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1.  BREAST CANCER AWARENESS CAMPAIGN: WILL IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? 
Objective:
The increased prevalence of breast cancer in recent years characterized by young age and delayed presentation has alerted women to randomly seek medical advice randomly. Breast cancer awareness programs are scarce and when available function on a very limited scale. In an attempt to increase cancer awareness among women, school teachers were targeted as missionaries to the community. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the breast cancer awareness campaign mounted by the author.
Material and Methods:
This survey was undertaken in 2005 with school teachers in Al Khobar district, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia as the target. A breast cancer campaign was designed with lectures and workshops and delivered to school teachers in seven separate sessions. Each session was attended by 100-150 female teachers selected by their administration. Pre and post workshop questionnaires were distributed to assess knowledge of cancer symptoms, risk factors, attitudes towards breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and common misconceptions.
Results:
The majority demonstrated minimal basic background knowledge on breast cancer, methods of conducting BSE or the need for mammography. The pre workshop questionnaires showed that 5% agreed and performed BSE, 14% thought that mammography may be needed, while 81% did not think any of these modalities were necessary. Post workshop questionnaire demonstrated positive results, 45% agreed to perform BSE, 45% agreed to the need of mammographic screening while 10% still did not see the necessity of these procedures and refused the knowledge or the search for asymptomatic lesions.
Conclusion:
In order to succeed, breast cancer programs should be structured and implemented on a wide scale preferably tailored to fit individual communities. School teachers as educators help to convey the message to a large sector of the population by enhancing the knowledge of the younger generation on the necessity and the importance of early detection of cancer.
PMCID: PMC3410058  PMID: 23012130
Breast cancer; awareness
2.  Joint STFC Futures/BIR workshop “Cancer care: new detector and sensor technologies and their potential impact”, Harwell Oxford, 5–6 October 2011 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1020):e1312-e1315.
The workshop “Cancer care: new detector and sensor technologies and their potential impact”, organised jointly by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the British Institute of Radiology, brought together representatives from the cancer community (clinicians, medical physicists, National Health Service representatives and general practitioners with an interest in cancer) and STFC-supported scientists involved in basic research in physics and technology. The workshop aimed to raise awareness of the cancer challenge, share knowledge and identify novel solutions in the area of detectors and sensors to addressing the cancer challenge. A further aim of this workshop was to commence discussion on the formation of new multidisciplinary community networks. The workshop identified the synergies between the two communities and the potential for developing new collaborative ideas and projects.
doi:10.1259/bjr/60361606
PMCID: PMC3611739  PMID: 22960242
3.  “But there are no snakes in the wood”: risk mapping as an outcome measure in evaluating complex interventions 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2007;83(3):232-236.
Objectives
To complement biological and social behavioural markers in evaluating the complex intervention of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in rural Zimbabwe, community‐derived markers of effectiveness were sought. Through a participatory workshop with adolescent boys and girls, an innovative “risk map research workshop” was developed to be conducted throughout the study sites.
Methods
78 gender‐specific standardised workshops were conducted among secondary school students. Participants drew risk maps of their community. Focus group discussions explored each risk area identified on the map. Grounded Theory was used to create “categories” and “subcategories.” Workshops continued to be held until “saturation”, whereby no new categories emerged. “Axial coding” identified the inter‐relationship between categories and subcategories according to their relevance to sexual and reproductive health risk.
Results
Six “risk area” Grounded Theory categories emerged from the data: bush/rural terrain, commercial centres, homes, school environs, religious and spiritual venues, and roadsides. 17 subcategories emerged, grouped under each of the risk area categories, such as riverbeds, growth points, homesteads, classrooms, all‐night prayer meetings and truck stops. Risks and the consequences of risks included sexually transmitted infections (including HIV), violence, sexual abuse, expulsion from school and illegal abortion.
Conclusions
Risk maps provide unique data that can be used to measure more subtle changes that occur as a result of social behavioural interventions aimed at addressing reproductive and sexual health. Another round of risk map research workshops will be held towards the end of the study to explore changes in milieu, behaviour and experiences, and will complement and triangulate the biological and other social behavioural outcome measures.
doi:10.1136/sti.2006.022434
PMCID: PMC2659103  PMID: 17344248
4.  Community mental health services in The Netherlands: Quo Vadis? 
Short description of the workshop
The workshop leaders will present a panoramic view of the community mental health care in Holland: some figures of psychiatric disorders, organizational features of mental health care, treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in primary health care, treatment and care of the severe mentally ill and public mental health solutions. They will show examples of community mental health care and indicate innovations and future trends.
Discussion
Advantages and disadvantages of the system will be discussed and compared with arrangements of community mental healthcare in other countries. In an interactive way participants will be invited to indicate their community mental health care so that the workshop gives the opportunity to compare and weigh current community-based care for psychiatric patients and new directions.
PMCID: PMC3031846
mental health care; community care
5.  Benefits of Teaching Medical Students How to Communicate with Patients Having Serious Illness 
Innovative approaches are needed to teach medical students effective and compassionate communication with seriously ill patients. We describe two such educational experiences in the Yale Medical School curriculum for third-year medical students: 1) Communicating Difficult News Workshop and 2) Ward-Based End-of-Life Care Assignment. These two programs address educational needs to teach important clinical communication and assessment skills to medical students that previously were not consistently or explicitly addressed in the curriculum. The two learning programs share a number of educational approaches driven by the learning objectives, the students’ development, and clinical realities. Common educational features include: experiential learning, the Biopsychosocial Model, patient-centered communication, integration into clinical clerkships, structured skill-based learning, self-reflection, and self-care. These shared features ― as well as some differences ― are explored in this paper in order to illustrate key issues in designing and implementing medical student education in these areas.
PMCID: PMC3375674  PMID: 22737055
medical student education; communication skills; end-of-life discussions; communicating bad news; end-of-life care
6.  Training Substance Abuse Clinicians in Motivational Interviewing Using Live Supervision via Tele-conferencing 
Background
Training through traditional workshops is relatively ineffective for changing counseling practices. Tele-conferencing Supervision (TCS) was developed to provide remote, live supervision for training motivational interviewing (MI).
Method
97 community drug treatment counselors completed a 2-day MI workshop and were randomized to: live supervision via tele-conferencing (TCS; n=32), standard tape-based supervision (Tape; n=32), or workshop alone (Workshop; n=33). Supervision conditions received 5 weekly supervision sessions at their sites using actors as standard patients. Sessions with clients were rated for MI skill with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) coding system pre-workshop and 1, 8, and 20 weeks post-workshop. Mixed effects linear models were used to test training condition on MI skill at 8 and 20 weeks.
Results
TCS scored better than Workshop on the MITI for Spirit (mean difference = 0.76; p < .0001; d = 1.01) and Empathy (mean difference = 0.68; p < .001; d = 0.74). Tape supervision fell between TCS and Workshop, with Tape superior to Workshop for Spirit (mean difference = 0.40; p < .05). TCS was superior to Workshop in reducing MI non-adherence and increasing MI adherence, and was superior to Workshp and Tape in increasing the reflection to question ratio. Tape was superior to TCS in increasing complex reflections. Percentage of counselors meeting proficiency differed significantly between training conditions for the most stringent threshold (Spirit and Empathy scores ≥ 6), and were modest, ranging from 13% to 67%, for TCS and Tape.
Conclusion
TCS shows promise for promoting new counseling behaviors following participation in workshop training. However, further work is needed to improve supervision methods in order to bring more clinicians to high levels of proficiency and facilitate the dissemination of evidence-based practices.
doi:10.1037/a0028176
PMCID: PMC3365649  PMID: 22506795
motivational interviewing; substance abuse; clinician training
7.  Kin KeeperSM: Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Promoting Cancer Screening in Black, Latina, and Arab Women 
Contemporary clinical trials  2012;34(2):312-319.
Background
Although breast and cervical cancer deaths have declined due to early screening, detection, and more effective treatment, racial and ethnic disparities persist. This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of the Kin KeeperSM Cancer Prevention Intervention, a family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied in a community-based setting to promote health literacy and screening adherence to address cancer disparities
Methods
Female public health community health workers (CHWs) were trained to administer the intervention. They recruited female clients from their public health program caseload and asked each to assemble two to four adult female family members for the breast and cervical cancer home-based education sessions the CHWs would deliver in English, Spanish or Arabic. We randomized the clients into the kin keeper group (treatment) or the participant client group (control)
Results
Complete data were obtained on 514 Black, Latina, and Arab women. Close to half were unemployed and had yearly family income below $20,000. Thirty-four percent had no medical insurance, and 21% had diabetes. Almost 40% had no mammography in the last year. Treatment and control groups were similar on most sociodemographics but showed differences in breast and cervical screening history.
Conclusions
This innovative study demonstrates the implementation of an RCT using community-based participatory research, while delivering cancer prevention education across woman’s life span with women not connected to the health care system.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.12.005
PMCID: PMC3594085  PMID: 23274402
Randomized controlled trial; community-based participatory research
8.  Integrated care and economic evaluation, strategies and perspectives. Workshop 
The workshop will start with an introduction by Dr. H. Vondeling of some of the key concepts and basic typology of economic evaluation studies, which will be illustrated by means of economic evaluations of integrated care programmes.
This is followed by a presentation by Dr. S. Evers on a trend analysis of economic evaluation studies in integrated care. An analysis of the numbers and specific fields focused upon in economic evaluations in integrated care programmes over time will be presented.
Finally, Dr. T. Larsen will present an innovative approach to economic evaluation that may be relevant for integrated care projects in the field of public health and health promotion, based on insights from neuroeconomics.
A plenary discussion will round off the one-hour workshop, which will result in increasing awareness of the audience on the contribution of economics to inform choices on the allocation of scarce resources in the field of integrated care.
PMCID: PMC3031847
economic evaluation; integrated care; neuroeconomics
9.  Innovation Adoption as Facilitated by a Change-Oriented Workplace 
One of the unique contributions of the current study is a glimpse into the process by which counselors decide to try new innovations in their clinical work. Data were collected from 421 counseling staff from 71 outpatient treatment programs in 4 US regions. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results reveal that the propensity to adopt workshop-based interventions is facilitated by two important mechanisms (1) an innovative organization with creative leadership and (2) change-oriented staff attributes (i.e., seeking professional growth, efficacy, adaptability, and influence on others). Innovative leaders and a climate receptive to change also bolster the development of these change-oriented attributes. One implication of these findings is the cascading effect of leaders’ support of innovative thinking and action resulting in employees strengthening their own adaptive skills and carrying this innovative thinking into individual adoption.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2011.10.014
PMCID: PMC3268854  PMID: 22154030
Innovation adoption; leadership; organizational climate; staff attributes; multilevel modeling
10.  Cultural competency training for third-year clerkship students: effects of an interactive workshop on student attitudes. 
With an increasing awareness of health disparities, medical schools are challenged to develop training in cultural competency for their students. We developed and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive workshop designed to improve third-year students' attitudes, beliefs and cross-cultural communication skills. METHODS: At the start of a six-week required family medicine clerkship, 196 medical students participated in small group (20-24 students) workshops. Didactics included facts about health disparities and a model of cultural competency. During a skill-building component, students were exposed to live vignettes portraying ineffective and effective cross-cultural doctor-patient interactions. Impact on students' attitudes, perceived bias and knowledge of techniques was assessed by comparing pre- and postworkshop scores. RESULTS: Participants increased their cultural awareness on most items of a cultural awareness scale. Fifty-five-, 71- and 66% of the sample agreed or strongly agreed the program was valuable, appropriate and effective, respectively. Conversely, only 17-, 6- and 9% of the sample disagreed or strongly disagreed, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A workshop for third-year students led to an increase in cultural awareness and was considered appropriate and valuable. Further study, including longitudinal training and evaluation, is needed regarding effective methods to increase cultural competence in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC2569798  PMID: 17128686
11.  Using community/researcher partnerships to develop a culturally relevant intervention for children with communication disabilities in Kenya 
Disability and rehabilitation  2009;31(6):490-499.
The objective of this study is to develop a culturally relevant community based intervention for children with communication disabilities in Kenya through a community/researcher partnership. The resulting intervention is for use in a randomized control trial which will be reported at a later stage.
Using a qualitative approach, initial data was collected through focus group discussions with women, disabled people and traditional dancers. The groups examined the needs, problems and challenges faced by disabled children and their families. This generated the content and structure for a series of participatory workshops with a further two women’s groups. These workshops strove to generate a culturally relevant community based intervention programme for children with communication disabilities and their families.
The content and balance of the resulting intervention was observed to be different from existing programmes described in the literature. Notably it included many culturally appropriate strategies for increasing social integration and raising community awareness. The process of generating a locally relevant community based rehabilitation intervention is potentially transferable and has particular relevance to the estimated 80% of the world where there are no formal rehabilitation services for children with disabilities and where women’s groups are a strong element of local culture.
doi:10.1080/09638280802061944
PMCID: PMC3595511  PMID: 18720117
Participation; women’s groups; communication disability; Random control trials; complex health interventions
12.  Impact of Web-based Case Conferencing on Cancer Genetics Training Outcomes for Community-based Clinicians 
Introduction
Technology and market forces are driving the demand for cancer risk assessment services in the community setting, where few clinicians are trained to order and interpret predictive genetic tests. City of Hope conducts a three-phase course in genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) for community-based clinicians, comprised of distance didactics, face-to-face workshops and 12 months of professional development. As designed, the course cannot meet increasing demands for GCRA training. Action research identified face-to-face workshops as a barrier to increasing course capacity. This study compared the learning effectiveness of Web-based case conferencing to face-to-face training.
Methods
A quasi-experimental design compared pre-post knowledge, skills and professional self-efficacy outcomes from 2009-2010 course cohorts (n=96). The intervention group (n=52) engaged in Web-based case conferences during distance learning; the comparison group (n=44) participated in the course as originally designed.
Results
Both groups and all practice disciplines demonstrated significant pre-to-post increases on all measures. Knowledge increases were higher for the intervention group (p < .015); skills and self-efficacy increases were comparable between groups (p < .33 and p < .30, respectively).
Discussion
Findings support the learning utility of Web-based case conferencing. Further studies may inform the development of tools to assess the impact of Web-based case conferencing on practice change and patient outcomes, in alignment with the highest standards of continuing professional development.
doi:10.1007/s13187-012-0313-8
PMCID: PMC3857095  PMID: 22328115
13.  Playing cards on asthma management: A new interactive method for knowledge transfer to primary care physicians 
OBJECTIVES:
To describe an interactive playing card workshop in the communication of asthma guidelines recommendations, and to assess the initial evaluation of this educational tool by family physicians.
DESIGN:
Family physicians were invited to participate in the workshop by advertisements or personal contacts. Each physician completed a standardized questionnaire on his or her perception of the rules, content and properties of the card game.
SETTING:
A university-based continuing medical education initiative.
PARTICIPANTS:
Primary care physicians.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Physicians’ evaluation of the rules, content and usefulness of the program.
RESULTS:
The game allowed the communication of relevant asthma-related content, as well as experimentation with a different learning format. It also stimulated interaction in a climate of friendly competition. Participating physicians considered the method to be an innovative tool that facilitated reflection, interaction and learning. It generated relevant discussions on how to apply guideline recommendations to current asthma care.
CONCLUSIONS:
This new, interactive, educational intervention, integrating play and scientific components, was well received by participants. This method may be of value to help integrate current guidelines into current practice, thus facilitating knowledge transfer to caregivers.
PMCID: PMC2677773  PMID: 18060093
Asthma; Game-based learning; Knowledge implementation; Medical education
14.  Imaging referral guidelines in Europe: now and in the future—EC Referral Guidelines Workshop Proceedings 
Insights into Imaging  2013;5(1):9-13.
Abstract
As an integral part of the European Commission (EC) Imaging Referral Guidelines Project a 1.5-day workshop was held in Vienna on 20–21 September, 2012. At this workshop, models and good practices regarding the appropriateness and use of imaging referral guidelines (Guidelines) in Europe and worldwide were presented, together with the results of a survey of Guidelines in Europe. The latter included ideas, innovations and wishes for future Community action.
Main messages
Recommendations for future Community action:Stronger measures should be taken by the EC and the European competent authorities for making Guidelines available and used in all EU member states.Evidence-based Guidelines with separate guidance for children should be issued or endorsed by a trusted European organisation.Educational initiatives and electronic requesting in connection with clinical decision support (CDS) systems should be used to improve the implementation of Guidelines.Monitoring of Guidelines implementation and use should be by clinical audit, particularly external audit, but also by local/internal audit.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0299-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0299-8
PMCID: PMC3948903  PMID: 24338616
15.  Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches 
Health & social work  2011;36(1):55-65.
Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to be an effective means for detecting disease at its earliest stages when treatments are most likely to be successful. Culturally-tailored screening programs may increase participation and Hawaiian initiatives call for screening innovations that integrate Hawaiian cultural strengths, including those related to spirituality and the extended family system. Before full-scale testing of tailored interventions, it is important to conduct feasibility studies that gauge community receptiveness to the proposed intervention and research methods. We report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based, breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Results establish the attractiveness and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Recruitment exceeded targets and retention rates were comparable to those of other randomized behavioral trials, confirming the value of reaching rural Hawaiian women through churches. Women appreciated the integrative approach of Hawaiian and faith-based values and positive outcomes are suggested. This article may be relevant to social workers interested in culturally-responsive, community-based interventions, as well to researchers conducting pilot studies and controlled trials of interventions adapted from evidence-based programs.
PMCID: PMC3070905  PMID: 21446609
breast cancer; churches; culture; disparities; feasibility study; indigenous population; mammography; Native Hawaiians
16.  Innovative Health Care Disparities Curriculum for Incoming Medical Students 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(7):1028-1032.
Purpose
1) To pilot a health disparities curriculum for incoming first year medical students and evaluate changes in knowledge. 2) To help students become aware of personal biases regarding racial and ethnic minorities. 3) To inspire students to commit to serving indigent populations.
Methods
First year students participated in a 5-day elective course held before orientation week. The course used the curricular goals that had been developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine Health Disparities Task Force. Thirty-two faculty members from multiple institutions and different disciplinary backgrounds taught the course. Teaching modalities included didactic lectures, small group discussions, off-site expeditions to local free clinics, community hospitals and clinics, and student-led poster session workshops. The course was evaluated by pre-post surveys.
Results
Sixty-four students (60% of matriculating class) participated. Survey response rates were 97–100%. Students’ factual knowledge (76 to 89%, p < .0009) about health disparities and abilities to address disparities issues improved after the course. This curriculum received the highest rating of any course at the medical school (overall mean 4.9, 1 = poor, 5 = excellent).
Conclusions
This innovative course provided students an opportunity for learning and exploration of a comprehensive curriculum on health disparities at a critical formative time.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0584-2
PMCID: PMC2517917  PMID: 18612738
health disparities; curriculum; education; medical students; underserved
17.  Overview of the BioCreative III Workshop 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12(Suppl 8):S1.
Background
The overall goal of the BioCreative Workshops is to promote the development of text mining and text processing tools which are useful to the communities of researchers and database curators in the biological sciences. To this end BioCreative I was held in 2004, BioCreative II in 2007, and BioCreative II.5 in 2009. Each of these workshops involved humanly annotated test data for several basic tasks in text mining applied to the biomedical literature. Participants in the workshops were invited to compete in the tasks by constructing software systems to perform the tasks automatically and were given scores based on their performance. The results of these workshops have benefited the community in several ways. They have 1) provided evidence for the most effective methods currently available to solve specific problems; 2) revealed the current state of the art for performance on those problems; 3) and provided gold standard data and results on that data by which future advances can be gauged. This special issue contains overview papers for the three tasks of BioCreative III.
Results
The BioCreative III Workshop was held in September of 2010 and continued the tradition of a challenge evaluation on several tasks judged basic to effective text mining in biology, including a gene normalization (GN) task and two protein-protein interaction (PPI) tasks. In total the Workshop involved the work of twenty-three teams. Thirteen teams participated in the GN task which required the assignment of EntrezGene IDs to all named genes in full text papers without any species information being provided to a system. Ten teams participated in the PPI article classification task (ACT) requiring a system to classify and rank a PubMed® record as belonging to an article either having or not having “PPI relevant” information. Eight teams participated in the PPI interaction method task (IMT) where systems were given full text documents and were required to extract the experimental methods used to establish PPIs and a text segment supporting each such method. Gold standard data was compiled for each of these tasks and participants competed in developing systems to perform the tasks automatically.
BioCreative III also introduced a new interactive task (IAT), run as a demonstration task. The goal was to develop an interactive system to facilitate a user’s annotation of the unique database identifiers for all the genes appearing in an article. This task included ranking genes by importance (based preferably on the amount of described experimental information regarding genes). There was also an optional task to assist the user in finding the most relevant articles about a given gene. For BioCreative III, a user advisory group (UAG) was assembled and played an important role 1) in producing some of the gold standard annotations for the GN task, 2) in critiquing IAT systems, and 3) in providing guidance for a future more rigorous evaluation of IAT systems. Six teams participated in the IAT demonstration task and received feedback on their systems from the UAG group. Besides innovations in the GN and PPI tasks making them more realistic and practical and the introduction of the IAT task, discussions were begun on community data standards to promote interoperability and on user requirements and evaluation metrics to address utility and usability of systems.
Conclusions
In this paper we give a brief history of the BioCreative Workshops and how they relate to other text mining competitions in biology. This is followed by a synopsis of the three tasks GN, PPI, and IAT in BioCreative III with figures for best participant performance on the GN and PPI tasks. These results are discussed and compared with results from previous BioCreative Workshops and we conclude that the best performing systems for GN, PPI-ACT and PPI-IMT in realistic settings are not sufficient for fully automatic use. This provides evidence for the importance of interactive systems and we present our vision of how best to construct an interactive system for a GN or PPI like task in the remainder of the paper.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-S8-S1
PMCID: PMC3269932  PMID: 22151647
18.  International Agency for Research on Cancer Workshop on 'Expression array analyses in breast cancer taxonomy' 
Breast Cancer Research  2006;8(6):303.
In May 2006, a workshop on Expression array analyses in breast cancer taxonomy was held at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The workshop covered an array of topics from the validity of the currently defined breast tumor subtypes and other expression profile-based signatures to the technical limitations of expression analysis and the types of platforms on which these omics results will eventually reach clinical practice. Overall, the workshop participants believed firmly that tumor taxonomy is likely to yield improved prognostic and predictive markers. Even so, further standardization and validation are required before clinical trials are set in motion.
doi:10.1186/bcr1609
PMCID: PMC1797037  PMID: 17096863
19.  Using national news events to stimulate local awareness of public policy issues. 
Public Health Reports  1990;105(3):257-260.
Community leaders in Atlanta, GA, the Detroit and Lansing, MI, areas, and San Francisco, CA, participated in a demonstration of techniques to disseminate information and increase public awareness of the recommendations from the Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving, held in December 1988. Local officials worked with the Public Health Service's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, to educate and inform the public about the workshop recommendations as well as other alcohol-related concerns, and to encourage public involvement in their communities with the issue of alcohol-impaired driving and other alcohol-related concerns. With minimal assistance from Federal agencies and Washington-based health and public interest groups, the communities developed unique approaches to generating local television, radio, and newspaper coverage of an event that had originated as national news. The events demonstrated that, with minimal Federal resources and support, local groups can create media attention in conjunction with national news, and local media events can lead to successful community activism. The techniques can be applied by other community groups to gain sufficient news media attention to encourage the public to organize around issues of common concern.
PMCID: PMC1580011  PMID: 2113684
20.  Using Organizational Assessment as a Tool for Program Change 
Organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment organizations is important to the transfer of research innovations into practice. Programs should be performing well for new interventions to be implemented successfully. The present study examined characteristics of treatment programs that participated in an assessment and training workshop designed to improve organizational functioning. The workshop was attended by directors and clinical supervisors from 53 community-based treatment units in a single state in the Southwest. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine attributes related to program-level decisions to engage in a structured process for making organizational changes. Findings showed that programs with higher needs and pressures, and those with more limited institutional resources, and poorer ratings of staff attributes and organizational climate were most likely to engage in a change strategy. Furthermore, organizations with greater staff consensus (i.e., smaller standard deviations) on ratings of organizational climate also were more likely to engage in change.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2006.12.024
PMCID: PMC2001278  PMID: 17433861
Organizational assessment; Organizational functioning; Organization change; Change process
21.  Workshop on: Chemistry of Metals in Medicine - The Industrial Perspective 
Metal-Based Drugs  1997;4(3):119-123.
The Workshop was attended by 61 participants from 20 countries. Most of the speakers were industrialists and the Chairpersons and Discussion Leaders were academics.
The area “Chemistry of Metals in Medicine” has the potential for producing innovative, high quality, and original research.
This is a new and emerging area of biomedical chemistry. Small firms are already being established which are devoted to the new elemental medicine. Major pharmaceutical and healthcare industries too are becoming aware of the major impact which metal chemistry is likely to have on traditional organic pharmacology and of the new opportunities which it presents for advances including the development of metalloenzyme-specific inhibitors, targeted radionuclide complexes for diagnosis and therapy, contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, safer mineral and vitamin supplements, new agents for the treatment of neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disease, skin conditions, cancer, and microbial and viral infections.
The European scientific and technological research base in this area is potentially attractive for business. Industrial collaboration and cooperation can be accommodated within the COST framework.
doi:10.1155/MBD.1997.119
PMCID: PMC2365061  PMID: 18475781
22.  Synthesizing Community Wisdom: A Model for Sharing Cancer-Related Resources through Social Networking and Collaborative Partnerships 
Despite the availability of community-based support services, cancer patients and survivors are not aware of many of these resources. Without access to community programs, cancer survivors are at risk for lower quality of care and lower quality of life. At the same time, non-profit community organizations lack access to advanced consumer informatics applications to effectively promote awareness of their services. In addition to the current models of print and online resource guides, new community-driven informatics approaches are needed to achieve the goal of comprehensive care for cancer survivors. We present the formulation of a novel model for synthesizing a local community’s collective wisdom of cancer-related resources through a combination of online social networking technologies and real-world collaborative partnerships. This approach can improve awareness of essential, but underutilized community resources.
PMCID: PMC2656050  PMID: 18999298
23.  Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7th annual texas conference on health disparities 
There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD), a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE), aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center's outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was “Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies”. The scientific program consisted of three sessions: “Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer”, “Triple Negative Breast Cancer,” and “Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer” featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.
doi:10.4103/1477-3163.102950
PMCID: PMC3515942  PMID: 23230393
Breast cancer; conference; disparities; proceedings; triple negative breast cancer
24.  Adolescent Cancer Education (ACE) to increase adolescent and parent cancer awareness and communication: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2013;14:286.
Background
Raising cancer awareness among adolescents has potential to increase their knowledge and confidence in identifying cancer symptoms and seeking timely medical help in adolescence and adulthood. Detecting cancer at an early stage is important because it reduces the risk of dying of some cancers and thereby contributes to improved cancer survival. Adolescents may also play an important role in increasing cancer communication within families. However, there are no randomised controlled trials (RCT) of the effectiveness of school-based educational interventions to increase adolescents’ cancer awareness, and little is known about the role of adolescents in the upward diffusion of cancer knowledge to parents/carers. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention to raise adolescent and parent cancer awareness and adolescent-parent cancer communication.
Methods
The Adolescent Cancer Education (ACE) study is a school-based, cluster RCT. Twenty secondary schools in the area covered by Glasgow City Council will be recruited. Special schools for adolescents whose additional needs cannot be met in mainstream education are excluded. Schools are randomised to receive a presentation delivered by a Teenage Cancer Trust educator in Autumn 2013 (intervention group) or Spring 2014 following completion of six-month follow-up measures (control group). Participants will be students recruited at the end of their first year of secondary education (S1) (age 12 to 13 years) and one parent/carer for each student, of the student’s choice. The primary outcome is recognition of cancer symptoms two weeks post-intervention. Secondary outcomes are parents’ cancer awareness and adolescent-parent cancer communication. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (when adolescents are in the final term of S1), two-week, and six-month follow-up (when adolescents are in S2, age 13 to 14 years). Differences in outcomes between trial arms will be tested using multiple regression methods, adjusted for clustering by school. An audit of cancer-related and health-promotion activity within the school curriculum and environment during the RCT will be conducted at six-month follow-up to contextualise the intervention effect.
Discussion
Results from the ACE study will provide evidence about the public health effectiveness of a school-based intervention designed to increase adolescent and parent cancer awareness and adolescent-parent cancer communication.
Trial registration
ISRCTN75542411
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-286
PMCID: PMC3846788  PMID: 24011093
25.  Afghan immigrant women's knowledge and behaviors around breast cancer screening 
Psycho-oncology  2012;22(8):10.1002/pon.3216.
Background
This community-based participatory research was conducted to provide a preliminary understanding of how Afghan women in Northern California view their breast health.
Methods
Results were based on demographics and in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 53 non-English-speaking first-generation immigrant Muslim Afghan women 40 years and older.
Results
Findings showed low levels of knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and low utilization of early-detection examinations for breast cancer among participants.
Conclusions
The findings also suggest a significant need for a community-based breast health education program that recognizes the unique social, cultural, and religious dynamics of the Muslim Afghan community.
doi:10.1002/pon.3216
PMCID: PMC3810420  PMID: 23225210

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