Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are capable of homing to and repair damaged myocardial tissues. Apoptosis of BMSCs in response to various pathological stimuli leads to the attenuation of healing ability of BMSCs. Plenty of evidence has shown that elevated homocysteine level is a novel independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate whether homocysteine may induce apoptosis of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here we uncovered that homocysteine significantly inhibited the cellular viability of BMSCs. Furthermore, TUNEL, AO/EB, Hoechst 333342 and Live/Death staining demonstrated the apoptotic morphological appearance of BMSCs after homocysteine treatment. A distinct increase of ROS level was also observed in homocysteine-treated BMSCs. The blockage of ROS by DMTU and NAC prevented the apoptosis of BMSCs induced by homocysteine, indicating ROS was involved in the apoptosis of BMSCs. Moreover, homocysteine also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential of BMSCs. Furthermore, apoptotic appearance and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in homocysteine-treated BMSCs was significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor but not p38 MAPK and ERK inhibitors. Western blot also confirmed that p-JNK was significantly activated after exposing BMSCs to homocysteine. Homocysteine treatment caused a significant reduction of BMSCs-secreted VEGF and IGF-1 in the culture medium. Collectively, elevated homocysteine induced the apoptosis of BMSCs via ROS-induced the activation of JNK signal, which provides more insight into the molecular mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia-related cardiovascular diseases.
Recent findings suggest that in response to repair-to-injury bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) participate in the process of angiogenesis. It is unclear what role BMSCs play in the structure of the vessel wall. In present study, we aimed to determine whether BMSCs had the capacity of endothelial cells (ECs).
BMSCs were separated and cultured. FACS and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the gene expression phenotype. The capacity of migration and adhesion and the ultrastructure of BMSCs were examined. The effect of BMSCs transplantation on the vascular repair was investigated in a murine carotid artery-injured model.
BMSCs could express some markers and form the tube-like structure. The migration and adhesion capacity of BMSCs increased significantly after stimulated. In addition, BMSCs had the intact cell junction. In
vivo the local transfer of BMSCs differentiated into neo-endothelial cells in the injury model for carotid artery and contributed to the vascular remodeling.
These results showed that BMSCs could contribute to neointimal formation for vascular lesion and might be associated with the differentiation into ECs, which indicated the important therapeutic implications for vascular diseases.
During the past several years, there has been intense research in the field of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) therapy to facilitate its translation into clinical setting. Although a lot has been accomplished, plenty of challenges lie ahead. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence showing that administration of BMSC-derived conditioned media (BMSC-CM) can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed after stem cell therapy. BMSCs produce a wide range of cytokines and chemokines that have, until now, shown extensive therapeutic potential. These paracrine mechanisms could be as diverse as stimulating receptor-mediated survival pathways, inducing stem cell homing and differentiation or regulating the anti-inflammatory effects in wounded areas. The current review reflects the rapid shift of interest from BMSC to BMSC-CM to alleviate many logistical and technical issues regarding cell therapy and evaluates its future potential as an effective regenerative therapy.
Bone marrow-derived stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) have recently been characterized as mediators of tissue regeneration after injury. In addition to preventing fibrosis at the wound site, BMSCs elicit an angiogenic response within the fibrin matrix. The mechanistic interactions between BMSCs and invading endothelial cells (ECs) during this process are not fully understood. Using a three-dimensional, fibrin-based angiogenesis model, we sought to investigate the proteolytic mechanisms by which BMSCs promote vessel morphogenesis. We find that BMSC-mediated vessel formation depends on the proteolytic ability of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Knockdown of the protease results in a small network of vessels with enlarged lumens. Contrastingly, vessel morphogenesis is unaffected by the knockdown of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, we find that BMSC-mediated vessel morphogenesis in vivo follows mechanisms similar to what we observe in vitro. Subcutaneous, cellular fibrin implants in C.B-17/SCID mice form aberrant vasculature when MMPs are inhibited with a broad spectrum chemical inhibitor, and a very minimal amount of vessels when MT1-MMP proteolytic activity is interrupted in ECs. Other studies have debated the necessity of MT1-MMP in the context of vessel invasion in fibrin, but this study clearly demonstrates its requirement in BMSC-mediated angiogenesis.
MMP-14; MSC; neovascularization; fibrin
Fibroblast growth factor18 (FGF18) belongs to the FGF family and is a pleiotropic protein that stimulates proliferation in several tissues. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) participate in the normal replacement of damaged cells and in disease healing processes within bone and the haematopoietic system. In this study, we constructed FGF18 and investigated its effects on rat BMSCs (rBMSCs). The proliferative effects of FGF18 on rBMSCs were examined using an MTS assay. To validate the osteogenic differentiation effects of FGF18, ALP and mineralization activity were examined as well as osteogenic differentiation-related gene levels. FGF18 significantly enhanced rBMSCs proliferation (p<0.001) and induced the osteogenic differentiation by elevating ALP and mineralization activity of rBMSCs (p<0.001). Furthermore, these osteogenic differentiation effects of FGF18 were confirmed via increasing the mRNA levels of collagen type I (Col I), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that FGF18 could be used to improve bone repair and regeneration.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to be able to migrate towards glioma, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this migratory behavior still require further elucidation. This study aimed to test the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the C6 glioma-induced migration of BMSCs, evaluate the effect of VEGF on the migratory capacity and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression of BMSCs and explore the role of VCAM-1 in the VEGF-induced migration of BMSCs. The results showed that C6 glioma cells significantly increased the migration of BMSCs in vitro, which was partially blocked by a VEGF neutralizing antibody, and 20 ng/ml recombinant rat VEGF164 incubation enhanced the migration of BMSCs. Moreover, 12 h of 20 ng/ml VEGF164 incubation upregulated the VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs and the blocking of VCAM-1 reduced the VEGF164-induced migration of BMSCs. The data also revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), decreased the VEGF-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs. These findings indicate that VEGF participates in mediating the C6 glioma-induced migration of BMSCs by upregulating their VCAM-1 expression, and that PI3K is involved in the signal transduction of VEGF164-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs.
mesenchymal stem cells; vascular endothelial growth factor; migration; glioma; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops in preterm infants due to a combination of lung immaturity and lung injury. Cultured pluripotent bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) are known to reduce injury and induce repair in adult and in immature lungs, possibly through paracrine secretion of soluble factors. The paracrine relationship between BMSC and primary fetal lung epithelial type II cells is unknown. We determined the effects of BMSC on type II cell and fibroblast behavior using an in vitro co-culture model. Rat BMSC were isolated and co-cultured with primary fetal E21 rat type II cells or lung fibroblasts in a Transwell® system without direct cell contact. Effects of BMSC conditioned media (CM) on type II cell and fibroblast proliferation and on type II cell surfactant phospholipid (DSPC) synthesis and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins B and C (sftpb and sftpc) were studied. We also determined the effect of fibroblast and type II cell CM on BMSC proliferation and surface marker expression. Co-culture with BMSC significantly decreased type II cell and fibroblast proliferation to 72.5% and 83.7% of controls, respectively. Type II cell DSPC synthesis was significantly increased by 21% and sftpb and sftpc mRNA expressions were significantly induced (2.1 fold and 2.4 fold, respectively). BMSC proliferation was significantly reduced during the co-culture. Flow cytometry confirmed that BMSC retained the expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers despite their exposure to fetal lung cell CM. We conclude that BMSC induce fetal type II cell differentiation through paracrine release of soluble factors. These studies provide clues for how BMSC may act in promoting alveolar repair following injury.
Lung development; surfactant; proliferation; co-culture; lung fibroblasts.
Sepsis causes over 200,000 deaths yearly in the US; better treatments are urgently needed. Administering bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs—also known as mesenchymal stem cells) to mice before or shortly after inducing sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture reduced mortality and improved organ function. The beneficial effect of BMSCs was eliminated by macrophage depletion or pretreatment with antibodies specific for interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-10 receptor. Monocytes and/or macrophages from septic lungs made more IL-10 when prepared from mice treated with BMSCs versus untreated mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages produced more IL-10 when cultured with BMSCs, but this effect was eliminated if the BMSCs lacked the genes encoding Toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene-88, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1a or cyclooxygenase-2. Our results suggest that BMSCs (activated by LPS or TNF-α) reprogram macrophages by releasing prostaglandin E2 that acts on the macrophages through the prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors. Because BMSCs have been successfully given to humans and can easily be cultured and might be used without human leukocyte antigen matching, we suggest that cultured, banked human BMSCs may be effective in treating sepsis in high-risk patient groups.
To investigate the effect of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to osteoblasts, in order to find a candidate ODN with potential for the treatment of periodontitis, a series of ODNs were designed and selected to test their effect on the promotion of the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts in vitro and on the repair of periodontal tissue in rats with periodontitis. It was found that MT01, one of the ODNs with the sequences of human mitochondrial DNA, stimulated the proliferation of BMSCs, the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and mRNA expression of bone-associated factors including Runx2, Osterix, OPG, RANKL and collagen I in vitro. In vivo study showed that MT01 prevented the loss of alveolar bone in the rats with periodontitis and induced the production of proteins of OPG and Osterix in the bone tissue. These results indicated that MT01 could induce differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and inhibit the alveolar bone absorption in rats with periodontitis.
oligodeoxynucleotide; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; osteoblasts; differentiation; periodontitis
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are being used for immune modulatory, anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering applications, but the properties responsible for these effects are not completely understood. Human BMSCs were characterized to identify factors that might be responsible for their clinical effects and biomarkers for assessing their quality.
Early passage BMSCs prepared from marrow aspirates of 4 healthy subjects were compared to 3 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) samples, CD34+ cells from 3 healthy subjects and 3 fibroblast cell lines. The cells were analyzed with oligonucleotide expression microarrays with more than 35,000 probes.
BMSC gene expression signatures of BMSCs differed from those of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hESCs and fibroblasts. Genes up-regulated in BMSCs were involved with cell movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction and proliferation. The up-regulated genes most likely belonged to pathways for integrin signaling, integrin linked kinase (ILK) signaling, NFR2-mediated oxidative stress response, regulation of actin-based motility by Rho, actin cytoskeletal signaling, caveolar-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Wnt/β catenin signaling. Among the most highly up-regulated genes were structural extracellular (ECM) proteins:α5 and β 5 integrin chains, fibronectin, collagen type IIIα1 and Vα1; and functional EMC proteins: connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBI) and ADAM12.
Global analysis of human BMSCs suggests that they are mobile, metabolically active, proliferative and interactive cells that make use of integrins and integrin signaling. They produce abundant ECM proteins that may contribute to their clinical immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune disease, and the precise pathogenesis is largely unknown at present. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory potential and Th17/Treg cells with a reciprocal relationship regulated by BMSCs have been reported to be involved in some autoimmune disorders. Here we studied the biological and immunological characteristics of BMSCs, the frequency and phenotype of CCR4+CCR6+ Th/Treg cells and their interaction in vitro in AS.
The biological and immunomodulation characteristics of BMSCs were examined by induced multiple-differentiation and two-way mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) reactions or after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, respectively. The interactions of BMSCs and PBMCs were detected with a direct-contact co-culturing system. CCR4+CCR6+ Th/Treg cells and surface markers of BMSCs were assayed using flow cytometry.
The AS-BMSCs at active stage showed normal proliferation, cell viability, surface markers and multiple differentiation characteristics, but significantly reduced immunomodulation potential (decreased 68 ± 14%); the frequencies of Treg and Fox-P3+ cells in AS-PBMCs decreased, while CCR4+CCR6+ Th cells increased, compared with healthy donors. Moreover, the AS-BMSCs induced imbalance in the ratio of CCR4+CCR6+ Th/Treg cells by reducing Treg/PBMCs and increasing CCR4+CCR6+ Th/PBMCs, and also reduced Fox-P3+ cells when co-cultured with PBMCs. Correlation analysis showed that the immunomodulation potential of BMSCs has significant negative correlations with the ratio of CCR4+CCR6+ Th to Treg cells in peripheral blood.
The immunomodulation potential of BMSCs is reduced and the ratio of CCR4+CCR6+ Th/Treg cells is imbalanced in AS. The BMSCs with reduced immunomodulation potential may play a novel role in AS pathogenesis by inducing CCR4+CCR6+ Th/Treg cell imbalance.
Transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improves the survival of neurons and axonal outgrowth after stroke remains undetermined. Here, we investigated whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these therapeutic effects of BMSCs.
(1) BMSCs and cortical neurons were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured neurons were induced by Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation (OGD), and then were respectively co-cultured for 48 hours with BMSCs at different densities (5×103, 5×105/ml) in transwell co-culture system. The average length of axon and expression of GAP-43 were examined to assess the effect of BMSCs on axonal outgrowth after the damage of neurons induced by OGD. (2) The injured neurons were cultured with a conditioned medium (CM) of BMSCs cultured for 24 hours in neurobasal medium. During the process, we further identified whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved through the adjunction of LY294002 (a specific phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor). Two hours later, the expression of pAKT (phosphorylated AKT) and AKT were analyzed by Western blotting. The length of axons, the expression of GAP-43 and the survival of neurons were measured at 48 hours.
Both BMSCs and CM from BMSCs inreased the axonal length and GAP-43 expression in OGD-injured cortical neurons. There was no difference between the effects of BMSCs of 5×105/ml and of 5×103/ml on axonal outgrowth. Expression of pAKT enhanced significantly at 2 hours and the neuron survival increased at 48 hours after the injured neurons cultured with the CM, respectively. These effects of CM were prevented by inhibitor LY294002.
BMSCs promote axonal outgrowth and the survival of neurons against the damage from OGD in vitro by the paracrine effects through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Stimulatory G protein-mediated cAMP signaling is intimately involved in skeletal homeostasis. However, limited information is available on the role of the cAMP signaling in regulating the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature osteoblasts and adipocytes. To investigate this, we treated primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with forskolin to stimulate cAMP signaling and determined the effect on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Exposure of differentiating osteoblasts to forskolin markedly inhibited progression to the late stages of osteoblast differentiation, and this effect was replicated by continuous exposure to PTH. Strikingly, forskolin activation of cAMP signaling in BMSCs conditioned mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo increased osteogenic differentiation and decreased adipogenic differentiation. PTH treatment of BMSCs also enhanced subsequent osteogenesis, but promoted an increased adipogenesis as well. Thus, activation of cAMP signaling alters the lineage commitment of MSCs, favoring osteogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP); Osteogenesis; Adipogenesis; Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Mesenchymal stem cells; Alkaline phosphatase
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transp1antation on lung and heart damage in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, PAH and BMSC implantation groups. Structural changes in the pulmonary vascular wall, such as the pulmonary artery lumen area (VA) and vascular area (TAA) were measured by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the hemodynamics were detected by echocardiography. Two weeks post-operation, our results demonstrated that sublingual vein injection of BMSCs significantly attenuated the pulmonary vascular structural and hemodynamic changes caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. The mechanism may be executed via paracrine effects.
bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; pulmonary arterial hypertension; pulmonary vascular wall
To evaluate the efficacy of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) as gene delivery vehicles to simultaneously express human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) to improve the outcome of islet transplantation.
Morphology and islet-binding affinity of hBMSCs were checked by microscope. The expression of target genes and endogenous genes was determined by ELISA. Protection of islets by hBMSCs was evaluated in vitro by Calcein-AM/Propidium Iodide staining and in vivo by allogeneic islet transplantation study. Function and revascularization of islets was evaluated by immune fluorescence study.
Non-donor-specific hBMSCs showed strong binding affinity to human islets and protected viability and function. Transduction of hBMSCs with adenovirus encoding human HGF and human IL-1Ra (Adv-hHGF-hIL-1Ra) prior to co-culturing with islets further protected from apoptotic cell death, helped maintain 3D structures and morphology, and enhanced insulin secretion. Transplantation of human islets reconstituted with Adv-hHGF-hIL-1Ra transduced hBMSCs under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice reversed diabetes by reducing blood glucose levels to ≤200 mg/dL for up to 15 weeks and reduced the number of islets required to achieving normoglycemia. Blood glucose levels of mice transplanted with islets alone reversed to ≥500 mg/dL 4 weeks post-transplantation.
Results indentified hBMSCs as effective gene delivery vehicles to improve the outcome of islet transplantation.
adenovirus; gene therapy; islet transplantation; mesenchymal stem cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and give rise to distinctly differentiated cells from all three germ layers. Neuronal differentiation of MSC has great potential for cellular therapy. We examined whether the cluster of mechanically made, not neurosphere, could be differentiated into neuron-like cells by growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Materials and Methods
BMSCs grown confluent were mechanically separated with cell scrapers and masses of separated cells were cultured to form cluster BMSCs. As described here cluster of BMSCs were differentiated into neuron-like cells by EGF, HGF, and VEGF. Differentiated cells were analyzed by means of phase-contrast inverted microscopy, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression of neural specific markers.
For the group with growth factors, the shapes of neuron-like cells was observable a week later, and two weeks later, most cells were similar in shape to neuron-like cells. Particularly, in the group with chemical addition, various shapes of filament structures were seen among the cells. These culture conditions induced MSCs to exhibit a neural cell phenotype, expressing several neuro-glial specific markers.
bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could be easily induced to form clusters using mechanical scraping, not neurospheres, which in turn could differentiate further into neuron-like cells and might open an attractive possibility for clinical cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the future, we consider that neuron-like cells differentiated from clusters of BMSCs are needed to be compared and analyzed on a physiological and molecular biological level with preexisting neuronal cells, and studies on the possibility of their transplantation and differentiation capability in animal models are further required.
Neuron-like cells; mesenchymal stem cell; epidermal growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor; hepatocyte growth factor
Background and Purpose
We compared the effect of treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells from stroke rats (Isch-BMSC) and normal rats (Nor-BMSC) on functional outcome.
Isch-BMSCs and Nor-BMSCs were intravenously injected into rats 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. To test the mechanism of Isch-BMSC-enhanced neurorestoration, Isch-BMSC and Nor-BMSC cultures were used.
Isch-BMSC significantly promoted functional outcome and enhanced angiogenesis, arterial density, and axonal regeneration compared with Nor-BMSC treatment animals. Isch-BMSCs exhibited increased Angiopoietin-1, Tie2, basic fibroblast growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Flk1 gene expression compared with Nor-BMSC. Using transwell coculture of BMSCs with brain-derived endothelial cells, Isch-BMSCs increased phosphorylated-Tie2 activity in brain-derived endothelial cells and enhanced brain-derived endothelial cells capillary tube formation compared with Nor-BMSCs. Inhibition of Tie2 gene expression in brain-derived endothelial cells using siRNA significantly attenuated BMSC-induced capillary tube formation.
These data suggest that Isch-BMSCs are superior to Nor-BMSCs for the neurorestorative treatment of stroke, which may be mediated by the enhanced trophic factor and angiogenic characteristics of Isch-BMSCs.
Ang1; angiogenesis; axonal regeneration; bone marrow stromal cell; cerebral infarct; Tie2
Spinal cord injury triggers irreversible loss of motor and sensory functions. Numerous strategies aiming at repairing the injured spinal cord have been studied. Among them, the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is promising. Indeed, these cells possess interesting properties to modulate CNS environment and allow axon regeneration and functional recovery. Unfortunately, BMSC survival and differentiation within the host spinal cord remain poor, and these cells have been found to have various adverse effects when grafted in other pathological contexts. Moreover, paracrine-mediated actions have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of BMSC transplantation after spinal cord injury. We thus decided to deliver BMSC-released factors to spinal cord injured rats and to study, in parallel, their properties in vitro. We show that, in vitro, BMSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) protects neurons from apoptosis, activates macrophages and is pro-angiogenic. In vivo, BMSC-CM administered after spinal cord contusion improves motor recovery. Histological analysis confirms the pro-angiogenic action of BMSC-CM, as well as a tissue protection effect. Finally, the characterization of BMSC-CM by cytokine array and ELISA identified trophic factors as well as cytokines likely involved in the beneficial observed effects. In conclusion, our results support the paracrine-mediated mode of action of BMSCs and raise the possibility to develop a cell-free therapeutic approach.
It is well established that bone maintenance and healing is compromised in alcoholics. Adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose tissue (ASCs) likely contribute to bone homeostasis and formation. Direct and indirect alcohol exposure inhibits osteoprogenitor cell function through a variety of proposed mechanisms. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on the native number and in vitro growth characteristics and multipotentiality of adult BMSCs and ASCs in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a liquid diet containing 36% ethanol (EtOH) or an isocaloric substitution of dextramaltose (control). After 4, 8, or 12 weeks of the diet, ASCs were harvested from epididymal adipose tissue and BMSCs from femoral and tibial bone marrow. Cell doublings per day (CDs) and doubling times (DT) were determined for primary cells (P0) and cell passages 1 through 6 (P1-6). Fibroblastic, (CFU-F), adipogenic (CFU-Ad) and osteogenic (CFU-Ob) colony forming unit frequencies were assessed for P0, P3, and P6. The CDs and DTs were lower and higher, respectively, for ASCs and BMSCs harvested from EtOH versus control rats at all time points. The CFU-F, CFU-Ad and CFU-Ob were significantly higher in ASCs harvested from control versus EtOH rats for P0, P3, and P6 at all times. Both CFU-Ad and CFU-Ob were significantly higher in P0 BMSCs harvested from control versus EtOH rats after 12 weeks of the diet. The CFU-Ob for P3 BMSCs from control rats was significantly higher than those from ETOH rats after 8 and 12 weeks on the diet. All three CFU frequencies in ASCs from EtOH rats tended to decrease with increasing diet duration. The ASC cell and colony morphology was different between control and EtOH cohorts in culture. These results emphasize the significant detrimental effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on the in vitro expansion and multipotentiality of adult MSCs. Maintenance of the effects through multiple cell passages in vitro suggests cells may be permanently compromised.
Adipose; bone marrow; adult stromal cells; alcohol; bone
To detect the differentiation effects of retinal cells or extracts on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC).
Human fetal BMSC were previously labelled by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and co-cultured with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells which were pre-treated with ultraviolet irradiation at a ratio of 1:1 to induce the differentiation of BMSC for up to 14 days. In some assays, a retinal extract of bovine retinal extract (BRE) was added to detect the potential effects of retinal component on the differentiation of BMSC. In addition, Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Nestin and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining were performed to determine the characteristics of BMSC.
The results indicated that by co-cultured with RPE cells, fetal BMSC were differentiated into neural-like cells expressing special neuronal markers Nestin, GFAP and NSE. And the expression of these markers was obviously increased by BRE.
Retina derived cells and extracts can induce the differentiation of BMSC into neural-like cells.
bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; retinal pigment epithelial cells; neural-like cells; bovine retinal extract
To investigate the effects of Genistein on the osteogenic related gene expression profiles during osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) cultures, the hBMSCs were cultured under osteogenic differentiation medium with the addition of Genistein (10-8∼10-5 M) for 12 days. The cell proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation, while the osteoblastic differentiation in hBMSC cultures was assessed by cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The cell apoptosis was determined by caspase 3/7 activation. GEArray Q series human osteogenesis gene array was used to analyze large-scale gene expression in Genistein-treated hBMSC cultures compared to the control group. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, small interfering RNA (siRNA), and western blot analysis were used to confirm the microarray data in five representative transcripts. Genistein (10-8∼10-6 M) dose- and time-dependently increased cell proliferation and cellular ALP activity, but had no significant effect on cell apoptosis in hBMSC cultures. The 96-gene array analysis indicated that 22 genes were upregulated more than 2-fold and 7 genes were downregulated at least 1.5-fold. The expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), small mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (SMADs), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were concomitantly increased under Genistein treatment while insulin-like growth factor 2 and inhibitory SMADs 6 and 7 expressions were significantly decreased. The results of the real-time RT-PCR had a correlation with the results of microarray analysis and were estrogen-receptor dependent. Specific gene siRNAs knock-down further confirmed the osteogenic effects of Genistein on BMP2, SMAD5 and RUNX2 protein expression. Genistein enhanced osteogenic differentiation in cultured hBMSCs mainly through the BMP-dependent SMADs and RUNX2 signaling.
Genistein, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell; cDNA microarray; osteogenic differentiation
Bisphosphonates (BPs) can be locally used to improve the osteogenesis around hydroxyapatite (HA) implants. However, there are almost no reports discussing the effects of BPs in the bonding state with HA on bone mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). Clodronate is a BP widely used in clinical practice. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of clodronate combined with HA on BMSCs’ multi-directional differentiation.
Material and methods
The HA and clodronate-HA complex were prepared. BMSCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat bone marrow and then the cells were cultured with both HA and clodronate-HA. The method of transcriptional and translational assay (MTT) and multi-directional induction (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic differentiation) were used to evaluate the effect of clodronate-HA on BMSC differentiation.
Scanning electron microscopy indicated active proliferation of the cells on clodronate-HA and HA. MTT of BMSCs cultured on clodronate-HA and HA demonstrated no significant differences between the two groups. BMSCs differentiated into osteocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes after being cultured with both clodronate-HA and HA. This indicated that BMSCs still retained multi-directional capability. The alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic induced BMSCs of both groups had no significant difference. However, there was a significant difference in total protein found between them.
The results suggest that clodronate in the bonding state with HA has no obvious inhibition of the proliferation and activity of BMSCs on the complex, and there was no evidence of a negative effect on multi-directional capability of the BMSCs.
BMSC; bisphosphonate; hydroxyapatite; multi-directional differentiation
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have shown great promise for ischemic tissue repair. However, poor viability of transplanted BMSCs within ischemic tissues has limited their therapeutic potential. Apelin, an endogenous peptide, whose level is elevated following ischemia, has been shown to enhance survival of cardiomyocytes and neuronal cells during ischemia. We hypothesized that apelin-13 protects BMSCs from apoptotic death. In this paper we determined the potential mechanism of apelin-13 effects using cultured BMSCs from adult rats. Apoptosis was induced by the specific apoptotic insult serum deprivation (SD) for up to 36 hrs. Apoptotic cell death was measured using immunostaining and Western blotting in the presence and absence of apelin-13 (0.1 to 5.0 nM) co-applied during SD exposure. SD-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced by apelin-13 in a concentration-dependent manner. SD-induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation were largely prevented by apelin-13. The apelin-13 anti-apoptotic effects were blocked by inhibiting the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings indicate that apelin-13 is a survival factor for BMSCs and its anti-apoptotic property may prove to be of therapeutic significance in terms of exploiting BMSC-based transplantation therapy.
Apelin-13; Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; Serum deprivation; Apoptosis
Due to its injectability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for orthopedic applications. However, a literature search revealed no report on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) encapsulation in CPC for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs in alginate hydrogel beads and then incorporate them into CPC, CPC–chitosan and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds. Chitosan and degradable fibers were used to mechanically reinforce the scaffolds. After 21 days, that the percentage of live cells and the cell density of hBMSCs inside CPC-based constructs matched those in alginate without CPC, indicating that the CPC setting reaction did not harm the hBMSCs. Alkaline phosphate activity increased by 8-fold after 14 days. Mineral staining, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the cells. The amount of hBMSC-synthesized mineral in CPC–chitosan–fiber matched that in CPC without chitosan and fibers. Hence, adding chitosan and fibers, which reinforced the CPC, did not compromise hBMSC osteodifferentiation and mineral synthesis. In conclusion, hBMSCs were encapsulated in CPC and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds for the first time. The encapsulated cells remained viable, osteodifferentiated and synthesized bone minerals. These self-setting, hBMSC-encapsulating CPC-based constructs may be promising for bone tissue engineering applications.
Stem cell encapsulation; Osteogenic differentiation; Alginate hydrogel; Calcium phosphate cement scaffold; Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
This study evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) or their conditioned medium (CM) on the repair and prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin (G). Animals received daily injections of G up to 20 days. On the 10th day, injections of BMSCs, CM, CM+trypsin, CM+RNase or exosome-like microvesicles extracted from the CM were administered. In the prevention groups, the animals received the BMSCs 24 h before or on the 5th day of G treatment. Creatinine (Cr), urea (U), FENa and cytokines were quantified. The kidneys were evaluated using hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohystochemistry. The levels of Cr, U and FENa increased during all the periods of G treatment. The BMSC transplantation, its CM or exosome injections inhibited the increase in Cr, U, FENa, necrosis, apoptosis and also increased cell proliferation. The pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokines increased compared to G. When the CM or its exosomes were incubated with RNase (but not trypsin), these effects were blunted. The Y chromosome was not observed in the 24-h prevention group, but it persisted in the kidney for all of the periods analyzed, suggesting that the injury is necessary for the docking and maintenance of BMSCs in the kidney. In conclusion, the BMSCs and CM minimized the G-induced renal damage through paracrine effects, most likely through the RNA carried by the exosome-like microvesicles. The use of the CM from BMSCs can be a potential therapeutic tool for this type of nephrotoxicity, allowing for the avoidance of cell transplantations.