations and small group case discussions. Outcome measures included a workshop evaluation, baseline assessment of asthma management knowledge and three-month postreflective evaluations.
RESULTS:
One hundred thirty-seven workshops were delivered to 2783 primary care providers (1313 physicians, 1470 allied health) between September 2002 and March 2005. Of the 2133 participants, 1007 physicians and 1126 allied health professionals submitted workshop evaluations. Most (98%) of the attendees indicated they would recommend the workshop to a colleague. The majority preferred the combination of didactic lecture plus interactive case discussions. A subset of physicians provided consent to use these data for research (n=298 pediatric and 288 adult needs assessments; n=349 postreflective evaluations). Important needs identified included appropriate medication for chronic asthma and development of written action plans. On the postreflective evaluations, 88.7% remained very satisfied, 95.5% reported increased confidence, 91.9% reported an influence on practice and 67.2% reported using a written action plan.
CONCLUSIONS:
This continuing medical education program addresses identified needs of primary care providers. Participants reported improvements in asthma care, including prescribing practices, use of spirometry and written action plans. Similar programs should be considered as part of multifaceted asthma guidelines dissemination and implementation initiatives in other provinces and nationally.
PMCID: PMC2676382  PMID: 17372639
Asthma; Continuing medical education; Guidelines
20.  Activating Seniors to Improve Chronic Disease Care: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study 
Objectives
Patient activation can improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect the elderly. The present study evaluated the impact of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers.
Participants
One hundred and sixteen senior participants.
Setting
Two Los Angeles community senior centers.
Intervention
Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform and motivate self-management of chronic conditions common among seniors. Screenings were followed by moderated discussions reinforcing active patient participation in chronic disease management. Screenings were scheduled over the course of 12 weeks.
Design and Measures
One center was assigned by coin-toss to an encouragement condition, in which participants received a $50 gift card if they attended at least 3 group screenings. Participants in the non-encouraged center received no incentive for attendance. Validated study measures for patient activation, physical activity and health-related quality of life were completed at baseline, 12 weeks and 6 months following enrollment.
Results
Participants attending the encouraged senior center were more likely to attend 3 or more group screenings (77.8% vs. 47.2%, p=.001). At 6-month follow-up, participants from either center who attended 3 or more group screenings (n=74, 64%) reported significantly greater activation (p=.000), more minutes walking (p=.000) and engaging in vigorous physical activity (p=.006) and better health-related quality of life (SF-12 MCS: p=.000; SF-12 PCS: p=.002).
Conclusion
Delivering this pilot intervention in community senior centers is a potentially promising approach to activate seniors that warrants further investigation for improving chronic disease outcomes.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02980.x
PMCID: PMC2955177  PMID: 20662953
Chronic diseases; patient activation; self-management
21.  The Career Development Institute for Psychiatry: An Innovative, Longitudinal Program for Physician-Scientists 
Objectives
The Research Career Development Institute for Psychiatry is a collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Stanford University to recruit and train a broad-based group of promising junior physicians by providing the necessary skills and support for successful research careers in academic psychiatry.
Methods
Participants whose interests span the spectrum of clinical and intervention research attend a multiday career development institute workshop and follow-up annual booster sessions conducted with the American College of Neuropsycho-pharmacology. The program identifies and trains 20 new physician-researchers each year, with particular emphasis on women, minorities, and those from less research-intensive psychiatry departments, and provides booster sessions for all trainees. An annual evaluation is used to renew and update the content of the institutes and to measure the long-term value in research and career success.
Results
This report is based on the results of 77 participants from the first four Career Development Institute classes. Qualitative assessment of the program content and process led to improvements in each successive year’s workshop. Preliminary quantitative follow-up assessment of participants indicated successful career progress toward individual objectives.
Conclusion
By providing early career investigators with skills to cope with local and national forces in academic medical centers, the Career Development Institute is significantly contributing to the development of the next generation of leading academic clinical researchers in mental health and can serve as a model for other biomedical research arenas.
doi:10.1176/appi.ap.33.4.313
PMCID: PMC2758049  PMID: 19690113
22.  Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada 
International Journal of Circumpolar Health  2012;71:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18412.
Objectives
Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities.
Study design
The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment.
Methods
Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements.
Results
Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine.
Conclusions
Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.
doi:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18412
PMCID: PMC3417663  PMID: 22584509
community-based participatory research; climate change; health
23.  Implementing a Combined Cognitive-Behavioral + Exercise Therapy Protocol for Use by Older Adults with Chronic Back Pain: Evidence for a Possible Race/Ethnicity Effect 
Purpose
To determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a self-management program that combines cognitive-behavioral strategies with exercise for use by seniors with chronic back pain, and to assess for possible race/ethnicity differences in program impact.
Design/Methods
Sixty-nine participants attending senior centers in New York City enrolled in the 8-week group-based program, with approximately equal numbers of African Americans (n=24), Hispanics (n=25), and non-Hispanic whites (n=20) enrolling. Participants provided weekly input on their perceived understanding and usefulness of program components. Efficacy outcomes included pain-related disability, as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, depressive symptom score, social activity, and functional status.
Results
Eighty percent of enrollees completed the program, and 84% of program participants indicated they did the weekly practice/homework exercises. Program content was rated as understandable and highly useful to participants. Significant decreases in RMDQ scores were found for non-Hispanic white (adjusted change score −3.53), African American (−3.89), and Hispanic (−8.45), participants. Significant improvements in all other efficacy outcomes (pain intensity, social activity, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms) were observed, but only for Hispanic participants.
Conclusions
These results confirm that implementation of the protocol in urban senior centers is feasible, and the program shows potential efficacy in affecting pain-related disability among a diverse population of older adults. The race/ethnicity differences observed in the current study merit further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3478899  PMID: 22015623
24.  Behavioral and technological interventions targeting glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:71.
Background
Diabetes self-care by patients has been shown to assist in the reduction of disease severity and associated medical costs. We compared the effectiveness of two different diabetes self-care interventions on glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We also explored whether reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be more marked in minority persons.
Methods
We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of 376 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years and whose last measured HbA1c was ≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol). Participants were randomized to: 1) a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP; n = 101); 2) a diabetes self-care software on a personal digital assistant (PDA; n = 81); 3) a combination of interventions (CDSMP + PDA; n = 99); or 4) usual care (control; n = 95). Enrollment occurred January 2009-June 2011 at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated multi-specialty group practice. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 months. Data were analyzed using a multilevel statistical model.
Results
Average baseline HbA1c in the CDSMP, PDA, CDSMP + PDA, and control arms were 9.4%, 9.3%, 9.2%, and 9.2%, respectively. HbA1c reductions at 12 months for the groups averaged 1.1%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively and did not differ significantly from baseline based on the model (P = .771). Besides the participants in the PDA group reporting eating more high-fat foods compared to their counterparts (P < .004), no other significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. Exploratory sub-analysis did not reveal any marked reductions in HbA1c for minority persons but rather modest reductions for all racial/ethnic groups.
Conclusions
Although behavioral and technological interventions can result in some modest improvements in glycemic control, these interventions did not fare significantly better than usual care in achieving glycemic control. More research is needed to understand how these interventions can be most effective in clinical practice. The reduction in HbA1c levels found in our control group that received usual care also suggests that good routine care in an integrated healthcare system can lead to better glycemic control.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01221090.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-71
PMCID: PMC3909304  PMID: 24450992
Chronic disease; Glycemic control; HbA1c; Self-management; Type 2 diabetes
25.  Effect of Procedure Simulation Workshops on Resident Procedural Confidence and Competence 
Background
Pediatrics residents perform a limited number of some procedures in the clinical setting and may benefit from procedure simulation workshops.
Objective
To examine (1) the number and types of procedures performed by pediatrics residents in the clinical setting, (2) the relationship between the number of procedures performed and self-reported procedural confidence and competence, and (3) the effect of a procedure simulation workshop on self-reported procedural confidence and competence.
Methods
Pediatrics residents at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford attended a half-day procedure workshop, rotating between 6 procedure simulation stations: vascular access, airway management, bladder catheterization, chest tube placement, lumbar puncture, and umbilical lines. Residents completed a survey immediately before and after the workshop to self-assess procedural confidence and competence.
Results
Seventy-two residents participated in a procedure workshop. The average number of procedures performed increased significantly from intern to junior to senior year. A positive correlation was found between number of procedures performed and preworkshop confidence (P < .001, R2  =  0.86) and competence (P < .001, R2  =  0.88). For each procedure assessed, completion of the procedure simulation workshop resulted in a statistically significant (P < .001) increase in self-perceived confidence (14%–131%; average, 48%) and competence (12%–119%; average, 50%). Statistically significant (P < .05) increases remained when results for interns, juniors, and seniors were examined separately.
Conclusion
Procedure simulation workshops improve resident self-reported procedural confidence and competence, particularly for procedures that are least performed.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-12-00019.1
PMCID: PMC3546578  PMID: 24294425

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