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1.  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety 
The New England journal of medicine  2008;359(26):2753-2766.
Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy.
In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12.
The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline.
Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. ( number, NCT00052078.)
PMCID: PMC2702984  PMID: 18974308
2.  Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays 
The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) are often unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD.
Study Design
Retrospective review
Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals
204 children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and >1 year after implantation
Main Outcome Measures
The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS).
We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD and 144 children did not. Prior to implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p<0.05) but no differences in any domains of the PSI and PLS (p>0.1) compared to children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL, age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between two cohorts were reduced.
These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. While children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD, their intelligence and stress outcomes would be improved.
PMCID: PMC3399955  PMID: 22710555
3.  Clinical outcomes of an early intervention program for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a community group setting 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:3.
Available evidence indicates that early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively affect key outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, programs involving resource intensive one-to-one clinical intervention are not readily available or deliverable in the community, resulting in many children with ASD missing out on evidence-based intervention during their early and most critical preschool years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the ESDM for preschool-aged children with ASD using a predominantly group-based intervention in a community child care setting.
Participants were 26 children (21 male) with ASD with a mean age of 49.6 months. The ESDM, a comprehensive early intervention program that integrates applied behaviour analysis with developmental and relationship-based approaches, was delivered by trained therapists during the child’s attendance at a child care centre for preschool-aged children with ASD. Children received 15–20 hours of group-based, and one hour of one-to-one, ESDM intervention per week. The average intervention period was ten months. Outcome measures were administered pre- and post-intervention, and comprised a developmental assessment - the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL); and two parent-report questionnaires - the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Vineland Adaptive Behaviours Scales–Second Edition (VABS-II).
Statistically significant post-intervention improvements were found in children’s performance on the visual reception, receptive language and expressive language domains of the MSEL in addition to their overall intellectual functioning, as assessed by standardised developmental quotients. Parents reported significant increases in their child’s receptive communication and motor skills on the VABS-II, and a significant decrease in autism-specific features on the SCQ. These effects were of around medium size, and appeared to be in excess of what may have been expected due to maturation. Nonetheless, these results need to be confirmed in a controlled study.
This study suggests community dissemination of the ESDM using predominantly group-based intervention may be an effective intervention. Making the ESDM accessible to the wider ASD community in child care settings has the potential for significant clinical and economic benefits. Further studies are indicated in this area, including those with younger children, and which incorporate a control group and standardised ASD assessments.
Trial registration
This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: Registry number ACTRN12612000461897.
PMCID: PMC3631131  PMID: 23294523
Autism; Behavioral intervention; Early intervention; Cognitive function; Developmental outcomes
4.  Treatment of functional dyspepsia with sertraline: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study 
AIM: To evaluate sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia.
METHODS: Consecutive tertiary hospital patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) according to the Rome II criteria with a Hong Kong dyspepsia index (HKDI) of greater than 16 were recruited. Patients commenced enrolment prior to the inception of the Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia. All patients were ethnic Chinese, had a normal upper endoscopy and were Helicobacter pylori negative prior to enrolment. Study patients were randomized to receive sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily for 8 wk. HKDI symptom scores, quality of life, hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale and global symptom relief were evaluated before, during and after treatment. Adverse effects were monitored during and after treatment.
RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were randomized in the intention to treat (ITT), and 150 patients were included in the per protocol (PP) analysis. In both the ITT and PP, there was no difference in the primary outcome of global dyspepsia symptoms between the sertraline and placebo groups at week 8. In the ITT analysis, 98 and 95 patients were randomized to the sertraline and placebo groups respectively. A total of 43 patients withdrew from the study (22.3%) by week 8, with 23 of the 24 drop-outs in the sertraline group occurring prior to week 4 (95.8%). In contrast, in the placebo arm, 11 of 19 patients dropped out by week 4 (57.9%). Utilizing the last response carried forward to account for the drop-outs, there were no differences between the sertraline and placebo groups at baseline in terms of the HKDI, HKDI 26.08 ± 6.19 vs 26.70 ± 5.89, P = 0.433; and at week 8, HKDI 22.41 ± 6.36 vs 23.25 ± 7.30, P = 0.352 respectively. In the PP analysis, 74 and 76 patients were randomized to the sertraline and placebo groups respectively. At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between the sertraline and placebo groups, HKDI 25.83 ± 6.313 vs 27.19 ± 5.929 respectively, P = 0.233; however by week 8, patients in the sertraline group demonstrated a statistically significant difference in their Hong Kong Dyspepsia Index compared to placebo, HKDI 20.53 ± 6.917 vs 23.34 ± 7.199, P = 0.02, respectively). There was also no statistically significant difference in overall quality of life measures or the HAD scale related to treatment in either the ITT or PP analysis at week 8.
CONCLUSION: This pilot study, the first to examine sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the management of FD, did not find that it was superior to placebo.
PMCID: PMC3496890  PMID: 23155342
Dyspepsia; Chinese; Gastrointestinal diseases; Drug therapy; Sertraline; Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors
5.  The response to sertraline in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2005;81(2):147-149.
Objectives: Male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is difficult to manage. Although antidepressants are frequently used in clinical practice, to date no interventional study has been published. We investigated men with CPPS to assess their response to the serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, sertraline.
Methods: Men with CPPS underwent a four glass test to exclude an infective cause for their symptoms. They were randomised to sertraline or matched placebo for 13 weeks after which they were unblinded. They were then allowed to either continue sertraline or cross over to active treatment for a further 13 weeks. Prostatic symptom severity (PSS) and frequency (PSF) scores, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and a psychosexual (PSex) questionnaire were completed at 0, 6, 13, and 26 weeks. Statistical analysis was by the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
Results: 14 men enrolled. At week 13 there was a mean reduction in PSS scores of 6.1 in the active and 2.0 in placebo group, and in PSF scores of 3.6 and 1.0, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the PSS and PSF scores between the active versus placebo group because of the small subject numbers. If analysed as a case series, there was a significant reduction in PSS (11.7; p = 0.01) and PSF (5.9; p = 0.03) from baseline following 13 weeks of sertraline. There was also a decrease in mean HAD depression score from 4.6 at baseline to 2.4.
Conclusion: Sertraline led to a significant improvement in prostatic symptom severity and frequency from baseline following 13 weeks of treatment. Although this analysis does not exclude a placebo effect, the randomised placebo controlled findings show a trend to improvement with sertraline when compared to placebo.
PMCID: PMC1764675  PMID: 15800093
6.  Social anxiety disorder: radio electric asymmetric conveyor brain stimulation versus sertraline 
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a disabling condition that affects almost 5% of the general population. Many types of drugs have shown their efficacy in the treatment of SAD. There are also some data regarding psychotherapies, but no data are available today about the efficacy of brain stimulation techniques. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation neuro psycho physical optimization (NPPO) protocol performed by radio electric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) with that of sertraline in adults with SAD.
Patients and methods
Twenty SAD patients on sertraline were compared with 23 SAD patients who refused any drug treatment and who chose to be treated with NPPO-REAC brain stimulation. This was a 6-month, open-label, naturalistic study. Patients on sertraline received flexible doses, whereas NPPO-REAC patients received two 18-session cycles of treatment. Clinical Global Improvement scale items “much improved” or “very much improved” and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale total score variation on fear and avoidance components were used to detect the results. The statistical analysis was performed with t-test. All measures <0.05 have been considered statistically significant.
Ten of 23 subjects on NPPO-REAC and six of the 20 taking sertraline were much improved or very much improved 1 month after the first NPPO-REAC cycle (t1). Sixteen of the subjects on NPPO-REAC and ten of the subjects taking sertraline were much improved or very much improved 1 month after the second NPPO-REAC cycle (t2). In respect of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, at t1 NPPO-REAC resulted in statistically more efficacy for sertraline on both fear and avoidance total scores. At t2, NPPO-REAC resulted in statistically more efficacy for sertraline on fear but not on avoidance.
NPPO-REAC is an effective treatment for SAD, allowing substantial and clinically meaningful reductions in symptoms and disability in comparison with sertraline.
PMCID: PMC3234900  PMID: 22163157
social anxiety disorder; brain stimulation; REAC; sertraline; fear; avoidance
7.  Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression 
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence clinical practice guideline on the treatment of depressive disorder recommended that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors should be the first-line option when drug therapy is indicated for a depressive episode. Preliminary evidence suggested that sertraline might be slightly superior in terms of effectiveness.
To assess the evidence for the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of sertraline in comparison with tricyclics (TCAs), heterocyclics, other SSRIs and newer agents in the acute-phase treatment of major depression.
Search methods
MEDLINE (1966 to 2008), EMBASE (1974 to 2008), the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2008. No language restriction was applied. Reference lists of relevant papers and previous systematic reviews were hand-searched. Pharmaceutical companies and experts in this field were contacted for supplemental data.
Selection criteria
Randomised controlled trials allocating patients with major depression to sertraline versus any other antidepressive agent.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently extracted data. Discrepancies were resolved with another member of the team. A double-entry procedure was employed by two reviewers. Information extracted included study characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention details and outcome measures in terms of efficacy (the number of patients who responded or remitted), acceptability (the number of patients who failed to complete the study) and tolerability (side-effects).
Main results
A total of 59 studies, mostly of low quality, were included in the review, involving multiple treatment comparisons between sertraline and other antidepressant agents. Evidence favouring sertraline over some other antidepressants for the acute phase treatment of major depression was found, either in terms of efficacy (fluoxetine) or acceptability/tolerability (amitriptyline, imipramine, paroxetine and mirtazapine). However, some differences favouring newer antidepressants in terms of efficacy (mirtazapine) and acceptability (bupropion) were also found. In terms of individual side effects, sertraline was generally associated with a higher rate of participants experiencing diarrhoea.
Authors’ conclusions
This systematic review and meta-analysis highlighted a trend in favour of sertraline over other antidepressive agents both in terms of efficacy and acceptability, using 95% confidence intervals and a conservative approach, with a random effects analysis. However, the included studies did not report on all the outcomes that were pre-specified in the protocol of this review. Outcomes of clear relevance to patients and clinicians were not reported in any of the included studies.
PMCID: PMC4163971  PMID: 20393946
Antidepressive Agents [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]; Depression [*drug therapy]; Diarrhea [chemically induced]; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]; Sertraline [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]; Treatment Outcome; Humans
8.  Change in Cognitive Functioning in Depressed Older Adults Following Treatment with Sertraline or Nortriptyline 
To compare the impact of nortriptyline to sertraline on change in cognitive functioning in depressed older adults.
We used pre-post neuropsychological data collected as part of a 12-week medication trial comparing sertraline to nortriptyline in the treatment of older adults with non-psychotic, unipolar major depression to examine change in cognitive functioning. Neuropsychological assessments included mental status (Mini-Mental Status Exam), psychomotor speed (Purdue Pegboard), attention (Continuous Performance Test; Trail Making Test A), executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word Test; Trail Making Test B), and memory (Buschke Selective Reminding Test).
Within treatment groups, patients treated with sertraline improved only on verbal learning. This change did not depend on responder status. Between treatment groups, patients treated with sertraline improved more in verbal learning compared to patients treated with nortriptyline. Looking at change in cognition as a function of medication condition and responder status revealed that sertraline responders improved more in verbal learning compared to nortriptyline responders but not more than sertraline non-responders or nortriptyline non-responders. Nortriptyline responders were the only treatment by responder status group to show no improvement in verbal learning from baseline to endpoint.
Unexpectedly, nortriptyline responders showed no improvement in verbal learning as compared to patients treated with sertraline or nortriptyline non-responders. However, given the small sample sizes and number of statistical tests (potential for type 1 error), replication is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3391314  PMID: 21919060
cognitive functioning; cognitive impairment; depression; nortriptyline; sertraline
9.  Safety and Efficacy of Sertraline for Depression in Patients With Heart Failure: Results of the SADHART-CHF Trial 
The objective was to test the hypothesis that heart failure (HF) patients treated with sertraline will have lower depression scores and fewer cardiovascular events compared to placebo.
Depression is common among HF patients. It is associated with increased hospitalization and mortality.
SADHART-CHF was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline 50 to 200 mg/day versus matching placebo for 12 weeks. All participants also received nurse facilitated support. Eligible patients were age ≥45 years with HF (LVEF ≤45%, NYHA class II-IV) and clinical depression (DSM-IV criteria for current major depressive disorder). Significant cognitive impairment, psychosis, recent alcohol or drug dependence, bipolar or severe personality disorder, active suicidal ideation, and current antipsychotic or antidepressant medications were exclusions. Primary endpoints were change in depression severity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] total score) and composite cardiovascular status at12-weeks.
469 patients were randomized (N=234 sertraline, N=235 placebo). The mean ± SE change from baseline to 12-weeks in the HDRS total score was -7.1 ± 0.5 (sertraline) and -6.8 ± 0.5 (placebo) (P<.001 from baseline, P=.89 between groups, mean change between groups -0.4, 95% CI -1.7, 0.92). The proportion whose composite cardiovascular score worsened, improved, or was unchanged was 29.9%, 40.6%, and 29.5% in the sertraline group and 31.1%, 43.8%, and 25.1% in the placebo group (P=0.78).
Sertraline was safe in patients with significant HF. However, treatment with sertraline compared with placebo did not provide greater reduction in depression or improved cardiovascular status among patients with HF and depression.
PMCID: PMC3663330  PMID: 20723799
heart failure; depression
10.  Early sensory over-responsivity in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders as a predictor of family impairment and parenting stress 
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) affects many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), often leading to stressful encounters during daily routines.
This study describes the associations between early SOR symptoms and the longitudinal course of restrictions in family life activities and parenting stress across three time points in families raising a child with ASD (n = 174). Covariates were child diagnostic severity, emotional problems, and maternal affective symptoms. At time 1 mean chronological age was 28.5 months. Children were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Parents completed the Infant Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP), Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory (CES-D) at time 1; and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS) at the three annual time points.
Latent Growth Curve Models indicated that higher SOR scores on the ITSP at time 1 were associated with higher initial levels of family life impairment and parenting stress and with a smaller magnitude of change over time. These associations were independent of severity of ADOS social-communication symptoms, MSEL composite score, ITSEA externalizing and anxiety symptoms, and maternal affective symptoms as measured by the BAI and CES-D. On average FLIS and PSI did not change over time however there was significant individual variability. Concurrently, SOR at time 1 explained 39–45% of the variance in family stress and impairment variables.
An evaluation of SOR should be integrated into the assessment of toddlers with ASD considering their role in family life impairment and stress.
PMCID: PMC3636173  PMID: 23336424
ASD; toddlers; sensory over-responsivity; family impairment; parenting stress
11.  Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Alone or Combined with Sertraline in the Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 
Behaviour research and therapy  2013;51(12):823-829.
To examine the efficacy of sequential sertraline and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment relative to CBT with pill placebo over 18 weeks in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Forty-seven children and adolescents with OCD (Range=7-17 years) were randomized to 18-weeks of treatment in one of three arms: 1) sertraline at standard dosing + CBT (RegSert+CBT); 2) sertraline titrated slowly but achieving at least 8 weeks on the maximally tolerated daily dose + CBT (SloSert+CBT); or 3) pill placebo + CBT (PBO+CBT). Assessments were conducted at screening, baseline, weeks 1-9, 13, and 17, and post- treatment. Raters and clinicians were blinded to sertraline (but not CBT) randomization status. Primary outcomes included the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and response and remission status. Secondary outcomes included the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Parent/Child, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and Clinical-Global Impressions-Severity.
All groups exhibited large within-group effects across outcomes. There was no group by time interaction across all outcomes suggesting that group changes over time were comparable.
Among youth with OCD, there was no evidence that sequentially provided sertraline with CBT differed from those receiving placebo with CBT.
PMCID: PMC3908957  PMID: 24184429
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Children; Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; Treatment; Sertraline
12.  Maternal Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders 
Pediatrics  2012;129(5):e1121-e1128.
We examined whether metabolic conditions (MCs) during pregnancy (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays (DD), or impairments in specific domains of development in the offspring.
Children aged 2 to 5 years (517 ASD, 172 DD, and 315 controls) were enrolled in the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) study, a population-based, case-control investigation between January 2003 and June 2010. Eligible children were born in California, had parents who spoke English or Spanish, and were living with a biological parent in selected regions of California. Children’s diagnoses were confirmed by using standardized assessments. Information regarding maternal conditions was ascertained from medical records or structured interview with the mother.
All MCs were more prevalent among case mothers compared with controls. Collectively, these conditions were associated with a higher likelihood of ASD and DD relative to controls (odds ratio: 1.61 [95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.37; odds ratio: 2.35 [95% confidence interval: 1.43–3.88], respectively). Among ASD cases, children of women with diabetes had Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) expressive language scores 0.4 SD lower than children of mothers without MCs (P < .01). Among children without ASD, those exposed to any MC scored lower on all MSEL and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) subscales and composites by at least 0.4 SD (P < .01 for each subscale/composite).
Maternal MCs may be broadly associated with neurodevelopmental problems in children. With obesity rising steadily, these results appear to raise serious public health concerns.
PMCID: PMC3340592  PMID: 22492772
autism; developmental delay; diabetes; epidemiology; hypertension; obesity
13.  Poor Response to Sertraline in Methamphetamine Dependence is Associated with Sustained Craving for Methamphetamine 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2011;118(2-3):500-503.
Depression is common among individuals with methamphetamine (MA) use disorders. As agents that enhance serotonergic function are frequently used to treat depression, one might predict that they would be useful medications for MA dependence. However, clinical trials of serotonergic agents for MA addiction have been unsuccessful.
To identify factors that distinguish MA-dependent research participants who increased MA self-administration while receiving treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline from other groups of participants.
Using a dataset from a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline (100 mg daily) for MA addiction, we identified participants who had completed at least 8 weeks of the trial (n=61 sertraline, n=68 placebo). We compared the proportions of MA-positive urine tests for weeks 8–12 of the trial for these subjects to their pre-randomization baseline, and identified those subjects who increased MA use during treatment. Using classification trees, we then assessed all data collected during the study to identify factors associated with increasing MA use during treatment with sertraline, compared to placebo.
More subjects in the sertraline condition increased MA use during treatment (n=13) than in the placebo condition (n=5; p=0.03). Classification trees identified multiple factors from both pre-treatment and in-treatment data that were associated with increased MA use during treatment. Only elevated in-treatment craving for MA specifically characterized subjects in the sertraline group who increased their MA use.
Some MA-abusing individuals treated with SSRIs have sustained craving with an increased propensity to relapse during treatment despite psychosocial treatment interventions.
PMCID: PMC3181284  PMID: 21592681
antidepressants; sertraline; methamphetamine; addiction; craving; classification and regression trees
14.  Post-traumatic stress disorder 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:1005.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage, and symptoms may persist for several years. Risk factors include major trauma, lack of social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and previous psychiatric history or personality factors.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent PTSD? What are the effects of interventions to treat PTSD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 46 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: affect management; antiepileptic drugs; antihypertensive drugs; benzodiazepines; brofaromine; CBT; drama therapy; eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing; fluoxetine; group therapy; hydrocortisone; hypnotherapy; inpatient treatment programmes; Internet-based psychotherapy; mirtazapine; multiple-session CBT; multiple-session collaborative trauma support; multiple-session education; nefazodone; olanzapine; paroxetine; phenelzine; psychodynamic psychotherapy; risperidone; SSRIs (versus other antidepressants); sertraline; single-session group debriefing; single-session individual debriefing; supportive psychotherapy; supportive counselling; temazepam; tricyclic antidepressants; and venlafaxine.
Key Points
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by disabling symptoms of re-experiencing a traumatic event, avoidance behaviour, and hyperarousal (e.g., irritability or hypervigilance), lasting at least 1 month. PTSD may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage, and symptoms may persist for several years.Risk factors include major trauma, lack of social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and previous psychiatric or personality factors.
Multiple-session trauma-focused CBT may be effective at preventing development of PTSD in people with psychological distress after a traumatic event. However, we don't know whether multiple-session trauma-focused CBT is beneficial for people who have experienced a traumatic event but have not been diagnosed with psychological distress.
We don't know whether antiepileptic drugs, antihypertensive drugs, hydrocortisone, multiple-session collaborative trauma support, multiple-session education, single-session group debriefing, or temazepam are beneficial in preventing PTSD. Single-session individual debriefing may increase the rate of PTSD after a traumatic event compared with no debriefing, and supportive counselling may be less effective than multiple-session CBT at preventing onset of PTSD.
In people with PTSD, trauma-focused CBT improves PTSD symptoms compared with no treatment or with other psychological interventions, including stress management and present-centred therapy. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing seems as effective as trauma-focused CBT in the treatment of chronic PTSD. We don't know whether other psychological treatments (affect management, drama therapy, group therapy, hypnotherapy, inpatient treatment regimens, Internet-based psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, or supportive psychotherapy) are beneficial in people with PTSD.
Paroxetine may improve symptoms in people with PTSD. However, venlafaxine does not seem effective at improving symptoms, and the benefits of fluoxetine are unclear. We found insufficient good evidence to assess the effects of sertraline, tricyclic antidepressants, or benzodiazepines.We found limited evidence that sertraline and nefazodone may be equally effective at improving symptoms of PTSD, but we don't know how other antidepressants compare with each other in the treatment of PTSD.We don't know whether antiepileptic drugs, antihypertensive drugs, brofaromine, nefazodone, olanzapine, phenelzine, mirtazapine, or risperidone are beneficial in people with PTSD.
PMCID: PMC2907597  PMID: 21718580
Background: Evidence supporting the use of serotonergic medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence is available from studies where pharmacotherapy targeted specific alcoholic subtypes. We previously established with Babor's alcohol typology that Type A “lower-risk/severity” alcoholics (n=55) had better treatment response to 14 weeks of sertraline (200mg/day) than placebo, and this was not found for Type B “higher-risk/severity” alcoholics (n=45). The purpose of this study is to assess in this original study group whether treatment gains in the Type A alcoholics were maintained, or, if treatment outcomes changed for the Type B alcoholics, after discontinuing pharmacotherapy. Methods: After the end of a 3-month course of 200mg/day of sertraline, the subjects were interviewed at several time points about their alcohol drinking, if any, using the Timeline Followback method. For 90% of the original study group, mixed effects and GEE models were used to compare monthly drinking amounts over a 6-month post-treatment period to drinking amounts in the last month of treatment. Results: We found that Type A alcoholics who had been treated with sertraline, in contrast to placebo, maintained the good outcomes they had achieved during treatment for at least 6 months following pharmacotherapy. We found that Type B alcoholics who had been treated with sertraline, in contrast to placebo, continued to show no advantage for pharmacotherapy in the 6 months after completing treatment. In addition, heavy drinking in Type B alcoholics increased over the 6 months post-pharmacotherapy in those initially treated with sertraline, compared to placebo. Conclusions: These data support the importance of considering alcohol subtype when pharmacologically treating alcohol dependence.
PMCID: PMC1435448  PMID: 15252293
Alcohol Dependence; Alcohol Subtypes; Alcohol Treatment; Sertraline; Follow-up
16.  The Effect of Adding Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food to a General Food Distribution on Child Nutritional Status and Morbidity: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(9):e1001313.
Lieven Huybregts and colleagues investigate how supplementing a general food distribution with a fortified lipid-based spread during a seasonal hunger gap in Chad affects anthropometric and morbidity outcomes for children aged 6 to 36 months.
Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25). However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001). In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02), thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004). Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (−29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001) and fever episodes (−22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001). Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer children from the control group were present at follow-up sessions.
Providing RUSF as part of a general food distribution resulted in improvements in hemoglobin status and small improvements in linear growth, accompanied by an apparent reduction in morbidity.
Trial registration NCT01154595
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Good nutrition during childhood is essential for health and survival. Undernourished children are more susceptible to infections and are more likely to die from common ailments such as diarrhea than well-nourished children. Globally, undernutrition contributes to about a third of deaths among children under five years old. Experts use three physical measurements to determine whether a child is undernourished. An “underweight” child has a low weight for his or her age and gender when compared to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards, which chart the growth of a reference population. A “stunted” child has a low height for his or her age; stunting indicates chronic undernutrition. A “wasted” child has a low weight for his or her height; wasting indicates acute undernutrition and can be caused by disasters or seasonal food shortages. Recent estimates indicate that about a fifth of young children in developing countries are underweight, and one third are stunted; in south Asia and west/central Africa, more than one tenth of children are wasted, a condition that markedly increases the risk of death.
Why Was This Study Done?
In emergency situations, international organizations support affected populations by providing “general food distributions.” Recently, there have been claims that the provision of targeted nutritional supplements within a general food distribution framework effectively prevents child wasting, but there is little evidence to support these claims. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, the researchers investigate the effect of a targeted daily dose of a “ready-to-use supplementary food” (RUSF; a lipid-based nutrient supplement) on indicators of undernutrition in 6- to 36-month-old, non-wasted children in Chad, a country beset by a severe food crisis. Political instability in this central African country has severely reduced the nutritional status of children, and annual droughts, which affect crop production, cause a “hunger gap” between June and October. In a recent survey, one fifth of children in Chad were wasted at the beginning of this hunger gap. A cluster-randomized trial randomly assigns groups of people to receive alternative interventions and compares the outcomes in the differently treated “clusters.”
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers randomly assigned fourteen household clusters in the city of Abeche, Chad, to the trial's intervention or control arm. All the households received a general food distribution that included staple foods; eligible children in the intervention households were also given a daily RUSF ration between June and September 2010. The researchers regularly measured the children's weights and heights, recorded illnesses reported by caregivers, and measured each child's blood hemoglobin level before and after the intervention to assess their risk of anemia, an indicator of poor nutrition. The addition of RUSF to the household food rations did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of wasting. That is, although fewer children in the intervention group became wasted during the trial than in the control group, this difference was not statistically significant—it could have happened by chance. However, compared to the children in the control group, those in the intervention group had a significantly greater gain in height-for-age (equivalent to a difference in height gain of 0.09 cm/month), slightly higher hemoglobin levels at the end of the study, which significantly reduced their anemia risk, and a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea and fever.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although targeted RUSF provided as part of a general food distribution had no significant effect on wasting in young children in Abeche, Chad, the intervention improved their hemoglobin status and linear growth, and reduced illness among them. Why didn't targeted RUSF prevent wasting effectively in this trial? Maybe the effect of RUSF was diluted out by the effect of the general food distribution or maybe the trial was too short to see a clear effect. Most importantly, though, the trial may have been too small to see a clear effect—the researchers were unable to enroll as many children into their trial as they had planned because of political instability in Chad, and this probably limited the trial's ability to detect small differences between the control and intervention groups. Nevertheless, because these findings provide no clear evidence that adding RUSF to a household food ration effectively prevents wasting, alternative ways to prevent acute malnutrition in Chad and other vulnerable regions of the world should be investigated.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond
Action Contra la Faim–France has a web page that describes the situation in Chad
The United Nations Childrens Fund, which protects the rights of children and young people around the world, provides detailed statistics on child undernutrition; it has detailed information, including videos, about the current food crisis in Chad and the Sahel
The WHO Child Growth Standards are available (in several languages)
The United Nations provides information on ongoing world efforts to reduce hunger and child mortality
The World Food Programme is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide; its website provides detailed information about malnutrition in Chad, including a video of the current food crisis in the country
Starved for Attention is an international multimedia campaign launched in 2010 by Médecins Sans Frontiéres (MSF) and the VII Photo agency to rewrite the story of childhood malnutrition; information about MSFs work in Chad to tackle malnutrition is available
PMCID: PMC3445445  PMID: 23028263
17.  Clinical Subtypes of Premenstrual Syndrome and Responses to Sertraline Treatment 
Obstetrics and gynecology  2011;118(6):1293-1300.
To estimate response of diagnosis and symptom-based subtypes to sertraline treatment.
This was a secondary data analysis for women who were diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder and treated in three National Institutes of Health-supported clinical trials (N=447). Three PMS subtypes were identified based on predominance of psychological, physical, or both symptom types. Scores for each symptom and a total premenstrual score at baseline and endpoint were calculated from daily symptom diaries. Change from baseline after three treated menstrual cycles (or endpoint if sooner) was estimated using linear regression models adjusted for baseline severity.
The PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder diagnoses improved similarly with sertraline relative to placebo, while symptom-based subtypes had differential responses to treatment. The mixed symptom subtype had the strongest response to sertraline relative to placebo (Daily Symptom Rating [DSR] difference 33.80, 95% CI: 17.16, 50.44, P<0.001), and the physical symptom subtype had the poorest response to sertraline (DSR difference 9.50, 95% CI: −16.29, 35.28, P=0.470). Results based on clinical improvement (50% decrease from baseline) indicated that 8.3 participants in the mixed symptom subtype, 3.9 in the psychological subtype, and 7.1 in the physical subtype are needed to observe one woman in the subtype who would achieve clinical improvement.
The PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder diagnoses have similar response to sertraline treatment, but symptom-based subtypes have significantly different responses to this treatment. Mixed and psychological symptom subtypes improved while the physical symptom subtype did not improve significantly. Identifying the patient’s predominant symptoms, and their severity is important for individualized treatment and possible response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
PMCID: PMC3222869  PMID: 22105258
18.  Retrospective comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and symptom-specific medication to treat anxiety and depression in throat cancer patients after laryngectomy 
Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry  2014;26(2):95-100.
Laryngectomy, a common treatment for laryngeal cancer, is a disabling operation that can induce tremendous stress, but little is known about how to alleviate the psychological effects of the operation.
Compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication in treating anxiety and depression among throat cancer patients after laryngectomy.
Review of medical records of the psychological outpatient clinic in the Third People’s Hospital of Huzhou City between March 2009 and May 2013 identified 63 patients with post-laryngectomy depression or anxiety disorders who received 8 weeks of one-on-one treatment with CBT (in which patients responded in writing because they were unable to speak) and 56 patients who received 8 weeks of treatment with buspirone (n=11), sertraline (n=9) or both busipirone and sertraline (n=36). The treatment provided (CBT or medications) was based on the stated preference of the patient. The Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were administered before and after treatment.
After 8 weeks of treatment the mean SAS and SDS scores had decreased significantly in both groups and the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and depression (based on SAS and SDS cutoff scores) had dropped dramatically. There were, however, no significant differences between the two treatment methods. In the medication group 32% of participants experienced one or more adverse reactions during treatment, but none of these were severe enough to require withdrawal from treatment.
CBT is an effective, short-term treatment for reducing the anxiety and depressive symptoms that often occur after an individual is diagnosed with cancer or treated for cancer. There is robust evidence that treatment of these psychological symptoms can improve both the quality of life and course of illness in cancer patients, so oncologists and other clinicians need to regularly screen patients with cancer and other chronic life-threatening conditions for anxiety and depression and, if present, actively promote the treatment of these symptoms. This study shows that CBT can be effective for cancer patients even when they are unable to speak.
PMCID: PMC4120290  PMID: 25092955
cognitive behavior therapy; laryngectomy; depression; anxiety disorders
19.  Sertraline versus amitriptyline in the prophylactic therapy of non-depressed chronic tension-type headache patients 
Patients with chronic tension- type headache (CTTH) are the most difficult to treat. Tricyclic antidepressants are the first-line therapeutic agents, but their anticholinergic side effects limit their usage. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) with fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants have also been used in treatment of CTTH, but the results are conflicting. In this study, prophylactic action of sertraline in treatment of nondepressed patients with CTTH was investigated and compared with amitriptyline in a prospective, randomized, open label, parallel-group study. A 4-week baseline period was followed by a 12-week treatment period with either 50 mg sertraline (n=41 patients) or 25 mg amitriptyline (n=44 patients). Efficacies of treatments were determined by using a headache diary, in which patients recorded the occurrence, number, intensity and duration of headaches in days, analgesic drug consumption and any adverse events. Both drugs reduced headache symptoms and analgesic drug consumption at the first, second and third months of treatment compared to baseline values. There was significant superiority of amitriptyline in the headache symptoms and drug consumption reductions versus sertraline at the second and third months of treatment. Side effects were more favorable in the sertraline-treated patients, but dropouts were similar in both groups. These results suggest that both drugs were effective in the treatment of non-depressed patients with CTTH, but in comparison between groups, amitriptyline was more effective than sertraline.
PMCID: PMC3452139
Chronic tension-type headache; Prophylaxis; Sertraline; Amitriptyline
20.  Pilot pharmacologic randomized controlled trial for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures(e–Pub ahead of print)(LOE Classification) 
Neurology  2010;75(13):1166-1173.
There have been few treatment trials for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Some psychotherapies have been shown to improve PNES and comorbid symptom outcomes. We evaluated a pharmacologic intervention to test the hypothesis that sertraline would reduce PNES.
We conducted a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in an academic medical hospital with epilepsy center outpatients. Subjects aged 18 to 65 years diagnosed with video-EEG–confirmed PNES were treated with flexible-dose sertraline or placebo over 12 weeks. Seizure calendars and symptom scales were charted prospectively. Secondary outcome measures included psychiatric symptom scales and psychosocial variables.
Thirty-eight subjects enrolled, and 26 (68%) completed the trial. Thirty-three subjects with nonzero nonepileptic seizure rates at baseline were included in intent-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome. Subjects assigned to the sertraline arm experienced a 45% reduction in seizure rates from baseline to final visit (p = 0.03) vs an 8% increase in placebo (p = 0.78). Secondary outcome scales revealed no significant between-group differences in change scores from baseline to final visit, after adjustment for differences at baseline.
PNES were reduced in patients treated with a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, whereas those treated with placebo slightly increased. This study provides feasibility data for a larger-scale study.
Level of evidence:
This study provides Class II evidence that flexible-dose sertraline up to a maximum dose of 200 mg is associated with a nonsignificant reduction in PNES rate compared with a placebo control arm (risk ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.25–1.05, p = 0.29), adjusting for differences at baseline.
= antiepileptic drug;
= confidence interval;
= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition;
= epileptic seizures;
= intent to treat;
= psychogenic nonepileptic seizures;
= posttraumatic stress disorder;
= quality of life;
= randomized controlled trial;
= Rhode Island Hospital;
= risk ratio;
= serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor;
= video-EEG.
PMCID: PMC3013487  PMID: 20739647
21.  The combination of triiodothyronine (T3) and sertraline is not superior to sertraline monotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder☆ 
Journal of psychiatric research  2012;46(11):1406-1413.
To determine whether the combination of triiodothyronine (T3) plus sertraline at treatment initiation confers greater antidepressant efficacy than sertraline plus placebo in patients with major depressive disorder.
Eight-week, double blind, randomized placebo controlled clinical trial of 153 adult outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age, with DSM-IV defined major depressive disorder. Patients were treated with sertraline flexibly adjusted for tolerability and in a double blind fashion with placebo or T3 (25 μg/day in week 1 and increasing to 50 μg/day in week 2). Response was defined categorically as 50% reduction and total score less than 15 in 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21) at week 8 and remission as HRSD-21 less than 8.
There was no difference between treatment groups at final assessment; 65% of placebo and 61.8% of T3 treated subjects achieved response and 50.6% of placebo and 40.8% of T3 treated patients achieved remission. The mean daily dose at final assessment of sertraline and T3, respectively was 144.7 mg (±48.7 mg) and 48.2 μg (±7 μg). Median time to response did not differ between treatment groups. Baseline thyroid function tests did not predict response to sertraline treatment or T3 augmentation.
These results do not support the routine use of T3 to enhance or accelerate onset of antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder.
PMCID: PMC3760770  PMID: 22964160
Depression; Triiodothyronine; Augmentation; Response; Remission; Antidepressant
22.  Effectiveness of sertraline in treatment of depression in a consecutive sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction: six month prospective study on outcome 
A considerable proportion of patients suffer from depression following acute myocardial infarction. Information regarding this prevalence in Indian patients and response to treatment is lacking.
Prevalence of major depression was studied in 50 consecutive in-patients with acute myocardial infarction following DSM-IV criteria. In a comparative study outcome of treatment with sertraline in terms of recovery from depression, change in Hamilton Depression Rating scale score and occurrence of cardiac events were ascertained for a 6-month period, which were compared with a group of patients who did not receive sertraline.
Major depression was diagnosed in 34% of patients. Female patients were more affected than the males. Hamilton Depression Rating scale scores gradually decreased in both the groups over the study period; however it became significantly less for patients treated with sertraline. Significantly more number of patients who received sertraline recovered from depression. There were no dropouts due to non-response or side effects. Cardiac events were reported less in this group than those who continued only cardiac treatment as usual.
A considerable proportion of acute myocardial infarction patients have major depression. Sertraline is efficacious and safe in these patients. Antidepressant treatment might be associated with reduction of cardiac events.
PMCID: PMC1351174  PMID: 16336682
23.  Generalised anxiety disorder 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:1002.
Up to one in five people may have generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) at some point, and most have other health problems. Less than half of people have full remission after 5 years. GAD may have a genetic component, and has also been linked to previous psychological or other trauma.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for GAD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abecarnil, antidepressants (duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, imipramine, opipramol, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine), antipsychotic drugs (trifluoperazine), applied relaxation, benzodiazepines, buspirone, cognitive behavioural therapy, hydroxyzine, and pregabalin.
Key Points
Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is excessive worry and tension about everyday events, on most days, for at least 6 months, to the extent that there is distress or difficulty in performing day-to-day tasks. However, diagnosing GAD accurately can be difficult. Up to 1 in 20 people may have GAD at any one time, and most have other health problems. Less than half of people have full remission after 5 years.GAD may have a genetic component, and has also been linked to previous psychological or other trauma.
In adults:
CBT (including exposure, relaxation, and cognitive restructuring) improves anxiety compared with waiting list control, treatment as usual, or enhanced usual care. It is unclear whether CBT is more effective than supportive therapy.
Applied relaxation may be as effective as CBT, but we found insufficient RCT evidence about applied relaxation compared with no treatment.
Various drug treatments, such as benzodiazepines, buspirone, hydroxyzine, antidepressants, and pregabalin may all reduce symptoms of anxiety in people with GAD, but they can have unpleasant adverse effects, and most trials have been short term. Benzodiazepines increase the risk of dependence, sedation, and accidents, and can cause adverse effects in neonates if used during pregnancy.Buspirone may be less effective if used in people who have recently been taking benzodiazepines.Antidepressants (imipramine, paroxetine, sertraline, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and opipramol) have been shown to reduce symptoms compared with placebo, but antidepressants can cause a variety of adverse effects including sedation, dizziness, falls, nausea, and sexual dysfunction.In general, comparisons between different antidepressants have shown similar effectiveness in reducing anxiety, although one RCT found limited evidence of an increased benefit with escitalopram compared with paroxetine.
Antipsychotic drugs may reduce anxiety in people who have not responded to other treatments, but these drugs may have adverse effects including drowsiness, and movement disorders.
We don't know whether abecarnil reduces anxiety as the RCTs we found reported inconsistent results.
In children and adolescents:
CBT improves symptoms compared with waiting list control or active control. Most RCTs of CBT in children and adolescents have included other anxiety disorders.
We found limited RCT evidence regarding the efficacy of antidepressants for childhood GAD. SSRIs (fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline) have shown some promise, but antidepressants are associated with abdominal pain and nausea, and other well documented adverse effects.
We found no RCT evidence on the effects of applied relaxation, benzodiazepines, buspirone, hydroxyzine, abecarnil, pregabalin, or antipsychotics in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3275153  PMID: 22030083
24.  Evaluation of the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on bone mineral density: an observational cross-sectional study 
Osteoporosis International  2014;26:273-279.
Sixty patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and treated with either paroxetine, sertraline, or citalopram for at least 12 months were enrolled in this study, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the patients was compared with that of 40 healthy volunteers. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy in generalized anxiety disorder was found to be related with decreased BMD values.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SSRI therapy on BMD in postmenopausal women diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and to identify the effects of the duration of disease and treatment on risk factors for osteoporosis.
Sixty patients diagnosed with GAD and treated with paroxetine, sertraline, or citalopram from the SSRI group for at least 12 months were enrolled. Social demographic features, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) results, and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) scores of all the patients were assessed. The BMD of the patients was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the femoral and lumbar regions. The patients were divided into three groups which are the paroxetine, sertraline, and citalopram groups. The BMD of the patients was compared with that of 40 healthy volunteers.
The L2–L4, total lumbar vertebrae, femoral intertrochanteric, total femoral Z-scores, and femoral Ward’s region T-scores of the treatment group were lower than the median T- and Z-scores of the control group (p < 0.05). Of the treatment groups, the femoral neck, trochanteric and intertrochanteric T- and Z-scores, total femoral T- and Z-scores, and femoral Ward’s T- and Z-scores of the sertraline group were significantly lower than the BMD values measured at the identical regions in the paroxetine and citalopram groups (p < 0.05).There was a significant negative correlation between the duration of treatment and the BMD values.
SSRI therapy in GAD was found to be related with decreased BMD values. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted to determine whether SSRI use is a risk factor for osteoporosis; such studies should investigate these factors by performing BMD assessments before treatment.
PMCID: PMC4286623  PMID: 25187118
BMD; GAD; Osteoporosis; SSRI
25.  Usefulness of child development assessments for low-resource settings in francophone Africa 
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP  2013;34(7):10.1097/DBP.0b013e31829d211c.
Few tools are available to screen or assess infant’s cognitive development, especially in French-speaking Africa. This study evaluated the use of the French translation of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), and the ‘Ten Questions’ questionnaire (TQ) in 1-year-old children in Benin, a francophone country.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three health centers serving a semi-rural area in Benin. Three hundred fifty-seven children aged 12 months and their mothers were enrolled in 2011. Infant development was assessed at local health centers followed by a home visit to collect information on socioeconomic status, maternal Raven score, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother–child interactions (HOME Inventory) and to administer the TQ.
The infant’s gender (female), the HOME and maternal education were associated with a higher Early Learning Composite score in multivariate analyses (P=.02, P=.004, P=.007, respectively). The HOME and family wealth were also associated with the gross motor scale (P=.03 and P=.03, respectively). Mothers were more likely to report difficulties on the TQ when the child presented lower score on the MSEL. When considering the gross motor scale as the gold standard to define moderate delays, the two combined motor-related questions on the TQ showed good sensitivity and specificity (76.5 and 75.7).
In a low-resource rural setting in Africa, the TQ effectively identified three-quarters of 1-year-old infants with delayed development. After this screening, the MSEL may be useful for further assessment as it showed good feasibility and sensitivity to known risk factors for poor child development.
PMCID: PMC3821168  PMID: 23899660
Child development; Mullen Scales of Early Learning; Ten Questions Questionnaire; HOME scale; Africa

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