Detection of micrometastasis in melanoma-draining lymph nodes is important for staging and prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) using S-100p-HMB-45–, and MART-1– specfic antibodies is used for detecting metastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). However, improvement in IHC is needed for melanoma micrometastasis detection.
Paraffin-embedded archival tissue (PEAT) specimens were obtained from 42 non-SLN macrometastases, 42 SLN metastases, and 16 tumor-negative SLNs of 100 melanoma patients who underwent SLN biopsy. PEAT specimens were assessed by IHC with high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA)– specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and with S-100p-, HMB-45–, and MART-1– specific antibodies. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR assay was used for HMW-MAA and MART-1 mRNA detection.
Expression frequency and immunostaining intensity were higher for HMW-MAA than MART-1in nodal macrometastases (P < 0.0001and P < 0.0001, respectively) and micrometastases (P < 0.0001and P = 0.004, respectively). All 52 (100%) macrometastases were positive with HMW-MAA – specific mAbs, whereas 43 (83%) were positive with MART-1– specific mAbs. In a comparison analysis, 23 of 23 (100%) micrometastases were HMW-MAA – positive, whereas 21 (91%) and18 (78%) specimens were S-100p – and HMB-45– positive, respectively. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis of 48 nodal metastases showed HMW-MAA mRNA detection in SLNs with metastases.
HMW-MAA is more sensitive and specific than MART-1, S-100p, and HMB-45 for IHC-based detection of SLN micrometastases. SLN PEAT – based detection specificity of melanoma micrometastases can be improved by IHC with HMW-MAA – specific mAbs.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of step-serial sectioning (SSS) combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in detecting micrometastasis of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs).
Patients and Methods
135 IMLNs from 88 breast cancer patients were re-examined by SSS, combined with either H&E or IHC staining of the biomarkers cytokeratin-19 and epithelial membrane antigen.
Of the 135 IMLNs, 6 nodes from 5 cases displayed 1 or more micrometastases. Histological grade and lymphovascular invasion status were significantly correlated with micrometastasis in the IMLNs (p = 0.018 and 0.001, respectively). Of the 6 nodes positive for micrometastasis, 1 node was detected by both H&E and IHC staining. The remaining 5 nodes from 4 cases showed evident tumor cells only by IHC staining. Finally 8 of the 83 patients (9.64%) without IMLN metastasis showed distant metastasis, while 2 of the 5 patients (40%) with IMLN metastasis showed distant metastasis within 28 months of operation.
SSS combined with H&E and IHC staining is more efficient in detecting micrometastasis than classic routine single-slice H&E only.
Breast cancer; Internal mammary nodes; Micrometastasis; Step-serial sectioning
BACKGROUND: To improve median survival of patients with prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone, we need to better understand the early events of the metastatic process in skeleton and develop molecular tools capable of detecting the early tumor cell dissemination into bones (micrometastasis stage). However, the initial phase of tumor cell dissemination into the bone marrow is promptly followed by the migration of tumor cells into bone matrix, which is a crucial step that signals the transformation of micrometastasis to macrometastasis stage and clinically evident metastasis. The migration of cancer cells into bone matrix requires the activation of local bone resorption. Such an event contributes to tumor cell hiding/ escaping from high immunologic surveillance of bone marrow cells. Within bone matrix, tumor cells are establishing plethoric cell-cell interactions with bone marrow-residing cells, ensuring their survival and growth. Recently, RT-PCR detections of tumor marker transcripts, such as PSA and PSMA mRNA performed in RNA extracts of peripheral blood nucleated cells and bone marrow biopsy, have enabled the stratification of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer being of high risk for extraprostatic disease and bone involvement. Therefore, it is conceivable that bisphosphonate blockade of bone resorption can inhibit the migration of tumor cells into bone matrix during the early phase of disease dissemination into bone marrow (micrometastasis stage). Consequently, assessment of the efficacy and efficiency of bisphosphonates to arrest the evolution of bone lesions in this particular clinical setting of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and positive molecular staging status (high risk for bone involvement) is warranted.
Occult lymph node metastasis (micrometastasis) is a good prognostic indicator in non ‐ small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and could be used to direct adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I patients. This study was designed to evaluate molecular markers for detection of occult lymph node metastasis in NSCLC, define the best marker or marker combination to distinguish positive from benign lymph nodes, and evaluate these markers in lymph nodes from pathologically node‐negative (pN0) NSCLC patients. Potential markers were identified through literature and database searches and all markers were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription‐PCR in a primary screen of six NSCLC specimens and 10 benign nodes. Selected markers were further evaluated on 21 primary NSCLC specimens, 21 positive nodes, and 21 benign nodes, and the best individual markers and combinations were identified. A combination of three markers was further validated on an independent set of 32 benign lymph nodes, 38 histologically positive lymph nodes, and 462 lymph nodes from 68 pN0 NSCLC patients. Forty‐two markers were evaluated in the primary screen and eight promising markers were selected for further analysis. A combination of three markers (SFTPB,TACSTD1, and PVA) was identified that provided perfect classification of benign and positive nodes in all sample sets. PVA and SFTPB are particularly powerful in tumors of squamous and adenocarcinoma histologies, respectively, whereas TACSTD1 is a good general marker for NSCLC metastasis. The combination of these genes identified 32 of 462 (7%) lymph nodes from 20 of 68 (29%) patients as potentially positive for occult metastasis. Long‐term follow‐up will determine the clinical relevance of these findings.
To address the value of qRT-PCR and IHC in accurately detecting lymph node micrometastasis in gynecological cancer, we performed a systematic approach, using a set of dual molecular tumor-specific markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), in a series of 46 patients (19 with cervical cancer, 18 with endometrial cancer, and 9 with vulvar cancer). A total of 1281 lymph nodes were analyzed and 28 were found positive by histopathology. Following this documentation, 82 lymph nodes, 11 positive and 71 negative, were randomly selected and further analyzed both by IHC and qRT-PCR for CK19 and CA9 expression. All 11 (100%) expressed CK19 by IHC, while only 6 (54.5%) expressed CA9. On the contrary, all the histologically negative for micrometastases lymph nodes were also negative by IHC analysis for both markers. The comparative diagnostic efficacy of the two markers using qRT-PCR, however, disclosed that the analysis of the same aliquots of the 82 lymph nodes led to 100% specificity for the CK19 biomarker, while, in contrast, CA9 failed to recapitulate a similar pattern. These data suggest that qRT-PCR exhibits a better diagnostic accuracy compared to IHC, while CK19 displays a consistent pattern of detection compared to CA9.
HER-2 expression in prostate cancer is associated with a worse prognosis and is suggested to play a role in androgen resistance. We present a study of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis in bone marrow and the effect of androgen blockage or DES in the presence of HER-2 expressing cells.
Patients and Methods:
A multicenter study of men with prostate cancer, treated with surgery, radiotherapy, or observation, and with or without hormone therapy. Mononuclear cells were separated from blood and bone marrow aspirate by differential centrifugation, touch preps were made from bone marrow biopsy samples. Prostate cells were detected using anti-PSA monoclonal antibody and standard immunocytochemistry. Positive samples were processed using Herceptest® to determine HER-2 expression. After 1 year, patients were re-evaluated and the findings of HER-2 expression and PSA change compared with treatment.
Total 199 men participated, and 97 had a second evaluation 1 year later, frequency of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis was 18% and 21%, respectively. There was no significant difference in HER-2 expression in the pretreatment group, after radical surgery or radiotherapy or with biochemical failure. Men with androgen blockade had a significantly higher expression of HER-2 (58%) (P =0.001). Of the 97 men with a second evaluation, 56 were in the observation arm, 27 androgen blockade, and 14 DES. Use of androgen blockade or DES significantly reduced serum PSA levels in comparison with observation (P =0.001). However, there was a significant increase in HER-2 expression in patients with androgen blockade (P =0.05) en comparison with observation or DES treatment. No patient with observation or DES became HER-2 positive, en comparison 4/22 patients initially HER-2 negative became HER-2 positive with androgen blockade.
The results suggest that HER-2 positive cells are resistant to androgen blockade. In an environment lacking androgens, HER-2 positive cells are selected and survive, while HER-2 negative cells are eliminated thus decreasing the serum PSA. The population of HER-2 positive cells proliferate producing androgen-independent disease. DES does not increase HER-2 expression possibly by stimulating beta-estrogen receptors and blocking HER-2 androgen receptor activation.
Androgen blockade; circulating tumor cells; DES; HER-2; micrometastasis; prostate cancer
The monoclonal antibody D2-40 is a specific lymphatic endothelial markers and D2-40 staining have been applicable to evaluate lymphatic invasion in various malignant neoplasms. In the present study, we investigated lymph node micrometastasis determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) in all dissected lymph nodes obtained from 80 patients with node-negative gastric cancer, and analysed the relationship between micrometastasis and clinicopathological findings including lymphatic invasion of the resected primary tumour using D2-40 immunohistochemical staining. The incidence of micrometastasis determined by IHC and RT–PCR was 11.3% (nine out of 80) and 31.3% (25 out of 80), respectively. Although haematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining revealed lymphatic invasion in 11.3% (nine out of 80) of patients, D2-40 staining uncovered new invasion in 23.8% (19 out of 80) of patients. In the diagnosis of HE and D2-40 staining, the incidence of micrometastasis was significantly higher in patients with lymphatic invasion than in those without lymphatic invasion (P=0.0150 and P<0.0001, respectively). Micrometastasis correlated more closely with D2-40 than with HE staining. We demonstrated a high incidence of micrometastasis and lymphatic invasion and a correlation between them even in pN0 gastric cancer. When planning less invasive treatment, the presence of such occult cancer cells should be considered.
gastric cancer; lymph node micrometastasis; lymphatic invasion; reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry
The origin and clinical relevance of circulating cell-free tumor DNA in the blood of cancer patients is still unclear. Here we investigated whether the detection of this DNA is related to bone marrow (BM) micrometastasis and tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients.
BM aspirates of 81 primary breast cancer patients were analyzed for the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. PCR-based fluorescence microsatellite analysis was performed for detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 6 polymorphic markers using cell-free serum DNA. The data were correlated with established risk factors, and patients were followed-up over 6-10 years.
LOH was detected in 33.5% of blood samples. The occurrence of LOH at the entire microsatellite marker set correlated with histopathology (P = 0.05) and grading (P = 0.006) of the primary tumor. The genomic region characterized by marker D9S171 was only affected by LOH in patients with increased tumor stages (pT2-4, P < 0.05) and older age (≥ 55 years, P = 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that LOH at D3S1255 (P = 0.009) and D9S171 (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with tumor relapse. In BM, DTC were detected in 39.5% of the patients, and this finding correlated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). Patients with DTC-positive BM had higher DNA yields in their blood than patients with DTC-negative BM (P < 0.05). However, no significant correlations were found between the presence of DTC in BM and the detection of marker-specific LOH on blood DNA.
The detection of LOH on cell-free tumor DNA in blood is unrelated to BM micrometastasis and provides independent information on breast cancer progression.
The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of human mammaglobin (hMAM) mRNA in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with breast cancer and determine the relationship between micrometastasis and clinicopathological parameters as well as selected molecular markers and breast cancer prognosis. The expression of hMAM mRNA in the BM of patients with breast cancer was determined by RT-PCR. The expression of ER, PR and Cath-D in cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A positive expression rate for hMAM of 38.2% in 102 patients with stage I–III breast cancer was found. The expression of hMAM was higher in patients with T2–3 (>2 cm) tumors than in those with T1 tumors (≤2 cm) (χ2=19.20, P=0.001) and in patients with stage II or III tumors than in patients with stage I tumors (χ2=15.101, P=0.001). The expression of hMAM in the BM of breast cancer patients categorized as grade 1 was lower than that in those of grade 2 or 3 (χ2=8.522, P=0.014), and hMAM expression was related to the pathological type of tumor (χ2=6.892, P=0.032) and the degree of axillary lymph node metastasis (χ2=14.050, P=0.001). The expression of hMAM in BM was much higher in patients with ER(−) or ER(+) tumors than in those with ER(++ or +++) (χ2=11.800, P=0.003), and those with PR (χ2=8.759, P=0.013). hMAM expression in BM was also significantly positively correlated with Cath-D expression (χ2=6.623, P=0.036). However, no correlation was found between hMAM expression and patient age (χ2=1.056, P=0.304). There was a strong correlation between patients with positive expression of hMAM in the BM and the presence of distant metastases (P=0.009). In conclusion, micrometastasis in the BM correlates with certain clinical pathological parameters and several tumor markers. Patients with positive expression of hMAM in the BM have a greater chance of distant metastasis and poor prognosis. The detection of micrometastasis may be one of the most advantageous markers for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer.
breast cancer; bone marrow micrometastasis; human mammaglobin; biological factor; RT-PCR; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
Introduction. HER-2 has been associated with castrate resistant prostate cancer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells as well as activating angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of the effect of androgen blockade on the expression of HER-2 and MMP-2 in bone marrow micrometastasis and the surrounding stromal cells in men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. A cross-sectional study of men with prostate cancer. Touch preps were obtained from bone marrow biopsies of men with prostate cancer, before and after radical prostatectomy and during androgen blockade. Micrometastasis detected with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry underwent processing with anti-HER-2 and anti-MMP-2 immunocytochemistry. Patients were defined as HER-2 positive or negative, MMP-2 negative or an MMP-2 pattern described as border or central and stromal MMP-2 defined as positive or negative. The expression of the biomarkers was compared before and after primary treatment and during androgen blockade in relation to the serum PSA at the time of sampling and duration of androgen blockade. Results. 191 men participated, 35 men before surgery and 43 after surgery; there were no significant differences in HER-2 expression between groups, there was no MMP-2 expression centrally or stromal expression of MMP-2. In men with androgen blockade, HER-2 expression was significantly higher; there was a trend for increasing HER-2 expression up to 5 years; central MMP-2 expression significantly increased after 3 years, while stromal MMP-2 significantly increased after 6 years. MMP-2 expression both in micrometastasis and stroma was significantly associated with HER-2 expression. Expression of MMP-2 at the border of the micrometastasis was not associated with HER-2 expression and occurred in the absence of androgen blockade.
Conclusions. Androgen blockade decreases serum PSA by eliminating HER-2 negative prostate cancer cells. However, there is early selection of HER-2 positive cancer cells which leads to androgen independence and to increased expression of MMP-2 activity in the micrometastasis. The increased MMP-2 activity in the micrometastasis increases the expression of MMP-2 in the surrounding stromal cells and thus could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth resulting in macrometastatic androgen independent disease.
It is not clear if sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping can improve outcomes in patients with colorectal cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic values of ex vivo sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of SLN micrometastasis in colorectal cancers.
Colorectal cancer specimens were obtained during radical resections and the SLN was identified by injecting a 1% isosulfan blue solution submucosally and circumferentially around the tumor within 30 min after surgery. The first node to stain blue was defined as the SLN. SLNs negative by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were further examined for micrometastasis using cytokeratin IHC.
A total of 54 patients between 25 and 82 years of age were enrolled, including 32 males and 22 females. More than 70% of patients were T3 or above, about 86% of patients were stage II or III, and approximately 90% of patients had lesions grade II or above. Sentinel lymph nodes were detected in all 54 patients. There were 32 patients in whom no lymph node micrometastasis were detected by HE staining and 22 patients with positive lymph nodes micrometastasis detected by HE staining in non-SLNs. In contrast only 7 SLNs stained positive with HE. Using HE examination as the standard, the sensitivity, non-detection rate, and accuracy rate of SLN micrometastasis detection were 31.8% (7/22), 68.2% (15/22), and 72.2%, respectively. Micrometastasis were identified by ICH in 4 of the 32 patients with HE-negative stained lymph nodes, resulting in an upstaging rate 12.5% (4/32). The 4 patients who were upstaged consisted of 2 stage I patients and 2 stage II patients who were upstaged to stage III. Those without lymph node metastasis by HE staining who were upstaged by IHC detection of micrometastasis had a significantly poorer disease-free survival (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.004).
Ex vivo localization and immunohistochemical detection of sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in patients with colorectal cancer can upgrade tumor staging, and may become a factor affecting prognosis and guiding treatment.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1350200526694475.
Colorectal carcinoma; Sentinel lymph node; Micrometastasis; Prognosis
Nodal micrometastasis and circulating tumor cells (CTC) detected by multimarker quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT) may have prognostic importance in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
Paraffin-embedded sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) from 67 patients and blood from 34 of these patients was evaluated in a prospective multicenter trial of SLN mapping in CRC. SLNs were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (CK-IHC). Both SLNs and blood were examined by a four-marker qRT assay (c-MET, MAGE-A3, GalNAc-T, CK20); qRT results were correlated with disease stage and outcome.
In H&E SLN negative patients that recurred, CK-IHC and qRT detected metastasis in 30% and 60% of patients, respectively. DFS differed significantly by multimarker qRT upstaged SLN (p=0.014). qRT analysis of blood for CTC correlated with overall survival (p=0.040).
Molecular assessment for micrometastasis in SLN and blood specimens may help identify patients at high-risk for recurrent CRC, who could benefit from adjuvant therapy.
RT-PCR; colorectal cancer; micrometastasis; sentinel lymph node
Rip1-Tag2 mice is one overt pancreatic β-cell tumor model, which is widely used for studying pancreas tumor angiogenesis and tumor development. However, tumor metastasis in Rip1-Tag2 mice had rarely been reported, in this present study, we find some micrometastasis in lung and spleen of the Rip1-Tag2 mice at advanced stage, which is important for uncovering metastasis cell characteristics and exploring how to survive in cancer microenvironment. To study the micrometastasis of Rip1-Tag2 mice in advanced pancreatic cancer, we first observed the pathology process of β cell tumor in Rip1-Tag2 mice through HE staining, then we performed immunohistochemistry with insulin antibody, T-antigen antibodies and C-petide antibody on lung and spleen tissues sections from advanced stage, comparing with background wild-type C57BL/6 mice sections. The results indicated that micrometastasis expressing insulin was found in the Rip1-Tag2 mice lung, and spleen. Further evidences demonstrate pathology structure of lung and spleen are damaged. Interestingly and importantly, the expression of T antigen and insulin antibodies are all decreased in advanced stage of primary β cell tumor, which suggest that the at least partly micrometastasis is derived from the early stage or from advanced stage of β cell tumor then return to undifferentiated state like cancer stem cell. The findings contributed to the study of cancer metastasis and cancer stem cell.
micrometastasis; insulin; Rip1-Tag2 transgenic mice
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of nodal micrometastasis detected by immunohistochemistry in patients that had undergone curative surgery for pancreatic cancer. Between 2005 and 2006, a total of 208 lymph nodes from 48 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer that had undergone curative resection were immunostained with monoclonal antibody against pan-ck and CK-19. Micrometastasis was defined as metastasis missed by a routine H&E examination but detected during an immunohistochemical evaluation. Relations between immunohistochemical results and clinical and pathologic features and patient survival were examined. Nodal micrometastases were detected in 5 (29.4%) patients of 17 pN0 patients. Nodal micrometastasis was found to be related to tumor relapse (P = 0.043). Twelve patients without overt nodal metastasis and micrometastasis had better prognosis than 5 patients with only nodal micrometastasis (median survival; 35.9 vs 8.6 months, P < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model identified nodal micrometastasis as significant prognostic factors. Although the number of patients with micrometastasis was so small and further study would be needed, our study suggests that the lymph node micrometastasis could be the predictor of worse survival and might indicate aggressive tumor biology among patients undergoing curative resection for pancreas cancer.
Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma; Lymph Nodes; Micrometastasis; Prognosis
Undetected micrometastasis plays a key role in the metastasis of cancer in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of this study is to identify a biomarker of CRC patients with liver metastasis through the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Microarray and bioinformatics analysis of 10 CRC cancer tissue specimens compared with normal adjacent tissues revealed that 31 genes were up-regulated (gene expression ratio of cancer tissue to paired normal tissue > 2) in the cancer patients. We used a weighted enzymatic chip array (WEnCA) including 31 prognosis-related genes to investigate CTCs in 214 postoperative stage I–III CRC patients and to analyze the correlation between gene expression and clinico-pathological parameters. We employed the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method with polyclonal mouse antibody against DVL1 to detect DVL1 expression in 60 CRC patients. CRC liver metastasis occurred in 19.16% (41/214) of the patients. Using univariate analysis and multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis, we found that DVL1 mRNA overexpression had a significant, independent predictive value for liver metastasis in CRC patients (OR: 5.764; 95% CI: 2.588–12.837; p < 0.0001 on univariate analysis; OR: 3.768; 95% CI: 1.469–9.665; p = 0.006 on multivariate analysis). IHC staining of the immunoreactivity of DVL1 showed that DVL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of CRC cells. High expression of DVL1 was observed in 55% (33/60) of CRC tumor specimens and was associated significantly with tumor depth, perineural invasion and liver metastasis status (all p < 0.05). Our experimental results demonstrated that DVL1 is significantly overexpressed in CRC patients with liver metastasis, leading us to conclude that DVL1 could be a potential prognostic and predictive marker for CRC patients.
colorectal cancer; liver metastasis; DVL1 overexpression; weighted enzymatic chip array (WEnCA); immunohistochemistry (IHC)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sequences of pulmonary artery and vein ligations during lobectomy on blood micrometastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytokeratin 19 (CK19)/adhesion molecule CD44v6 mRNA were used as markers. A total of 30 NSCLC patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy were randomly divided into pulmonary artery (PA)-first and pulmonary vein (PV)-first groups according to the order of artery or vein ligation (15 cases in each). Fluorescent quantitative-RT-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of CK19 and CD44v6 in pulmonary venous blood at the early and late periods during surgery, and ΔCt values were calculated. Meanwhile, the peripheral blood samples from 10 healthy volunteers were selected as the control. ΔCt values of CD44v6 and CK19 of NSCLC groups at the early period during surgery were 7.83±1.70 and 10.76±2.74, while those of the control group were 9.17±1.04 and 12.76±2.36. The expression of CD44v6 and CK19 genes in venous blood of NSCLC groups was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the ΔCt values of CD44v6 and CK19 in the early and late periods during surgery in the PA-first group were 7.92±1.97 vs. 5.67±2.11 (P= 0.008) and 11.21±3.14 vs. 8.60±4.02 (P= 0.05), respectively. The expression of CD44v6 and CK19 in the late period were both significantly higher than those in the early period, while neither the ΔCt value of CD44v6 nor that of CK19 in the early vs. late periods in the PV-first group exhibited statistically significant differences (7.95±1.91 vs. 7.74±2.10 and 10.60±3.15 vs. 10.30±2.98) (P<0.05). Surgical manipulation itself may stimulate the occurrence of blood micrometastasis and the ligation of the PV first during surgery may help prevent blood micrometastasis.
lung cancer; blood; micrometastasis
The best method of pathological evaluation of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer has not been agreed upon. Immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques have shown a greater sensitivity over conventional histology for the detection of micrometastais. The aim of the study was to determine whether IHC for Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) on the sentinel node could be more sensitive than conventional histology for diagnosing micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. Eighty-four clinically node negative breast cancer patients underwent sentinel node biopsy at time of surgery for breast cancer. The node was subjected to conventional histopathology as well as IHC for EMA. The sensitivity of histology viz a viz IHC for EMA for detection of sentinel node metastasis was 88% and the specitficity was 96%. The overall diagnostic accuray of histology viz a viz IHC was 93%. There were 4 patients with micrometastasis (<2.0 mm), which were positive on IHC but negative on histology. Two patients with poorly differentiated breast cancer had a false negative IHC for EMA result as compared to histology. Immunohistochemistry for Epithelial Membrane Antigen can increase the detection rate of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph node. This can have important bearing on deciding the need of adjuvant systemic therapy. A false negative result for EMA may be seen in patients with poorly differential cancer. Therefore the best policy seems to employ both histopathology and IHC for EMA for the comprehensive evaluation of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer.
Sentinel node; Breast cancer; Immunohistochemistry
Small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) has been implicated in tumor genesis and micrometastasis in breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was characterized by high incidence in young women,early relapse and a very poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of SBEM expression in tissues of TNBC with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
SBEM protein expression was detected in 87 available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from TNBC patients by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC). We analyzed the correlation between the SBEM protein expression and DFS and OS during a 5 year follow-up period, respectively. And a SBEM cut-off value of prognosis was established associated with DFS and OS. SBEM was analyzed against other risk factors in multivariate analysis.
SBEM 3+ score was cut-off value of prognosis and significantly correlated with DFS (p = 0.000) and OS (p = 0.001) in TNBC patients. There was a marked associations (p <0.05) between SBEM 3+ score and tumor size, grade, node status, TNM stage and Ki67. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with SBEM 3+ represented a higher risk of recurrence and mortality than those with a lower SBEM expression (HR = 3.370 with p = 0.008 for DFS and HR = 4.185 with p = 0.004 for OS).
SBEM is an independent risk predictor and may offer utility as a prognostic marker in TNBC patients.
SBEM; DFS; OS; IHC; TNBC
Local and distant failure rates remain high despite aggressive chemoradiation (CRT) treatment for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted preclinical studies of docetaxel cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects on lung cancer cell lines and designed a pilot study to target distant micrometastasis upfront with one-cycle induction chemotherapy, followed by low-dose radiosensitizing docetaxel CRT.
Methods and Materials
Preclinical study was conducted in human lung cancer cell lines NCI 520 and A549. Cells were treated with two concentrations of docetaxel for 3 hours and then irradiated immediately vs. delayed at 24 hours. Clonogenic survival assay was conducted and analyzed for cytotoxic effects vs. radiosensitizing effects of docetaxel. A pilot clinical study was designed based on pre-clinical study findings. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 4 years. Induction chemotherapy consisted of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1, and rh-GCSF 150 mg/m2 on days 2–10. Concurrent CRT started 3–6 weeks later with twice-weekly docetaxel at 10–12 mg/m2 and daily delayed radiation in 1.8 Gy fractions to 64.5 Gy for gross disease.
Preclinical study demonstrated potent cytotoxic effects of docetaxel and subadditive radiosensitizing effects. Delaying radiation resulted in more cancer cell death. The pilot clinical study resulted in a median survival of 32.6 months for the entire cohort, with a 3-year and 5-year survival of 50% and 19%, respectively, and a distant metastasis-free survival rate of 61% for both 3 and 5 years. Patterns of failure analysis revealed 75% chest failures, and 36% all distant failures. Therapy was well tolerated with grade 3 esophagitis observed in 23% of patients.
One-cycle full-dose docetaxel/cisplatin induction chemotherapy with rh-GCSF followed by pulsed low-dose docetaxel chemoradiation is promising in its anti-tumor activity, low rates of distant failure, and low toxicity, suggesting that this regimen deserves further investigation.
Docetaxel; taxotere; chemoradiation; non-small cell lung cancer; radiosensitization
The survival of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even when resectable, remains poor. Several small studies suggest that occult metastases (OMs) in pleura, bone marrow (BM), or lymph nodes (LNs) are present in early-stage NSCLC and are associated with a poor outcome. We investigated the prevalence of OMs in resectable NSCLC and their relationship with survival.
Patients and Methods
Eligible patients had previously untreated, potentially resectable NSCLC. Saline lavage of the pleural space, performed before and after pulmonary resection, was examined cytologically. Rib BM and all histologically negative LNs (N0) were examined for OM, diagnosed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC). Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare survival of groups of patients. P < .05 was considered significant.
From July 1999 to March 2004, 1,047 eligible patients (538 men and 509 women; median age, 67.2 years) were entered onto the study, of whom 50% had adenocarcinoma and 66% had stage I NSCLC. Pleural lavage was cytologically positive in only 29 patients. OMs were identified in 66 (8.0%) of 821 BM specimens and 130 (22.4%) of 580 LN specimens. In univariate and multivariable analyses OMs in LN but not BM were associated with significantly worse disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; P = .031) and overall survival (HR, 1.58; P = .009).
In early-stage NSCLC, LN OMs detected by IHC identify patients with a worse prognosis. Future clinical trials should test the role of IHC in identifying patients for adjuvant therapy.
The independent prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells in bone marrow is still a matter of debate. This study evaluated the possible association of bone marrow micrometastases with tumour progression and prognosis in patients affected by gastric cancer. Bone marrow aspirates from both iliac crests were obtained from 114 consecutive patients operated on for gastric cancer. The specimens were stained with monoclonal antibody CAM 5.2 which reacts predominantly with cytokeratin filaments 8 and 19. Among 114 cases analysed, 33 cases (29%) had cytokeratine-positive cells in the bone marrow. There was no significant relationship between the presence of bone marrow micrometastases and site, depth of tumour invasion, lymph node metastases, presence of metastases. Patients with cytokeratine-positive cells had a trend towards a diffuse type histology (P=0.06). Among the 88 curatively resected patients, median survivals were 40 months and 36 months for cytokeratine-negative and cytokeratine-positive subsets respectively (P=0.9). Recurrence of the disease was observed in 39 cases (44.3%); 11 of 24 (45.8%) in the cytokeratine-positive subset and 28 of 64 (43.7%) in the cytokeratine-negative subset. In conclusion in our experience the presence of cytokeratine-positive cells in the bone marrow of curatively resected gastric cancer patients did not affect outcome and its independent prognostic significance remains to be proven before its official acceptance in the TNM classification.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1047–1051. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600211 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
gastric cancer; bone marrow micrometastasis; cytokeratin-positive cells; prognosis
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with mutation-specific antibodies may be an ancillary method of detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients.
EGFR mutation status was analyzed by DNA assays, and compared with IHC results in five non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tumor samples from 78 stage IV NSCLC patients.
IHC correctly identified del 19 in the H1650 and PC9 cell lines, L858R in H1975, and wild-type EGFR in H460 and A549, as well as wild-type EGFR in tumor samples from 22 patients. IHC with the mAb against EGFR with del 19 was highly positive for the protein in all 17 patients with a 15-bp (ELREA) deletion in exon 19, whereas in patients with other deletions, IHC was weakly positive in 3 cases and negative in 9 cases. IHC with the mAb against the L858R mutation showed high positivity for the protein in 25/27 (93%) patients with exon 21 EGFR mutations (all with L858R) but did not identify the L861Q mutation in the remaining two patients.
IHC with mutation-specific mAbs against EGFR is a promising method for detecting EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients. However these mAbs should be validated with additional studies to clarify their possible role in routine clinical practice for screening EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients.
The validity and clinical usefulness of the sentinel node (SN) concept for breast cancer has been confirmed, and individualized limited surgery based on diagnosis of SN metastasis is presently performed. In the future, SN navigation surgery (SNNS) will be actively applied to the treatment of early gastric cancer, and an intraoperative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect SN micrometastasis of gastric cancer is under development. Not only anatomical factors, but also many other factors such as local immunosuppression in the SN and lymphoangiogenesis may be involved in development of SN micrometastasis, and clarification of the mechanisms of metastasis and development of treatment methods are awaited. (*English Translation of J Jpn Col Angiol 2008; 48: 137-142.)
sentinel node; RT-PCR; micrometastasis; lymphoangiogenesis; chemokine
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs), disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), and micrometastasis (mM) in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors.
Aims: To compare the results of breast cancer sections with HercepTest™ immunohistochemistry (IHC) scores ranging from 0 to 3+ with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for HER2 amplification. The HER2 digital scoring application of the Micrometastasis Detection System (MDS™) was used, together with manual scoring of FISH and HercepTest, to determine whether this system provides an accurate alternative.
Methods: Paraffin wax embedded sections were stained using HercepTest and analysed by eye and automated quantitative image analysis. FISH was performed using the PathVysion™ fluorescent probe and scored by eye and automated quantitative image analysis using MDS.
Results: Of 114 cases, 26% were amplified by FISH, whereas only 18% scored 3+; 32% of IHC 2+ cases were amplified by FISH, and one showed borderline amplification. Six percent of IHC negative cases (0 or 1+) were amplified by FISH, and one showed borderline amplification. Of IHC 3+ cases, 10% were non-amplified by FISH. Classification discrepancies were seen in 18% of HercepTest cases scored by eye and using the MDS system. MDS was consistent with visual FISH scoring and correctly differentiated most ambiguous visual IHC scores.
Conclusions: FISH provides a more accurate and consistent scoring system for determining HER2 amplification than HercepTest. The MDS system provides a reliable, consistent alternative to visual IHC and FISH scoring. IHC is still a valuable technique to aid in identification of isolated or heterogeneous tumour populations for subsequent FISH analysis, and a combined FISH and HercepTest approach to all breast cancer cases may be the most efficient strategy.
FISH; HER2; breast cancer; Herceptin; immunohistochemistry