The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene family strongly influences drug development. We determined potency values for 17,143 compounds against recombinant CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 enzymes through an in vitro bioluminescent assay. The compound collections included substances from typical libraries and FDA-approved drugs. Cross-library isozyme inhibition (30–78%) was observed with important differences between collections. While only 7% of the typical screening library was inactive against all five isozymes, 33% of FDA-approved drugs were inactive, reflecting the optimized pharmacological properties of the latter. Unexpectedly, drugs exhibited less activity towards the CYP 2C9 and 2C19 isozymes compared to un-optimized collections. We then identified substructures that differentiated between the five isozymes as well as substructures trending towards active or inactive categories. We describe here a pharmacological compendium to further the understanding of CYP isozymes.
The human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isozymes are the most important enzymes in the body to metabolize many endogenous and exogenous substances including environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs. Any unnecessary interactions between a small molecule and CYP450 isozymes may raise a potential to disarm the integrity of the protection. Accurately predicting the potential interactions between a small molecule and CYP450 isozymes is highly desirable for assessing the metabolic stability and toxicity of the molecule. The National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC) has screened a collection of over seventeen thousand compounds against the five major isozymes of CYP450 (1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) in a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format. In this study, we developed support vector classification (SVC) models for these five isozymes using a set of customized generic atom types. The CYP450 datasets were randomly split into equal-sized training and test sets. The optimized SVC models exhibited high predictive power against the test sets for all five CYP450 isozymes with accuracies of 0.93, 0.89, 0.89, 0.85 and 0.87 for 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4, respectively, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The important atom types and features extracted from the five models are consistent with the structural preferences for different CYP450 substrates reported in the literature. We also identified novel features with significant discerning power to separate CYP450 actives from inactives. These models can be useful in prioritizing compounds in a drug discovery pipeline, or recognizing the toxic potential of environmental chemicals.
CYP2B6 is a highly polymorphic P450 isozyme involved in the metabolism of endo-and xenobiotics with known implications for the activation of many procarcinogens resulting in carcinogenesis. However, lack of validated high-throughput screening (HTS) CYP2B6 assays has limited the current understanding and full characterization of this isozyme’s involvement in human drug metabolism. Here, we have developed and characterized a fluorescence-based HTS assay employing recombinant human CYP2B6 and 2 novel fluorogenic substrates (the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Substrates). Assay validation included testing the inhibitory potency of a panel of drugs and compounds known to be metabolized by this isozyme, including CYP2B6 substrates, inhibitors, and known inducers. Compound rankings based on inhibitory potency in the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Assays matched compound rankings based on relative affinity measurements from previously published data (Ki, Kd, or Km values) for the CYP2B6 isozyme. In conclusion, these assays are proven to be robust and sensitive, with broad dynamic ranges and kinetic parameters allowing screening in HTS mode of a large panel of compounds for CYP2B6 metabolism and inhibition, and are a valuable new tool for CYP2B6 studies.
Cytochrome P450; CYP2B6; fluorescent substrate; drug metabolism; high-throughput screening (HTS)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an adult lymphoid malignancy with a variable clinical course. There is considerable interest in the identification of new treatments, as most current approaches are not curative. While most patients respond to initial chemotherapy, relapsed disease is often resistant to the drugs commonly used in CLL and patients are left with limited therapeutic options. In this study, we used a luminescent cell viability assay based on ATP levels to find compounds that were potent and efficacious in killing CLL cells. We employed an in-house process of quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) to assess 8 concentrations of each member of a 2,816 compound library (including FDA-approved drugs and those known to be bio-active from commercial suppliers). Using qHTS we generated potency values on each compound in lymphocytes donated from each of six individuals with CLL and five unaffected individuals. We found 102 compounds efficacious against cells from all six individuals with CLL (“consensus” drugs) with five of these showing low or no activity on lymphocytes from a majority of normal donors, suggesting some degree of specificity for the leukemic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to screen a drug library against primary CLL cells to identify candidate agents for anti-cancer therapy. The results presented here offer possibilities for the development of novel drug candidates for therapeutic uses to treat CLL and other diseases.
Glycolytic isozymes that are restricted to the male germline are potential targets for the development of reversible, non-hormonal male contraceptives. GAPDHS, the sperm-specific isoform of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is an essential enzyme for glycolysis making it an attractive target for rational drug design. Toward this goal, we have optimized and validated a high-throughput spectrophotometric assay for GAPDHS in 384-well format. The assay was stable over time and tolerant to DMSO. Whole plate validation experiments yielded Z’ values >0.8 indicating a robust assay for HTS. Two compounds were identified and confirmed from a test screen of the Prestwick collection. This assay was used to screen a diverse chemical library and identified fourteen small molecules that modulated the activity of recombinant purified GAPDHS with confirmed IC50 values ranging from 1.8 to 42 µM. These compounds may provide useful scaffolds as molecular tools to probe the role of GAPDHS in sperm motility and long term to develop potent and selective GAPDHS inhibitors leading to novel contraceptive agents.
Glycolysis; GAPDHS; high throughput screening; sperm; contraceptive.
The human pregnane X nuclear receptor (PXR) is a xenobiotic-regulated receptor that is activated by a range of diverse chemicals, including antibiotics, antifungals, glucocorticoids, and herbal extracts. PXR has been characterized as an important receptor in the metabolism of xenobiotics due to induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes and activation by a large number of prescribed medications. Developing methodologies that can efficiently detect PXR ligands will be clinically beneficial to avoid potential drug–drug interactions. To facilitate the identification of PXR ligands, a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was miniaturized to a 1,536-well microtiter plate format to employ quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS). The optimized 1,536-well TR-FRET assay showed Z′-factors of ≥0.5. Seven- to 15-point concentration–response curves (CRCs) were generated for 8,280 compounds using both terbium and fluorescein emission data, resulting in the generation of 241,664 data points. The qHTS method allowed us to retrospectively examine single concentration screening datasets to assess the sensitivity and selectivity of the PXR assay at different compound screening concentrations. Furthermore, nonspecific assay artifacts such as concentration-based quenching of the terbium signal and compound fluorescence were identified through the examination of CRCs for specific emission channels. The CRC information was also used to define chemotypes associated with PXR ligands. This study demonstrates the feasibility of profiling thousands of compounds against PXR using the TR-FRET assay in a high-throughput format.
In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal.
A series of substituted aryl amide derivatives of 6-naltrexamine, 3 designed to be metabolically stable were synthesized and used to characterize the structural requirements for their potency to binding and functional activity of human mu (μ), delta (δ) and kappa (κ) opioid and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. Binding assays showed that 4–10 had subnanomolar Ki values for μ and κ opioid receptors. Functional assays for stimulation of [35S] GTPγS binding showed that several compounds acted as partial or inverse agonists and antagonists of the μ and δ, κ opioid or NOP receptors. The compounds showed considerable stability in the presence of rat, mouse or human liver preparations and NADPH. The inhibitory activity on the functional activity of human cytochrome P450s was examined to determine any potential inhibition by 4–9. Only modest inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 was observed for a few of the analogs. As a representative example, radiolabeled 6 was examined in vivo and showed reasonable brain penetration. The inhibition of ethanol self-administration in rats trained to self-administer a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution, utilizing operant techniques showed 5–8 to have very potent efficacy (ED50 values 19–50 μg/kg).
Beta naltrexamides; Alcohol cessation agents; Metabolism; In vitro–in vivo studies
The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily that regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon ligand binding, TR releases bound corepressors and recruits coactivators to modulate target gene expression. Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2 (SRC2) is an important coregulator that interacts with TRβ to activate gene transcription. To identify novel inhibitors of the TRβ and SRC2 interaction, we performed a quantitative high throughput screen (qHTS) of a TRβ-SRC2 fluorescence polarization assay against more than 290,000 small molecules. The qHTS assayed compounds at six concentrations up to 92 uM to generate titration-response curves and determine the potency and efficacy of all compounds. The qHTS dataset enabled the characterization of actives for structure-activity relationships as well as for potential artifacts such as fluorescence interference. Selected qHTS actives were tested in the screening assay using fluoroprobes labeled with Texas Red or fluorescein. The retest identified 19 series and 4 singletons as active in both assays with 40% or greater efficacy, free of compound interference and not toxic to mammalian cells. Selected compounds were tested as independent samples and a methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate series inhibited the TRβ-SRC2 interaction with 5 uM IC50. This series represents a new class of thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator modulators.
thyroid receptor; small molecule; HTS; coactivator; protein-protein interaction
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is essential in embryonic development and contributes to cancer pathology. We used a cell-based imaging assay that measures derepression of a silenced GFP reporter to identify novel classes of compounds involved in epigenetic regulation. This Locus Derepression (LDR) assay was screened against a 69,137-member chemical library using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS), a titration-response method that assays compounds at multiple concentrations. From structure-activity relationships of the 411 actives recovered from the qHTS, six distinct chemical series were chosen for further study. Forty-eight qHTS actives and analogs were counter screened using the parental line of the LDR cells, which lack the GFP reporter. Three series, 8-hydroxy quinoline, quinoline-8-thiol and 1,3,5-thiadiazinane-2-thione, were not fluorescent and re-confirmed activity in the LDR cells. The three active series did not inhibit histone deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts or reactivate the expression of the densely methylated p16 gene in cancer cells. However, one series induced expression of the methylated CDH13 gene and inhibited the viability of several lung cancer lines at submicromolar concentrations. These results suggest that the identified small molecules act on epigenetic or transcriptional components and validate our approach of using a cell-based imaging assay in conjunction with qHTS.
epigenetic; small molecule; GFP; HTS; HDAC; cell assay; cancer
► Daphnia magna have a detectable activity towards ethoxyresorufin. ► This activity is unaffected by 24 h exposure to dimethylsulfoxide or methanol. ► EROD activity in zebrafish is inhibited by 24 h exposure to both DMSO and methanol. ► DMSO and methanol exposures (24 h) decreased expression of CYP and UGT genes in zebrafish larvae. ► A maximum solvent concentration of 0.01% v/v is recommended for use where possible in zebrafish.
Organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol are widely used as vehicles to solubilise lipophilic test compounds in toxicity testing. However, the effects of such solvents upon innate detoxification processes in aquatic organisms are poorly understood. This study assessed the effect of solvent exposure upon cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated xenobiotic metabolism in Daphnia magna and zebrafish larvae (4 d post fertilisation). Adult D. magna were demonstrated to have a low, but detectable, metabolism of ethoxyresorufin in vivo and this activity was not modulated by pre-exposure to DMSO or methanol (24 h, up to 0.1% and 0.05% v/v, respectively). In contrast, the metabolism of ethoxyresorufin in zebrafish larvae was significantly reduced by both solvents (0.1% and 0.05% v/v, respectively) after 24 h of exposure. In zebrafish, these observed decreases in activity towards ethoxyresorufin were accompanied by decreased expression of a variety of genes coding for drug metabolising enzymes (corresponding to CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase [UGT] family enzymes), measured by quantitative PCR. Reduction of gene expression and CYP1 enzyme activities by methanol (0.05% v/v) in zebrafish larvae was partially reversed by co-exposure with Aroclor 1254 (100 μg L−1). Overall this study suggests that relatively low concentrations of organic solvents can impact upon the biotransformation of certain xenobiotics in zebrafish larvae, and that this warrants consideration when assessing compounds for metabolism and toxicity in this species.
Xenobiotic metabolism; Cytochromes P450; Daphnia magna; Zebrafish; Solvents
Firefly luciferase (FLuc) is frequently used as a reporter in high-throughput screening assays owing to the exceptional sensitivity, dynamic range, and rapid measurement that bioluminescence affords. However, interaction of small molecules with FLuc has, to some extent, confounded its use in chemical biology and drug discovery. To identify and characterize chemotypes interacting with FLuc, we determined potency values for 360,864 compounds, found in the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, available in PubChem. FLuc inhibitory activity was observed for 12% of this library with discernible SAR. Characterization of 151 inhibitors demonstrated a variety of inhibition modes including FLuc-catalyzed formation of multisubstrate-adduct enzyme inhibitor complexes. As in some cell-based FLuc reporter assays compounds acting as FLuc inhibitors yield paradoxical luminescence increases, data on compounds acquired from FLuc-dependent assays requires careful analysis as described in this report.
profiling; PubChem; luciferase; quantitative high-throughput screening; qHTS; firefly luciferase; reporter-gene assays; adenylate forming enzymes
The occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with smoking and alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking exposes smokers to a series of carcinogenic chemicals. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s), such as CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6, usually metabolize carcinogens to their inactive derivatives, but they occasionally convert the chemicals to more potent carcinogens. In addition, via CYP450 (CYP2E1) oxidase, alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly toxic compound, which plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NATs), NAT1 and NAT2, are polymorphic and catalyze both N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens important in the induction of HNC. It has been suggested that such polymorphisms may be linked to cancer susceptibility. In this paper, we select four cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1BA1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1), and two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NAT1 and NAT2) in order to summarize and analyze findings from the literature related to HNC risk by focusing on (i) the interaction between these genes and the environment, (ii) the impact of genetic defect on protein activity and/or expression, and (iii) the eventual involvement of race in such associations.
Detoxification of host plant defensive compounds by larval Lepidoptera is mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) such as CYP6B1, which is expressed in Papilio polyxenes (black swallowtail) larvae in response to xanthotoxin, a linear furanocoumarin. Baculovirus-mediated expression of two cloned CYP6B1 cDNAs in lepidopteran cell lines has demonstrated that CYP6B1 isozymes primarily metabolize the linear furanocoumarins, xanthotoxin and bergapten, and not angular furanocoumarins. To characterize the regulatory features of the CYP6B1 transcription unit, we have isolated the first full-length CYP6B1v3 genomic DNA clone from P. polyxenes. The open reading frame of this gene is interrupted by a single intron and is virtually identical to the previously characterized CYP6B1 cDNAs. Primer extension and ribonuclease protection analyses have localized the transcription initiation site to a point 28 nucleotides upstream from the AUG initiation codon. RNase protection analyses on RNA from larvae induced by linear and angular furanocoumarins indicate that transcription of the CYP6B1 gene is induced in insects significantly in response to xanthotoxin and only slightly in response to bergapten. Angular furanocoumarins, such as angelicin, which are not appreciably metabolized by the CYP6B1 gene product, do not significantly induce transcription of this gene. We conclude that this P450 gene is transcriptionally regulated in vivo by at least one of the substrates which the encoded protein metabolizes. Transient expression of CAT fusion constructs in transfected Sf9 lepidopteran cells demonstrates that nucleotides -1 to -838 upstream from the CYP6B1v3 transcription initiation site retain basal and xanthotoxin-inducible transcriptional activities in this heterologous cell line. These data clearly indicate that P. polyxenes has adapted to the presence of furanocoumarins in its host plants by evolving P450 isozymes and regulatory cascades which respond to specific toxins.
CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1’s expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6–8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13–15 dph for 6 hr to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 hr after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 hr after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions eight months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.
PAHs; CYP1C1; CYP1A; liver lesions; Fundulus heteroclitus
A functional library of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCYPs) was constructed in which 121 isoforms were coexpressed with yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this functional library, novel catalytic functions of AoCYPs, such as catalytic potentials of CYP57B3 against genistein, were elucidated for the first time. Comprehensive functional screening promises rapid characterization of catalytic potentials and utility of AoCYPs.
In vitro human studies show that the metabolism of most amphetamine-like psychostimulants is regulated by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6. Two compounds, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), were selected as archetypes to discuss the translation and clinical significance of in vitro to in vivo findings. Both compounds were chosen based on their differential interaction with CYP2D6 and their high abuse prevalence in society. Methamphetamine behaves as both a weak substrate and competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, while MDMA acts as a high affinity substrate and potent mechanism-based inhibitor (MBI) of the enzyme. The MBI behavior of MDMA on CYP2D6 implies that subjects, irrespective of their genotype/phenotype, are phenocopied to the poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. The fraction of metabolic clearance regulated by CYP2D6 for both drugs is substantially lower than expected from in vitro studies. Other isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 and a relevant contribution of renal excretion play a part in their clearance. These facts tune down the potential contribution of CYP2D6 polymorphism in the clinical outcomes of both substances. Globally, the clinical relevance of CYP2D6 polymorphism is lower than that predicted by in vitro studies.
MDMA; CYP2D6; methamphetamine; pharmacogenetics; ecstasy
In neurochemistry there are advantages in determining how patients are likely to react to psychoactive drugs prior to the commencement of drug therapy. Explanations of a patient's nonresponse, or unexpected adverse reactions to drugs are required. In many instances, a knowledge of the drug metabolism status of a patient can be helpful in the selection of a drug and its dosage regimen, and in the prediction of possible drug/drug interactions when two or more drugs have to be administered concomitantly. Important information on these topics may be obtained by phenotyping patients prior to drug therapy. The metabolism of various antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs is catalyzed by CYP2D6, a cytochrome P450 isozyme (also named P450IID6), whereas the metabolism of other drugs may involve different cytochromes P450. The properties of CYP2D6 and four other isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8/9 and CYP3A4) are described, and substrates identified. Phenotyping of patients for CYP2D6 activity and mephenytoin hydroxylase activity is described.
The environmental carcinogen 5-methylchrysene (5MC) can be activated to mutagenic metabolites by several isozymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP). The resulting reactive diol-epoxides can be detoxified via conjugation by glutathione transferases (GST). We investigated whether expression of human glutathione transferase P1 (hGSTP1) would differentially protect cells against the cytotoxicity or mutagenicity of 5-methylchrysene (5MC) or its 1,2-dihydrodiol intermediate (5MC-1,2-diol) in V79MZ cells with activation via stably transfected human CYP1B1 (hCYP1B1) as compared to activation by human CYP1A1 (hCYP1A1). The parent compound 5MC was only 2-fold more cytotoxic in the CYP-expressing cell lines than in the V79MZ parental cell line, while 5MC-1,2-dihydrodiol was more than 30-fold more cytotoxic in CYP-transfected cells compared to V79MZ cells. Cells co-expressing either hCYP1B1 or hCYP1A1 together with hGSTP1 were 2-fold less sensitive to 5MC or 5MC-1,2-diol cytotoxicity than their CYP-only parent lines. The 5MC was highly mutagenic with similar potency in both hCYP-transfected cell lines, while 5MC-1,2-diol was 2-fold more mutagenic in hCYP1B1-transfected cells as compared to hCYP1A1 cells. Co-expression of hGSTP1 with either hCYP reduced 5MC or 5MC-1,2-diol mutagenicity by 1.4- to 4.5-fold compared to the corresponding hCYP-only expressing cell lines. The greater protection against mutagenicity of 5MC is in contrast to our previous studies in which we found greater protection by hGSTP1 against cytotoxicity than mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene in cells co-expressing hCYP1A1. Protection against mutagenicity by hGSTP1 was greater with activation of either compound by hCYP1B1 than with hCYP1A1 activation. These studies show that the relative efficacy of protection by hGSTP1 against mutagenicity of 5MC or 5MC-1,2-diol is in part determined by the specific CYP pathway that catalyzes activation to the toxic or mutagenic metabolites.
cytochrome P-450; glutathione S-transferase; 5-methylchrysene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; mutgenicity; cytotoxicity
Protection afforded by trialkyl phosphorothionates against the lung injury caused by trialkyl phosphorothiolates probably results from the inhibition by the P = S moiety of the thionates, of one or more pulmonary cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The aromatic hydrocarbons p-xylene and pseudocumene also protect against this injury and inhibit some P-450 isozymes, but by a different mechanism. OOS-Trimethylphosphorothionate and p-xylene were compared as protective agents against the effect of OOS-trimethylphosphorothiolate and two other lung toxins ipomeanol and 1-nitronaphthalene that are known to be activated by cytochrome P-450. The effects of these protective compounds, in vivo, on pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity were also determined. Both compounds inhibited pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, but not ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. The phosphorothionate was most effective against lung injury caused by the phosphorothiolates and 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas p-xylene was much more effective against ipomeanol. beta-Naphthoflavone, which induces pulmonary ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, did not protect against phosphorothiolate or 1-nitronaphthalene injury, and it was only marginally effective in decreasing the toxicity of ipomeanol.
An efficient and versatile Compound Management operation is essential for the success of all downstream processes in high-throughput screening (HTS) and small molecule lead development. Staff, equipment, and processes need to be not only reliable, but remain flexible and prepared to incorporate paradigm changes. In the present report, we describe a system and associated processes which enable handling of compounds for both screening and follow-up purposes at the NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC), a recently-established HTS and probe development center within the Molecular Libraries Initiative of the NIH Roadmap. Our screening process, termed quantitative HTS (qHTS), involves assaying the complete compound library, currently containing >200,000 members, at a series of dilutions to construct a full concentration-response profile. As such, Compound Management at the NCGC has been uniquely tasked to prepare, store, register, and track a vertically-developed plate dilution series (i.e., inter-plate titrations) in the 384-well format. These are compressed into a series of 1,536-well plates and are registered to track all subsequent plate storage. Here, we present details on the selection of equipment to enable automated, reliable and parallel compound manipulation in 384- and 1,536-well formats, protocols for preparation of inter-plate dilution series for qHTS, as well as qHTS-specific processes and issues.
screening; qHTS; inter-plate titrations; serial dilution; concentration-response curve; dose-response curve; compound registration; liquid handling; automation; cherry-picking; follow-up
Conformational changes in the substrate access channel have been observed for several forms of cytochrome P450, but the extent of conformational plasticity exhibited by a given isozyme has not been completely characterized. Here we present crystal structures of P450cam bound to a library of 12 active site probes containing a substrate analog tethered to a variable linker. The structures provide a unique view of the range of protein conformations accessible during substrate binding. Principal component analysis of a total of 30 structures reveals three discrete clusters of conformations; closed (P450cam-C), intermediate (P450cam-I) and fully open (P450cam-O). Relative to P450cam-C, the P450cam-I state results predominantly from a retraction of the F-helix, while both F and G helices move in concert to reach the fully open P450cam-O state. Both P450cam-C and P450cam-I are well defined states, while P450cam-O shows evidence for a somewhat broader distribution of conformations, and includes the open form recently seen in the absence of substrate. The observed clustering of protein conformations over a wide range of ligand variants suggests a multi-step closure of the enzyme around the substrate that begins by conformational selection from an ensemble of open conformations and proceeds through a well defined intermediate, P450cam-I, before full closure to the P450cam-C state in the presence of small substrates. This multi-step pathway may have significant implications for a full understanding of substrate specificity, kinetics and coupling of substrate binding to P450 function.
Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung.
CYP2E1 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of cancer. The PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphism are two of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of head and neck cancer, but the results are conflicting.
We performed a meta-analysis using 21 eligible case-control studies with a total of 4,951 patients and 6,071 controls to summarize the data on the association between the CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk, especially by interacting with smoking or alcohol.
Compared with the wild genotype, the OR was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.33-2.90) for PstI/RsaI and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.06-2.27) for DraI polymorphism respectively. When stratified according to ethnicity, the OR increased in the Asians for both polymorphisms (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.32-3.15 for PstI/RsaI; OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.27-3.29 for DraI), suggesting that the risk is more pronounced in Asians.
Our meta-analysis suggests that individuals with the homozygote genotypes of PstI/RsaI or DraI polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer, especially in Asians.
To assess the potential inhibitory and inductive effects of azacitidine on cytochrome P450 isozymes in vitro.
The inhibitory effects of azacitidine on various CYP isozymes were determined in human liver microsomes. In addition, the ability of azacitidine to induce CYP enzymes in cultured human hepatocytes was evaluated.
Azacitidine did not inhibit CYP2B6-, CYP2C8-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated activities in human liver microsomes up to a concentration of 100 μM, while weak inhibition (<30% inhibition) of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 activities was observed at 100 μM azacitidine. In vitro azacitidine did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2C19, or CYP3A4/5 activities in cultured human hepatocytes.
Azacitidine is not an inhibitor or inducer of the cytochrome P450 isozymes tested; therefore, clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions are unlikely to occur between azacitidine and co-administered substrates of these CYP isozymes.
Azacitidine; Cytochrome P450; CYP inhibition; CYP induction; Drug–drug interactions