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1.  Lung Volumes and Emphysema in Smokers with Interstitial Lung Abnormalities 
The New England journal of medicine  2011;364(10):897-906.
BACKGROUND
Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known.
METHODS
We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema.
RESULTS
Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (−0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.596 to −0.292; P<0.001) and a lower percentage of emphysema defined by lung-attenuation thresholds of −950 Hounsfield units (−3%; 95% CI, −4 to −2; P<0.001) and −910 Hounsfield units (−10%; 95% CI, −12 to −8; P<0.001). As compared with participants without interstitial lung abnormalities, those with abnormalities were more likely to have a restrictive lung deficit (total lung capacity <80% of the predicted value; odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.7; P<0.001) and were less likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking.
CONCLUSIONS
In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities — which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans — were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1007285
PMCID: PMC3074462  PMID: 21388308
2.  A retired shipyard worker with rapidly progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1999;107(4):321-327.
We present a case of progressive interstitial fibrosis in a retired shipyard worker who was exposed to asbestos during the postwar era of the late 1940s and 1950s, when asbestos exposures in the workplace were not regulated. Forty years later, at 63 years of age, the patient presented with restrictive lung disease. The patient was diagnosed with asbestos-related pleural disease and parenchymal asbestosis. He remained stable for the next 7 years, but then he began to manifest rapid clinical progression, which raised the possibility of an unusual variant of asbestosis, a concomitant interstitial process, or an unrelated disease. Lung biopsy was not undertaken because of the patient's low pulmonary reserve and limited treatment options. An empiric trial of oral steroids was initiated, but his pulmonary status continued to deteriorate and he died of pulmonary failure at 72 years of age. Many diseases result in pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Ideally, open lung biopsy should be performed, but this procedure inevitably causes complications in many patients with end-stage restrictive lung disease. Furthermore, while the presence of asbestos bodies in tissue sections is a sensitive and specific marker of asbestos exposure, neither this finding nor any other charge is a marker indicative of asbestosis or the severity of asbestosis. With the enactment of the Asbestos Standard in the United States, asbestos exposures have been decreasing in this country. However, industries that produce asbestos products and wastes continue to expand in developing countries. Prevention of asbestos-related lung disease should be a global endeavor, and asbestos exposures should be regulated in both developed and developing countries.
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PMCID: PMC1566510  PMID: 10090713
3.  Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1 
Thorax  1969;24(2):186-191.
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis.
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PMCID: PMC471939  PMID: 5822250
4.  Prediction of postoperative exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia in patients with lung cancer and interstitial lung disease 
Postoperative exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia in patients with lung cancer and interstitial lung disease has emerged as a serious problem. Therefore, the risk factors for postoperative exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia in patients with interstitial lung disease must be identified. We analyzed 22 patients diagnosed as having lung cancer with interstitial lung disease who underwent surgical treatment at the Kitasato University Hospital. Among the patients with lung cancer and interstitial lung disease, 5 patients (22.7%) had postoperative exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. The prognosis of the patients with postoperative exacerbation was significantly poorer than that of patients without. Patients with postoperative exacerbation had a significantly higher age (≥75 years) and a significantly lower frequency of postoperative administration of steroid than patients without postoperative exacerbation. Almost all patients with postoperative exacerbation underwent lobectomy, had elevated KL-6 levels in the serum pre-operatively, and had significantly advanced stages of disease. Of the 5 patients with postoperative exacerbation, 2 had a history of inflammation prior to their exacerbation: 1 had a common cold and the other pyothorax. In patients with lung cancer and interstitial lung disease, advanced age, advanced stage disease, no postoperative administration of steroid and a pre-operative episode of inflammation are all risk factors for postoperative exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.342
PMCID: PMC3440811  PMID: 22977623
lung cancer; interstitial lung disease; postoperative exacerbation
5.  Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and systemic lupus erythematosus 
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) commonly found among healthy smokers. ILD is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and typically associated with a histopathological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The present article describes an unusual case of DIP in a non-smoking patient with SLE presenting as NSIP. DIP can occur in the context of SLE in patients with a negative smoking history, and clinicians should consider lung biopsy to correctly classify ILD with unusual presentation on computed tomography scan.
PMCID: PMC3299041  PMID: 22332137
Connective tissue disease; Interstitial lung disease; Lupus
6.  The benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial 
Background
Interstitial lung disease encompasses a diverse group of chronic lung conditions characterised by distressing dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance and poor health-related quality of life. Exercise training is one of the few treatments to induce positive changes in exercise tolerance and symptoms, however there is marked variability in response. The aetiology and severity of interstitial lung disease may influence the response to treatment. The aims of this project are to establish the impact of exercise training across the range of disease severity and to identify whether there is an optimal time for patients with interstitial lung disease to receive exercise training.
Methods/Design
One hundred and sixteen participants with interstitial lung disease recruited from three tertiary institutions will be randomised to either an exercise training group (supervised exercise training twice weekly for eight weeks) or a usual care group (weekly telephone support). The 6-minute walk distance, peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life, dyspnoea, anxiety and depression will be measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at six months following the intervention. The primary outcome will be change in 6-minute walk distance following the intervention, with planned subgroup analyses for participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, dust-related interstitial lung disease and connective-tissue related interstitial lung disease. The effects of disease severity on outcomes will be evaluated using important markers of disease severity and survival, such as forced vital capacity, carbon monoxide transfer factor and pulmonary hypertension.
Discussion
This trial will provide certainty regarding the role of exercise training in interstitial lung disease and will identify at what time point within the disease process this treatment is most effective. The results from this study will inform and optimise the clinical management of people with interstitial lung disease.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000416998
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-13-8
PMCID: PMC3564686  PMID: 23369075
Interstitial lung diseases; Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; Asbestosis; Sarcoidosis; Hypersensitivity pneumonitis; Connective tissue diseases; Exercise; Rehabilitation
7.  MMP1 and MMP7 as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(4):e93.
Background
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive fibrotic lung disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a peripheral blood protein signature in IPF and whether components of this signature may serve as biomarkers for disease presence and progression.
Methods and Findings
We analyzed the concentrations of 49 proteins in the plasma of 74 patients with IPF and in the plasma of 53 control individuals. We identified a combinatorial signature of five proteins—MMP7, MMP1, MMP8, IGFBP1, and TNFRSF1A—that was sufficient to distinguish patients from controls with a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.7%–100%) and specificity of 98.1% (95% CI 89.9%–100%). Increases in MMP1 and MMP7 were also observed in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from IPF patients. MMP7 and MMP1 plasma concentrations were not increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or sarcoidosis and distinguished IPF compared to subacute/chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a disease that may mimic IPF, with a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% CI 81.0%–100%) and specificity of 87.2% (95% CI 72.6%–95.7%). We verified our results in an independent validation cohort composed of patients with IPF, familial pulmonary fibrosis, subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD), as well as with control individuals. MMP7 and MMP1 concentrations were significantly higher in IPF patients compared to controls in this cohort. Furthermore, MMP7 concentrations were elevated in patients with subclinical ILD and negatively correlated with percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) and percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO%).
Conclusions
Our experiments provide the first evidence for a peripheral blood protein signature in IPF to our knowledge. The two main components of this signature, MMP7 and MMP1, are overexpressed in the lung microenvironment and distinguish IPF from other chronic lung diseases. Additionally, increased MMP7 concentration may be indicative of asymptomatic ILD and reflect disease progression.
Naftali Kaminski and colleagues find increased levels of specific proteins in the bloodstream of individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and suggest that these proteins may ultimately provide a biomarker for the disease.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious disease in which the lungs become progressively scarred or thickened for unknown reasons. In healthy people, air is taken in through the mouth or nose and travels down the windpipe into tubes in the lungs called the airways. Each airway has many small branches that end in alveoli, tiny air sacs with thin walls that are surrounded by small blood vessels called capillaries. When air reaches the alveoli, the oxygen in it passes into the bloodstream and is taken to the organs of the body to keep them working. In IPF, the alveoli and the space around them (the “interstitial” area) gradually become scarred and thickened, which stops oxygen's movement into the bloodstream. When only small areas of the lung are scarred, IPF may cause no symptoms. But, as more of the lung becomes damaged, IPF eventually causes breathlessness, even when resting. There is no effective treatment for IPF, although steroids and drugs that suppress the body's immune system are often tried in an attempt to slow its progression. On average, half of the people with IPF die within three years of diagnosis, often from respiratory or heart failure.
Why Was This Study Done?
It can be difficult to diagnose IPF—there are many lung diseases with similar symptoms, including numerous other interstitial lung diseases—and currently, physicians can only follow the progression of IPF by repeatedly testing their patients' lung function or by doing multiple chest X-rays. If proteins could be identified whose level in blood indicated disease activity (so-called “peripheral blood biomarkers”), it would be easier to diagnose and monitor patients. In addition, the identification of such biomarkers might suggest new drug targets for the treatment of IPF. In this study, the researchers look for peripheral blood biomarkers in IPF by using a “multiplex analysis” system to measure the level of several proteins in patient blood samples simultaneously.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers measured the levels of 49 plasma proteins (plasma is the fluid part of blood) in 74 patients with IPF and 53 healthy people (controls) and used a technique called “recursive partitioning” to define a five-protein signature that distinguished patients from unaffected study participants (controls). Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and MMP1—the two plasma proteins whose levels were most increased in patients with IPF compared to controls—were key components of this signature. Concentrations of MMP7 and MMP1 were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage samples (fluid obtained by washing out the lungs with saline) and in lung tissue samples from patients with IPF than in similar samples taken from healthy individuals. Plasma concentrations of MMP7 and MMP1 were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, an interstitial lung disease that mimics IPF, but not increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or sarcoidosis, two other lung diseases. In an independent validation group, patients with IPF and familial pulmonary fibrosis had increased plasma concentrations of MMP7 and MMP1 that correlated with the severity of their disease. In addition, MMP7 concentrations were raised in close relatives of people with familial pulmonary fibrosis who had normal lung function tests but some lung scarring.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings provide evidence for a protein signature in the blood for IPF and suggest MMP1 and MMP7 may be useful as biomarkers for IPF. These two matrix metalloproteinases have previously been suggested to be involved in the development of IPF. However, additional work is probably needed to confirm that increased plasma concentrations MMP7 and MMP1 are specific for IPF, since it may be that these markers will not distinguish IPF from other interstitial lung diseases.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050093.
Read a related PLoS Medicine Perspective article
The MedlinePlus Encyclopedia has a page on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (in English and Spanish) and on pulmonary fibrosis
The US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the British Lung Foundation also provide information on IPF for patients and relatives
Some of the researchers involved in this study provide more details about what might go wrong in IPF in a recent PLoS Medicine article
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050093
PMCID: PMC2346504  PMID: 18447576
8.  Interstitial lung disease in classic and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: a retrospective study with screening recommendations 
Archives of dermatology  2010;146(7):729-738.
Objectives
(1) Determine the prevalence of interstitial lung disease and isolated low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in a large cohort of dermatomyositis outpatients. (2) Compare the pulmonary abnormalities of classic dermatomyositis (CDM) and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) patients.
Design
Retrospective cohort study.
Setting
University hospital outpatient dermatology referral center.
Patients
Records of 91 outpatients with adult-onset dermatomyositis seen between May 26, 2006 and May 25, 2009 were reviewed.
Main Outcome Measures
Presence of interstitial lung disease on thin slice chest computed tomography (CT) scans and DLCO.
Results
Of the 71 dermatomyositis patients who had CT or DLCO data, 23% (16/71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13–33%) had interstitial lung disease as defined by CT results. All interstitial lung disease patients had a reduced DLCO, and the interstitial lung disease prevalence was not different between CADM (29% [10/35]) and CDM (17% [6/36]) patients (p=0.27). Twenty-five percent (18/71, 95% CI = 15–36%) of patients (20% [7/35], CADM; 31% [11/36], CDM; p=0.41), had an isolated low DLCO in the absence of CT findings showing interstitial lung disease.
Conclusions
Established interstitial lung disease and isolated reductions in DLCO, which may signify early interstitial lung disease or pulmonary hypertension, are very common in both classic and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis dermatology outpatients. As the DLCO is an inexpensive test that is sensitive for pulmonary disease, it may be appropriate to screen all dermatomyositis patients with serial DLCO measurements and base further testing on DLCO results.
doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2010.134
PMCID: PMC3010864  PMID: 20644033
9.  Lung in Dengue: Computed Tomography Findings 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96313.
Background
Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever with or without warning signs, or severe dengue. Lower respiratory symptoms are unusual and lung-imaging data in patients with dengue are scarce.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To evaluate lung changes associated with dengue infection, we retrospectively analyzed 2,020 confirmed cases of dengue. Twenty-nine of these patients (11 females and 18 males aged 16–90 years) underwent chest computed tomography (CT), which yielded abnormal findings in 17 patients: 16 patients had pleural effusion (the sole finding in six patients) and 11 patients had pulmonary abnormalities. Lung parenchyma involvement ranged from subtle to moderate unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. The most common finding was ground-glass opacity in eight patients, followed by consolidation in six patients. Less common findings were airspace nodules (two patients), interlobular septal thickening (two patients), and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (one patient). Lung histopathological findings in four fatal cases showed thickening of the alveolar septa, hemorrhage, and interstitial edema.
Conclusions/Significance
In this largest series involving the use of chest CT to evaluate lung involvement in patients with dengue, CT findings of lower respiratory tract involvement were uncommon. When abnormalities were present, pleural effusion was the most frequent finding and lung involvement was often mild or moderate and bilateral. Extensive lung abnormalities are infrequent even in severe disease and when present should lead physicians to consider other diagnostic possibilities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096313
PMCID: PMC4023925  PMID: 24836605
10.  THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES AND THE FATE OF LIVING TUBERCLE BACILLI IN THE ORGANS OF TUBERCULOUS RABBITS 
It has been found that although there is some parallelism between the quantity of tubercle bacilli demonstrable histologically and the number of colonies that can be isolated from a given tissue, the culture method is far the more efficient in indicating quantitative relations. Tubercle bacilli were not perceived in the organs of rabbits 1 day after infection with the modified BCG although as many as 1,500 colonies were isolated from one of them. This may be solely because it is difficult to see widely dispersed single minute acid-fast rods in the diffuse infiltrations of mononuclears with their hyperchromatic nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. Later, with the formation of tubercle, the parallelism is much closer. The culture method gives evidence concerning the number of living tubercle bacilli in the tissue. The significance of the accumulation of acid-fast particles in the tissues has been discussed. It has been seen that from the beginning this accumulation is greater in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the spleen and in the reticular cells of the bone marrow than within the mononuclears of the lung, the organ where the bacilli grow with the greatest rapidity and are destroyed with the greatest difficulty. Acid-fast particles are more prominent with the bovine than with the human bacillus or the BCG, the microorganism that is destroyed with the greatest difficulty thus leaving more incompletely digested bacillary debris at a given time within the cells. Thus it seems permissible to conclude from the presence of acid-fast material that some tubercle bacilli are undergoing destruction even 24 hours after infection. The initial accumulation of polynuclear leucocytes corresponds with the subsequent severity of the infection. Despite the greater primary localization of bacilli in the liver, this initial inflammatory reaction with all three infections is much greater in the lung than in the liver. In each organ it is more intense with the bovine than with the less virulent strains. The multiplication of the bacillus and its accumulation within large mononuclear and young epithelioid cells is accompanied by an intense formation of new mononuclears by mitosis. The more rapid the growth of the bacillus, the more conspicuous the regeneration of these cells. Thus with all strains mitosis is more intense in the more susceptible organ, as in the lung compared with the liver; with the most virulent strain the most extensive and diffuse accumulation of these new cells corresponds with the greater rise in the numbers of bovine bacilli after the lag of the 1st week. With the maturation of the epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercles the bacilli have already been greatly reduced numerically and the speed of this process diminishes with the virulence of the three strains used. The faster the development of tubercle the faster the destruction of the bacillus and the earlier the resorption of the tubercle. Tubercle bacilli never accumulate in such large numbers in the mononuclears of the liver as they do in the lung. Though at first the tubercles in the liver may be more numerous than those in the lung they never attain the same size. The formation of new mononuclears by mitosis is restricted and Langhans' giant cells appear very early (1st and 2nd weeks). In the lung, giant cells are not found until much later with the BCG and the human bacillus (4th week); they were not noted in the interstitial tubercles with the bovine type, but the extension of these tubercles was accompanied by an unabated mitosis of mononuclears until the death of the animal. The liver tubercles are resorbed early even with the bovine infection. Associated with these histological differences are the slow initial growth and the early and complete destruction of the tubercle bacilli even of bovine type in the liver, and the more rapid initial growth in the lung, with the later destruction of the BCG and the human bacillus and the unabated growth of the bovine bacillus. Similar differences were observed between the splenic pulp and corpuscle. In the former the accumulation of acid-fast particles was much greater and the tubercles developed earlier. Mitosis of mononuclears was less frequent and giant cells appeared earlier. Tubercle bacilli, always intracellular, disappeared from the tubercles in the pulp sooner than from those in the corpuscle, and the tubercles themselves first disappeared from the pulp. Consequently with the persistence of bacilli mitosis continued in the tubercles of the corpuscle and these attained a much larger size. Moreover individual resistance is linked with the ability to form mature tubercles early. In two animals simultaneously infected with the same strain and killed at the same time, the destruction or retardation of the bacillus is greater in that rabbit in which maturation of the tubercle and of epithelioid cells has proceeded further (Figs. 15 and 16). These observations indicate that the mononuclears of different organs or even of the same organ, as in the different parts of the spleen, have a different capacity to destroy the tubercle bacillus, and that the transformation of the mononuclear into the mature epithelioid cell follows its destruction of the tubercle bacilli. In the lung the more virulent types of bacillus are destroyed within the epithelioid cells of interstitial tubercles but persist in foci of tuberculous pneumonia. In this organ in rabbits infected with the human strain and to a lesser degree in rabbits infected with the bovine strain, the parasite largely disappears from the epithelioid cells of interstitial tubercles. But with both strains tubercle bacilli in large numbers may accumulate within epithelioid cells lying free in the alveoli. With the human type they are numerous within the cells and free in caseous material in the localized foci of caseous pneumonia. With the bovine infection, this caseous pneumonia is more often widespread and in the areas of caseous pneumonia the greater part of the vast accumulation of bovine bacilli in the lungs is found; as many as 200,000 colonies have been isolated from 10 mg. of tissue (Fig. 11). Flooding of the respiratory passages by the caseation of tuberculous lesions into the bronchi plays an important rôle in dissemination of tubercle bacilli through the lung. The process on the contrary is predominantly interstitial when the bovine bacillus is held in check (Fig. 12). Thus there is apparently some factor acting in the alveoli that favors the growth of the parasite. The accumulation of tubercle bacilli is seen especially in the peripheral epithelioid cells in immediate contact with the alveolar space. In the same lung the bacilli are much fewer in the interstitial tubercles. The accumulation in human tuberculosis of large numbers of tubercle bacilli in the tissues lining cavities is well known. Novy and Soule (20) have shown that within certain limits the growth of the bacillus in vitro is proportional to the oxygen tension of its environment. Corper, Lurie and Uyei (21) have confirmed these observations and have noted further that a difference in the gaseous environment of the bacilli equal to the difference between the conditions existing in the alveolar air and the venous blood is sufficient to cause a considerable increase in the growth of the microorganism in vitro. Loebel, Shorr and Richardson (22) by the use of Warburg's manometer have found that the oxygen consumption of tuberculous tissue is such that a tubercle 0.5 mm. thick would completely exhaust the oxygen of the air before it reached the center. These observations suggest that a factor responsible for the greater multiplication of the bacillus in the cells of the alveoli may be the greater oxygen tension of the alveolar air. In the liver, spleen and bone marrow even with the bovine infection many instances were found of the effective destruction of the parasite synchronously with the maturation of epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercle. On the other hand, in the spleen and bone marrow of some rabbits, living bacilli persisted within the epithelioid cells of isolated tubercles even 2 months after infection, a condition never found with the human type or BCG infection. Thus the epithelioid cell is the means of defense for the rabbit against the bovine type bacillus, and as such it is usually adequate in the liver, spleen and bone marrow though ineffective in the lung and kidney. In the latter, descending infection, and the occasional colony-like multiplication of bacilli in unorganized material, tubular casts, determine the long persistence of large numbers of bacilli in this organ. In differentiating the mononuclear phagocyte of the connective tissues into the monocyte and clasmatocyte Sabin and her coworkers (23) have maintained that the clasmatocyte can efficiently destroy the tubercle bacillus but that the monocyte and its derivatives, the epithelioid and Langhans' giant cells, cannot. With the progress of the disease they have noted that the monocytes accumulate in great numbers in the foci of infection and overflow into general circulation (4). White (24) and Sabin and her coworkers have concluded that tuberculosis is specifically a disease of the monocyte, and that this cell and its derivatives act as incubators for the tubercle bacillus. Doan and Sabin (25) have therefore sought, with indecisive results, to protect the body against tuberculosis by an antimonocytic serum. However it has been shown here that although an intense multiplication of mononuclears is associated with the growth of the tubercle bacillus, their transformation into mature epithelioid cells is constantly associated with its destruction, and the rapidity of the destruction varies with the rapidity of the maturation of tubercle. Even in the bovine infection the epithelioid cells destroy the bacilli in the liver, spleen and bone marrow as a rule, and even in the lung, keep them in check in the interstitial tubercles. The appearance of giant cells is associated with cessation or diminution of mononuclear regeneration by mitosis, and is coincident with cessation of multiplication or marked reduction in the number of living bacilli. They therefore appear earlier and in larger numbers in these organs or parts of organs that first destroy the bacillus (Figs. 16 and 17). They were not observed even 2 months after the bovine infection in the interstitial tubercles in the lung. Their absence and the continued mitosis of mononuclears, which accounts for the massive pneumonic and interstitial consolidation of the lung with this infection, were associated with the failure of the lung to destroy effectively the bovine parasite. The formation of giant cells in the pneumonic foci in the bovine infection would seem to be an exception to this rule. The Langhans giant cells have often been considered an indication of the chronicity of the pathological process. It would appear that they are formed from existing epithelioid cells when the multiplication of the bacillus has ceased and the stimulus for the formation of new cells has decreased or stopped. Giant cells were most conspicuous in the liver and splenic pulp where, with the BCG infection, no caseation ever developed, and in the liver before caseation was seen anywhere in the body. In the human and bovine infections, giant cells formed in the liver before caseation appeared. Hence caseation is not a necessary requirement for giant cell formation, as maintained by Medlar (26), though these cells frequently form about caseous material. Lymphocytes and granulation tissue do not cause the destruction of tubercle bacilli, these being destroyed in their absence. They usually appear about tubercles due to all strains and in all organs, after the greater part of the microorganisms have been destroyed (Fig. 18). The bacilli are not destroyed in the lung with bovine infection where the tubercles are usually little permeated by lymphocytes and granulation tissue. There is however, no constant relation between granulation tissue and destruction of tubercle bacilli, for in the lung after the human infection and even in other organs after the bovine infection isolated tubercles may be surrounded and penetrated by lymphocytes and granulation tissue at a time when considerable numbers of living bacilli are still histologically demonstrable within the epithelioid cells. Caseation is usually not caused by the local accumulation of tubercle bacilli. At first, when the BCG (after 1 week) and the human microorganism (after 2 weeks) are present in the cells in very large numbers as demonstrated both histologically and by culture (Figs. 4 and 13) there is no necrosis of these cells. An exception to this rule found in the lung with the bovine infection is considered below. Later, after the bacilli have been destroyed to a great extent and even though the number of bacilli is small, caseation appears (Fig. 14). After this preliminary destruction the extent of caseation apparently varies with the number of residual bacilli. With the least virulent microorganism, the BCG, few bacilli remained in the liver in the 4th week and no caseation was seen. In the tubercles of the splenic corpuscle at the same time bacilli were somewhat more numerous and there was scant caseation. On the other hand with the human bacillus after 4 weeks more bacilli survived and caseation was more extensive in both organs; with the bovine microorganism tubercle bacilli were much more numerous and caseation was far advanced. In the lung, however, caseation appeared with the first considerable accumulation of the bovine bacilli present 2 weeks after inoculation. That the bovine bacillus is primarily more injurious to the lung of rabbits than the BCG or the human bacillus is suggested by the greater intensity of the initial inflammation and by the more conspicuous accumulation of cells in the alveoli evident from the very beginning of infection. Maximow (27) showed that bovine bacilli even in small numbers cause the death of cells in tissue cultures of rabbit lymph nodes whereas the BCG or the human bacillus may accumulate within the cells in tremendous numbers without injuring them. Nevertheless in the liver, spleen and bone marrow of the living animal, caseation does not appear at the time when bovine bacilli are most abundant, but after they have been greatly reduced in numbers. Large numbers of the less virulent types of tubercle bacilli accumulated in different organs a short time after infection do not cause caseation, and with the bovine infection caseation under the same conditions occurs only in the lung. Later when the animal is sensitized caseation occurs in various organs in the presence of the small numbers of tubercle bacilli that remain in the tissues after most of them have been destroyed, and the extent of this caseation varies with the numbers of residual bacilli. These observations suggest that a large number of bacilli fail to cause necrosis soon after infection whereas a few bacilli produce caseation in the animal that is sensitized. Many investigators have held that caseation is due to sensitization. Krause (28), Huebschman (29) and Pagel (30) think that caseation is caused by the action of tuberculin-like substances on the sensitized tissues of the allergic animal. Rich and McCordock (31) view the process in essentially the same light. Recently Schleussing (32) has suggested that caseation is a coagulation necrosis in Weigert's sense of an allergically inflamed tissue, and is similar to the necrosis of the Arthus phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC2132067  PMID: 19869977
11.  Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with mild and severe rheumatoid lung disease. 
Thorax  1990;45(8):591-596.
The reported prevalence of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has varied from 10% to 50%, yet less than 5% of patients with arthritis develop severe fibrosing interstitial lung disease. This suggests that subclinical disease may not always presage progressive disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and either clinically evident interstitial lung disease or subclinical disease was examined for the presence of factors with a putative role in the development of interstitial fibrosis. Patients with subclinical disease were identified by prospective radiographic and lung function screening of 93 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fourteen patients were identified in this manner and an association between subclinical disease and smoking history was noted. Eleven patients with established interstitial lung disease had increased neutrophils (p less than 0.05), collagenase, and type III procollagen N terminal peptide levels (p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Preliminary characterisation of the bronchoalveolar lavage collagenase suggested that it originated from neutrophils. Ten patients with subclinical interstitial lung disease underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Of these, one had increased neutrophils and two had increased collagenase concentrations--abnormalities associated with advanced interstitial lung disease and a poor prognosis. These results suggest that in arthritis patients with evidence of subclinical pulmonary interstitial disease bronchoalveolar lavage might be useful in identifying those who may require careful monitoring in the hope that early treatment will prevent severe fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC462634  PMID: 2169654
12.  Coronary Artery Disease Is Under-diagnosed and Under-treated in Advanced Lung Disease 
The American journal of medicine  2012;125(12):1228.e13-1228.e22.
BACKGROUND
Coronary artery disease is a potentially treatable comorbidity observed frequently in both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The prevalence of angiographically proven coronary artery disease in advanced lung disease is not well described. We sought to characterize the treatment patterns of coronary artery disease complicating advanced lung disease and to describe the frequency of occult coronary artery disease in this population.
METHODS
We performed a 2-center, retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease evaluated for lung transplantation. Medications and diagnoses before the transplant evaluation were recorded in conjunction with left heart catheterization results.
RESULTS
Of 473 subjects, 351 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 122 had interstitial lung disease. In subjects diagnosed clinically with coronary artery disease, medical regimens included a statin in 78%, antiplatelet therapy in 62%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in 42%, and a beta-blocker in 37%. Ten percent were on no medication from these 4 classes. Fifty-seven percent of these subjects were on an antiplatelet agent as well as a statin, and 13% were on neither. Beta-blockers were less frequently prescribed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than interstitial lung disease (23% vs 58%, P = .007). Coronary angiography was available in 322 subjects. It demonstrated coronary artery disease in 60% of subjects, and severe coronary artery disease in 16%. Occult coronary artery disease and severe occult coronary artery disease were found in 53% and 9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in angiographic results between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease, despite imbalanced risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Coronary artery disease is common in patients with advanced lung disease attributable to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease and is under-diagnosed. Guideline-recommended cardioprotective medications are suboptimally utilized in this population.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.05.018
PMCID: PMC3732035  PMID: 22959785
COPD; Coronary artery disease; Interstitial lung disease; Lung transplantation; Pulmonary fibrosis
13.  Eosinophil-mediated injury to lung parenchymal cells and interstitial matrix. A possible role for eosinophils in chronic inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;74(1):269-278.
Eosinophils are a common component of the inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that characterizes the interstitial lung disorders. Bronchoalveolar lavage analyses (n = 680) of 251 patients with interstitial lung disease demonstrated that eosinophils represented greater than 5% of the effector cells comprising the alveolitis in 20% of all lavages. In contrast, lavage of normal individuals (n = 117) showed that eosinophils were never greater than 5% of the total effector cells recovered. To evaluate a possible role for eosinophils in mediating some of the cellular and connective tissue matrix derangements of the lung parenchyma found in interstitial disease, eosinophils were evaluated for the presence of proteases capable of cleaving connective tissue proteins found in the lung and for the ability to mediate cytotoxicity to lung parenchymal cells. Evaluation of guinea pig and human eosinophils demonstrated that eosinophil granules contained a collagenase that specifically cleaved human collagen types I and III, the two major connective tissue components of the human lung parenchyma. In contrast, the eosinophil did not contain an elastase or a nonspecific neutral protease. The eosinophil collagenase appeared to be a metalloprotease, as it was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phenylmethanesulfonyl-fluoride or alpha 1-antitrypsin. The eosinophil also has the capacity to injure lung parenchymal cells. Without further stimulation, eosinophils purified from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), cat lung epithelial cells (AK-D) and rat lung mesothelial cells (I6B). Under identical conditions, the epithelial cells were more sensitive to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity than the fibroblasts or mesothelial cells (P less than 0.01), consistent with the clinical observation that in the interstitial disorders, the alveolar epithelial cells are damaged more commonly than fibroblasts or pleural cells. The eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity could be partially inhibited by the antioxidants catalase and dimethylsulfoxide suggesting that toxic oxygen radicals play a role in mediating the cellular damage. Importantly, eosinophils purified from bronchoalveolar lavage of human interstitial lung disease also demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for lung epithelial cells. These observations demonstrate that eosinophils are frequent participants of the alveolitis of the interstitial lung disorders and suggest that these cells have the potential to damage the parenchymal cells and collagen matrix of the lower respiratory tract.
Images
PMCID: PMC425209  PMID: 6330175
14.  Rare lung diseases I – Lymphangioleiomyomatosis 
The present article is the first in a series that will review selected rare lung diseases. The objective of this series is to promote a greater understanding and awareness of these unusual conditions among respirologists. Each article will begin with a case that serves as a focal point for a discussion of the pathophysiology and management of the particular condition. The first article is on lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); subsequent articles will focus on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
LAM is a rare, progressive and (without intervention) often fatal interstitial lung disease that predominantly affects women of childbearing age. LAM is characterized by progressive interstitial infiltration of the lung by smooth muscle cells, resulting in diffuse cystic changes of the lung parenchyma. The molecular basis of this disorder has been delineated over the past five years and LAM is now known to be a consequence of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis genes. This knowledge, combined with advances in our understanding of the signalling pathways regulated by these genes, has given rise to potential molecular therapies that hold great promise for treating this devastating disease.
PMCID: PMC2683291  PMID: 17036091
Chylothorax; Lymphatic channels; Molecular therapy; Pneumothorax; Sirolimus; Tuberous sclerosis
15.  Accuracy of mortality data for interstitial lung diseases in New Mexico, USA. 
Thorax  1996;51(7):717-720.
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity and accuracy of death certificates and mortality data as sources of population based data on the occurrence of interstitial lung diseases has received limited attention. To determine the usefulness of these data sources, death certificates and mortality data from patients in New Mexico were examined. METHODS: Patients with an interstitial lung disease were identified from a population based registry. For subjects who had died, diagnostic information from their death certificates and from mortality data was compared with the clinical diagnoses made before death. RESULTS: Of 385 patients with a clinical diagnosis of an interstitial lung disease, 134 died between October 1988 and August 1994. Death certificates were obtained for 96% of these patients. An interstitial lung disease was listed somewhere on the death certificate for only 46% of the patients, and as an immediate cause of death for only 15%. For the patients with an interstitial lung disease listed somewhere on the death certificate the overall concordance between the diagnoses before death and those on the death certificate was 76%. Mortality data for the State of New Mexico showed a diagnosis of interstitial lung disease to be the assigned cause of death for only 22% of the patients. The overall agreement between the diagnoses made before death and those of the state mortality data was only 21%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that death certificates and state mortality data are neither sensitive nor accurate for describing the occurrence of interstitial lung diseases. This finding may partly explain the apparently low mortality rates from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the USA compared with other countries.
PMCID: PMC472495  PMID: 8882079
16.  Pulmonary Tuberculosis Confirmed by Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: Analysis of CT Findings and Review of Correlations with Underlying Lung Disease 
Balkan Medical Journal  2014;31(3):208-213.
Background:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can produce unusual radiographic findings. Further, negative sputum and bronchoscopic results are common. Early diagnosis is equally as significant as treatment in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary TB.
Aims:
The aim of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary TB, confirmed via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and to correlate these findings with coexisting, underlying, lung diseases if present.
Study Design:
Cross sectional study.
Methods:
We selected eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB by way of PTNB. Initially, acid-fast bacilli smear test results from these patients were negative. CT findings were reviewed to detect the presence of parenchymal abnormalities as follows: nodule(s) (<3 cm in diameter), mass (any masses ≥3 cm), daughter nodules, air-space consolidation, cavitation, calcification, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and associated lung parenchymal disease.
Results:
The CT findings of pulmonary TB confirmed by PTNB included nodules in 44 of 84 (52.4%) cases; 15 of these 44 cases (34.1%) had daughter nodules. The second most common finding was masses in 24 cases (28.6%), nine of which also had daughter nodules. 16 cases (19.0%) displayed nonsegmental consolidation. Of these 16 cases, four had coexisting usual interstitial pneumonia; four others had emphysema. Two patients with a mass had underlying pneumoconiosis.
Conclusion:
Nodules or a mass mimicking lung cancer were the most common findings on CT scans in patients with pulmonary TB, confirmed via PTNB. The second most common finding was airspace consolidation. Therefore, PNTB is useful for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary TB in the following cases: airspace consolidation or mass associated with underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, emphysema mimicking lung malignancy or cases of bacterial pneumonia.
doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.13187
PMCID: PMC4299964  PMID: 25625018
Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy; pulmonary; tuberculosis
17.  Development of imatinibmesylate-induced interstitial lung disease 2 weeks after discontinuation of the treatment: a case report 
Background
Imatinibmesylate (imatinib) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor administered to patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although imatinib-associated interstitial lung disease is uncommon, a few cases have been reported so far. However, in all these cases interstitial lung disease developed during the use of imatinib. The present case is the first report of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease developing after discontinuation of the drug.
Case presentation
A 51-year-old woman was administered oral imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ten weeks later, imatinib was discontinued because of facial edema. On this occasion, chest radiography showed no abnormal findings. However, 2 weeks after discontinuation of imatinib, she developed fever, dry cough, and dyspnea. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed diffuse interstitial infiltrates in both lungs. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed an increased proportion of lymphocytes. Imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease was suspected, because no other cause was evident. After administration of corticosteroids, her clinical condition and chest radiographic findings improved.
Conclusion
We report a unique case of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease that developed 2 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. Physicians should consider occurrence of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease even after discontinuation of the drug.
doi:10.1186/2049-6958-7-48
PMCID: PMC3537559  PMID: 23174134
Drug-induced interstitial lung disease; Drug-induced lung injury; Drug induced pneumonitis; Drug lymphocyte-stimulating test; Imatinibmesylate
18.  Clinical and radiological features of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs): a pictorial review 
Insights into Imaging  2014;5(3):347-364.
Objectives
To illustrate the clinical and radiological features of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification updated in 2013.
Methods
IIPs include a subset of diffuse and restrictive lung diseases, resulting from damage to the parenchyma characterised by inflammation and fibrosis of the interstitium. Classification into major and rare IIPs is based on the 2013 ATS/ERS committee.
Results
The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) needs to exclude other well-known causes of interstitial lung diseases. According to the 2011 evidence-based guidelines, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) can be diagnosed by HRCT when all criteria are fulfilled. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is characterised by patchy ground-glass opacities and irregular linear/reticular opacities. The imaging patterns of respiratory bronchiolitis associated-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) show centrolobular nodules and ground-glass opacities. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) consists of patchy peripheral or peribronchial consolidations, while ground-glass opacities are typically associated with diffuse lung consolidation, evolving to fibrosis, in acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Rare IIPs include lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuro-parenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE).
Conclusions
The knowledge of IIP imaging features on HRCT images help radiologists in diagnosis. Moreover, the overlap of imaging features needs a multidisciplinary approach.
Teaching Points
• UIP findings are reticulations, bronchiectasis, honeycombing and absence of inconsistent features.
• Bilateral patchy ground-glass areas represent the most encountered features in NSIP.
• Poorly defined centrilobular nodules are typical of RB-ILD, whereas a ground-glass appearance is typical of DIP.
• HRCT features of COP include characteristic peripheral or peribronchial patchy consolidations.
• Rare IIPs include idiopathic LIP and idiopathic pleuro-parenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE).
doi:10.1007/s13244-014-0335-3
PMCID: PMC4035488  PMID: 24844883
Radiology; Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; Classification; Lung disease interstitial; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
19.  A 55-year-old craftsman with dyspnea and clubbing: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8579.
Introduction
Clubbing is very uncommon in respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and primarily raises the suspicion of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a patient presenting with diffuse parenchymal lung disease. If idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be excluded, clubbing should raise the suspicion of an occult tumour.
Case presentation
We describe a heavy smoker presenting with dyspnea and severe clubbing. Surgical lung biopsy revealed the histologic diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease is a distinct clinicopathologic entity within idiopathic interstitial pneumonia patients described almost exclusively in cigarette smokers. The disease is associated with a good prognosis and mild symptoms but not with clubbing. After smoking cessation the radiologic findings of interstitial lung disease improved in parallel with improvement in lung function and gas exchange. However, a central squamous cell carcinoma was detected in the follow-up.
Conclusion
In this case, clubbing was most probably caused by the occult tumor rather than by respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8579
PMCID: PMC2769459  PMID: 19918389
20.  Alveolar epithelial cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition in acute interstitial pneumonia: a case report 
Background
Acute interstitial pneumonia is a rare interstitial lung disease that rapidly progresses to respiratory failure or death. Several studies showed that myofibroblast plays an important role in the evolution of diffuse alveolar damage, which is the typical feature of acute interstitial pneumonia. However, no evidence exists whether alveolar epithelial cells are an additional source of myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition in acute interstitial pneumonia.
Case presentation
In this report, we present a case of acute interstitial pneumonia in a previously healthy 28-year-old non-smoking woman. Chest high-resolution computed tomography scan showed bilateral and diffusely ground-glass opacification. The biopsy was performed on the fifth day of her hospitalization, and results showed manifestation of acute exudative phase of diffuse alveolar damage characterized by hyaline membrane formation. On the basis of the preliminary diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia, high-dose glucocorticoid was used. However, this drug showed poor clinical response and could improve the patient’s symptoms only during the early phase. The patient eventually died of respiratory dysfunction. Histological findings in autopsy were consistent with the late form of acute interstitial pneumonia.
Conclusions
The results in this study revealed that alveolar epithelial cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and may be an important origin of myofibroblasts in the progression of acute interstitial pneumonia. Conducting research on the transformation of alveolar epithelial cells into myofibroblasts in the lung tissue of patients with acute interstitial pneumonia may be beneficial for the treatment of this disease. However, to our knowledge, no research has been conducted on this topic.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-14-67
PMCID: PMC4013083  PMID: 24755111
Acute interstitial pneumonia; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Myofibroblast
21.  Idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:383.
Background
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a rare form of interstitial lung disease in children. Respiratory symptoms appear progressively, are often subtle, and diagnosis is often delayed by a mean of 6 months after onset. High resolution chest computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for demonstrating and identifying interstitial pneumonia. The typical histologic pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonia, with prominent clustered alveolar macrophages, diffuse reactive alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and globular proteinaceous material, is diagnostic. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in children can be idiopathic, though it is mostly related to an inborn error of surfactant metabolism.
Case presentation
We present the complex clinical course and pathologic findings of a 30-months-old Mauritian and Senegalese girl with idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia and multiple extrapulmonary manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of desquamative interstitial pneumonia to occur as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement.
Conclusion
We believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is not always associated with mutations of the surfactant proteins, and can still be idiopathic, especially when occurring as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement, as described in other interstitial lung diseases.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-383
PMCID: PMC4078007  PMID: 24954625
Pediatric interstitial lung disease; Desquamative interstitial pneumonia; Surfactant protein dysfunction; Multiorgan involvement
22.  A Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promoter Polymorphism and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia 
Molecular Medicine  2003;9(1-2):52-56.
The normal fibrinolytic activity within the alveolar space is suppressed in fibrotic lung diseases in part because of increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Studies with animals have shown that inhibition of the plasminogen system by PAI-1 increases the generation of pulmonary fibrosis. To determine if a similar relationship occurs in human fibrotic lung diseases, we took advantage of a polymorphism (4G/5G) that occurs in the promoter region of the human PAI-1 gene and influences the expression of PAI-1. We hypothesized that the 4G/4G genotype, because of its association with higher levels of PAI-1, would occur in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia more frequently than in a control population. PAI-1 promoter genotype was determined in 88 well-characterized patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia consisting of 62 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and 26 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded biopsy tissue and the genotype identified by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digestion. We found that the distribution of PAI-1 genotypes in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia population was similar to that of a large control population. However, subgroup analysis showed that patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia were more likely than the control population to have the promoter genotype (4G/4G) that is associated with higher levels of PAI-1. A similar pattern in PAI-1 polymorphism was not seen in the usual interstitial pneumonia subgroup. The results of this study support the conclusion that PAI-1 expression influences the development of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in a similar manner to what occurs in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. Patients with usual interstitial pneumonia did not show the same relationship with PAI-1 genotype.
PMCID: PMC1430380  PMID: 12765340
23.  Desaturation – distance ratio: a new concept for a functional assessment of interstitial lung diseases 
Clinics  2010;65(9):841-846.
INTRODUCTION:
The functional evaluation has become increasingly important in the understanding and management of patients with interstitial lung diseases. The cardiopulmonary exercise test and the six‐minute walk test (6MWT), through their isolated variables, have been used to do this evaluation, with some limitations.
OBJECTIVES:
We proposed a new composite index (desaturation distance ratio using continuous peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the distance walked as a more reliable tool for doing a functional evaluation of these patients.
METHODS:
6MWT was performed by interstitial lung diseases patients and controls. Analyzed parameters were walked distance and desaturation area (DAO2), obtained by taking the difference between maximal SpO2 possible (100%) and patient's SpO2 every 2 seconds. desaturation distance ratio was calculated using the ratio between DAO2 and distance walked.
RESULTS:
Forty‐nine interstitial lung diseases patients and 11 control subjects completed the protocol. The mean (SD) age was 60 (12) years and 65 (9) years, respectively (p:NS). Data obtained from 6MWT showed a significant statistical difference between interstitial lung diseases patients and controls: mean walked distance (430 and 602 meters, respectively); SpO2 minimal maintained at least 10 seconds ‐ SpO2 min (85% and 94%, respectively), and median desaturation distance ratio (10 and 2.5, respectively). A correlation analysis, considering interstitial lung diseases patients, revealed the best correlation between desaturation distance ratio and DLco (r =  ‐ 0.72; p<0.001), being the correlation between SpO2 min and DLco of 0.61 (p<0.001) and among walked distance and DLco of 0.58 (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Desaturation distance ratio is a promising concept and a more reliable physiologic tool to assess pulmonary diseases characterized by involvement of the alveolar‐capillary membrane, such as interstitial lung diseases.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000900005
PMCID: PMC2954734  PMID: 21049210
The six‐minute walk test; Pulmonary function tests; Interstitial lung diseases
24.  Inflammatory Cells as a Source of Airspace Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase after Pulmonary Injury 
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant abundant in the lung. Previous studies demonstrated depletion of lung parenchymal EC-SOD in mouse models of interstitial lung disease coinciding with an accumulation of EC-SOD in airspaces. EC-SOD sticks to the matrix by a proteolytically sensitive heparin-binding domain; therefore, we hypothesized that interstitial inflammation and matrix remodeling contribute to proteolytic redistribution of EC-SOD from lung parenchyma into the airspaces. To determine if inflammation limited to airspaces leads to EC-SOD redistribution, we examined a bacterial pneumonia model. This model led to increases in airspace polymorphonuclear leukocytes staining strongly for EC-SOD. EC-SOD accumulated in airspaces at 24 h without depletion of EC-SOD from lung parenchyma. This led us to hypothesize that airspace EC-SOD was released from inflammatory cells and was not a redistribution of matrix EC-SOD. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice with lung-specific expression of human EC-SOD were treated with asbestos or bleomycin to initiate an interstitial lung injury. In these studies, EC-SOD accumulating in airspaces was entirely the mouse isoform, demonstrating an extrapulmonary source (inflammatory cells) for this EC-SOD. We also demonstrate that EC-SOD knockout mice possess greater lung inflammation in response to bleomycin and bacteria when compared with wild types. We conclude that the source of accumulating EC-SOD in airspaces in interstitial lung disease is inflammatory cells and not the lung and that interstitial processes such as those found in pulmonary fibrosis are required to remove EC-SOD from lung matrix.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0212OC
PMCID: PMC2644184  PMID: 16224105
inflammation; neutrophils; pneumonia; proteolysis; superoxide dismutase
25.  Clinical significance of respiratory bronchiolitis on open lung biopsy and its relationship to smoking related interstitial lung disease 
Thorax  1999;54(11):1009-1014.
BACKGROUND—Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RBILD) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease which may present in similar fashion to other types of chronic interstitial pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to undertake a clinicopathological review of 10 patients with RBILD and to examine the clinical and imaging data related to its histopathological pattern, in particular the relationship of RBILD to smoking.
METHODS—Thirteen out of 168 retrospectively reviewed patients, from whom biopsy specimens were taken for suspected diffuse lung disease, were identified with a histopathological pattern of RBILD. Three cases were rejected as follow up data were unavailable. The 10remaining cases constituted the study group and both clinical and imaging data were collected from patients' notes and referring physicians.
RESULTS—Histopathologically, four cases of RBILD overlapped with the pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP) and nine also had microscopic evidence of centrilobular emphysema. Nine patients were smokers, ranging from 3 to 80 pack years. The one non-smoker had an occupational exposure to the fumes of solder flux. The sex distribution was equal with an age range of 32-65 years. Two patients were clubbed. Lung function tests showed both restrictive and obstructive patterns together with severe reductions in carbon monoxide transfer factor in seven patients. Chest radiographs showed reticular or reticulonodular infiltrates in five patients and a ground glass pattern in two. CT scans were consistent with either DIP or RBILD in six of eight patients. Although seven patients remained stable or improved, either with or without treatment, three patients deteriorated.
CONCLUSIONS—This study adds weight to the hypothesis that smoking can cause clinically significant interstitial lung disease, with deterioration in pulmonary function despite treatment. Given the overlapping histopathological patterns of RBILD and DIP and their strong association with smoking, the term "smoking related interstitial lung disease" is suggested for those patients who are smokers.


PMCID: PMC1745385  PMID: 10525560

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