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1.  Revision Rates after Primary Hip and Knee Replacement in England between 2003 and 2006 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(9):e179.
Background
Hip and knee replacement are some of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. Resurfacing of the hip and unicondylar knee replacement are increasingly being used. There is relatively little evidence on their performance. To study performance of joint replacement in England, we investigated revision rates in the first 3 y after hip or knee replacement according to prosthesis type.
Methods and Findings
We linked records of the National Joint Registry for England and Wales and the Hospital Episode Statistics for patients with a primary hip or knee replacement in the National Health Service in England between April 2003 and September 2006. Hospital Episode Statistics records of succeeding admissions were used to identify revisions for any reason. 76,576 patients with a primary hip replacement and 80,697 with a primary knee replacement were included (51% of all primary hip and knee replacements done in the English National Health Service). In hip patients, 3-y revision rates were 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%–1.1%) with cemented, 2.0% (1.7%–2.3%) with cementless, 1.5% (1.1%–2.0% CI) with “hybrid” prostheses, and 2.6% (2.1%–3.1%) with hip resurfacing (p < 0.0001). Revision rates after hip resurfacing were increased especially in women. In knee patients, 3-y revision rates were 1.4% (1.2%–1.5% CI) with cemented, 1.5% (1.1%–2.1% CI) with cementless, and 2.8% (1.8%–4.5% CI) with unicondylar prostheses (p < 0.0001). Revision rates after knee replacement strongly decreased with age.
Interpretation
Overall, about one in 75 patients needed a revision of their prosthesis within 3 y. On the basis of our data, consideration should be given to using hip resurfacing only in male patients and unicondylar knee replacement only in elderly patients.
Jan van der Meulen and colleagues show that about one in 75 patients with a primary hip or knee replacement needed a revision of their prosthesis within 3 years.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Though records show attempts to replace a hip date back to 1891, it was not till the 1960s before total hip replacements were successfully performed, and the 1970s before total knee replacements were carried out. These procedures are some of the most frequently performed surgical operations, with a total of 160,00 total hip and knee replacement procedures carried out in England and Wales and about half a million in the US in 2006. Hip and knee replacements are most commonly used as a treatment for severe arthritis once other approaches, such as pain relief medications, have failed. A total hip replacement involves replacing the head of the femur (the thigh bone) with an artificial component, typically metal; the socket into which the new femur head will insert is also replaced with artificial components. In an alternative procedure, resurfacing, rather than replacing the entire joint, the diseased surfaces are replaced with metal components. This procedure may be better suited to patients with less severe disease, and is also thought to result in quicker recovery. The techniques for hip and knee replacement can also be divided into those where a cement is used to position the metal implant into the bone (cemented) versus those where cement is not used (cementless).
Why Was This Study Done?
To date, little evidence has been available to compare patient outcomes following hip or knee replacement with the many different types of techniques and prostheses available. National registries have been established in a number of countries to try to collect data in order to build the evidence base for evaluating different types of prosthesis. Specifically, it is important to find out if there are any important differences in revision rates (how often the hip replacement has to be re-done) following surgery using the different techniques. In England and Wales, the National Joint Registry (NJR) has collected data on patient characteristics, types of prostheses implanted, and the type of surgical procedures used, since its initiation in April 2003.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers linked the records of the NJR and the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for patients treated by the NHS in England who had undergone a primary hip and knee replacement between April 2003 and September 2006. The HES database contains records of all admissions to NHS hospitals in England, and allowed the researchers to more accurately identify revisions of procedures that were done on patients in the NJR database.
They identified 327,557 primary hip or knee replacement procedures performed during that time period, but only 167,076 could be linked between the two databases.
76,576 patients in the linked database had undergone a primary hip replacement. The overall revision rate was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%–1.5%) at 3 years, with the lowest revision rates experienced by patients who had cemented prostheses. Women were found to have higher revision rates after hip resurfacing, and the revision rate was about twice as high in patients who had had a hip replacement for other indications than osteoarthritis. A patient's age did not appear to affect revision rates after hip surgery.
80,697 patients in the linked database had undergone a primary knee replacement. The overall revision rate was 1.4% (95% CI 1.3%–1.6%) at three years, again with the lowest rates of replacement experienced by patients who had cemented prostheses. Revision rates after knee replacement strongly decreased with age.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Overall, about one in 75 patients required a revision of their joint replacement, which is considered low, and cemented hip or knee prosthesis had the lowest revision rates. Post hip replacement, the highest revision rate was in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing, especially women. Following knee replacement, the highest revision rate was in patients who had undergone unicondylar prosthesis. However, in this study patients were only followed up for three years after the initial knee replacement, and it's possible that different patterns regarding the success of these differing techniques may emerge after longer follow-up. Importantly, this study was entirely observational, and data were collected from patients who had been managed according to routine clinical practice (rather than being randomly assigned to different procedures). Substantial differences in the age and clinical characteristics of patients receiving the different procedures were seen. As a result, it's not possible to directly draw conclusions on the relative benefits or harms of the different procedures, but this study provides important benchmark data with which to evaluate future performance of different procedures and types of implant.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050179.
The website of the British Orthopaedic Association contains information for patients and surgeons
The website of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence contains guidance on hip prostheses
Information is available from the US National Institutes of Health (Medline) on hip replacement, including interactive tutorials and information about rehabilitation and recovery
Medline also provides similar resources for knee replacement
The NHS provides information for patients on hip and knee replacement, including questions patients might ask, real stories, and useful links
The National Joint Registry provides general information about joint replacement, as well as allowing users to download statistics on the data it has collected on the numbers of procedures carried out in the UK
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050179
PMCID: PMC2528048  PMID: 18767900
2.  Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population.
Clinical Need
Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries.
The Technology
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR.
A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada.
Review Strategy
A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety).
The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained.
Summary of Findings
 
Health Outcomes
The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score.
The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported.
None of the reviewed studies reported procedure-related deaths. Four studies reported implant survival rates ranging from 94.4% to 99.7% for a follow-up period of 2.8 to 3.5 years. Three studies reported on the range of motion. One reported improvement in all motions including flexion, extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation, and another reported improvement in flexion. Yet another reported improvement in range of motion for flexion abduction-adduction and rotation arc. However, the author reported a decrease in the range of motion in the arc of flexion in patients with Brooker class III or IV heterotopic bone (all patients were men).
Safety of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty
There is a concern about metal wear debris and its systemic distribution throughout the body. Detectable metal concentrations in the serum and urine of patients with metal hip implants have been described as early as the 1970s, and this issue is still controversial after 35 years.
Several studies have reported high concentration of cobalt and chromium in serum and/or urine of the patients with metal hip implants. Potential toxicological effects of the elevated metal ions have heightened concerns about safety of MOM bearings. This is of particular concern in young and active patients in whom life expectancy after implantation is long.
Since 1997, 15 studies, including 1 randomized clinical trial, have reported high levels of metal ions after THR with metal implants. Some of these studies have reported higher metal levels in patients with loose implants.
Adverse Biological Effects of Cobalt and Chromium
Because patients who receive a MOM hip arthroplasty are shown to be exposed to high concentrations of metallic ions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the literature for reports of adverse biological effects of cobalt and chromium. Cobalt and chromium make up the major part of the metal articulations; therefore, they are a focus of concern.
Risk of Cancer
To date, only one study has examined the incidence of cancer after MOM and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasties. The results were compared to that of general population in Finland. The mean duration of follow-up for MOM arthroplasty was 15.7 years; for polyethylene arthroplasty, it was 12.5 years. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers in the MOM group was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79–1.13). In the polyethylene on metal group it was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68–0.86). The combined standardized incidence ratio for lymphoma and leukemia in the patients who had MOM THR was 1.59 (95% CI, 0.82–2.77). It was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.29–1.05) for the patients who had polyethylene on metal THR. Patients with MOM THR had a significantly higher risk of leukemia. All patients who had leukemia were aged over than 60 years.
Cobalt Cardiotoxicity
 
Epidemiological Studies of Myocardiopathy of Beer Drinkers
An unusual type of myocardiopathy, characterized by pericardial effusion, elevated hemoglobin concentrations, and congestive heart failure, occurred as an epidemic affecting 48 habitual beer drinkers in Quebec City between 1965 and 1966. This epidemic was directly related the consumption of a popular beer containing cobalt sulfate. The epidemic appeared 1 month after cobalt sulfate was added to the specific brewery, and no further cases were seen a month after this specific chemical was no longer used in making this beer. A beer of the same name is made in Montreal, and the only difference at that time was that the Quebec brand of beer contained about 10 times more cobalt sulphate. Cobalt has been added to some Canadian beers since 1965 to improve the stability of the foam but it has been added in larger breweries only to draught beer. However, in small breweries, such as those in Quebec City, separate batches were not brewed for bottle and draught beer; therefore, cobalt was added to all of the beer processed in this brewery.
In March 1966, a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Health for Quebec that included members of the department of forensic medicine of Quebec’s Ministry of Justice, epidemiologists, members of Food and Drug Directorate of Ottawa, toxicologists, biomedical researchers, pathologists, and members of provincial police. Epidemiological studies were carried out by the Provincial Ministry of Health and the Quebec City Health Department.
The association between the development of myocardiopathy and the consumption of the particular brand of beer was proven. The mortality rate of this epidemic was 46.1% and those who survived were desperately ill, and recovered only after a struggle for their lives.
Similar cases were seen in Omaha (Nebraska). The epidemic started after a cobalt additive was used in 1 of the beers marketed in Nebraska. Sixty-four patients with the clinical diagnosis of alcoholic myocardiopathy were seen during an 18-month period (1964–1965). Thirty of these patients died. The first patient became ill within 1 month after cobalt was added to the beer, and the last patient was seen within 1 month of withdrawal of cobalt.
A similar epidemic occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1964 and 1967, 42 patients with acute heart failure were admitted to a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Twenty of these patients were drinking 6 to 30 bottles per day of a particular brand of beer exclusively. The other 14 patients also drank the same brand of beer, but not exclusively. The mortality rate from the acute illness was 18%, but late deaths accounted for a total mortality rate of 43%. Examination of the tissue from these patients revealed markedly abnormal changes in myofibrils (heart muscles), mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
In Belgium, a similar epidemic was reported in 1966, in which, cobalt was used in some Belgian beers. There was a difference in mortality between the Canadian or American epidemic and this series. Only 1 of 24 patients died, 1.5 years after the diagnosis. In March 1965, at an international meeting in Brussels, a new heart disease in chronic beer drinkers was described. This disease consists of massive pericardial effusion, low cardiac output, raised venous pressure, and polycythemia in some cases. This syndrome was thought to be different from the 2 other forms of alcoholic heart disease (beriberi and a form characterized by myocardial fibrosis).
The mystery of the above epidemics as stated by investigators is that the amount of cobalt added to the beer was below the therapeutic doses used for anemia. For example, 24 pints of Quebec brand of beer in Quebec would contain 8 mg of cobalt chloride, whereas an intake of 50 to 100 mg of cobalt as an antianemic agent has been well tolerated. Thus, greater cobalt intake alone does not explain the occurrence of myocardiopathy. It seems that there are individual differences in cobalt toxicity. Other features, like subclinical alcoholic heart disease, deficient diet, and electrolyte imbalance could have been precipitating factors that made these patients susceptible to cobalt’s toxic effects.
In the Omaha epidemic, 60% of the patients had weight loss, anorexia, and occasional vomiting and diarrhea 2 to 6 months before the onset of cardiac symptoms. In the Quebec epidemic, patients lost their appetite 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis of myocardiopathy and developed nausea in the weeks before hospital admission. In the Belgium epidemic, anorexia was one of the most predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and the quality and quantity of food intake was poor. Alcohol has been shown to increase the uptake of intracoronary injected cobalt by 47%. When cobalt enters the cells, calcium exits; this shifts the cobalt to calcium ratio. The increased uptake of cobalt in alcoholic patients may explain the high incidence of cardiomyopathies in beer drinkers’ epidemics.
As all of the above suggest, it may be that prior chronic exposure to alcohol and/or a nutritionally deficient diet may have a marked synergistic effect with the cardiotoxicity of cobalt.
Conclusions
MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been shown to be an effective arthroplasty procedure as tested in younger patients.
However, evidence for effectiveness is based only on 7 case series with short duration of follow-up (2.8–3.5 years). There are no RCTs or other well-controlled studies that compare MOM hip resurfacing with THR.
Revision rates reported in the MOM studies using implants currently licensed in Canada (hybrid systems, uncemented acetabular, and cemented femoral) range from 0.3% to 3.6% for a mean follow-up ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 years.
Fracture of femoral neck is not very common; it occurs in 0.4% to 2.2% of cases (as observed in a short follow-up period).
All the studies that measured health outcomes have reported improvement in Harris Hip and SF-12 scores; 1 study reported significant reduction in pain and improvement in function, and 2 studies reported significant improvement in SF-12 scores. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA Hip scores.
Concerns remain on the potential adverse effects of metal ions. Longer-term follow-up data will help to resolve the inconsistency of findings on adverse effects, including toxicity and carcinogenicity.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The device cost for MOM ranges from $4,300 to $6,000 (Cdn). Traditional hip replacement devices cost about $2,000 (Cdn). Using Ontario Case Costing Initiative data, the total estimated costs for hip resurfacing surgery including physician fees, device fees, follow-up consultation, and postsurgery rehabilitation is about $15,000 (Cdn).
Cost of Total Hip Replacement Surgery in Ontario
MOM hip arthroplasty is generally recommended for patients aged under 55 years because its bone-conserving advantage enables patients to “buy time” and hence helps THRs to last over the lifetime of the patient. In 2004/2005, 15.9% of patients who received THRs were aged 55 years and younger. It is estimated that there are from 600 to 1,000 annual MOM hip arthroplasty surgeries in Canada with an estimated 100 to 150 surgeries in Ontario. Given the increased public awareness of this device, it is forecasted that demand for MOM hip arthroplasty will steadily increase with a conservative estimate of demand rising to 1,400 cases by 2010 (Figure 10). The net budget impact over a 5-year period could be $500,000 to $4.7 million, mainly because of the increasing cost of the device.
Projected Number of Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries in Ontario: to 2010
PMCID: PMC3379532  PMID: 23074495
3.  The migration pattern of the Charnley femoral stem: a five-year follow-up RSA study in a well-functioning patient group 
Background
Implant stability is considered vital to long-time implant survival in total hip arthroplasty (THA), since loose implants are reported to be a major cause of hip revision. There is an association between early implant micromotion and increased risk of revision. More implant-specific data are needed to establish acceptable levels of early implant movement.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five patients (36 hips) undergoing Charnley THA were followed with repeated clinical, radiographic, and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) over 5 years. Twenty-three patients attended 5 years postoperatively.
Results
The patient group was well functioning based on the radiological and clinical evaluations. The stems constantly moved up to 5 years postoperatively, with subsidence, retroversion, and varus tilt, based on the RSA.
Conclusion
Continuous movement of the Charnley stem was observed up to 5 years postoperatively in a well-functioning patient group. The migration data presented herein could be useful when defining acceptable migration limits for certain types of cemented femoral stems.
doi:10.1007/s10195-012-0187-x
PMCID: PMC3427697  PMID: 22576838
RSA; Charnley; THR; Five-year follow-up; Migration pattern
4.  The migration pattern of the Charnley femoral stem: a five-year follow-up RSA study in a well-functioning patient group 
Background
Implant stability is considered vital to long-time implant survival in total hip arthroplasty (THA), since loose implants are reported to be a major cause of hip revision. There is an association between early implant micromotion and increased risk of revision. More implant-specific data are needed to establish acceptable levels of early implant movement.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five patients (36 hips) undergoing Charnley THA were followed with repeated clinical, radiographic, and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) over 5 years. Twenty-three patients attended 5 years postoperatively.
Results
The patient group was well functioning based on the radiological and clinical evaluations. The stems constantly moved up to 5 years postoperatively, with subsidence, retroversion, and varus tilt, based on the RSA.
Conclusion
Continuous movement of the Charnley stem was observed up to 5 years postoperatively in a well-functioning patient group. The migration data presented herein could be useful when defining acceptable migration limits for certain types of cemented femoral stems.
doi:10.1007/s10195-012-0187-x
PMCID: PMC3427697  PMID: 22576838
RSA; Charnley; THR; Five-year follow-up; Migration pattern
5.  Seven-year Results of a Tapered, Titanium, Hydroxyapatite-Coated Cementless Femoral Stem in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(4):214-220.
Background
Aseptic loosening of cemented hip prostheses is recognized as a long-term problem, and especially in males and younger patients. Much energy has been focused on developing new prostheses that are designed for cementless fixation. We evaluated the performance of and periprosthetic bone response to a tapered, titanium, hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral hip prosthesis at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty.
Methods
Seventy-eight patients and 86 hips were included in the study. There were 35 men and 43 women; the mean age at the time of the operation was 59 years (range, 41 to 81 years). We used a tapered, titanium (Ti6Al4V), HA-coated femoral implant. We evaluated the patients at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation was performed using the scoring system and the hip scores were assigned according to the level of pain, the functional status and the range of motion. The patients who refused to return, but who did forward X-rays for review after being contacted were questioned by phone about the functional status of their hip. Radiographic follow-up was performed at six weeks, at three, six and twelve months and yearly thereafter. All the available radiographs were collected and assessed for implant stability, subsidence, osseointegration, osteolysis, stress shielding and evidence of periprosthetic lucency.
Results
Eighty-six hips (78 patients) were available for review at follow-up of greater than 7 years. In 11 of the 86 cases, acetabular failure required revision of the acetabular component, but the femoral stem survived and it was available for long-term evaluation. The radiographs were obtained at 7-year follow-up for another 20 hips, but the patients would not come in for the 7-year clinical evaluation. Therefore, a phone interview was conducted to assess any change in the functional status at a minimum of 7 years.
Conclusions
The mechanical fixation of a tapered, titanium, HA-coated femoral implant was excellent in this study. This femoral design provided reliable osseointegration that was durable at a mean of 7 years follow-up.
doi:10.4055/cios.2010.2.4.214
PMCID: PMC2981777  PMID: 21119937
Primary total hip arthroplasty; Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem
6.  Continued stabilization of Triathlon cemented TKA 
Acta Orthopaedica  2016;87(3):262-267.
Background and purpose
There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up.
Patients and methods
60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years.
Results
There was no statistically significant difference in maximum total point motion (MTPM) between the 2 groups (p = 0.1). The mean MTPM at 5 years for the Duracon was 1.10 (SD 1.21) mm and for the Triathlon it was 0.66 (SD 0.38) mm. The numbers of continuously migrating prostheses were similar in the groups at the fifth year of follow-up; 6 of 21 prostheses in the Duracon group and 3 of 21 in the Triathlon group had migrated more than 0.3 mm between the second year and the fifth year of follow-up (p = 0.2).
Interpretation
The Triathlon has a micromotion pattern similar to that of the Duracon total knee system at both short-term and medium-term follow-up, and may therefore, over time, show the same good long-term mechanical stability.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2016.1166876
PMCID: PMC4900084  PMID: 27088580
7.  Short-stem prostheses in primary total hip arthroplasty 
Medicine  2016;95(43):e5215.
Abstract
Background:
Short-stem (SS) prostheses require less resection of the femoral neck, produce a more physiological load pattern in the proximal femur, reduce stress shielding, and aid bone conservation and are, therefore, beneficial for young patients. Conventional cementless implants in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have shown excellent clinical results; however, it is unclear whether SS prostheses can obtain the same clinical and radiological outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate whether SS prostheses are superior to conventional implants after primary THA.
Methods:
We reviewed the literature published up to June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to find relevant RCTs comparing SSs and conventional stems in primary THA. Quality assessment was performed by 2 independent reviewers. The RevMan 5.3 software program of the Cochrane Collaboration was used to analyze the data. Random- or fixed-effect models were used to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each comparison.
Results:
Six RCTs involving 552 patients with 572 hips were identified. Strong evidence indicated that SS prostheses were more effective for reducing thigh pain than conventional implants (I 2 = 46%, P = 0.002; risk ratio [RR], 95% CI 0.15, 0.04–0.49). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in Harris Hip Scores (I 2 = 0%, P = 0.84; SMD, 95% CI 0.02, −0.15–0.18), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index Scores (I 2 = 0%, P = 0.35; SMD, 95% CI 0.09, −0.10–0.27), femoral offset of stem (I 2 = 0%, P = 0.57; SMD, 95% CI 0.06, −0.16–0.29), and leg-length discrepancy (I 2 = 79%, P = 0.88; SMD, 95% CI 0.04, −0.44–0.51).
Conclusion:
SS prostheses achieve the same clinical and radiological outcomes as conventional implants, and were superior in terms of reducing thigh pain. But whether the postoperative thigh pain applied in 2nd-generation cementless prosthesis still needs further large-scale multicenter studies with longer follow-up to confirm.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000005215
PMCID: PMC5089112  PMID: 27787383
meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; short-stem prostheses; total hip arthroplasty
8.  Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty Provides Definitive Treatment for Femoral Neck Fractures at 20 Years and Beyond 
Background
Displaced femoral neck fractures frequently are treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasties. Despite the frequency with which bipolar hemiarthroplasty is used to treat these fractures, there are few long-term data.
Questions/purposes
We sought to evaluate (1) the cumulative incidence of revision for any reason of bipolar hemiarthroplasties at 20 years, and the proportion of patients who lived more than 20 years who still have the prosthesis in situ from the index arthroplasty, (2) the cumulative incidence of aseptic loosening at 20 years, and (3) the Harris hip score of the surviving patients at long term.
Methods
We performed 376 cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasties for displaced femoral neck fractures in 359 patients between 1976 and 1985. At a minimum of followup of 20 years (mean, 24 years; range, 20–31 years), 339 of 359 patients (94%) were deceased, leaving 20 patients in the study group. Of those, one patient was confirmed to be lost to followup and two others had radiographic followup only. Three hundred fifty-nine patients (99.2%) (376 of the original 379 hips) were followed until death, revision of the hemiarthroplasty, or for at least 20 years (of clinical followup). Bipolar hemiarthroplasty was performed for displaced femoral neck fractures. Cemented fixation was the standard of care between 1976 and 1985 at our institution. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 79 years (range, 60–99 years). The cumulative incidence of revision, estimated with death as a competing risk, and radiographs were evaluated for signs of aseptic loosening by a surgeon not involved in the clinical care of the patients. Clinical function was evaluated with the Harris hip score. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 79 years.
Results
The 20-year cumulative incidence of revision for any reason was 3.5% (95% CI, 1.6%–5.3%). Of the 20 patients who survived more than 20 years, seven had the implant intact. The 20-year cumulative incidence of revision for aseptic loosening was 1.4% (95% CI, 0.2%–2.6%). The mean Harris hip score in patients who were still living and patient who did not have revision surgery was 63 ± 22, however 13 of the 20 patients had undergone revision surgery.
Conclusions
The long-term survivorship of bipolar hemiarthroplasty prostheses used to treat displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly was high, and the procedure can be considered definitive for the majority of elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture. In this series, 6% (20 patients, 339 of 359) of the patients survived more than 20 years after treatment of a femoral neck fracture with a bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Of those, 35% (seven of 20) survived with their index prosthesis in situ.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study.
doi:10.1007/s11999-015-4462-z
PMCID: PMC4586187  PMID: 26186915
9.  Palacos compared to Palamed bone cement in total hip replacement: a randomized controlled trial 
Acta Orthopaedica  2016;87(5):473-478.
Background and purpose
Stability and survival of cemented total hip prostheses is dependent on a multitude of factors, including the type of cement that is used. Bone cements vary in viscosity, from low to medium and high. There have been few clinical RSA studies comparing the performance of low- and high-viscosity bone cements. We compared the migration behavior of the Stanmore hip stem cemented using novel low-viscosity Palamed bone cement with that of the same stem cemented with conventional high-viscosity Palacos bone cement.
Patients and methods
We performed a randomized controlled study involving 39 patients (40 hips) undergoing primary total hip replacement for primary or secondary osteoarthritis. 22 patients (22 hips) were randomized to Palacos and 17 patients (18 hips) were randomized to Palamed. Migration was determined by RSA.
Results
None of these 40 hips had been revised at the 10-year follow-up mark. To our knowledge, the patients who died before they reached the 10-year endpoint still had the implant in situ. No statistically significant or clinically significant differences were found between the 2 groups for mean translations, rotations, and maximum total-point motion (MTPM).
Interpretation
We found similar migration of the Stanmore stem in the high-viscosity Palacos cement group and the low-viscosity Palamed cement group. We therefore expect that the risk of aseptic loosening with the new Palamed cement would be comparable to that with the conventional Palacos cement. The choice of which type of bone cement to use is therefore up to the surgeon’s preference.
doi:10.1080/17453674.2016.1199146
PMCID: PMC5016905  PMID: 27329869
10.  Five-year results of a cementless short-hip-stem prosthesis 
Orthopedic Reviews  2013;5(1):e4.
Hip prosthesis stems with a short stem length and proximal fixation geometry support a bone-preserving and muscle-sparing implantation and should also allow for revision surgery with a standard hip stem. We present 250 prospectively documented clinical and radiological results from the Metha Short Hip Stem prosthesis (B. Braun-Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) after an average follow-up of 4.9 years. The average patient age at surgery was 60 years. Indication for total hip replacement was primary osteoarthrosis (OA) (78% of patients), OA based on developmental dysplasia of the hip (16%), and other indications (6%). At the last follow-up, the average Harris Hip Score was 97 points. 85% of patients were very satisfied and 14% were satisfied after surgery, whereas 1% were dissatisfied. Pain according to the Visual Analogue Scale improved from 7.4 (min 1.6, max 9.5) pre-operatively to 0.23 (min 0, max 6.6). No joint dislocations occurred when predominantly using 28 mm and 32 mm prosthesis heads. Nine short-stems were revised: three after bacterial infections, two after primary via valsa with penetration of the femoral cortex two and three months after surgery, and three after early aseptic cases of loosening within the first year. A further nine osseously consolidated short-stems had to be replaced due to breakage of the modular titanium cone adapter after an average of 3.1 years (min 1.9, max 4.4). All surgical revisions were performed using primary standard stems. Without taking the material-related adapter failures into account, a five year Kaplan-Meier survival rate of 96.7% (95% confidence interval 93.4–98.3) was determined for the short-stem prostheses. There were no radiological signs of loosening in any of the short-stem prostheses at the last examination. Fine sclerotic lines were detected in Gruen's AP zones 1 (19%) and 2 (10.5%), individual hypertrophies in zone 3 (3.5%), fine seams in zones 4 (5.5%) and 5 (4%), without pedestal formations in zone 4, clear cancellous bone compressions in zone 6 (97.5%), as well as single fine scleroses (1.5%) and atrophies (2.5%) in zone 7. The mid-term clinical results with periprosthetic bone remodeling and without radiological signs of loosening confirm this metaphyseal short-stem treatment and fixation concept and the possibility of revision surgery using standard hip stems. Long-term results must be further observed on a prospective basis as part of this collective study.
doi:10.4081/or.2013.e4
PMCID: PMC3662260  PMID: 23705062
short-stem hip prosthesis; prospective follow-up study; mid-term results.
11.  Custom stems for femoral deformity in patients less than 40 years of age 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(4):420-425.
Background and purpose Femoral deformity associated with osteoarthritis is a challenge for both the surgeon and the implant. Many of the patients with these deformities are young. Standard implants can be difficult to fit into these femurs. We prospectively evaluated the outcome of custom uncemented femoral stems in young patients.
Methods 61 consecutive patients (72 hips) underwent surgery for osteoarthritis because of femoral deformity at a mean age of 35 (22–40) years. The patients received a CT3D-A custom-made femoral stem and an uncemented cup. The mean follow-up time was 14 (10–16) years. 2 patients died at 7 and 8 years after surgery, otherwise, none of the patients were lost to follow-up.
Results At follow-up, the femoral prosthesis had not been revised in 59 patients (70 hips). 3 patients (3 hips) had required revision surgery due to loosening of the acetabular component; 2 hips were awaiting revision surgery for loosening of the acetabular cup. There were no cases of dislocation or infection. At review, all stems were considered stable according to the radiographic criteria. No migration or subsidence was observed on plain radiographs.
Interpretation Our results are comparable to published results of custom stems regarding survival and outcome. Considering the young age and the deformities in this series of uncemented custom femoral stems, and the fact that there was follow-up of up to 16 years, the survival is remarkable. This technique appears to be a reasonable alternative in younger patients with femoral deformities.
doi:10.3109/17453670903062470
PMCID: PMC2823196  PMID: 19513891
12.  Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):107-114.
Background and purpose
Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD.
Patients and methods
61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery.
Results
Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD.
Interpretation
Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.678798
PMCID: PMC3339522  PMID: 22489886
13.  Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):153-158.
Background
Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis.
Patients and methods
50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome.
Results
31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects.
Interpretation
The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.641107
PMCID: PMC3339529  PMID: 22112154
14.  Primary cemented total hip arthroplasty: 10 years follow-up 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(3):283-288.
Background:
Primary cemented total hip arthroplasty is a procedure for non-traumatic and traumatic affections of the hip. Long term follow-up is required to assess the longevity of the implant and establish the procedure. Indo-Asian literature on long term result of total hip arthroplasty is sparse. We present a 10-year follow-up of our patients of primary cemented total hip arthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
We operated 31 hips in 30 patients with primary cemented total hip arthroplasty. We followed the cases for a minimum period of 10 years with a mean follow-up period of 12.7 years. The mean age of the patients was 60.7 years (range 37–82 yrs) male to female ratio was 2:1. The clinical diagnoses included - avascular necrosis of femoral head (n=15), sero positive rheumatoid arthritis (n=5), seronegative spondylo-arthropathy (n=4), neglected femoral neck fractures (n=3), healed tubercular arthritis (n=2) and post traumatic osteoarthritis of hip (n=2). The prostheses used were cemented Charnley’s total hip (n=12) and cemented modular prosthesis (n=19). The results were assessed according to Harris hip score and radiographs taken at yearly intervals.
Results:
The mean follow-up is 12.7 yrs (range 11-16 yrs) Results in all operated patients showed marked improvement in Harris hip score from preoperative mean 29.2 to 79.9 at 10 years or more followup. However, the non-inflammatory group showed more sustained long term improvement as compared to the inflammatory group, as revealed by the Harris hip score. Mean blood loss was 450ml (±3.7 ml), mean transfusion rate was 1.2 units (±.3). The complications were hypotension (n=7), shortening >1.5 cm (n=9), superficial infection (n=2) and malposition of prosthesis (n=1).
Conclusion:
The needs of Indian Asian patients, vary from what is discussed in literature. The pain tolerance is greater than western population and financial constraints are high. Thus revision surgery among Indian-Asian patients is less compared to western yard sticks.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.65152
PMCID: PMC2911928  PMID: 20697481
Total hip arthroplasty; cemented hip arthroplasty; Harris hip score
15.  Excessive distal migration of fiber-mesh coated femoral stems 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):308-314.
Background
The surface texture, localization, and magnitude of the surface material applied to the femoral stem can facilitate bone ingrowth and influence the survival of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical and radiographic studies have shown superior bone ingrowth in proximally porous-coated stems with a diaphyseal grit-blasted surface in comparison to a smooth diaphyseal surface. Surface textures—especially porous surface material—have been suggested to have a sealing effect against migration of polyethylene debris along the implant-bone interface and to reduce the inflammatory response, leading to a prolonged implant survival.
Patients and methods
Between 2004 and 2006, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) involving 50 patients with non-inflammatory arthritis. They received either a distally tapered, extended coated stem or a straight, proximally coated stem. During surgery, tantalum markers were inserted into the greater and lesser trochanter. Implant migration was evaluated at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by radiostereometric analysis. The primary endpoint was stem migration 2 years after surgery.
Results
All femoral components in both groups showed pronounced distal translation, with the highest rate of translation occurring between 0 and 3 months. After 2 years, the mean distal translation was 2.67 (95% CI: –3.93 to –1.42) mm for the tapered, extended coated stem and 1.80 (–2.45 to –1.15) mm for the straight, proximally coated stem. Half of the tapered, extended coated stems and two-thirds of the straight, proximally coated stems had migrated more than 1 mm. No difference between the 2 stems could be seen with regard to translation or rotation at any time point. After 2 years, 2 hips have been reoperated due to mechanical loosening of the stem.
Interpretation
An excessive amount of migration of both stem types was seen 2 years postoperatively. It is of vital importance to follow this patient cohort since radiostereometric analysis is known to be predictive of late implant failure, especially in this study where pronounced early migration was observed. We recommend longer follow-up of both stem types.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.574562
PMCID: PMC3235308  PMID: 21504304
16.  Early subsidence of shape-closed hip arthroplasty stems is associated with late revision 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(5):575-585.
Background and purpose
Few studies have addressed the association between early migration of femoral stems and late aseptic revision in total hip arthroplasty. We performed a meta-regression analysis on 2 parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration and late aseptic revision of femoral stems.
Patients and methods
Of the 2 reviews, one covered early migration data obtained from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies and the other covered long-term aseptic revision rates obtained from survival studies with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening. Stems were stratified according to the design concept: cemented shape-closed, cemented force-closed, and uncemented. A weighted regression model was used to assess the association between early migration and late aseptic revision, and to correct for confounders. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined in accordance with the national joint registries (≤ 5% revision at 10 years) and the NICE criteria (≤ 10% revision at 10 years).
Results
24 studies (731 stems) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 stems) were included in the survival analysis review. Combining both reviews for the 3 design concepts showed that for every 0.1-mm increase in 2-year subsidence, as measured with RSA, there was a 4% increase in revision rate for the shape-closed stem designs. This association remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. The threshold for acceptable migration of shape-closed designs was defined at 0.15 mm; stems subsiding less than 0.15 mm in 2 years had revision rates of less than 5% at 10 years, while stems exceeding 0.15 mm subsidence had revision rates of more than 5%.
Interpretation
There was a clinically relevant association between early subsidence of shape-closed femoral stems and late revision for aseptic loosening. This association can be used to assess the safety of shape-closed stem designs. The published research is not sufficient to allow us to make any conclusions regarding such an association for the force-closed and uncemented stems.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1043832
PMCID: PMC4564780  PMID: 25909455
17.  Surrogate markers of long-term outcome in primary total hip arthroplasty 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(6):206-214.
Objectives
High failure rates of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty implants have highlighted the need for more careful introduction and monitoring of new implants and for the evaluation of the safety of medical devices. The National Joint Registry and other regulatory services are unable to detect failing implants at an early enough stage. We aimed to identify validated surrogate markers of long-term outcome in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Methods
We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating surrogate markers for predicting long-term outcome in primary THA. Long-term outcome was defined as revision rate of an implant at ten years according to National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines. We conducted a search of Medline and Embase (OVID) databases. Separate search strategies were devised for the Cochrane database and Google Scholar. Each search was performed to include articles from the date of their inception to June 8, 2015.
Results
Our search strategy identified 1082 studies of which 115 studies were included for full article review. Following review, 17 articles were found that investigated surrogate markers of long-term outcome. These included one systematic review, one randomised control trial (RCT), one case control study and 13 case series. Validated surrogate markers included Radiostereometric Analysis (RSA) and Einzel-Bild-Röntgen-Analyse (EBRA), each measuring implant migration and wear. We identified five RSA studies (one systematic review and four case series) and four EBRA studies (one RCT and three case series). Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) at six months have been investigated but have not been validated against long-term outcomes.
Conclusions
This systematic review identified two validated surrogate markers of long-term primary THA outcome: RSA and EBRA, each measuring implant migration and wear. We recommend the consideration of RSA in the pre-market testing of new implants. EBRA can be used to investigate acetabular wear but not femoral migration. Further studies are needed to validate the use of PROMs for post-market surveillance.
Cite this article: T. T. Malak, J. A. J. Broomfield, A. J. R. Palmer, S. Hopewell, A. Carr, C. Brown, D. Prieto-Alhambra, S. Glyn-Jones. Surrogate markers of long-term outcome in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:206–214. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000568.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000568
PMCID: PMC4921042  PMID: 27267795
Surrogate marker; orthopaedic; hip; arthroplasty; safety
18.  Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(2):152-158.
Background and purpose
High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem.
Patients and methods
100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months.
Results
RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types.
Interpretation
No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.899846
PMCID: PMC3967257  PMID: 24650024
19.  Stable fixation of an osseointegated implant system for above-the-knee amputees 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):121-128.
Background and purpose
Rehabilitation of patients with transfemoral amputations is particularly difficult due to problems in using standard socket prostheses. We wanted to assess long-term fixation of the osseointegrated implant system (OPRA) using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and periprosthetic bone remodeling.
Methods
51 patients with transfemoral amputations (55 implants) were enrolled in an RSA study. RSA and plain radiographs were scheduled at 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years after surgery. RSA films were analyzed using UmRSA software. Plain radiographs were graded for bone resorption, cancellization, cortical thinning, and trabecular streaming or buttressing in specifically defined zones around the implant.
Results
At 5 years, the median (SE) migration of the implant was –0.02 (0.06) mm distally. The rotational movement was 0.42 (0.32) degrees around the longitudinal axis. There was no statistically significant difference in median rotation or migration at any follow-up time. Cancellization of the cortex (plain radiographic grading) appeared in at least 1 zone in over half of the patients at 2 years. However, the prevalence of cancellization had decreased by the 5-year follow-up.
Interpretation
The RSA analysis for the OPRA system indicated stable fixation of the implant. The periprosthetic bone remodeling showed similarities with changes seen around uncemented hip stems. The OPRA system is a new and promising approach for addressing the challenges faced by patients with transfemoral amputations.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.678799
PMCID: PMC3339524  PMID: 22489885
20.  Mid-term results of 155 patients treated with a collum femoris preserving (CFP) short stem prosthesis 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(5):655-660.
Short stem prostheses that preserve the femoral neck are becoming more and more popular. The CFP (collum femoris preserving) has been introduced especially for the treatment of younger patients. However, information about remodelling, complications and learning curve are thus far rare. We present a retrospective study of 155 patients (average age 59.3 ± 9.9 years) who underwent total hip replacement with the CFP prosthesis. Follow-up was obtained 74.3 ± 9.4 months postoperatively. The Harris hip score revealed excellent and good results in 96%. One stem had to be exchanged due to aseptic loosening revealing a survival rate of 99% and 100% for stem and cup, respectively. Radiological analysis showed typical patterns of remodelling with apearance of cortical thickening predominantly in the distal part of the prosthesis. Implant related revision rate was <1%, with further complication rate independent of the surgeon’s individual experience. With regard to outcome, survivorship and complication rate, the medium-term results of the CFP prosthesis are promising.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1020-x
PMCID: PMC3080504  PMID: 20437260
21.  A prospective cohort study on the short collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem using RSA and DXA 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(1):32-39.
Background and purpose
Short femoral stems have been introduced in total hip arthroplasty in order to save proximal bone stock. We hypothesized that a short stem preserves periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) and provides good primary stability.
Methods
We carried out a prospective cohort study of 30 patients receiving the collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem. Preoperative total hip BMD and postoperative periprosthetic BMD in Gruen zones 1–7 were investigated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), stem migration was analyzed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and the Harris hip score (HHS) was determined.
Results
2 patients were excluded intraoperatively and 1 patient was revised due to a deep infection, leaving 27 patients for analysis. The mean HHS increased from 49 (24–79) preoperatively to 99 (92–100) after 2 years. DXA after 1 year showed substantial loss of BMD in Gruen zone 7 (–31%), zone 6 (–19%), and zone 2 (–13%, p < 0.001) compared to baseline BMD determined immediately postoperatively. The bone loss in these regions did not recover after 2 years, whereas the more moderate bone loss in Gruen zones 1, 3, and 5 partially recovered. There was a correlation between low preoperative total hip BMD and a higher amount of bone loss in Gruen zones 2, 6 and 7. RSA showed minor micromotion of the stem: mean subsidence was 0.13 (95% CI: –0.28 to 0.01) mm and mean rotation around the longitudinal axis was 0.01º (95% CI: –0.1 to 0.39) after 2 years.
Interpretation
We conclude that substantial loss in proximal periprosthetic BMD cannot be prevented by the use of a novel type of short, curved stem, and forces appear to be transmitted distally. However, the stems showed very small migration—a characteristic of stable uncemented implants.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.765623
PMCID: PMC3584599  PMID: 23343375
22.  Stress shielding effects of two prosthetic groups after total hip joint simulation replacement 
Objective
The study aims to compare the stress shielding effects of implantable anatomical and traditional prostheses after in vitro total hip joint replacement simulation. The study serves as a biomechanical basis for novel artificial prostheses and for clinical hip joint replacements.
Methods
Sixteen femoral specimens from adult male corpses were randomly divided into two groups: the traditional prosthesis group implanted into femur specimens using simulated total hip joint replacement (n = 8) and the femoral neck-preserved anatomical prosthesis implantation group that used a collum femoris preserving stem/trabeculae oriented pattern (CFP/TOP) acetabular cup (n = 8). The strain values in the two groups before and after prosthesis implantation were measured at different test points using electric resistance strain gauges. The stress shielding rate was calculated according to the related formula.
Results
The results showed that the rates of proximal femoral stress shielding were significantly higher at test points 1–10 in the traditional femoral prosthesis transplantation group than in the anatomical prosthesis group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
There were different effects of stress shielding between the anatomical and traditional prostheses. Retained femoral anatomical implants should reduce stress shielding and increase the stability of anatomical prosthesis implants.
doi:10.1186/s13018-014-0071-x
PMCID: PMC4237889  PMID: 25174846
Hip joint; Artificial prosthesis; Replacement; Electric measurement
23.  Equally good fixation of cemented and uncemented cups in total trapeziometacarpal joint prostheses 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(1):98-105.
Background and purpose
Cup failure is a recognized problem in total trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint prostheses; it may be related to poor fixation, which can be revealed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We compared the early implant migration of cemented trapezium cups to that of uncemented screw cups.
Patients and methods
In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized patient-blinded clinical trial, we included 32 hands in 28 patients (5 males) with a mean age of 58 (40–77) years and with Eaton stage-2 or -3 osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Patients were randomized to surgery with a cemented DLC all-polyethylene cup (C) (n = 16) or an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated chrome-cobalt Elektra screw cup (UC) (n = 16). Uncemented cups were inserted without threading of the bone. Stereoradiographs for evaluation of cup migration (primary effect size) and DASH and pain scores were obtained during 2 years of follow-up.
Results
The 2-year total translation (TT) was similar (p = 0.2): 0.24 mm (SD 0.10) for the C (n = 11) and 0.19 mm (SD 0.16) for the UC (n = 11). Variances were similar (p = 0.4). Judged by RSA, 2 UC cups and 1 C cup became loose (TT > 1 mm). Both UC cups were found to be loose at revision. Grip strength, pain, and DASH scores were similar between groups at all measurement points.
Interpretation
Early implant fixation and clinical outcome were equally good with both cup designs. This is the first clinical RSA study on trapezium cups, and the method appears to be clinically useful for detection of loose implants.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.765625
PMCID: PMC3584612  PMID: 23343372
24.  Painful Knee Prosthesis: Surgical Approach 
A painful knee prosthesis is, unfortunately, a condition whose possible causes are not always easily diagnosed. As a consequence, it can be difficult to resolve.
Common causes of prosthetic failure, such as aseptic loosening, infection, instability, progressive patellar arthropathy and recurrent synovitis are associated with clearly defined radiographic and/or clinical evidence.
Blood chemistry tests for indicators of infection and synovial fluid culture are always to be considered of primary importance in the diagnostic work up of a painful prosthesis, given that, in this situation, prosthetic infection should always be considered first, and remain a possibility until some other causes has been demonstrated.
In the presence of an infected prosthesis we carry out a two-step revision, first using an articulating antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer with two mono-compartment components to preserve the range of movement; subsequently, after the infection has been resolved, we carry out new prosthetic surgery, generally using prostheses of increasing stability and bone grafts, depending on the residual bone stock.
Aseptic loosening of a knee prosthesis is a complication that is easily identified radiographically due to the presence of lines of radiolucency at the bone/prosthesis interface, associated with migration or angulation of the components. In these cases, it is necessary to revise the prosthesis, increasing its stability with diaphyseal shafts. With regard to this problem, we have, recently, also been evaluating the opportuneness and efficacy of pre- and post-operative treatment with bone-forming agents in patients with poor bone quality, in order to reduce the risk of loosening and extend the life of the prosthesis.
Varus-valgus, anteroposterior, global patellofemoral instability are failures, often due to technical errors, that can be diagnosed through clinical examination. In the presence of a painful prosthesis associated with frank instability, we perform revision using superstabilised or constrained implants, depending on the particular case.
Nevertheless, the diagnosis and treatment of a painful knee prosthesis can be extremely difficult if there is no clear evidence of any of the most common causes of failure.
In the presence of prosthetic components having large diaphyseal shafts, a sharp pain can be detected; in these situations, it is sometimes possible to observe, on radiographic examinations, effects of periprosthetic stress shielding. To resolve the problem the component would have to be replaced with one having a shaft with a smaller diameter.
A painful prosthesis accompanied by a patellar clunk can be attributed to the formation of a subquadricipital fibrous nodule proximal to the patella which can be responsable of impingement with the anterior margin of the posterior-stabilising femoral component box. Arthroscopic removal of the fibrous nodule will, in this case, resolve the pain.
Recurrent synovitis can also be effectively treated arthroscopically.
If pain is of patellofemoral origin, it is necessary, in the case of a prosthetic patella, to evaluate the stability of the component and any alterations in its motion. As far as the surgical technique is concerned, in cases in which patellar lateralisation is performed, medialising the button so as to obtain improved tracking, we recommend not using too small a patellar component and performing an oblique osteotomy laterally to the button in order to reduce the risk of pain due to non-lined patella/femoral component interference. In the presence of a natural patella progressive arthropathy can often cause late-onset knee pain at anterior patellar level; in this case, prosthetic patella insertion is needed with, in the event of altered tracking, lateral release.
In some cases patellofemoral pain is related to misalignment of the components, which can be evaluated precisely through the superimposition of references in CT images. In this situation it is essential to perform a revision of the prosthesis, seeking to obtain the correct rotations and correct mechanical axis alignment.
Another possible aetiological factor in painful knee prosthesis is allergy to metals, in particular to nickel. Diagnosis of metal allergy, but above all its role in the pain, is currently much debated. Therefore, before carrying out the revision procedure, it is worth excluding all other possible causes and ascertaining, beyond doubt, the degree of the allergy itself. Diagnosis by means of a skin patch test does not currently seem to be of undisputed diagnostic value; in our practice, we effect diagnoses on the basis of blood tests, looking carefully for specific cytokines and activated cell lines with thymidine labelling and confocal microscopy. Laboratory diagnostic work up of patients identified on the basis of history makes it possible to avoid failures due to sensitivity to metals. In the event of allergy-related failure, the quantity of nickel in the revision prosthesis must be minimal.
PMCID: PMC3213830
25.  2-year follow-up report on micromotion of a short tibia stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(5):594-598.
Background and purpose
A shortened tibial stem could influence the early prosthetic fixation. We therefore compared the short stem to the standard-length stem using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) as primary outcome measure.
Patients and methods
60 patients were randomized to receive a cemented Triathlon total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a tibial tray of either standard or short stem length. The patients were blinded regarding treatment allocation. The micromotion of the tibial component was measured by RSA postoperatively, at 3 months, and after 1 and 2 years; clinical outcome was measured with the American Knee Society score (AKSS) and the knee osteoarthritis and injury outcome score (KOOS).
Results
The maximum total point motion (MTPM) for the standard stem was 0.36 (SD 0.16) mm at 3 months, 0.51 (SD 0.27) mm at 1 year, and 0.54 (SD 0.28) mm at 2 years. For the short stem, it was 0.42 (0.24) mm, 0.59 (0.43) mm, and 0.61 (0.39) mm. 4 short-stemmed components and 2 standard-stemmed components had more than 0.2 mm of migration between the first- and second-year follow-up, and were classified as continuously migrating.
Interpretation
The short-stemmed cemented tibial prosthesis showed an early prosthetic migratory pattern similar to that of the standard-stemmed cemented Triathlon knee prosthesis. The number of continuously migrating tibial plates in each group is predictive of a lower revision rate than 5% at 10 years.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1033303
PMCID: PMC4564782  PMID: 25809183

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