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1.  A long-term follow-up study of the cementless THA with anatomic stem/HGPII cup with 22-mm head 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(2):381-385.
The anatomic femoral component and Harris-Galante porous II (HGPII) cup were developed to provide more reliable bone ingrowth. We performed 20 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with anatomic stem/HGPII cup with 22-mm head in 14 consecutive patients, and evaluated the clinical and radiological results for a mean follow-up of 12.8 years. The all-anatomically designed stem provided excellent clinical and radiographic results. Four acetabular components underwent revision: three for fracture of the locking mechanism and wear of the polyethylene liner and one for the locking mechanism failure with dislocation of the HGPII cup. The abduction angles of the four revised acetabular components were apparently higher. The survivorship 13 years after surgery was 78%. Our findings show good long-term results using the anatomic femoral component, while the HGPII cup combined with 22-mm head seems to have poor durability due to locking mechanism failure.
doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0505-8
PMCID: PMC2899065  PMID: 18183396
2.  Increased volumetric wear of polyethylene liners with more than 3 years of shelf-life time 
International Orthopaedics  2003;27(3):153-159.
We analyzed 20 retrieved gamma-sterilized polyethylene liners (Biomet Hexloc). The long-term durability varied significantly depending on shelf-life time before implantation. Liners with a shelf-life time of 3 years or more evinced significantly (P 0.002) higher volumetric wear than those with a shelf life time less than 3 years. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning calorimetry showed that all explanted implants underwent substantial in vivo oxidation and crystallization. The oxidative ageing of polyethylene renders the polyethylene liner susceptible to severe wear. Scanning electron microscopy of the bearing surface of the liner revealed abrasive wear as a dominant mechanism. Moreover, poor acetabular design produces excessively thin liners, substandard locking mechanism, and backside wear of the liner. The primary reason for severe wear in the Hexloc liner was poor modular design and oxidative degradation of the polyethylene.
doi:10.1007/s00264-003-0454-9
PMCID: PMC3458448  PMID: 12679893
3.  Comparison of Conventional Polyethylene Wear and Signs of Cup Failure in Two Similar Total Hip Designs 
Advances in Orthopedics  2013;2013:710621.
Multiple factors have been identified as contributing to polyethylene wear and debris generation of the acetabular lining. Polyethylene wear is the primary limiting factor in the functional behavior and consequent longevity of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). This retrospective study reviewed the clinical and radiographic data of 77 consecutive THAs comparing in vivo polyethylene wear of two similar acetabular cup liners. Minimum follow-up was 7 years (range 7–15). The incidence of measurable wear in a group of machined liners sterilized with ethylene oxide and composed of GUR 1050 stock resin was significantly higher (61%) than the compression-molded, GUR 1020, O2-free gamma irradiation sterilized group (24%) (P = 0.0004). Clinically, at a 9-year average followup, both groups had comparable HHS scores and incidence of thigh or groin pain, though the machined group had an increased incidence of osteolysis and annual linear wear rate.
doi:10.1155/2013/710621
PMCID: PMC3639702  PMID: 23662210
4.  Retrieved Highly Crosslinked UHMWPE Acetabular Liners Have Similar Wear Damage as Conventional UHMWPE 
Background
Highly crosslinked UHMWPE is associated with increased wear resistance in hip simulator and clinical studies. Laboratory and case studies, however, have described rim fracture in crosslinked acetabular liners. Controversy exists, therefore, on the relative merits of crosslinked liners over conventional liners in terms of wear performance versus resistance to fatigue cracking.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether crosslinked liners would show less surface damage than conventional liners but would be more susceptible to fatigue damage.
Methods
We examined 36 conventional UHMWPE and 39 crosslinked UHMWPE retrieved implants with similar patient demographics and identical design for evidence of wear damage, including articular surface damage, impingement, screw-hole creep, and rim cracks.
Results
We observed no difference in wear damage scores for the two liners. Conventional liners more frequently impinged but were more often elevated with smaller head sizes. We observed creep in approximately 70% of both types of liners. Incipient rim cracks were found in five crosslinked liners, and one liner had a rim fracture. Only one conventional liner had an incipient rim crack.
Conclusions
Contrary to our expectation, damage was similar between crosslinked and conventional UHMWPE liners. Moreover, the 15% occurrence (six of 39) of incipient or complete fractures in crosslinked liners as compared with a 3% occurrence (one of 36) in conventional liners may have implications for the long-term performance of crosslinked liners. Longer-term studies will be necessary to establish the fate of rim cracks and thus the overall clinical fatigue performance of crosslinked liners.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1552-9
PMCID: PMC3018192  PMID: 20844998
5.  Constrained Cups Appear Incapable of Meeting the Demands of Revision THA 
Background
Failure rates of constrained cups for treating recurrent dislocation in revision THA range from 40% to 100%. Although constrained liners are intended to stabilize the hip by mechanically preventing dislocation, the resulting loss of range of motion may lead to impingement and, ultimately, implant failure.
Questions/purposes
We therefore documented the mechanisms of failure of constrained acetabular cups in revision THA and determined the type and severity of damage (wear, fracture, and impingement) that occurs in situ.
Methods
We retrieved 57 constrained components of four different designs at revision THA and examined for the presence of rim impingement, oxidation, cracks within the liner, backside wear, pitting, scratching, abrasion, burnishing, and the presence of embedded particles. Articular wear was calculated from the volume of the concave articular bearing surface, which was measured using the fluid displacement method.
Results
Failure of the locking ring was responsible for 51% of failures, whereas 28% of revisions were the result of acetabular cup loosening, 6% backside wear, and 22% infection. Impingement damage of the rim of the polyethylene liner was seen in all retrievals with moderate or severe damage in 54%. The average volumetric wear rate of the articular surface was 95 mm3/year.
Conclusions
Failure of the locking liner ring and loosening of the acetabular cup are the primary causes of mechanical failure with constrained liners; polyethylene is an inadequate material for restricting motion of the hip to prevent instability. The durability of these devices is unlikely to improve unless the mechanical demands are modified through increased range of motion leading to less frequent rim impingement.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2212-4
PMCID: PMC3369098  PMID: 22179979
6.  Wear Analysis in THA Utilizing Oxidized Zirconium and Crosslinked Polyethylene 
Oxidized zirconium, a material with a ceramic surface on a metal substrate, and highly cross-linked polyethylene are two materials developed to reduce wear. We measured in vivo femoral head penetration in patients with these advanced bearings. We hypothesized the linear wear rates would be lower than those published for cobalt-chrome and standard polyethylene. We retrospectively reviewed a select series of 56 THAs in a relatively young, active patient population utilizing oxidized zirconium femoral heads and highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular liners. Femoral head penetration was determined using the Martell computerized edge-detection method. All patients were available for 2-year clinical and radiographic followup. True linear wear was 4 μm/year (95% confidence intervals, ± 59 μm/year). The early wear rates in this cohort of relatively young, active patients were low and we believe justify the continued study of these alternative bearing surfaces.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0544-5
PMCID: PMC2600989  PMID: 18946711
7.  Second-generation Highly Cross-linked X3™ Polyethylene Wear: A Preliminary Radiostereometric Analysis Study 
Background
First-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene liners have reduced the incidence of wear particle-induced osteolysis. However, failed acetabular liners have shown evidence of surface cracking, mechanical failure, and oxidative damage. This has led to the development of second-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene, which has improved wear and mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation in vitro. Owing to its recent introduction, there are no publications describing its clinical performance.
Questions/purposes
We assessed early clinical wear of a second-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene liner and compared its clinical performance with the published results of hip simulator tests and with first-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene annealed liners.
Patients and Methods
Twenty-one patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical outcome and femoral head penetration were measured for 19 patients at 6 months and 1 and 2 years postoperatively.
Results
The median proximal head penetration was 0.009 mm and 0.024 mm at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The median two-dimensional (2-D) head penetration was 0.083 mm and 0.060 mm at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The median proximal wear rate between 1 and 2 years was 0.015 mm/year.
Conclusions
The wear rate calculated was similar to the in vitro wear rate reported for this material; however, it was less than the detection threshold for this technique. Although longer followup is required for wear to reach a clinically quantifiable level, this low level of wear is encouraging for the future clinical performance of this material.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1259-y
PMCID: PMC3049610  PMID: 20151231
8.  Do First-generation Highly Crosslinked Polyethylenes Oxidize In Vivo? 
Background
Highly crosslinked and thermally treated polyethylenes were clinically introduced to reduce wear and osteolysis. Although the crosslinking process improves the wear performance, it also introduces free radicals into the polymer that can subsequently oxidize. Thermal treatments have been implemented to reduce oxidation; however, the efficacy of these methods with regard to reducing in vivo oxidative degradation remains to be seen. Polyethylene oxidation is a concern because it can compromise the ultimate strength and ductility of the material.
Questions/purposes
We analyzed the oxidation, oxidation potential, and mechanical behavior of thermally treated highly crosslinked polyethylene retrieved acetabular liners.
Methods
Three hundred seven acetabular liners were collected from consecutive revision surgeries at six institutions over a 10-year period. Twenty-four were sterilized using nonionizing methods, 43 were sterilized in an inert environment, 80 were highly crosslinked and annealed, and 160 were highly crosslinked and remelted. Oxidation and oxidation potential were assessed by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical behavior was assessed by the small punch test.
Results
Oxidation and hydroperoxide (oxidation potential) indices were elevated in the annealed and gamma inert sterilized groups compared with those of the remelted liners and uncrosslinked gas sterilized controls, particularly at the rim. We also detected an increase in oxidation over time at the bearing surface of the remelted group. Ultimate strength of the polyethylene at the bearing surface was negatively correlated with implantation time for the annealed liners.
Conclusions
Within the first decade of implantation, the clinical outlook for first-generation highly crosslinked polyethylene remains promising. However, ongoing research continues to be warranted for first-generation highly crosslinked polyethylene bearings to monitor the implications of elevated oxidation at the rim of annealed liners as well as to better understand the subtle changes in oxidation at the bearing surface of remelted liners that occur in vivo.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1728-3
PMCID: PMC3126962  PMID: 21161740
9.  Can Microcomputed Tomography Measure Retrieved Polyethylene Wear? Comparing Fixed-bearing and Rotating-platform Knees 
Background
Wear of total knee polyethylene has been quantified gravimetrically with thickness measurements and evaluation of surface wear modes. However, these techniques do not localize volumetric wear.
Questions/Purposes
We used micro-CT scans of retrieved total knee liners and unworn, new liners to determine the volume and location of wear.
Methods
We retrieved 12 fixed and 12 rotating-platform bearings after a mean 52 months of use. Inserts were weighed and thickness was measured. Micro-CT scans of retrieved and matched new liners were superimposed to compare the location and magnitude of wear.
Results
The average total wear was 254 ± 248 mm3. The average wear rate was 58 ± 41 mm3/year. Wear was 69% of penetration, demonstrating the contribution of deformation to knee wear. Rotating-platform wear rate was 43 ± 25 mm3/year and the fixed-bearing rate was 74 ± 49 mm3/year. Five percent of the rotating-platform wear rate came from the backside compared with 14% of the fixed-bearing wear rate.
Conclusions
Micro-CT can determine the volume and location of wear of retrieved tibial liners. Because the magnitude of the manufacturing tolerances was approximately half the magnitude of the total wear on average, accounting for the potential influence of tolerances is important to accurately measure volumetric wear if the unworn (preimplantation) geometry of the insert is unknown. Without accounting for tolerances, this technique may not be applicable for retrievals with a short followup that have low wear. However, application of micro-CT could be of value in determining the exact location of wear in knee simulator studies in which the same insert is measured repeatedly and manufacturing tolerances are not a concern.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2513-2
PMCID: PMC3528931  PMID: 22879092
10.  Liner Exchange and Bone Grafting: Rare Option to Treat Wear & Lysis of Stable TKAs 
Background
Liner exchange and bone grafting are commonly performed for wear and osteolysis around well-fixed modular acetabular components that otherwise would require structural allografting and revision THA. However, liner exchange in the face of substantial lysis around TKA has been performed rarely with reports of failure rates of up to 25% at 3 year followup.
Questions/purposes
We therefore evaluated the technique of liner exchange and bone grafting for cases of wear and extensive osteolysis around TKAs in which the components were well-fixed and well-aligned to determine (1) rerevision rates; (2) fate of the bone graft; (3) radiographic loosening rates; and (4) functional scores.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients (25 knees) who underwent revision TKA with exchange of the modular polyethylene insert and bone grafting in cases with well-fixed components and large areas of osteolysis (up to 54 cm2 on a single projection) at the time of revision. The average area of osteolysis was 21 cm2 and 10 cm2 on the AP projection of the femur and tibia, respectively. On the lateral projection, the average area of osteolysis for the femur and tibia was 22 cm2 and 9.3 cm2. Minimum clinical and radiographic followup was 22 and 22 months (average, 61 and 59; range, 22–142 and 22–130, respectively).
Results
One of the 25 knees was revised for aseptic loosening or recurrence of osteolysis. On radiographs, 84.6% and 70% of femoral and tibial osteolytic lesions, respectively, showed evidence of complete or near complete graft incorporation. The remaining lesions showed evidence of partial graft incorporation with the exception of one tibial lesion, which was in the revised case. All other components were well fixed with no evidence of radiographic loosening.
Conclusions
In this selected series of cases with extensive osteolysis around well-fixed and well-aligned TKAs, liner exchange and bone grafting provided durable midterm results with extensive graft incorporation.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1521-3
PMCID: PMC3008882  PMID: 20809171
11.  Early Follow-up for a Hybrid Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Metal-Backed Acetabular Component Designed to Reduce “Backside” Polyethylene Wear 
HSS Journal  2005;1(1):31-34.
Modular acetabular systems have several advantages; however, increased polyethylene wear has been recognized as a disadvantage. In our study, an acetabular shell design with a highly polished inner surface, a locking mechanism that minimizes micromotion, and a high polyethylene liner to shell conformity was evaluated. A prospective cohort of 50 consecutive hips was followed up for a mean of 3.6 years (range, 2–7 years). One patient required an early revision for recurrent instability. Mean linear head penetration rates were 0.242 mm/year (range, 0.048–0.655 mm/year). The true linear wear rate was calculated after subtracting the linear wear in the first follow-up year from the total wear at the end of the follow-up. The true linear wear rate was 0.173 mm/year (range, 0.03–0.423 mm/year). A positive correlation was found between wear rate and male gender. The low head penetration rates suggest that a polished liner with an improved locking mechanism and increased liner conformity can reduce polyethylene wear.
doi:10.1007/s11420-005-0102-6
PMCID: PMC2504131  PMID: 18751806
total hipar throplasty; polyethylene wear; backside wear; clinical outcomes; radiographic outcomes
12.  More than 50% reduction of wear in polyethylene liners with alumina heads compared to cobalt-chrome heads in hip replacements 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(4):360-364.
Background and purpose
Excessive wear of acetabular liners in hip replacements may lead to osteolysis and cup loosening. Different head materials are currently used. We measured differences in wear between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads with the same polyethylene liner.
Patients and methods
39 patients (43 hips) with osteoarthritis were included in a study with 10-year follow-up. Wear was measured as proximal and 3D penetration of the head in the liner with radiostereometry (RSA). All the patients were followed clinically with Harris hip score (HHS) for up to 10 years. Radiolucent lines and osteolytic lesions were assessed on plain radiographs.
Results
With alumina heads, proximal wear (95% CI) after 10 years was 0.62 (0.44–0.80) mm as compared to 1.40 (1.00–1.80) mm in the cobalt-chrome group. For 3D wear, the results were 0.87 (0.69–1.04) mm for alumina heads and 1.78 (1.35–2.21) mm for cobalt-chrome heads. Median (range) HHS was 98 (77–100) in the alumina group and it was 93 (50–100) in the cobalt-chrome group (p = 0.01). We found no difference in osteolysis between the groups.
Interpretation
We found better wear properties with alumina heads than with cobalt-chrome heads. We recommend the use of alumina heads in patients in whom a high wear rate might be anticipated.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.810516
PMCID: PMC3768034  PMID: 23795579
13.  Clinical and radiographic results and wear performance in different generations of a cementless porous-coated acetabular cup 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(2):181-187.
We compared clinical results and wear performance in two different generations of a cementless porous-coated cup, analysing the long-term results of 83 uncemented Harris-Galante I cups (32-mm femoral head) and 93 uncemented Harris-Galante II cups (28-mm femoral head). All polyethylene liners were gamma irradiated in air. Polyethylene linear wear was estimated using a software package. The minimum follow-up was 10 years. Nine Harris-Galante I cups and two Harris-Galante II cups were revised due to aseptic loosening or polyethylene problems. The mean femoral head penetration at 6 weeks after surgery was 0.15 ± 0.05 mm for the Harris-Galante I cups and 0.12 ± 0.03 for the Harris-Galante II cups (p < 0.001);but mean wear was 0.13 ± 0.23 mm per year for the Harris-Galante I cups and 0.11 ± 0.10 for the Harris-Galante II cups (p = 0.740). Most of the metallic shells in both groups showed stable fixation. The so-called second-generation cups had lower initial polyethylene wear that resulted in less polyethylene wear at the latest the follow-up, but the overall wear rate was similar in both groups despite the different femoral head sizes and the improved locking mechanism.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0305-6
PMCID: PMC2269018  PMID: 17265157
14.  Clinical Comparison of Polyethylene Wear with Zirconia or Cobalt-Chromium Femoral Heads 
Ceramic femoral heads were developed to reduce the wear of conventional ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) bearing surfaces in THA. We compared the wear rates of PE acetabular components bearing against femoral heads of zirconia (Zr) or cobalt-chromium (CoCr) in young patients. One surgeon inserted CoCr femoral heads in all 33 patients (33 hips) having THA for primary osteoarthritis from 1996 to 1997 and then Zr femoral heads in all 34 patients (36 hips) from 1998 to 1999. The mean age of the entire cohort was 52.5 years (range, 29–64 years). The shells were solid and hydroxyapatite (HA) -coated, liners were argon-sterilized UHMWPE, and head size was 28 mm. The minimum clinical followup was 56 months (mean, 65 months; range, 56–77 months); minimum 5-year radiographs were available for 62 of the 68 patients. Wear analysis of digitized anteroposterior (AP) radiographs was performed with a computerized method. Demographic data were comparable in the two groups. Mean femoral head penetration rate was similar in the two types of heads (CoCr: 0.25 mm/year; range, 0.21–0.33 mm/year; Zr: 0.23 mm/year; range, 0.20–0.29 mm/year), as was mean linear wear (CoCr: 1.22 mm; range, 0.28–3.78 mm; Zr: 1.11 mm; range, 0.15–2.05 mm). There were no revisions. These data support skepticism regarding the clinical wear advantage of Zr compared with CoCr femoral heads. The explanation for the clinical similarity of wear, despite the theoretical advantages of ceramic heads, needs further investigation.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0799-5
PMCID: PMC2745450  PMID: 19326182
15.  Mid-term results using a cementless hip prosthesis in young Chinese patients: a five- to seven-year follow-up study 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(6):1507-1512.
A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 74 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THA) in 69 young Chinese patients. The Asian size and MMA AML stems with smoothly tapered tip were used, and the patients were followed up for at least five years. The mean Harris hip score was 45.4 preoperatively and 95.3 at the last follow-up. The incidence of thigh pain was 5.4%, and was related to the short stature of the patient (<160 cm) (P = 0.030). Six patients (6 hips, 8.1%) had acetabular osteolysis in zone 2; reoperation was performed in one patient because of osteolysis and wear of the polyethylene liner. The survival rate of the metal acetabular and femoral components was 100% (95% confidence interval, 0.95–1.0). Primary THA with this AML prosthesis had an acceptable mid-term result in young Chinese patients.
doi:10.1007/s00264-008-0705-x
PMCID: PMC2899199  PMID: 19050881
16.  Long-term results of the threaded Weill cup in primary total hip arthroplasty  
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(7):943-948.
Uncemented, threaded acetabular components with smooth surface treatment were widely used in continental Europe in the 1970s and 1980s for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Previously published studies showed high failure rates in the mid-term. In a consecutive series of 116 patients, 127 threaded cups with smooth surface treatment (Weill cup; Zimmer, Winterthur, Switzerland) were implanted in combination with one type of uncemented stem. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically. Mean time of follow-up was 17 years (range 15–20). At the time of follow-up, the acetabular component had been revised or was awaiting revision in 30 hips (24%). Two hips were revised for infection and 23 for aseptic loosening. Four polyethylene liners were exchanged because of excessive wear. One hip was awaiting revision. The survival rate for all acetabular revisions including one hip awaiting revision was 75% (95%CI: 65–85%) at 17 years. These results support the view that smooth, threaded acetabular components do not provide satisfactory long-term fixation and should be abandoned. It is important to closely monitor patients with these components as the failure rate remains high in the long-term.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0844-8
PMCID: PMC2989035  PMID: 19629480
17.  High Rate of Ceramic Sandwich Liner Fracture 
Background
Ceramic bearing surfaces for THA were introduced to reduce the risk of wear. However, owing to liner fracture in some of the early series and presumption that the fractures were the result of the modulus mismatch of the implant and the bone, a ceramic sandwich liner with lower structural rigidity was introduced. Fractures of these devices also were reported subsequently, although the incidence is unclear and it is unknown whether there are any risk factors associated with the fractures.
Questions/purposes
We therefore determined the incidence of these fractures.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 298 active patients in whom we implanted 353 ceramic-polyethylene sandwich liner acetabular components between November 1999 and February 2008. The mean age of the patients was 53.6 years (range, 17–84 years). The minimum followup was 6 months (mean, 41 months; range, 6–106 months). All patients were assessed clinically and radiographically.
Results
Seven of the 353 (2%) ceramic sandwich liners fractured at a mean of 4.3 years (range, 1.3–7.6 years) after surgery without trauma. Neither patient-related factors nor radiographic position of the implants were risk factors for fracture.
Conclusions
Owing to the high rate of fractures of the sandwich ceramic polyethylene liners in our patients, we have discontinued use of this device.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2279-6
PMCID: PMC3348322  PMID: 22383019
18.  Second-generation Modular Acetabular Components Provide Fixation at 10 to 16 Years 
Background
First-generation modular titanium fiber-metal-coated acetabular components had high rates of wear, pelvic osteolysis, and liner dissociation. Second-generation components were designed to reduce the incidence of these problems but it is unclear whether the changes achieved these goals.
Questions/purposes
We asked the following questions: (1) Is the risk of revision surgery for loosening, wear, or liner dissociation low with the second-generation acetabular component? (2) Is the rate of pelvic osteolysis low? (3) Can the liner be exchanged without bone cement?
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from 99 patients (118 hips) undergoing THAs with one second-generation modular titanium acetabular component with routine screw fixation and conventional polyethylene. The minimum followup was 10 years (mean, 12 years; range, 10–16 years). We obtained Harris hip scores and examined radiographs for loosening and osteolysis.
Results
At last followup, all acetabular components were well fixed and no titanium shell had been revised or removed. No liner had dissociation. At most recent followup, the mean Harris hip score was 89. We observed pelvic osteolysis in eight hips (7%). There were three reoperations for dislocation (head-liner exchange only) and three loose femoral components revised. Two liners (at 11 and 14 years) were exchanged for wear-pelvic osteolysis.
Conclusions
This second-generation modular titanium fiber-metal-coated acetabular component with screw fixation had no loosening, no liner dissociation, and a low rate of pelvic osteolysis at 10 to 16 years. Liner exchange is practical without use of cement. We continue to use this component with highly crosslinked polyethylene liners.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1950-7
PMCID: PMC3254771  PMID: 21691908
19.  Acetabular Polyethylene Wear and Acetabular Inclination and Femoral Offset 
Restoration of femoral offset and acetabular inclination may have an effect on polyethylene (PE) wear in THA. We therefore assessed the effect of femoral offset and acetabular inclination (angle) on acetabular conventional (not highly cross-linked) PE wear in uncemented THA. We prospectively followed 43 uncemented THAs for a minimum of 49 months (mean, 64 months; range, 49–88 months). Radiographs were assessed for femoral offset, acetabular inclination, and conventional PE wear. The mean (± standard deviation) linear wear rate in all THAs was 0.14 mm/year (± 0.01 mm/year) and the mean volumetric wear rate was 53.1 mm3/year (± 5.5 mm3/year). In THAs with an acetabular angle less than 45°, the mean wear was 0.12 mm/year (± 0.01 mm/year) compared with 0.18 mm/year (± 0.02 mm/year) in those with a reconstructed acetabular angle greater than 45°. Reproduction of a reconstructed femoral offset to within 5 mm of the native femoral offset was associated with a reduction in conventional PE wear (0.12 mm/year versus 0.16 mm/year). Careful placement of the acetabular component to ensure an acetabular angle less than 45° in the reconstructed hip allows for reduced conventional PE wear.
Level of Evidence: Level II, prospective study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0845-3
PMCID: PMC2758973  PMID: 19412648
20.  Mechanical Properties, Oxidation, and Clinical Performance of Retrieved Highly Crosslinked Crossfire Liners after Intermediate-Term Implantation 
The Journal of arthroplasty  2009;25(4):614-623.e2.
Sixty Crossfire (Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ) liners were consecutively revised after an average of 2.9 years (range: 0.01 – 8.0 years) for reasons unrelated to wear or mechanical performance of the polyethylene. Femoral head penetration was measured directly from 42 retrievals implanted for over 1 year. Penetration rate results (0.04 mm/y, on average; range: 0.00-0.13 mm/y) confirmed decreasing wear rates with longer in vivo times. Overall, we observed oxidation levels at the bearing surface of the 60 liners (0.5, on average; range: 0.1-1.7) comparable to those of non-implanted liners (0.5, on average; range: 0.3-1.1) and preservation of mechanical properties. We also measured elevated oxidation of the rim (3.4, on average; range: 0.2-8.8) that was correlated with implantation time. Rim surface damage, however, was observed in only 3/60 (5%) cases. Retrieval analysis of the three rim-damaged liners did not reveal an association between surface damage and the reasons for revision.
doi:10.1016/j.arth.2009.04.022
PMCID: PMC2876196  PMID: 19520545
Mechanical properties; oxidation; wear; hip arthroplasty; highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
21.  THA with Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years or Younger 
Highly cross-linked polyethylene has been associated with low in vitro wear, but also has decreased in vitro ultimate yield strength. We therefore asked whether highly cross-linked polyethylene would result in lower outcome scores, wear, or early failure in a young patient population. Seventy THAs in 64 patients were performed using a highly cross-linked (electron beam-irradiated to 9 Mrads) acetabular liner and a cobalt-chrome femoral head. The average age of the patients at surgery was 41 years (range, 19–50 years). The minimum followup was 2.4 years (average, 4 years; range, 2.4–6.5 years). We recorded demographic and clinical data, including Harris hip score. Polyethylene wear measurements were analyzed with a validated, computer-assisted, edge detection method. The average Harris hip score improved from 53 to 92 at last followup. There was no evidence of acetabular or femoral loss of fixation, subsidence, or loosening. Linear wear was undetectable at this followup interval. No patient experienced catastrophic failure or underwent revision surgery. These data show low polyethylene wear rates and no catastrophic failures at early followup in a young patient cohort.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0697-2
PMCID: PMC2706339  PMID: 19142685
22.  Wear is Reduced in THA Performed with Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene 
Highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) has been used extensively to decrease osteolysis and related implant failure in THA. We compared the wear rate of HCLPE and noncross-linked conventional PE (CPE) liners and the rate of radiographic calcar resorption and osteolysis in young patients (35–60 years of age) who underwent THA by one surgeon. Thirty-four patients (41 THAs) who received a hybrid THA using a HCLPE liner were match-paired for age, gender, body mass index, and diagnosis with a group of patients who underwent THA with identical implants but with a CPE liner. The minimum followup was 4 years (average, 5.3; range, 4–8 years). Using the Livermore measurement technique, the averages of total wear of the HCLPE and CPE liners were 0.01 mm (range, −0.23–0.4) and 0.64 mm (range, 0–1.7), respectively. The average annual wear was less for the HCLPE than the noncross-linked PE (0.002 mm, range, −0.05–0.1 versus 0.12 mm, range, 0–0.29, respectively). Four hips in the HCLPE group and 23 in the CPE group had calcar resorption measuring averages of 2.5 mm (range, 2–3) and 7.5 mm (range, 1.8–23.8), respectively. Periprosthetic osteolysis occurred in two and eight hips in the HCLPE and CPE groups, respectively. Longer followup is needed to determine if these findings will result in improved implant survivorship.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0661-1
PMCID: PMC2690743  PMID: 19082863
23.  Early Dislocation Rate in Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty 
HSS Journal  2007;4(1):10-13.
Wear debris from metal-on-polyethylene articulation in conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) may limit THA longevity. Bearing surfaces made of modern ceramic material, with high wear resistance and low fracture risk, have the potential to extend the longevity of THA and make the procedure more suitable for young, active patients. Concerns regarding a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surface have included potential for a higher incidence of dislocation caused by limited modular neck length and liner options. This prospective study assessed the early dislocation incidence for a ceramic-on-ceramic THA system. Out of the 336 consecutive ceramic-on-ceramic THA performed at our institution over an 8-year (1997–2005) period, 2 (0.6%) sustained dislocation during, and none after, the first postoperative year. Both dislocations were treated with closed reduction. No component fracture or revision for any reason has occurred in this series.
doi:10.1007/s11420-007-9060-5
PMCID: PMC2504286  PMID: 18751856
total hip arthroplasty; dislocation; ceramic-on-ceramic
24.  Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Highly Crosslinked (Crossfire) Liners after Short-Term Implantation 
The Journal of arthroplasty  2005;20(7):840-849.
This study reports on detailed analyses of retrieved, annealed crosslinked liners. Twelve crosslinked liners (Crossfire, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ) of the same Omnifit design were retrieved at revision surgery by one institution after an average 1.9 years (0.02 to 4.8 years) in vivo. In each case, the revision surgery was performed for reasons unrelated to wear. The mechanical properties and extent of oxidation of all inserts were characterized using a standard small punch test and measurement of the oxidation index. Results indicated that there was no association between implantation time and either mechanical properties or extent of oxidation for the inserts near the worn bearing surface. Slight variation in properties was observed as a function of sampling location, with the properties near the unworn surface displaying the greatest relative variability. We conclude that the variability in polyethylene properties observed in this small study was not clinically significant for these short term-implanted, annealed crosslinked liners.
doi:10.1016/j.arth.2005.07.015
PMCID: PMC1350161  PMID: 16230233
Mechanical properties; oxidation; wear; hip arthroplasty; highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
25.  Sciatic nerve compression by an extrapelvic cyst secondary to wear debris after a cementless total hip arthroplasty: A case report and literature review☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Polyethylene (PE) wear debris after total hip arthroplasty (THA) may cause formation of a soft tissue mass due to inflammatory reaction. To the best of our knowledge we report the first case in whom the diagnosis was made after examination of the hip, pelvis and lumbar spine with detailed radiological methods and the plain radiographs showed no signs of loosening of the THA.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a 52 years-old woman who presented with a cyst causing sciatic irritation in her gluteal region due to wear debris after THA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was useful in detecting the cyst. Resolution of the cyst occured after subtotal cystectomy and revision of the acetabular components.
DISCUSSION
Although plain radiographs can show signs of the underlying pathology; such as osteolysis, loosening of the components and wear of the PE liner, they are unable to detect cystic lesions. Cystic lesions may be an early sign of wear debris.
CONCLUSION
This case shows us that sciatic neuropathy with no evidence of nerve root impingement on lumbar MRI in a patient with THA requires also examination of the hip and pelvis with detailed radiological methods, such as MRI, in addition to plain radiography. Removal of the source of debris via revision surgery following subtotal cystectomy leads to the resolution of the remaining portion of the cyst and also relief of the symptoms of sciatic nerve compression.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.07.008
PMCID: PMC3785895  PMID: 23959404
Arthroplasty; Replacement; Hip; Prosthesis failure

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