There has been renewed interest for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing due to improved design and manufacturing of implants, better materials, and enhanced implant fixation. In contrast to conventional total hip replacements, only a few clinical hip resurfacing trials using radiostereometry (RSA) have been reported, and solely for the Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The purpose of this RSA trial was to describe the migration pattern of a new hip resurfacing system (ReCap) within the first two years after primary surgery. Twenty-six patients underwent total hip replacement. The patients were followed-up for up to 24 months and were evaluated with the use of radiostereometric measurements. The prosthesis showed mean translations and rotation close to zero. Maximum translation was seen along the transverse axis in the medial direction (0.13 mm). No statistically significant translation or rotation was seen at two-years follow-up, (t-test, p <0.05, translation or rotation).
Background and purpose
Short femoral stems have been introduced in total hip arthroplasty in order to save proximal bone stock. We hypothesized that a short stem preserves periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) and provides good primary stability.
We carried out a prospective cohort study of 30 patients receiving the collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem. Preoperative total hip BMD and postoperative periprosthetic BMD in Gruen zones 1–7 were investigated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), stem migration was analyzed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and the Harris hip score (HHS) was determined.
2 patients were excluded intraoperatively and 1 patient was revised due to a deep infection, leaving 27 patients for analysis. The mean HHS increased from 49 (24–79) preoperatively to 99 (92–100) after 2 years. DXA after 1 year showed substantial loss of BMD in Gruen zone 7 (–31%), zone 6 (–19%), and zone 2 (–13%, p < 0.001) compared to baseline BMD determined immediately postoperatively. The bone loss in these regions did not recover after 2 years, whereas the more moderate bone loss in Gruen zones 1, 3, and 5 partially recovered. There was a correlation between low preoperative total hip BMD and a higher amount of bone loss in Gruen zones 2, 6 and 7. RSA showed minor micromotion of the stem: mean subsidence was 0.13 (95% CI: –0.28 to 0.01) mm and mean rotation around the longitudinal axis was 0.01º (95% CI: –0.1 to 0.39) after 2 years.
We conclude that substantial loss in proximal periprosthetic BMD cannot be prevented by the use of a novel type of short, curved stem, and forces appear to be transmitted distally. However, the stems showed very small migration—a characteristic of stable uncemented implants.
Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis.
We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65). Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery.
The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation.
The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.
Implant stability is considered vital to long-time implant survival in total hip arthroplasty (THA), since loose implants are reported to be a major cause of hip revision. There is an association between early implant micromotion and increased risk of revision. More implant-specific data are needed to establish acceptable levels of early implant movement.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five patients (36 hips) undergoing Charnley THA were followed with repeated clinical, radiographic, and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) over 5 years. Twenty-three patients attended 5 years postoperatively.
The patient group was well functioning based on the radiological and clinical evaluations. The stems constantly moved up to 5 years postoperatively, with subsidence, retroversion, and varus tilt, based on the RSA.
Continuous movement of the Charnley stem was observed up to 5 years postoperatively in a well-functioning patient group. The migration data presented herein could be useful when defining acceptable migration limits for certain types of cemented femoral stems.
RSA; Charnley; THR; Five-year follow-up; Migration pattern
Background and purpose
Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD.
Patients and methods
61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery.
Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD.
Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.
Background and purpose Femoral deformity associated with osteoarthritis is a challenge for both the surgeon and the implant. Many of the patients with these deformities are young. Standard implants can be difficult to fit into these femurs. We prospectively evaluated the outcome of custom uncemented femoral stems in young patients.
Methods 61 consecutive patients (72 hips) underwent surgery for osteoarthritis because of femoral deformity at a mean age of 35 (22–40) years. The patients received a CT3D-A custom-made femoral stem and an uncemented cup. The mean follow-up time was 14 (10–16) years. 2 patients died at 7 and 8 years after surgery, otherwise, none of the patients were lost to follow-up.
Results At follow-up, the femoral prosthesis had not been revised in 59 patients (70 hips). 3 patients (3 hips) had required revision surgery due to loosening of the acetabular component; 2 hips were awaiting revision surgery for loosening of the acetabular cup. There were no cases of dislocation or infection. At review, all stems were considered stable according to the radiographic criteria. No migration or subsidence was observed on plain radiographs.
Interpretation Our results are comparable to published results of custom stems regarding survival and outcome. Considering the young age and the deformities in this series of uncemented custom femoral stems, and the fact that there was follow-up of up to 16 years, the survival is remarkable. This technique appears to be a reasonable alternative in younger patients with femoral deformities.
Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis.
Patients and methods
50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome.
31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects.
The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.
Aseptic loosening of cemented hip prostheses is recognized as a long-term problem, and especially in males and younger patients. Much energy has been focused on developing new prostheses that are designed for cementless fixation. We evaluated the performance of and periprosthetic bone response to a tapered, titanium, hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral hip prosthesis at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty.
Seventy-eight patients and 86 hips were included in the study. There were 35 men and 43 women; the mean age at the time of the operation was 59 years (range, 41 to 81 years). We used a tapered, titanium (Ti6Al4V), HA-coated femoral implant. We evaluated the patients at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation was performed using the scoring system and the hip scores were assigned according to the level of pain, the functional status and the range of motion. The patients who refused to return, but who did forward X-rays for review after being contacted were questioned by phone about the functional status of their hip. Radiographic follow-up was performed at six weeks, at three, six and twelve months and yearly thereafter. All the available radiographs were collected and assessed for implant stability, subsidence, osseointegration, osteolysis, stress shielding and evidence of periprosthetic lucency.
Eighty-six hips (78 patients) were available for review at follow-up of greater than 7 years. In 11 of the 86 cases, acetabular failure required revision of the acetabular component, but the femoral stem survived and it was available for long-term evaluation. The radiographs were obtained at 7-year follow-up for another 20 hips, but the patients would not come in for the 7-year clinical evaluation. Therefore, a phone interview was conducted to assess any change in the functional status at a minimum of 7 years.
The mechanical fixation of a tapered, titanium, HA-coated femoral implant was excellent in this study. This femoral design provided reliable osseointegration that was durable at a mean of 7 years follow-up.
Primary total hip arthroplasty; Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem
The restoration of the hip centre of rotation in an anatomical position is considered to be relevant for total hip prosthesis survival. When the cup is implanted with a high centre of rotation, the lever arm of the abductor muscles is decreased, causing higher joint-reaction forces. Modular stems with varying lengths and geometries can be used to balance soft tissues, and ceramic bearing surfaces can be used to reduce the wear rate. Forty-four hip replacements performed with a high hip centre of rotation were matched with 44 performed with an anatomical centre of rotation. In all cases the preoperative diagnosis was dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and cementless modular neck prostheses with ceramic bearing surfaces were used. At nine years follow-up the mean Harris hip and WOMAC scores were not statistically different. All stems and cups were stable; the femoral offset was no different between the two groups (p = 0.4) as leg-length discrepancy (p = 0.25).
Due to its collarless, double-tapered polished design, the Exeter femoral stem is known to migrate distally in the first 5 years after implantation. However, its long-term migration pattern has not been investigated.
Patients and methods
39 consecutive patients (41 total hip arthroplasties) received a cemented Exeter stem and had prospective clinical and RSA follow-up. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks, and annually thereafter. Short-term results have been reported. In this study, the mean length of follow-up was 9.4 years (SD 3.2 years). No patients were lost to follow-up. 15 patients died during follow-up.
No stems were revised. In 4 stems, fractures of the cement mantle were noted within the first 3 postoperative years. In 3 stems, this resulted in a complete circumferential cement mantle discontinuity. For the 37 well-performing stems, continuous but small migration was measured between 2 and 12 years of follow-up. Continued subsidence of 0.08 mm/year (95% CI: 0.05–0.12, p < 0.001) was seen in combination with continued rotation in retroversion of 0.07°/year (95% CI: 0.02–0.12, p = 0.01). At 10 years of follow-up, mean subsidence was 2.1 (SD 1.2) mm and mean retroversion was 1.8° (SD 2.0). Two-thirds of this occurred during the first 2 postoperative years. In the 3 stems with a complete circumferential cement fracture, a sudden and disproportionately high increase in subsidence was measured in the time period of occurrence.
The Exeter femoral stem continues to migrate during the first decade after implantation. Absolute stability is not required for good long-term survival if this is compatible with the design of the implant.
Background and purpose
Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a highly accurate tool for assessment of polyethylene (PE) wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, PE wear measurements in clinical studies are often limited to plain radiographs. We evaluated the agreement between PE wear measured with PolyWare software, which uses plain radiographs, and by model-based RSA, which uses stereo radiographs.
Measurements of PE wear postoperatively and at final follow-up (after mean 6 years) on plain radiographs of 12 patients after cementless THA were evaluated with PolyWare software and the results were compared with those from RSA as the gold standard (Model-based RSA using elementary geometrical shape models; EGS-RSA). With PolyWare, we either used the final radiographic follow-up (PW1) only or both the postoperative follow-up and the final follow-up (PW2).
The 2D mean wear measured (in mm) was 0.80, 1.07, and 0.60 for the PW2, PW1, and RSA method. 2D intra-method repeatability was similar for PW1 and RSA with limits of agreement (LOAs, in mm) of ± 0.22, and ± 0.23, respectively. 2D inter-method concurrent validity was best between PW1 and EGS-RSA with LOAs of ± 0.55. For 2D linear wear measurements, the PW1 method had a clinical repeatability similar to that of RSA.
PW1 is sufficient for retrospective determination of 2D wear from medium-term wear measurements above 0.5 mm, It alleviates the need for baseline plain radiographs, has a clinical precision similar to that of RSA, and is easy and inexpensive to use.
Background and purpose
Cup failure is a recognized problem in total trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint prostheses; it may be related to poor fixation, which can be revealed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We compared the early implant migration of cemented trapezium cups to that of uncemented screw cups.
Patients and methods
In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized patient-blinded clinical trial, we included 32 hands in 28 patients (5 males) with a mean age of 58 (40–77) years and with Eaton stage-2 or -3 osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Patients were randomized to surgery with a cemented DLC all-polyethylene cup (C) (n = 16) or an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated chrome-cobalt Elektra screw cup (UC) (n = 16). Uncemented cups were inserted without threading of the bone. Stereoradiographs for evaluation of cup migration (primary effect size) and DASH and pain scores were obtained during 2 years of follow-up.
The 2-year total translation (TT) was similar (p = 0.2): 0.24 mm (SD 0.10) for the C (n = 11) and 0.19 mm (SD 0.16) for the UC (n = 11). Variances were similar (p = 0.4). Judged by RSA, 2 UC cups and 1 C cup became loose (TT > 1 mm). Both UC cups were found to be loose at revision. Grip strength, pain, and DASH scores were similar between groups at all measurement points.
Early implant fixation and clinical outcome were equally good with both cup designs. This is the first clinical RSA study on trapezium cups, and the method appears to be clinically useful for detection of loose implants.
Probabilistic decision analysis is a means of reflecting the uncertainty parameter in models and of presenting it in a comprehensible manner to decision-makers.
Materials and methods
A cost-effectiveness model was constructed to compare the cementless and cemented total hip prostheses implanted at our department in terms of lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Revision rates were obtained from the Orthopaedic Prosthesis Register of the Laboratory of Medical Technology, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
The risk of early revision (at 5 years of follow-up) for cementless and cemented prostheses was 1.6% and 1.4%, respectively, resulting in equal QALY for the two implant types. Analysis of mean cost and QALY indicated that use of either implant is not associated with cost savings.
Management with cementless or cemented total hip prostheses in a theoretical cohort of 70-year-old patients with fracture of the femoral neck or arthritis involving the hip is not significantly different according to the probabilistic results from the model.
Cost-effectiveness analysis; Total hip arthroplasty
We compared the incidence of anterior thigh pain retrospectively following primary uncemented total hip replacement in 70 patients (78 hips) with osteoarthritis. In one group (38 hips), an Endoplus porous-coated, canal-filling prosthesis was inserted through an anterolateral approach. In the other group (40 hips), a Furlong hydroxyapatite-coated prosthesis was inserted through a posterior approach. The latter prosthesis has a relatively longer femoral stem and does not achieve diaphyseal press-fit contact. Three patients in the Furlong group had anterior thigh pain, which eventually resolved in two patients. In the Endoplus group, two patients developed anterior thigh pain; in both cases, there was an underlying cause, which had to be treated. Idiopathic anterior thigh pain is more common in non-canal-filling prostheses. When anterior thigh pain is noticed in canal-filling prosthesis, a search for and treatment of the cause will cure the pain. The hydroxyapatite coating did not prevent thigh pain in the Furlong group.
Background and purpose
Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) is a successful coating for fixation of uncemented femoral stems. There may be alternative coatings with advantages in bone remodeling and transport of bone-active substances. We investigated whether an electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite, Bonemaster (BM), might be a safe alternative in total hip arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that the new coating would not be inferior to the conventional one.
Patients and methods
50 patients (55 hips) were included. The stem was tapered and porous-coated proximally. On top of the porous coating was either HA or BM. Patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to measure fixation by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and conventional radiography. Clinical evaluation was performed with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score, both preoperatively and after 2 years.
After 2 years, the stems had subsided 0.25 (HA) and 0.28 (BM) mm and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any direction, regarding both migration and rotation. The BM group retained significantly more bone than the HA group in Gruen zone 1 during the first 2 years. The Harris and Oxford hip scores were similar in both groups.
Electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite on an uncemented stem does not appear to be inferior to plasma-sprayed HA regarding clinical and radiological results, bone remodeling, and micromotion after 2 years follow-up.
A variety of femoral stem designs have been reported to be successful in revision total hip arthroplasty without consensus as to optimal design. We evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes in a consecutive series of femoral revisions using a wedge-shape, tapered-stem design at medium and long-term follow-up.
Materials and methods
We performed a retrospective review of clinical and radiographic outcomes of twenty-eight consecutive femoral revisions arthroplasties, which were done using the Zweymuller femoral stem.
The mean follow-up was 7.4 years (range 2–15 years). No stem re-revision was necessary. All stems were judged to be stable by radiographic criteria at the most recent follow-up. The final mean Harris hip score was 90. There was no difference in Harris hip scores, implant stability, or radiological appearance (distal cortical hypertrophy or proximal stress shielding) of the implants between medium-term (mean 5.7 years) and long-term (mean 12.4 years) follow-up.
We found the Zweymuller femoral stem design to be durable for revision hip arthroplasty when there is an intact metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction for adequate press-fit stability at surgery.
Total hip arthroplasty; Revision; Femoral component
Short stem prostheses that preserve the femoral neck are becoming more and more popular. The CFP (collum femoris preserving) has been introduced especially for the treatment of younger patients. However, information about remodelling, complications and learning curve are thus far rare. We present a retrospective study of 155 patients (average age 59.3 ± 9.9 years) who underwent total hip replacement with the CFP prosthesis. Follow-up was obtained 74.3 ± 9.4 months postoperatively. The Harris hip score revealed excellent and good results in 96%. One stem had to be exchanged due to aseptic loosening revealing a survival rate of 99% and 100% for stem and cup, respectively. Radiological analysis showed typical patterns of remodelling with apearance of cortical thickening predominantly in the distal part of the prosthesis. Implant related revision rate was <1%, with further complication rate independent of the surgeon’s individual experience. With regard to outcome, survivorship and complication rate, the medium-term results of the CFP prosthesis are promising.
We report on a prospective series of 201 primary uncemented total hip arthroplasties with a Bicontact prosthesis at a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. The mean Harris hip score improved from 41 before surgery to 89 at final follow-up. Two femoral stems, one each for infection and fracture, and 12 cups were revised. The mean number of years to revision post-primary surgery was 8.7 years (six months to 16 years). The cumulative survival of the prosthesis was 95.42% for any cause at ten years and 93.57% at 12 years. Survivorship for aseptic loosening of the femoral stem was 100%. In our series, the Bicontact uncemented total hip arthroplasty stem without hydroxyapatite coating showed excellent survival and the cup survival was comparable to other leading series.
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
Background and purpose
The Kaplan-Meier (KM) method is often used in the analysis of arthroplasty registry data to estimate the probability of revision after a primary procedure. In the presence of a competing risk such as death, KM is known to overestimate the probability of revision. We investigated the degree to which the risk of revision is overestimated in registry data.
Patients and methods
We compared KM estimates of risk of revision with the cumulative incidence function (CIF), which takes account of death as a competing risk. We considered revision by (1) prosthesis type in subjects aged 75–84 years with fractured neck of femur (FNOF), (2) cement use in monoblock prostheses for FNOF, and (3) age group in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis (OA).
In 5,802 subjects aged 75–84 years with a monoblock prosthesis for FNOF, the estimated risk of revision at 5 years was 6.3% by KM and 4.3% by CIF, a relative difference (RD) of 46%. In 9,821 subjects of all ages receiving an Austin Moore (non-cemented) prosthesis for FNOF, the RD at 5 years was 52% and for 3,116 subjects with a Thompson (cemented) prosthesis, the RD was 79%. In 44,365 subjects with a THA for OA who were less than 70 years old, the RD was just 1.4%; for 47,430 subjects > 70 years of age, the RD was 4.6% at 5 years.
The Kaplan-Meier method substantially overestimated the risk of revision compared to estimates using competing risk methods when the risk of death was high. The bias increased with time as the incidence of the competing risk of death increased. Registries should adopt methods of analysis appropriate to the nature of their data.
The objective of this study was to compare the early migration
characteristics and functional outcome of the Triathlon cemented
knee prosthesis with its predecessor, the Duracon cemented knee
prosthesis (both Stryker).
A total 60 patients were prospectively randomised and tibial
component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA)
at three months, one year and two years; clinical outcome was measured
by the American Knee Society score and the Knee Osteoarthritis and
Injury Outcome Score.
There were no statistically significant differences in rotation
or translation around or along the three coordinal axes, or in the
maximum total point motion (MTPM) during the two-year follow-up.
The Triathlon cemented knee prosthesis has similar early stability
and is likely to perform at least as well as the Duracon cemented
knee prosthesis over the longer term.
Total knee replacement; Single radius; New design; Safety; RSA; TKR
We retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who had undergone Girdlestone resection arthroplasty of the hip after failed total hip replacement or failed operations for hip trauma between 1990 and 2002. The indications were peri-prosthetic infection, aseptic loosening, recurrent dislocation and failed internal fixation for femoral neck fractures. Twenty-five patients died with an overall mortality of 58%. Out of 18 survivors, four patients had a prosthesis re-implanted and were excluded from the study. In 14 surviving patients followed-up for a mean of 44.5 months, the average age was 76 years. Adequate pain relief was achieved in 12 patients and infection was controlled in all. They all needed walking aids. The overall patient satisfaction was 10/14. We observed that patients who had had resection arthroplasty following failed operations for hip trauma had a higher mortality than those for failed total hip arthroplasty. Girdlestone arthroplasty is still a viable option to salvage irretrievably failed hips presenting technical difficulties in medically compromised patients. Limb shortening and the inevitable need for a walking aid should be clearly explained to patients during the consenting process in order to avoid unrealistic expectations.
Purpose of the study: Osteonecrosis of the hip mostly affects young individuals and often progresses to a debilitating disease. Several treatment modalities exist, but none are completely satisfactory. This study evaluates the clinical outcome of patients treated with core decompression and insertion of a porous tantalum implant in the femoral head. This procedure is similar to commonly performed procedures, but has the additional advantages of providing structural support to the necrotic femoral head while having no donor-site morbidity. Methods: We evaluated 15 patients with 18 osteonecrotic hips with Steinberg stage III (3 hips) and IV (15 hips) disease. The mean age of the patients was 42 years-old (eldest 66), and the mean time for follow-up was 23 months. The outcome measure was hip function, evaluated with the Harris hip score, and the end point was total hip arthroplasty, or referral for this procedure. Results: The success rate at twelve months postoperatively was 77.8%, and the overall success rate was 44.5%. Failures occurred at a mean time of 11.7 months, and one complication, a periprosthetic fracture, occurred 4 months postoperatively. On average, patients who did well improved their Harris hip scores by 21.7 points, and patients who eventually required arthroplasty decreased their scores by 14 points. Conlusions: Core decompression with porous tantalum implants showed encouraging success rates and early clinical results in patients with advanced stage osteonecrosis, but further larger scale studies are required to identify the population best suited for this procedure.
osteonecrosis; femoral head; tantalum; core decompression
We conducted a prospective study of the clinical and radiographic variables related to the survival of 114 cementless resurfacing double-cup hip replacements (RHR) with a mean follow-up of 9 (range: 1–16) years. Three patients died, and 22 were unavailable for the final review in 2003. Sixty-one RHRs had to be revised to a total hip replacement. Failure analysis of these revised RHRs showed femoral head and neck resorption under the prosthesis in 33, acetabular protrusion in seven, both femoral and acetabular resorption in 14 and a femoral-neck fracture in three. One hip had dislocated, and there were three hips with unexplained pain. The Kaplan–Meier 5-year mean survival was 92%, the 10-year survival was 47% (95% CI 37–57%) and the 15-year survival was 30% (95% CI 20–40%). Pre-operative joint destruction (grade 1), a high degree of radiological osteoporosis, a body mass index >25 and prosthesis mismatch were significantly related to failure of the RHR. We believe that in young, non-obese patients with pre-operative radiological central destruction but without severe proximal femoral osteoporosis, a resurfacing arthroplasty may have some value. Our failures were mainly due to femoral resorption under the prosthetic femoral component.
We evaluated the results of more than 10 years of follow-up of total hip arthroplasty using a second-generation cementless femoral prosthesis with a collar and straight distal fixation channels.
Materials and Methods
One hundred five patients (129 hips) who underwent surgery between 1991 and 1996 for primary total hip arthroplasty using cementless straight distal fluted femoral stems were followed for more than 10 years. Ninety-four hips in 80 patients were available for clinical and radiologic analysis. The mean age at the time of surgery was 47 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 14.3 years.
The mean Harris hip scores had improved from 58 points to 88 points at the time of the 10-year follow-up. Activity-related thigh pain was reported in nine hips (10%). At the last follow-up, 93 stems (99%) were biologically stable and one stem (1%) was revised because of loosening. No hip had distal diaphyseal osteolysis. Proximal femoral stress-shielding was reported in 86 hips (91%). We found no significant relationship between collar-calcar contact and thigh pain, stem fixation status, or stress-shielding. The cumulative survival of the femoral stem was 99% (95% confidence interval, 98-100%) after 10 years.
The long-term results of total hip arthroplasty using a second-generation cementless femoral prosthesis with a collar and straight distal fixation channels were satisfactory; however, the high rate of proximal stress-shielding and the minimal effect of the collar indicate the need for some changes in the stem design.
Total hip arthroplasty; second-generation; cementless; collar; straight distal fixation channel
Introduction of new bone cements into clinical practice should include radiostereometric studies.
Materials and methods
A prospective randomised radiostereometric study was performed, comparing SmartSet HV and Palacos R acrylic bone cements (without antibiotics) using third-generation cementing techniques in primary total hip arthroplasty. Thirty-five patients (36 hips) undergoing Charnley total hip arthroplasty were randomised to receive either of the two cements and were followed with repeated clinical, radiographic and radiostereometric examinations over 24 months. Twenty-seven patients (28 hips) attended 2 years postoperatively.
The mean distal translation observed was −0.15 mm for SmartSet HV and −0.16 mm for Palacos R. The mean rotation around the longitudinal axis was 0.9° for SmartSet HV and 1.2° for Palacos R. The Merle d’Aubigne Postel score was the maximum of 18 points for all patients in both groups.
No statistically significant difference in stem fixation with use of SmartSet HV and Palacos R was found at 2-year follow-up.
SmartSet HV; Palacos R; RSA; Charnley; THR