Arrays of up to some 1000 PNA oligomers of individual sequence were synthesised on polymer membranes using a robotic device originally designed for peptide synthesis. At approximately 96%, the stepwise synthesis efficiency was comparable to standard PNA synthesis procedures. Optionally, the individual, fully deprotected PNA oligomers could be removed from the support for further use, because an enzymatically cleavable but otherwise stable linker was used. Since PNA arrays could form powerful tools for hybridisation based DNA screening assays due to some favourable features of the PNA molecules, the hybridisation behaviour of DNA probes to PNA arrays was investigated for a precise understanding of PNA-DNA interactions on solid support. Hybridisation followed the Watson-Crick base pairing rules with higher duplex stabilities than on corresponding DNA oligonucleotide sensors. Both the affinity and specificity of DNA hybridisation to the PNA oligomers depended on the hybridisation conditions more than expected. Successful discrimination between hybridisation to full complementary PNA sequences and truncated or mismatched versions was possible at salt concentrations down to 10 mM Na+and below, although an increasing tendency to unspecific DNA binding and few strong mismatch hybridisation events were observed.
We report here a practical application of a multiplexed electrochemical DNA sensor for highly specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. In this work, a 16-electrode array was applied with an oligonucleotide-incorporated nonfouling surfaces (ONS) on each electrode for the resistance of unspecific absorption. The fully matched target DNA templated the ligation between the capture probe assembled on gold electrodes and the tandem signal probe with a biotin moiety, which could be transduced to peroxidase-based catalyzed amperometric signals. A mutant site (T93G) in uidA gene of E. coli was analyzed in PCR amplicons. 10% percentage of single mismatched mutant gene was detected, which clearly proved the selectivity of the multiplexed electrochemical DNA biosensor when practically applied.
electrochemical biosensor; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); nonfouling electrode surface; Escherichia coli
Biotinylated homopyrimidine decamer peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are shown to form sequence-specific and stable complexes with complementary oligopurine targets in linear double-stranded DNA. The noncovalent complexes are visualized by electron microscopy (EM) without chemical fixation using streptavidin as an EM marker. The triplex stoichiometry of the PNA-DNA complexes (two PNA molecules presumably binding by Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen pairing with one of the strands of the duplex DNA) is indicated by the appearance of two streptavidin 'beads' per target site in some micrographs, and is also supported by the formation of two retardation bands in a gel shift assay. Quantitative analysis of the positions of the streptavidin 'beads' revealed that under optimized conditions PNA-DNA complexes are preferably formed with the fully complementary target. An increase in either the PNA concentration or the incubation time leads to binding at sites containing one or two mismatches. Our results demonstrate that biotinylated PNAs can be used for EM mapping of short targets in duplex DNA.
Nanotechnology has opened new and exhilarating opportunities for exploring glucose biosensing applications of the newly prepared nanostructured materials. Nanostructured metal-oxides have been extensively explored to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, fast response times, and stability for the determination of glucose by electrochemical oxidation. This article concentrates mainly on the development of different nanostructured metal-oxide [such as ZnO, Cu(I)/(II) oxides, MnO2, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, ZrO2, and other metal-oxides] based glucose biosensors. Additionally, we devote our attention to the operating principles (i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedimetric and conductometric) of these nanostructured metal-oxide based glucose sensors. Finally, this review concludes with a personal prospective and some challenges of these nanoscaled sensors.
nanostructured metal-oxides; glucose biosensor; electrochemical principles; enzymatic sensor; nonenzymatic sensor
We describe a novel array for accurate and reliable genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. In order to exploit the superior hybridization properties of PNA with target HPV DNAs, we developed a novel PNA array (PANArray HPV). PANArray HPV enables the detection and genotyping of HPVs using 32 type-specific PNA capture probes for medically important HPVs. All tested HPV types showed highly unique hybridization patterns with type-specific PNA probes. PNA array results showed stable specificities and sensitivities after up to 13 months of storage at room temperature. Also, we demonstrated the superior specificity, sensitivity, and stability of PNA arrays for HPV genotyping. We compared the genotyping results of the PNA array to sequencing with MY09/11 PCR products derived from 72 clinical samples. The results showed excellent agreement between the PNA array and sequencing, except for samples reflecting multiple infections. The results from the PNA array were compared with those of type-specific PCR when discrepant results occurred owing to multiple infections. The results for the PNA array matched those of type-specific PCR in all cases. Newly developed PNA arrays show excellent specificity and sensitivity and long shelf life. Our results suggest that the PNA array represents a reliable alternative to conventional DNA arrays for HPV genotyping, as well as for diagnostics.
In the search of facile and efficient methods for cellular delivery of peptide nucleic acids (PNA), we have synthesized PNAs conjugated to oligophosphonates via phosphonate glutamine and bis-phosphonate lysine amino acid derivatives thereby introducing up to twelve phosphonate moieties into a PNA oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range as inferred from induced luciferase activity as a consequence of pre-mRNA splicing correction by the antisense-PNA. Antisense activity depended on the number of phosphonate moieties and the most potent hexa-bis-phosphonate-PNA showed at least 20-fold higher activity than that of an optimized PNA/DNA hetero-duplex. These results indicate that conjugation of phosphonate moieties to the PNA can dramatically improve cellular delivery mediated by cationic lipids without affecting on the binding affinity and sequence discrimination ability, exhibiting EC50 values down to one nanomolar. Thus the intracellular efficacy of PNA oligomers rival that of siRNA and the results therefore emphasize that provided sufficient in vivo bioavailability of PNA can be achieved these molecules may be developed into potent gene therapeutic drugs.
Sequence-selective recognition of double-stranded (ds) DNA by homopyrimidine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers can occur by major groove triplex binding or by helix invasion via triplex P-loop formation. We have compared the binding of a decamer, a dodecamer and a pentadecamer thymine–cytosine homopyrimidine PNA oligomer to a sequence complementary homopurine target in duplex DNA using gel-shift and chemical probing analyses. We find that all three PNAs form stable triplex invasion complexes, and also conventional triplexes with the dsDNA target. Triplexes form with much faster kinetics than invasion complexes and prevail at lower PNA concentrations and at shorter incubation times. Furthermore, increasing the ionic strength strongly favour triplex formation over invasion as the latter is severely inhibited by cations. Whereas a single triplex invasion complex is formed with the decameric PNA, two structurally different target-specific invasion complexes were characterized for the dodecameric PNA and more than five for the pentadecameric PNA. Finally, it is shown that isolated triplex complexes can be converted to specific invasion complexes without dissociation of the Hoogsteen base-paired triplex PNA. These result demonstrate a clear example of a ‘triplex first’ mechanism for PNA helix invasion.
The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. A sensor based on a nanostructured hollandite-type manganese oxide was investigated for voltammetric detection of potassium ions. The detection is based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III) to Mn(IV) at the surface of the electrode and the subsequent extraction of the potassium ions into the hollandite structure. In this work, an amperometric procedure at an operating potential of 0.80 V (versus SCE) is exploited for amperometric monitoring. The current signals are linearly proportional to potassium ion concentration in the range 4.97 × 10−5 to 9.05 × 10−4 mol L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997.
hollandite-type manganese oxide; potassium ion; insertion electrochemical
Two types of oligonucleotide mimics relative to peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) were tested as probes in nucleic acid hybridisation assays based on polyacrylamide technology. One type of mimic oligomers represented a chimera constructed of PNA and phosphono-PNA (pPNA) monomers, and the other one contained pPNA residues alternating with PNA-like monomers on the base of trans -4-hydroxy-L-proline (HypNA). A chemistry providing efficient and specific covalent attachment of these DNA mimics to acrylamide polymers using a convenient approach based on the co-polymerisation of acrylamide and some reactive acrylic acid derivatives with oligomers bearing 5'- or 3'-terminal acrylamide groups has been developed. A comparative study of polyacrylamide conjugates with oligonucleotides and mimic oligomers demonstrated the suitability and high potential of PNA-pPNA and HypNA-pPNA chimeras as sequence-specific probes in capture and detection of target nucleic acid fragments to serve current forms of DNA arrays.
Electrochemical impedance measurements were used for the detection of single-strand DNA sequences using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe layer immobilized onto Si/SiO2 chips. An epoxysilane layer is first immobilized onto the Si/SiO2 surface. The immobilization procedure consists of an epoxide/amine coupling reaction between the amino group of the PNA linker and the epoxide group of the silane. A 20-nucleotide sequence of PNA was used. Impedance measurements allow for the detection of the changes in charge distribution at the oxide/solution interface following modifications to the oxide surface. Due to these modifications, there are significant shifts in the semiconductor’s flat-band potential after immobilization and hybridization. The results obtained using this direct and rapid approach are supported by fluorescence measurements according to classical methods for the detection of nucleic acid sequences.
Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) mimic DNA and RNA by forming complementary duplex structures following Watson-Crick base pairing. A set of reporter compounds that bind to DNA by intercalation are known, but these compounds do not intercalate in PNA/DNA hybrid duplexes. Analysis of the hybrid PNA duplexes requires development of reporter compounds that probe their chemical and physical properties. We prepared a series of anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives that are linked to internal positions of a PNA oligomer. These are the first non-nucleobase functional groups that have been incorporated into a PNA. The resulting PNA(AQ) conjugates form stable hybrids with complementary DNA oligomers. We find that when the AQ groups are covalently bound to PNA that they stabilize the hybrid duplex and are, at least partially, intercalated.
In an attempt to improve physico-chemical and biological properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), particularly water solubility and cellular uptake, the synthesis of chimeric oligomers consisted of PNA and phosphono-PNA analogues (pPNAs) bearing the four natural nucleobases has been accomplished. To produce these chimeras, pPNA monomers of two types containing N-(2-hydroxyethyl)phosphonoglycine, or N-(2-aminoethyl)phosphonoglycine backbone, were used in conjunction with PNA monomers representing derivatives of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine, or N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine. The oligomers obtained were composed of either PNA and pPNA stretches or alternating PNA and pPNA monomers. The examination of hybridization properties of PNA-pPNA chimeras to DNA and RNA complementary strands in comparison with pure PNAs, and pPNAs as well as DNA-pPNA hybrids and DNA fragments confirmed that these chimeras form stable complexes with complementary DNA and RNA fragments. They were found to be resistant to degradation by nucleases. All these properties together with good solubility in water make PNA-pPNA hybrids promising for further evaluation as potential therapeutic agents.
This paper describes the construction of a mixed monolayer of ferrocenylalkanethiol and encapsulated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at a gold electrode for amperometric detection of H2O2 at trace levels. By tuning the alkanethiol chain lengths that tether the HRP enzyme and the ferrocenylalkanethiol (FcC11SH) mediator, facile electron transfer between FcC11SH and HRP can be achieved. Unlike most HRP-based electrochemical sensors, which rely on HRP-facilitated H2O2 reduction (to H2O), the electrocatalytic current is resulted from an HRP-catalyzed oxidation reaction of H2O2 (to O2). Upon optimizing other experimental conditions (surface coverage ratio, pH, and flow rate), the electrocatalytic reaction proceeding at the electrode was used to attain a low amperometric detection level (0.64 nM) and a dynamic range spanning over three orders of magnitude. Not only does the thin hydrophilic porous HRP capsule allow facile electron transfer, it also enables H2O2 to permeate. More significantly, the enzymatic activity of the encapsulated HRP is retained for a considerably longer period (> three weeks) than naked HRP molecules attached to an electrode or those wired to a redox polymer thin film. By comparing to electrodes modified with denatured HRP that are subsequently encapsulated or embedded in a poly-L-lysine matrix, it is concluded that the encapsulation has significantly preserved the native structure of HRP and therefore its enzymatic activity. The electrode covered with FcC11SH and encapsulated HRP is shown to be capable of rapidly and reproducibly detecting H2O2 present in complex sample media.
Nucleic acids detection using microarrays requires labelling of target nucleic acids with fluorophores or other reporter molecules prior to hybridization.
Using surface-bound peptide nucleic acids (PNA) probes and soluble fluorescent cationic polythiophenes, we show a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach to detect and identify unlabelled target nucleic acid on microarray.
This simple methodology opens exciting possibilities for applied genetic analysis for the diagnosis of infections, identification of genetic mutations, and forensic inquiries. This electrostatic strategy could also be used with other nucleic acid detection methods such as electrochemistry, silver staining, metallization, quantum dots, or electrochemical dyes.
Several strategies have been developed for the production of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) microarrays by parallel probe synthesis and selective coupling of full-length molecules. Such microarrays were used for direct detection of the hybridisation of unlabelled DNA by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. PNAs were synthesised by an automated process on filter-bottom microtitre plates. The resulting molecules were released from the solid support and attached without any purification to microarray surfaces via the terminal amino group itself or via modifications, which had been chemically introduced during synthesis. Thus, only full-length PNA oligomers were attached whereas truncated molecules, produced during synthesis because of incomplete condensation reactions, did not bind. Different surface chemistries and fitting modifications of the PNA terminus were tested. For an examination of coupling selectivity, bound PNAs were cleaved off microarray surfaces and analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Additionally, hybridisation experiments were performed to compare the attachment chemistries, with fully acetylated PNAs spotted as controls. Upon hybridisation of unlabelled DNA to such microarrays, binding events could be detected by visualisation of phosphates, which are an integral part of nucleic acids but missing entirely in PNA probes. Overall best results in terms of selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with thiol-modified PNAs on maleimide surfaces.
The synthesis of a diaminopurine PNA monomer, N-[N6-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-2,6-diaminopurine-9-yl] acetyl-N-(2-t-butyloxycarbonylaminoethyl)glycine, and the incorporation of this monomer into PNA oligomers are described. Substitution of adenine by diaminopurine in PNA oligomers increased the T m of duplexes formed with complementary DNA, RNA or PNA by 2.5-6.5 degrees C per diaminopurine. Furthermore, discrimination against mismatches facing the diaminopurine in the hybridizing oligomer is improved. Finally, a homopurine decamer PNA containing six diaminopurines is shown to form a (gel shift) stable strand displacement complex with a target in a 246 bp double-stranded DNA fragment.
Scaffolded DNA origami, a method to create self-assembled nanostructures with spatially addressable features, has recently been used to develop water-soluble molecular chips for label-free RNA detection, platforms for deterministic protein positioning, and single molecule reaction observatories. These applications highlight the possibility of exploiting the unique properties and biocompatibility of DNA nanostructures in live, cellular systems. Herein, we assembled several DNA origami nanostructures of differing shape, size and probes, and investigated their interaction with lysate obtained from various normal and cancerous cell lines. We separated and analyzed the origami–lysate mixtures using agarose gel electrophoresis and recovered the DNA structures for functional assay and subsequent microscopic examination. Our results demonstrate that DNA origami nanostructures are stable in cell lysate and can be easily separated from lysate mixtures, in contrast to natural, single- and double-stranded DNA. Atomic force microscope (AFM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the DNA origami structures are fully intact after separation from cell lysates and hybridize to their targets, verifying the superior structural integrity and functionality of self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures relative to conventional oligonucleotides. The stability and functionality of DNA origami structures in cell lysate validate their use for biological applications, for example, as programmable molecular rafts or disease detection platforms.
DNA origami; structural DNA nanotechnology; biocompatibility; self-assembly
The design and facile synthesis of sterically constrained new analogs of PNA having gem-dimethyl substitutions on glycine (dmg-PNA-T) is presented. The PNA oligomers [aminoethyl dimethylglycyl (aedmg) and aminopropyl dimethylglycyl (apdmg)] synthesized from the monomers 6 and 12) effected remarkable stabilization of homothyminePNA2:homoadenine DNA/RNA triplexes and mixed base sequence duplexes with target cDNA or RNA. They show a higher binding to DNA relative to that with isosequential RNA. This may be a structural consequence of the sterically rigid gem-dimethyl group, imposing a pre-organized conformation favorable for complex formation with cDNA. The results complement our previous work that had demonstrated that cyclohexanyl-PNAs favor binding with cRNA compared with cDNA and imply that the biophysical and structural properties of PNAs can be directed by introduction of the right rigidity in PNA backbone devoid of chirality. This approach of tweaking selectivity in binding of PNA constructs by installing gem-dimethyl substitution in PNA backbone can be extended to further fine-tuning by similar substitution in the aminoethyl segment as well either individually or in conjunction with present substitution.
(α,α-dimethyl)glycyl PNA; gem-dimethylglycyl PNA; peptide nucleic acid; PNA-DNA binding; sterically constrained PNA analog; α-aminoisobutyric acid PNA
DNA nanostructures are ordered oligonucleotide arrangements that have applications for DNA computers, crystallography, diagnostics and material sciences. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA/RNA mimic that offers many advantages for hybridization, but its potential for application in the field of DNA nanotechnology has yet to be thoroughly examined. We report the synthesis and characterization of tethered PNA molecules (bisPNAs) designed to assemble two individual DNA molecules through Watson–Crick base pairing. The spacer regions linking the PNAs were varied in length and contained amino acids with different electrostatic properties. We observed that bisPNAs effectively assembled oligonucleotides that were either the exact length of the PNA or that contained overhanging regions that projected outwards. In contrast, DNA assembly was much less efficient if the oligonucleotides contained overhanging regions that projected inwards. Surprisingly, the length of the spacer region between the PNA sequences did not greatly affect the efficiency of DNA assembly. Reasons for inefficient assembly of inward projecting DNA oligonucleotides include non-sequence-specific intramolecular interactions between the overhanging region of the bisPNA and steric conflicts that complicate simultaneous binding of two inward projecting strands. These results suggest that bisPNA molecules can be used for self-assembling DNA nanostructures provided that the arrangement of the hybridizing DNA oligonucleotides does not interfere with simultaneous hybridization to the bisPNA molecule.
An amperometric fluorinated xerogel-derived nitric oxide (NO) microelectrode is described. A range of fluorine-modified xerogel polymers were synthesized via the co-hydrolysis and condensation of alkylalkoxy- and fluoroalkoxysilanes. Such polymers were evaluated as NO sensor membranes to identify the optimum composition for maximizing NO permeability while providing sufficient selectivity for NO in the presence of common interfering species. By taking advantage of both the versatility of sol–gel chemistry and the “poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)-like” high NO permselective properties of the xerogels, the performance of the fluorinated xerogel-derived sensors was excellent, surpassing all miniaturized NO sensors reported to date. In contrast to previous electrochemical NO sensor designs, xerogel-based NO microsensors were fabricated using a simple, reliable dip-coating procedure. An optimal permselective membrane was achieved by synthesizing xerogels of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and 20% (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trimethoxysilane (17FTMS, balance MTMOS) under acid-catalyzed conditions. The resulting NO microelectrode had a conical tip of ~20 μm in diameter and ~55 mm in length, and exhibited sensitivities of 7.91 pA·nM−1 from 0.2 to 3.0 nM (R2 = 0.9947) and 7.60 nA·mM−1 from 0.5 to 4.0 μM (R2 = 0.9999), detection limit of 83 pM (S/N = 3), response time (t95%) of <3 sec, and selectivity (logKNO,jamp) of −5.74, <−6, <−6, <−6, <−6, −5.84, and −1.33 for j = nitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, acetaminophen, dopamine, ammonia/ammonium, and carbon monoxide. In addition, the sensor proved functional up to 20 d, maintaining ≥90% of the sensor's initial sensitivity without serious deterioration in selectivity.
In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.
amperometric immunosensor; deposited gold nanocrystals; protein A; carbofuran
This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.
hybrid electronic tongue; electrochemical microsensors; photonic lab on a chip; wine analysis; multivariate chemometric tools
Continuous amperometric sensors that measure glucose or lactate require a stable sensitivity, and glutaraldehyde crosslinking has been used widely to avoid enzyme loss. Nonetheless, little data is published on the effectiveness of enzyme immobilization with glutaraldehyde.
A combination of electrochemical testing and spectrophotometric assays was used to study the relationship between enzyme shedding and the fabrication procedure. In addition, we studied the relationship between the glutaraldehyde concentration and sensor performance over a period of one year.
The enzyme immobilization process by glutaraldehyde crosslinking to glucose oxidase appears to require at least 24-hours at room temperature to reach completion. In addition, excess free glucose oxidase can be removed by soaking sensors in purified water for 20 minutes. Even with the addition of these steps, however, it appears that there is some free glucose oxidase entrapped within the enzyme layer which contributes to a decline in sensitivity over time. Although it reduces the ultimate sensitivity (probably via a change in the enzyme's natural conformation), glutaraldehyde concentration in the enzyme layer can be increased in order to minimize this instability.
After exposure of oxidase enzymes to glutaraldehyde, effective crosslinking requires a rinse step and a 24-hour incubation step. In order to minimize the loss of sensor sensitivity over time, the glutaraldehyde concentration can be increased.
biosensor; glucose; glucose oxidase; glutaraldehyde; lactate oxidase
The synthesis of N-((N4-(benzoyl)cytosine-1-yl)acetyl)- N -(2-Boc-aminoethyl)glycine (CBz) and the incorporation of this monomer into PNA oligomers are described. A single CBzresidue within a 10mer homopyrimidine PNA is capable of switching the preferred binding mode from a parallel to an antiparallel orientation when targeting a deoxyribonucleotide sequence at neutral pH. The resulting complex has a thermal stability equal to that of the corresponding PNA-DNA duplex, indicative of a strong destabilization of Hoogsteen strand PNA binding due to steric interference by the benzoyl moieties. Accordingly, incorporation of the CBz residue into linked PNAs (bis-PNAs) results in greatly reduced thermal stability of the formed PNA:DNA complexes. Thus, incorporation of the CBz monomer could eliminate the stability bias of triplex-forming sequences in PNA used in hybridization arrays and combinatorial library formats. Furthermore, it is shown that the benzoyl moiety does not severely interfere with Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding, thereby presenting an interesting route for novel cytosine modifications.
Single channel currents of lysenin were measured using artificial lipid bilayers formed on a glass micropipette tip. The single channel conductance for KCl, NaCl, CaCl2, and Trimethylammonium-Cl were 474 ± 87, 537 ± 66, 210 ± 14, and 274 ± 10 pS, respectively, while the permeability ratio PNa/PCl was 5.8. By adding poly(deoxy adenine) or poly(L-lysine) to one side of the bilayer, channel currents were influenced when membrane voltages were applied to pass the charged molecules through the channel pores. Current inhibition process was concentration-dependent with applied DNA. As the current fluctuations of α-hemolysin channels is often cited as the detector in a molecular sensor, these results suggest that by monitoring channel current changes, the lysenin channel has possibilities to detect interactions between it and certain biomolecules by its current fluctuations.
hemolytic toxin; patch clamp; single channel current; current inhibition